FACTOID # 14: North Carolina has a larger Native American population than North Dakota, South Dakota and Montana combined.
 
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Encyclopedia > Montana, Bulgaria
Montana, Bulgaria
Map of Bulgaria, {{{PAGENAME}}} is indicated
Data
Oblast: Montana
Population: 54 932 (13.09.2005)
Altitude: 135 m
Postal code: 3400
Area code: 096
Geographic coordinates: 43° 25' north

23° 14' east Since 1999 Bulgaria has been divided into 28 oblasts (provinces or regions) that correspond approximately to the 28 okrugs that existed before 1987. ... hi mom ... The metre (Commonwealth English) or meter (American English) (symbol: m) is the SI base unit of length. ... A postal code is a series of letters and/or digits appended to a postal address for the purpose of sorting mail. ... A telephone numbering plan is a system that allows subscribers to make and receive telephone calls across long distances. ...

Mayor
Zlatko Zhivkov

Montana (Монтана) is a city in northwestern Bulgaria and the administrative centre of Montana Province. It is located 50 km south of the Danube, 40 km northwest of Vratsa and 30 km east of the Serbia and Montenegro border. A mayor (from the Latin maÄ«or, meaning larger,greater) is the politician who serves as chief executive official of some types of municipalities. ... Montana region shown within Bulgaria Montana is a province in northwestern Bulgaria, bordering Serbia and Montenegro and Romania. ... A kilometre (American spelling: kilometer), symbol: km is a unit of length in the metric system equal to 1000 metres (from the Greek words χίλια (khilia) = thousand and μέτρο (metro) = count/measure). ... The Danube (Donau in German; Dunaj in Slovak; Duna in Hungarian; Dunav in Croatian; Дунав/Dunav in Serbian; Дунав in Bulgarian; Dunăre in Romanian; Дунай (Dunay) in Ukrainian; Danuvius in Latin) is Europes second-longest river (after the Volga). ... Vratsa or Vraca or Vratza (Bulgarian: Враца) is a city in northwestern Bulgaria, at the foothills of the Balkan mountains. ...


Geography

Montana is situated on the river Ogosta, north of Stara Planina, surrounded on the south and east by uplands. Stara Planina, Rhodope, Rila and Pirin Mountains The Stara Planina (Old Mountain) or Balkan mountain range is an extension of the Carpathian mountain range, separated from it by the Danube River. ...


The climate is temperate continental, with a cold winter and hot summer. The average temperature is -2°C in January and 25°C in July. In the last 15-20 years, temperatures reaching up to 35-40°C in the summer are not uncommon.


History

Roman times

Aleko Konstantinov Square in Montana
Enlarge
Aleko Konstantinov Square in Montana

The region around Montana became part of the Roman province of Upper Moesia in 29 BC. Around 160, the military camp that was most likely founded on the remains of an older Thracian settlement, acquired city rights under the name of Municipio Montanensium. The city developed and urbanized after a Roman model and became the second most important settlement in the province after Raciaria (modern-day Archar). A fortress was built on top of the hill over Montana, as well as public and residential buildings, temples, baths and theatres. Montana became a typical imperial settlement, where the local romanized population coexisted along Italic and Anatolian settlers. The base of the town's economy were the big landowners of Italic origin and their villas and mansions, where the locals served to obtain agricultural production and gold from Ogosta's river valley. A stratum of Greek settlers, who engaged in craftsmanship and money-landing existed in the town during the period. The patrons of Montana in the spirit of Hellenism were Diana and Apollo. Author of Baui Ganyu. ... Map of the Roman Empire, with the provinces, after 120 AD. In Ancient Rome, a province (Latin, provincia, pl. ... In ancient geography, Moesia was a district inhabited chiefly by Thracian peoples. ... The Thracians were an Indo-European people, inhabitants of Thrace and adjacent lands (present-day Bulgaria, Romania, Republic of Moldova, northeastern Greece, European Turkey and northwestern asiatic Turkey, eastern Serbia and parts of Republic of Macedonia). ... Town privileges was an important feature of European towns during most of the 2nd millenium. ... Italic can refer to: Italic languages Italic scripts Italic means Of or from Italy; the usage is most commonly restricted to talking about the people and languages of what is now Italy from the historic period before the Roman Empire. ... Asia Minor lies east of the Bosporus, between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean. ... The term Hellenistic (established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen) in the history of the ancient world is used to refer to the shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks, however scattered geographically, to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of whatever ethnicity, and from the political dominance... Diana was the equivalent in Roman mythology of the Greek Artemis (see Roman/Greek equivalency in mythology for more details). ... Statue of Apollo at the British Museum Apollo (Greek: Απόλλων, Apóllōn; Απελλων) is a god in Greek and Roman mythology, the son of Zeus and Leto, and the twin of Artemis (goddess of the hunt), one of the most important and many-sided of the Olympian divinities. ...


