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Encyclopedia > Montague Summers

Augustus Montague Summers (10 April 1880 - 10 August 1948) was an eccentric British author and clergyman. He is known primarily for his 1928 English translation of the medieval witch hunter's manual, the Malleus Maleficarum, as well as for several studies on witches, vampires, and werewolves, in all of which he professed to believe. Mr M. Summers, c 1925. ... April 10 is the 100th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (101st in leap years). ... 1880 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... August 10 is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... This article is part of the Witchcraft series. ... Cover of the seventh Cologne edition of the Malleus Maleficarum, 1520 (from the University of Sydney Library). ... This article contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... A German Woodcut from 1722 A werewolf in folklore and mythology is a person who changes into a wolf, either by purposefully using magic or by being placed under a curse. ...

Contents


Life

Montague Summers was the youngest of the seven children of Augustus William Summers, an affluent banker and justice of the peace in Clifton, Bristol. Summers was educated at Clifton College before studying theology at Trinity College, Oxford with the intention of becoming a curate in the Church of England. He continued his religious training at Lichfield Theological College and became a deacon in 1908, but he apparently never proceeded to higher orders, probably because of accusations of sexual impropriety with young boys. Summers was for a while part of the circle of the so-called "Uranian poets," who celebrated ancient Greco-Roman pederasty. His first book, Antinous and Other Poems appeared in 1907 and was dedicated to this subject matter. A Justice of the Peace (JP) is a magistrate appointed by a commission to keep the peace, dispense summary justice and deal with local administrative applications in common law jurisdictions. ... The crowded Princess Victoria Street lies at the heart of Clifton Village Clifton is an urban village in Bristol, England. ... Founded in 1862, Clifton College is a major coeducational public school in Clifton, Bristol, England. ... Theology is reasoned discourse concerning God (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογος, logos, word or reason). It also refers to the study of other religious topics. ... College name Trinity College Named after The Holy Trinity Established 1555 Sister College Churchill College President The Hon. ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... Lichfield Cathedral June 2005 Lichfield is a small city and civil parish in Staffordshire, 110 miles northwest of London and 14 miles north of Birmingham. ... Deacon is a role in the Christian Church which is generally associated with service of some kind, but which varies among theological and denominational traditions. ... 1908 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Uranians were a relatively obscure group of pederastic poets who flourished between 1870 and 1930, particularly among the graduates of Oxford and Cambridge. ... Pederasty, as idealized by the ancient Greeks, was a relationship and bond between an adolescent boy and an adult man outside of his immediate family. ... Bust of Antinous in the Palazzo Altemps museum in Rome Antinous or Antinoös (Greek: Αντινοος, born circa 110 or 111 CE, died 130 CE), lover of the Roman Emperor Hadrian, was born to a Greek family in Bithynion-Claudiopolis, in the province of Bithynia in what is now north-west... 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


Summers worked for several years as an English and Latin teacher at various schools before adopting writing as his full-time employment. He was interested in the theater of the seventeenth century, particularly that of the English Restoration, and edited the plays of Aphra Behn, John Dryden, William Congreve, among others. He also established a society that performed those neglected works, and was elected a fellow of the Royal Society of Literature in 1916. (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... The English Restoration or simply Restoration was an episode in the history of Great Britain beginning in 1660 when the monarchy was restored under King Charles II after the English Civil War. ... A sketch of Aphra Behn by George Scharf from a portrait believed to be lost. ... John Dryden John Dryden (August 19, 1631 – May 12, 1700) was an influential English poet, literary critic, and playwright. ... There have been two notable figures named William Congreve For the playwright, see William Congreve (playwright) For the inventor, see William Congreve (inventor) For the Victoria Cross winner, see William La Touche Congreve This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the... The Royal Society of Literature is the senior literary organisation in Britain. External link The Royal Society of Literature Categories: Literature stubs | Literature of the United Kingdom ... 1916 (MCMXVI) is a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar) // Events January-February January 1 -The first successful blood transfusion using blood that had been stored and cooled. ...


