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Encyclopedia > Monsoon
Monsoon in the Vindhya mountain range, central India
Monsoon in the Vindhya mountain range, central India

A monsoon is a seasonal prevailing wind which lasts for several months. The term was first used in English in India, Bangladesh, Pakistan and neighboring countries to refer to the seasonal winds blowing from the Indian Ocean and Arabian Sea in the southwest bringing heavy rainfall to the region. In hydrology, monsoonal rainfall is considered to be that which occurs in any region that receives the majority of its rain during a particular season, and so monsoons are referred to in relation to other regions such as in North America, Sub-Saharan Africa, Brazil and East Asia. Image File history File links Mergefrom. ... Introduction The Asian Monsoon (AM) is a globally significant palaeo and contemporary climate system (An, 2000) which principally controls environmental and climatic change across the Asian region. ... Look up monsoon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Vindhya Range is a range of hills in central India, which geographically separates The Indian subcontinent into northern India and Southern India. ... The Arabian Sea (Arabic: بحر العرب; transliterated: Bahr al-Arab) is a region of the Indian Ocean bounded on the east by India, on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by Arabian Peninsula, on the south, approximately, by a line between Cape Guardafui, the north-east point of Somalia... In meteorology, precipitation is any kind of water that falls from the sky as part of the weather. ... Water covers 70% of the Earths surface. ... North America North America is a continent [1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... A political map showing national divisions in relation to the ecological break (Sub-Saharan Africa in green) A geographical map of Africa, showing the ecological break that defines the sub-Saharan area Sub-Saharan Africa is the term used to describe the area of the African continent which lies south... The East Asian monsoon is a monsoonal flow that carries moist air from South Asia to East Asia. ...


The English name Monsoon, was derived from the Arabic word mausim meaning 'season', referring to seasonal winds experienced by sailors in the Arabian Sea. Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Arabian Sea (Arabic: بحر العرب; transliterated: Bahr al-Arab) is a region of the Indian Ocean bounded on the east by India, on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by Arabian Peninsula, on the south, approximately, by a line between Cape Guardafui, the north-east point of Somalia...


In terms of total precipitation, total area covered and the total number of people affected, the monsoons affecting the Indian subcontinent dwarf the North American monsoon (also called the "Mexican", "southwest", "desert", or "Arizona" monsoon).

Monsoon clouds over Lucknow, India
Monsoon clouds over Lucknow, India

The definition includes major wind systems that change direction seasonally. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixels, file size: 959 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to en. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixels, file size: 959 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to en. ... , Lucknow ( , Hindi: लखनऊ, Urdu: لکھنؤ, ) is the capital city of Uttar Pradesh, the most populous state of India. ...

"Most summer monsoons have a dominant westerly component and a strong tendency to ascend and produce copious amounts of rain (because of the condensation of water vapour in the rising air). The intensity and duration, however, are not uniform from year to year. Winter monsoons, by contrast, have a dominant easterly component and a strong tendency to diverge, subside, and cause drought."[1]

Contents

History

Strengthening of the Asian monsoon has been linked to the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau after the collision of India and Asia around 50 million years ago. Evidence for when this first happened remains controversial. Many geologists believe the monsoon first became strong around 8 million years ago based on records from the Arabian Sea and the record of wind-blown dust in the Loess Plateau of China. More recently plant fossils in China and new long-duration sediment records from the South China Sea led Peter Clift to propose a much older monsoon starting around 24 million years ago and linked to early Tibetan uplift. Testing of this hypothesis awaits deep ocean sampling by the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program. The monsoon has varied significantly in strength since this time, largely linked to global climate change, especially the cycle of the Pleistocene ice ages. Tibet Autonomous Region, Qinghai Province and Sichuan Province of China lie on the Tibetan Plateau. ... The Arabian Sea (Arabic: بحر العرب; transliterated: Bahr al-Arab) is a region of the Indian Ocean bounded on the east by India, on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by Arabian Peninsula, on the south, approximately, by a line between Cape Guardafui, the north-east point of Somalia... This article cites very few or no references or sources. ... Filipino name Tagalog: Luzon Sea Portuguese name Portuguese: Mar da China Meridional Vietnamese name Vietnamese: The South China Sea is a marginal sea south of China. ... Peter Clift is a marine geologist specializing in the geology of Asia and the western Pacific. ... The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) is an international research program whose goal is to explore the structure of the Earth as recorded in oceanic sediments and rocks. ... The Pleistocene epoch (IPA: ) on the geologic timescale is the period from 1,808,000 to 11,550 years BP. The Pleistocene epoch had been intended to cover the worlds recent period of repeated glaciations. ...