Middle Ages

Between 440 and 490, the northwest of modern Bulgaria was devastated by the raids of the Huns under Atilla and the Goths. Slavs and Avars delivered the final strike on the Greco-Roman culture in the region, and the Slavs that settled in the area called the town Kutlovitsa. During the time of the First and Second Bulgarian Empires, the settlement recovered and became the centre of an eparchy. The Huns were a group of Central Asian nomadic tribes, who appeared in Europe in the 4th century. ... For other uses, see Attila (disambiguation). ... Invasion of the Goths: a late 19th century painting by O. Fritsche portrays the Goths as cavalrymen. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... The Eurasian Avars were a nomadic people of Eurasia who established a state in the Danube River area of Europe in the early 6th century. ... St Ivan of Rila, patron saint of Bulgaria The history of Bulgaria began in the 7th century CE with the arrival of the Bulgars in the Balkans. ... The history of Bulgaria began in the 7th century AD with the arrival of the Bulgars in the Balkans. ... In the Roman Empire, an eparchy was one of the political subdivisions of the Empire. ...


Ottoman rule

The remains of the old Turkish baths in Montana
Enlarge
The remains of the old Turkish baths in Montana

After Kutlovitsa was seized by the Ottomans, the settlement was destroyed and became deserted. Between 1450 and 1688, the town was peopled by Turks due to its strategic location, and went through another period of blossoming as a typically Oriental town. Two mosques, Turkish baths, fountains and new buildings were erected. The Chiprovtsi Uprising that was crushed by Turkish forces solidified the position of Kutlovitsa as a Turkish ethnic area in the next 18th and 19th centuries. The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Imperial motto El Muzaffer Daima The Ever Victorious (as written in tugra) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital İstanbul ( Constantinople/Asitane/Konstantiniyye ) Sovereigns Sultans of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40 million Area 12+ million km² Establishment 1299 Dissolution October 29, 1923... The term the Orient - literally meaning sunrise, east - is traditionally used to refer to Near, Middle, and Far Eastern countries. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...


At the time of the Liberation of Bulgaria (1878), there were a Turkish (600 residents), a Bulgarian (50 residents) and a Gypsy quarter (100 residents). 1878 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


Modern history

After the Liberation began a massive wave of migration towards Kutlovitsa and a period of economic blossom. An electric station, a train station, a post office and a hospital were built, a fair and a community centre emerged.


Names

Kultovitsa was renamed to Ferdinand in 1890, receiving the benevolence of Bulgarian Knyaz Ferdinand and a city status. In 1945, communist authorities changed the town's name to Hristo Mihaylov after red party activist Hristo Popmihaylov that died in 1944, who was born there. A year later the name was changed to Mihaylovgrad. In 1993, after a presidential decree, the town received the name Montana, inspired by its antic name. Ferdinand Maximilan Charles Leopold Marie, Ferdinand of Bulgaria (February 26, 1861 - September 10, 1948) was monarch of Bulgaria as well as an author, botanist and philatelist. ...


External links

  • Official website
  • Historical museum in Montana

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Montana, Bulgaria - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (595 words)
Montana (Bulgarian: Монтана) is a city in northwestern Bulgaria and the administrative centre of Montana Province.
Montana is situated on the river Ogosta, north of Stara Planina, surrounded on the south and east by uplands.
Between 440 and 490, the northwest of modern Bulgaria was devastated by the raids of the Huns under Attila and the Goths.
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