Summers also joined the growing ranks of English men of letters interested in medievalism, Catholicism, and the occult. In 1909 he converted to Catholicism and shortly thereafter he began passing himself off as a Catholic priest and styling himself the "Reverend Alphonsus Joseph-Mary Augustus Montague Summers", even though he was never a member of any Catholic order or diocese. It is possible that Summers may have been secretly ordained by a bishop of the Old Catholic Church, though there is no evidence to support this. His biographer Father Brocard Sewell asserts that he was ordained a deacon in the Church of England in 1908, and thus was properly addressed as " Reverend" in any case. The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the Christian Church whose visible and spiritual head is the Pope, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It teaches that it is the one holy catholic and apostolic Church founded by Jesus Christ, and that the sole Church of Christ which... The word occult comes from Latin occultus (hidden), referring to the knowledge of the secret or knowledge of the hidden and often meaning knowledge of the supernatural, as opposed to knowledge of the visible or knowledge of the measurable, usually referred to as science. ... 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with monastic order. ... Pope Pius XI blesses Bishop Stephen Alencastre as fifth Apostolic Vicar of the Hawaiian Islands in a Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace window. ... This article is about the sacrament. ... A bishop is an ordained member of the Christian clergy who, in certain Christian churches, holds a position of authority. ... The Old Catholic Church (in Switzerland Christian Catholic Church) is not so much a religious denomination, as a community, part of whose member churches split from the Roman Catholic church in 1870. ...


Summers wrote hagiography (on Saint Catherine of Siena) and lives of writers such as Jane Austen before turning to the occult, for which he is best remembered. In 1928 he published the first English translation of Heinrich Kramer's and James Sprenger's Malleus Maleficarum ("The Hammer of Witches"), a fifteenth century Latin text on the hunting of witches. This work followed his History of Witchcraft and Demonology (1927) and The Geography of Witchcraft (1928). He then turned to vampires, producing The Vampire: His Kith and Kin (1928) and The Vampire in Europe (1929), and later to werewolves with The Werewolf (1933). Summers's work on the occult is notorious for his unusual and old-fashioned writing style, his display of erudition, and his purported belief in the reality of the subjects he treats. Considered of little value by most mainstream scholars, several of his books have remained popular among certain enthusiasts of the occult. Hagiography is the study of saints. ... Saint Catherine of Siena (born in Siena, Italy, March 25, 1347; died in Rome, April 29, 1380) was a Dominican Tertiary or lay-affiliate of the Dominican Order. ... Jane Austen, in a portrait based on one drawn by her sister Cassandra Jane Austen (December 16, 1775 – July 18, 1817) was a prominent English novelist whose work is considered part of the Western canon. ... 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Heinrich Kramer (also known under latinised name Heinrich Institor, 1430?-1505) was a churchman and inquisitor. ... James Sprenger was born in Basel between 1436 and 1438. ... Cover of the seventh Cologne edition of the Malleus Maleficarum, 1520 (from the University of Sydney Library). ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Further reading Christopher Frayling - Vampyres: Lord Byron to Count Dracula 1992. ... 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... A werewolf in folklore and mythology is a person who changes into a wolf, either by purposefully using magic in some manner or by being placed under a curse. ... 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Summers cultivated his reputation for eccentricity. The Times of London wrote he was "in every way a 'character' and in some sort a throwback to the Middle Ages." His biographer, Brocard Sewell, paints the following portrait of Summers: "During the year 1927, the striking and somber figure of the Reverend Montague Sommers in black soutane and cloak, with buckled shoes--a la Louis Quatorze--and shovel hat could often haven been seen entering or leaving the reading room of the British Museum, carrying a large black portfolio bearing on its side a white label, showing in blood-red capitals, the legend 'VAMPIRES'." The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Michael Seymour Sewell (1912 – 2000), usually now known by his religious name Brocard Sewell, was a British Carmelite monk and literary figure. ... The main entrance to the British Museum The British Museum in London is the United Kingdoms - and one of the worlds - largest and most important museums of human history and culture. ...


While his friend Aleister Crowley adopted the persona of a modern-day witch, Summers played the part of the learned Catholic witch-hunter. His introduction to the Malleus Maleficarum declares it an admirable and correct account of witchcraft and of the methods necessary to combat it. In the introduction to his book on The History of Witchcraft and Demonology he writes: "In the following pages I have endeavored to show the witch as she really was – an evil liver: a social pest and parasite: the devotee of a loathly and obscene creed: an adept at poisoning, blackmail, and other creeping crimes: a member of a powerful secret organization inimical to Church and State: a blasphemer in word and deed, swaying the villagers by terror and superstition: a charlatan and a quack sometimes: a bawd: an abortionist: the dark counselor of lewd court ladies and adulterous gallants: a minister to vice and inconceivable corruption, battening upon the filth and foulest passions of the age". Aleister Crowley Aleister Crowley, born Edward Alexander Crowley (12 October 1875 - 1 December 1947) was an occultist, mystic, sexual revolutionary, and drug user (especially heroin). ...