Processes

View of the Indian Ocean Monsoon clouds over Howrah Bridge, Kolkata.
View of the Indian Ocean Monsoon clouds over Howrah Bridge, Kolkata.

Monsoons are caused by the larger amplitude of the seasonal cycle of land temperature compared to that of nearby oceans. This differential warming happens because heat in the ocean is mixed vertically through a "mixed layer" that may be fifty metres deep, through the action of wind and buoyancy-generated turbulence, whereas the land surface conducts heat slowly, with the seasonal signal penetrating perhaps a metre or so. Additionally, the specific heat of liquid water is significantly higher than that of most materials that make up land. Together, these factors mean that the heat capacity of the layer participating in the seasonal cycle is much larger over the oceans than over land, with the consequence that land warms faster and reaches a higher temperature than the ocean. The hot air over the land tends to rise, creating an area of low pressure. This creates a steady wind blowing toward the land, bringing the moist near-surface air over the oceans with it. Similar rainfall is caused by the moist ocean air being lifted upwards by mountains, surface heating, convergence at the surface, divergence aloft, or from storm-produced outflows at the surface. However the lifting occurs, the air cools due expansion in lower pressure, which in turn produces condensation. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... The Howrah Bridge spans the Hooghly River, linking Howrah to Kolkata, India - the busiest cantilever bridge in the world. ... , “Calcutta” redirects here. ...


In winter, the land cools off quickly, but the ocean keeps the heat longer. The hot air over the ocean rises, creating a low pressure area and a breeze from land to ocean while a large area of drying high pressure is formed over the land, increased by wintertime cooling. Monsoons are similar to sea breezes, a term usually referring to the localized, diurnal (daily) cycle of circulation near coastlines everywhere, but they are much larger in scale, stronger and seasonal.


Monsoon systems

Low lying clouds before rainfall in Singapore
Low lying clouds before rainfall in Singapore

As monsoons have become better understood, the term monsoon has been broadened to include almost all of the phenomena associated with the annual weather cycle within the tropical and subtropical land regions of the earth. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1642x1382, 241 KB) Licensing Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1642x1382, 241 KB) Licensing Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... For the geological process, see Weathering or Erosion. ... The tropics are the geographic region of the Earth centered on the equator and limited in latitude by the two tropics: the Tropic of Cancer in the north and the Tropic of Capricorn in the southern hemisphere. ... Subtropical (or semitropical) areas are those adjacent to the tropics, usually roughly defined as the ranges 23. ...


Even more broadly, it is now understood that in the geological past, monsoon systems must have always accompanied the formation of supercontinents such as Pangaea, with their extreme continental climates. In geology, a supercontinent is a land mass comprising more than one continental core, or craton. ... For other uses, see Pangaea (disambiguation). ... Regions containing a continental climate exist in portions of Northern Hemisphere continents, and also at higher elevations in certain other parts of the world. ...


Northeast Monsoon (Southern Asia and Australasia)

In Southern Asia, the northeastern monsoons take place from December to early March. The temperature over central Asia is less than 25oC as it is the northern hemisphere winter, therefore creating a zone of high pressure there. The jet stream in this region splits into the southern subtropical jet and the polar jet. The subtropical flow directs northeasterly winds to blow across southern Asia, creating dry air streams which produce clear skies over India. Meanwhile, a low pressure system develops over South-East Asia and Australasia and winds are directed toward Australia known as a monsoon trough. For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see jet stream (disambiguation). ... An airstream is a relatively well-defined prevailing wind, it is name given to a body of air, or air mass, that moves from its source region and brings the weather with it. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Australasia Australasia is a term variably used to describe a region of Oceania: Australia, New Zealand, and neighbouring islands in the Pacific Ocean. ... The Glossary of Meteorology defines a monsoon trough simply: A line in a weather map showing the locations of minimum sea level pressure in a monsoon region. ...


Northern Indian Ocean Monsoon

Onset dates and prevailing wind currents of the southwest summer monsoon.
Onset dates and prevailing wind currents of the southwest summer monsoon.

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

South-West Summer Monsoon

The southwestern summer monsoons occur from June through September. The Great Indian Desert (Thar Desert) and adjoining areas of the northern and central Indian subcontinent heats up too much during the hot seasons of summer. This causes a low pressure area over the northern and central Indian subcontinent. To fill up this void, the moisture-laden winds from the Indian Ocean rush in to the subcontinent. These winds, rich in moisture, are drawn towards the Himalayas, creating winds blowing storm clouds towards the subcontinent. However the Himalayas act like a high wall and do not allow the winds to pass into Central Asia, forcing them to rise. With the gain in altitude of the clouds, the temperature drops and precipitation occurs. Some areas of the subcontinent receive up to 10,000 mm of rain. A NASA satellite image of the Thar Desert, with the India-Pakistan border superimposed is found in canada, united states. ... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... Perspective view of the Himalaya and Mount Everest as seen from space looking south-south-east from over the Tibetan Plateau. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... For other uses, see Temperature (disambiguation). ...


The southwest monsoon is generally expected to begin around the start of June and dies down by September. The moisture-laden winds on reaching the southernmost point of the Indian peninsula, due to its topology, become divided into two parts: A compass rose with Southwest highlighted. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations by or about: India Wikinews has news related to this article: India Look up India in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Wikibooks has more about this subject: India Wikisource has original text related to this article: India Official GOI Directory — Directory of governmental websites Indiaimage...

  • Arabian Sea Branch of the SW Monsoon
  • Bay of Bengal Branch of the SW Monsoon

The Arabian Sea Branch of the SW Monsoon first hits the Western Ghats of the coastal state of Kerala, India and hence Kerala is the first state in India to receive rain from the South-West Monsoon. This branch of the monsoon moves northwards along the Western Ghats giving rain to the coastal areas west of the Western Ghats. It is to be noted that the eastern parts of the Western Ghats do not receive much rain from this monsoon as the wind does not cross the Western Ghats. The Agasthiyamalai range of the Western Ghats The Western Ghats are a mountain range in India. ... , Kerala ( ; Malayalam: കേരളം; ) is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ... , Kerala ( ; Malayalam: കേരളം; ) is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ... The Agasthiyamalai range of the Western Ghats The Western Ghats are a mountain range in India. ... A compass rose with west highlighted This article refers to the cardinal direction; for other uses see West (disambiguation). ... The Agasthiyamalai range of the Western Ghats The Western Ghats are a mountain range in India. ... The Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST, internally called HT-7U) is a project being undertaken to construct an experimental superconducting tokamak magnetic fusion energy reactor in Hefei, the capital city of Anhui Province, in eastern China. ... The Agasthiyamalai range of the Western Ghats The Western Ghats are a mountain range in India. ... The Agasthiyamalai range of the Western Ghats The Western Ghats are a mountain range in India. ...

View of south-west monsoon rain in Kerala.
View of south-west monsoon rain in Kerala.