He died at his home in Richmond, Surrey. The London Borough of Richmond upon Thames is a London borough in southwest London. ...


Works

Among his works are:


Poetry and Drama

  • Antinous and Other Poems, 1907
  • William Henry (play), 1939
  • Edward II (play), 1940

1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ...

Prose fiction

  • Horrid Mysteries, 1927
  • The Grimoire and Other Ghostly Tales, 1936
  • Six Ghost Stories, 1937
  • The Sins of the Fathers, 1947
  • Supernatural Tales, 1947

1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... This article is on medieval books of magic; for information on the term grimoire as used in the Source Mage GNU/Linux operating system, see the Source Mage article. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...

Edition and translation

A sketch of Aphra Behn by George Scharf from a portrait believed to be lost. ... 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about a writer. ... 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... William Wycherley in 1675. ... 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Thomas Shadwell (c. ... 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Covent Garden is a shopping and entertainment complex in central London. ... 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ...

Gothic

  • The History of Witchcraft, 1926
  • The Geography of Witchcraft, 1927 (reprinted ISBN 0710076177)
  • The Necromancer of the Black Forest, 1927
  • The Discovery of Witches, 1928 (reprinted ISBN 0404184162)
  • The Vampire, His Kith and Kin, 1928 (reprinted with alternate title: Vampires and Vampirism ISBN 0486439968)
  • The Vampire in Europe, 1929 (reprinted ISBN 0517149893) (reprinted with alternate title: The Vampire in Lore and Legend ISBN 0486419428)
  • The Werewolf, 1933 (reprinted with alternate title: The Werewolf in Lore and Legend ISBN 0486430901)
  • The Gothic Quest, 1938
  • Witchcraft and Black Magic, 1946 (reprinted ISBN 1558888403, ISBN 0486411257)
  • The Physical Phenomena of Mysticism, 1947.

The term witchcraft (and witch) is a controversial one with a complicated history. ... 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Necromancy is divination by raising the spirits of the dead. ... A map of Germany, showing the Black Forest in red. ... 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... This article is part of the Witchcraft series. ... 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... This article contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is the worlds second-smallest continent in terms of area, with an area of 10,600,000 km² (4,140,625 square miles), making it larger than Australia only. ... 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... A German Woodcut from 1722 A werewolf in folklore and mythology is a person who changes into a wolf, either by purposefully using magic or by being placed under a curse. ... 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Besides its original meaning, of or relating to the Goths (Gothos, Getas), a Germanic tribe and thus the Gothic language and the Gothic alphabet, the word Gothic has been used to refer to distinctly different things: From a Renaissance perspective (originally Italian, gotico, with connotations of rough, barbarous), it conveyed... 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...

Other works

1903 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Statue of the Blessed Virgin of Lourdes Our Lady of Lourdes Basilica Lourdes (Lorda in Occitan) is a town in the Hautes-Pyrénées département in France. ... 1904 is a leap year starting on a Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Ann Radcliffe (July 9, 1764 - February 7, 1823) was an English author, a pioneer of the gothic novel. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar. ... Jane Austen, in a portrait based on one drawn by her sister Cassandra Jane Austen (December 16, 1775 – July 18, 1817) was a prominent English novelist whose work is considered part of the Western canon. ... 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... // Introduction The skills of the architect are used in complex building types such as the skyscraper, hospital, stadium, airport, etc. ... 1931 (MCMXXXI) is a common year starting on Thursday. ... 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ...

Bibliography

  • Brocard Sewell (aka Joseph Jerome). Montague Summers: A Memoir. London: Cecil and Amelia Woolf, 1965.

1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link goes to calendar). ...

Links

A biography with photos


  Results from FactBites:
 
Montague Summers - definition of Montague Summers in Encyclopedia (578 words)
Montague Summers was the youngest of the seven children of Augustus William Summers, an affluent banker and justice of the peace in Clifton, Bristol.
Summers was educated at Clifton College before studying theology at Trinity College, Oxford with the intention of becoming a curate in the Church of England.
Summers wrote hagiography (on Saint Catherine of Siena) and lives of writers such as Jane Austen before turning to the occult, for which he is best remembered.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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