The Bay of Bengal Branch of SW Monsoon flows over the Bay of Bengal heading towards North-Eastern India and Bengal, picking up more moisture from the Bay of Bengal. Its hits the Eastern Himalaya and provides a huge amount of rain to the regions of North-East India, Bangladesh and West Bengal. Cherrapunji, situated on the southern slopes of the Eastern Himalaya in Shillong, India is one of the wettest places on Earth. After striking the Eastern Himalaya it turns towards the West, travels over the Indo-Gangetic Plain, at a rate of roughly 1-2 weeks per state[citation needed], pouring raining all along its way. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... , Kerala ( ; Malayalam: കേരളം; ) is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ... Look up Bay of Bengal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Himalayas in Sikkim North-East India is the easternmost region of India consisting of the contiguous Seven Sister States and the state of Sikkim. ... For other uses, see Bengal (disambiguation). ... Look up Bay of Bengal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Perspective view of the Himalaya and Mount Everest as seen from space looking south-south-east from over the Tibetan Plateau. ... The Himalayas in Sikkim North-East India is the easternmost region of India consisting of the contiguous Seven Sister States and the state of Sikkim. ... , West Bengal (Bengali: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ Poshchimbôŋgo) is a state in eastern India. ... Meghalaya Cherrapunji is a town in Meghalaya, India which is credited as being one of the worlds wettest places. ... Perspective view of the Himalaya and Mount Everest as seen from space looking south-south-east from over the Tibetan Plateau. ... , Shillong (Khasi Shillong) is the capital of Meghalaya, one of the smaller states in India. ... Perspective view of the Himalaya and Mount Everest as seen from space looking south-south-east from over the Tibetan Plateau. ... A compass rose with west highlighted This article refers to the cardinal direction; for other uses see West (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The monsoon accounts for 80 percent of the rainfall in the country[citation needed]. Indian agriculture (which accounts for 25 percent of the GDP and employs 70 percent of the population) is heavily dependent on the rains, especially crops like cotton, rice, oilseeds and coarse grains. A delay of a few days in the arrival of the monsoon can, and does, badly affect the economy, as evidenced in the numerous droughts in India in the 90s. For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ... Seeds which are grown for their oil. ...


The monsoon is widely welcomed and appreciated by city-dwellers as well, for it provides relief from the climax of summer in June. However, because of the lack of adequate infrastructure in place, most major cities are often adversely affected as well. The roads, already shoddy, take a battering each year; houses and streets at the bottom of slopes and beside rivers are waterlogged, slums are flooded, and the sewers and the rare hurricane drain start to back up and pour out toxic filth rather than drain it away. This translates into various minor casualties most of the time; lack of city infrastructure coupled with changing climate patterns also causes severe damage to and loss of property and life. Bangladesh and some regions of India like in Assam and places of West Bengal experiences heavy flood, which claims huge number of lives and huge loss of property and causes severe damage to economy, as evidenced in the Mumbai floods of 2005. Also in the recent past, areas in India that used to receive scanty rainfall throughout the year, like the Thar Desert, have surprisingly ended up receiving floods due to the prolonged monsoon season. Slums in Delhi, India. ... , Assam (  ) (Assamese: অসম Ôxôm) is a north eastern state of India with its capital at Dispur, a suburb of the city Guwahati. ... , West Bengal (Bengali: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ Poshchimbôŋgo) is a state in eastern India. ... Flooding in Amphoe Sena, Ayutthaya Province, Thailand. ... The Maharashtra floods of 2005 refers to the flooding of many parts of the Indian state of Maharashtra including large areas of the metropolis of Mumbai (formerly Bombay), a city located on the coast of the Arabian Sea, on the western coast of India, in which at least 1,000... A NASA satellite image of the Thar Desert, with the India-Pakistan border superimposed is found in canada, united states. ...


June 1 is regarded as the date of onset of the monsoon in India, which is the average date on which the monsoon strikes Kerala over the years for which scientific data is available with the Indian Meteoreological Department.

View of central Kolkata after a monsoon rain.
View of central Kolkata after a monsoon rain.

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... , “Calcutta” redirects here. ...

North-East Monsoon (Retreating Monsoon)

Around September, with the sun fast retreating south, the northern land mass of the Indian subcontinent begins to cool off rapidly. With this air pressure begins to build over northern India. The Indian Ocean and its surrounding atmosphere still holds its heat. This causes the cold wind to sweep down from the Himalayas and Indo-Gangetic Plain towards the vast spans of the Indian Ocean south of the Deccan peninsular. This is known as the North-East Monsoon or Retreating Monsoon. Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... Dark green region marks the approximate extent of northern India while the regions marked as light green lies within the sphere of north Indian influence. ... For the movie Himalaya, see Himalaya (film). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Deccan Plateau is a vast plateau in India, encompassing most of Central and Southern India. ...


While traveling towards the Indian Ocean, the dry cold wind picks up some moisture from the Bay of Bengal and pours it over peninsular India. Cities like Chennai, which get less rain from the South-West Monsoon, receives rain from the Retreating Monsoon. About 50% - 60% of the rain received by the state of Tamil Nadu is from the North-East Monsoon[citation needed]. Look up Bay of Bengal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... , Madras redirects here. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ...


It is worth noting that North-East Monsoon (or the Retreating Monsoon) is not able to bring as much rain as the South-West Monsoon.


North American Monsoon

The Salt Lake City Tornado, August 11, 1999, occurred during an unusually strong year for the desert monsoon. (Orange fireball is substation exploding)
The Salt Lake City Tornado, August 11, 1999, occurred during an unusually strong year for the desert monsoon. (Orange fireball is substation exploding)
Arizona monsoon season clouds
Arizona monsoon season clouds

The North American Monsoon (NAM) occurs from late June or early July into September, originating over Mexico and spreading into the southwest United States by mid-July. It affects Mexico along the Sierra Madre Occidental as well as Arizona, New Mexico, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, West Texas, and California. It pushes as far west as the Peninsular Ranges and Transverse Ranges of southern California but rarely reaches the coastal strip (a wall of desert thunderstorms only a half-hour's drive away is a common summer sight from the sunny skies along the coast during the monsoon). The North American monsoon is known to many as the Summer, Southwest, Mexican or Arizona monsoon. It is also sometimes called the Desert Monsoon as a large part of the affected area is desert. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Avenues neighborhood damage The Salt Lake City Tornado was a very rare tornado that occurred in Salt Lake City, Utah on August 11, 1999, during an unusually strong summer monsoon season. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 292 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) az monsoon clouds I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 292 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) az monsoon clouds I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... This picture shows an aerial view of the Sierra Madre Occidental crossing the territory of Durango, western Mexico The Sierra Madre Occidental is a mountain range in western Mexico and the extreme southwest of the United States, extending 1500 km from southeast Arizona (south and east of Tucson) southeast through... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Largest metro area Albuquerque metropolitan area Area  Ranked 5th  - Total 121,665 sq mi (315,194 km²)  - Width 342 miles (550 km)  - Length 370 miles (595 km)  - % water 0. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Nevada. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English Capital Denver Largest city Denver Largest metro area Denver-Aurora Metro Area Area  Ranked 8th  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... The dry plains of West Texas, have often been divided up into tracks of land divided by barbed wire fences. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... The Peninsular Ranges are a group of mountain ranges which stretch 900 miles from southern California to the southern tip of Baja California, part of the North American Coast Ranges that run along the Pacific coast from Alaska to Mexico. ... The Transverse ranges are a group of mountain ranges of southern California, part of the North American Coast Ranges that run along the Pacific coast from Alaska to Mexico. ...


The North American monsoon is associated with an area of high pressure called the subtropical ridge that moves northward during the summer months and a thermal low (a trough of low pressure which develops from intense surface heating) over the Mexican Plateau and the desert southwest of the United States. The monsoon begins in late May to early June in southern Mexico and quickly spreads along the western slopes of the Sierra Madre Occidental, reaching Arizona and New Mexico in early July. The monsoon extends into the southwest United States as it matures in mid July when an area of high pressure, called the monsoon ridge, develops in the upper atmosphere over the Four Corners region, creating an easterly to southeasterly wind flow aloft. This wind flow pattern directs moisture originating in the Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of California and the tropical Pacific by way of northern Mexico into the region, setting off brief, but often torrential thunderstorms, especially over mountainous terrain. This activity is occasionally enhanced by the passage of easterly waves or the entrainment of the remnants of tropical storms. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Anticyclone. ... The subtropical ridge is a large belt of high pressure situated around 30ºN in the Northern Hemisphere and 30ºS in the Southern Hemisphere. ... A large low-pressure system swirls off the southwestern coast of Iceland, illustrating the maxim that nature abhors a vacuum. ... The Four Corners region is in the red area on this map The Four Corners Monument, placed by the Interior Department at the exact point. ... Tropical waves, also known as easterly waves, are elongated areas of relatively low air pressure, oriented north to south, causing areas of cloudiness and thunderstorms. ... See entrainment for other types. ... This article is about weather phenomena. ...


As much as 70% of rainfall in the region occurs during the summer monsoon. Many desert plants are adapted to take advantage of this brief wet season. Because of the monsoons, the Sonoran and Mojave are considered relatively "wet" when ranked among other deserts such as the Sahara. Map of the Mojave and Sonoran deserts. ... For the indigenous American tribe, see Mohave. ...


Monsoons play a vital role in managing wildfire threat by providing moisture at higher elevations and feeding desert streams. Heavy monsoon rain can lead to excess winter plant growth, in turn a summer wildfire risk. A lack of monsoon rain can hamper summer seeding, reducing excess winter plant growth but worsening drought.

Thunderstorms during the North American Monsoon as seen from El Cajon, California. The thunderstorms rarely push beyond the Peninsular Ranges to the clear skies of the coastal strip.
Thunderstorms during the North American Monsoon as seen from El Cajon, California. The thunderstorms rarely push beyond the Peninsular Ranges to the clear skies of the coastal strip.

Flash flooding is a serious danger during the monsoon season. Dry washes can become raging rivers in an instant, even when no storms are visible as a storm can cause a flash flood tens of miles away (never camp in a dry wash in the desert). Lightning strikes are also a significant danger. Because it is dangerous to be caught in the open when these storms suddenly appear, many golf courses in Arizona have thunderstorm warning systems. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2237x381, 160 KB) Summary Thunderstorms during the North American Monsoon as seen from El Cajon, California. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2237x381, 160 KB) Summary Thunderstorms during the North American Monsoon as seen from El Cajon, California. ... Lower Antelope Canyon was carved out of sandstone by flash floods A Flash Flood is a rapid flooding of geomorphic low-lying areas (washes), rivers and streams, caused by the intense rainfall associated with a thunderstorm, or multiple training thunderstorms. ...


The North American monsoon affects much of the United States and Mexico. Major drought episodes in the midwestern United States are associated with an amplification of the upper tropospheric monsoon ridge, along with a weakening of the western edge of the "Bermuda high" and the low-level jet stream over the great plains[1]. Fields outside Benambra, Victoria, Australia suffering from drought conditions A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply. ... Atmosphere diagram showing the mesosphere and other layers. ...


African Monsoon

The monsoon of western sub-Saharan Africa is the result of the seasonal shifts of the Intertropical Convergence Zone and the great seasonal temperature differences between the Sahara and the equatorial Atlantic Ocean. The dry, northeasterly trade winds, and their more extreme form, the harmattan, are interrupted by the northern shift in the ITCZ and resultant southerly, rain-bearing winds during the summer. The semiarid Sahel and Sudan depend upon this pattern for most of their precipitation. A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... The thunderstorms of the Intertropical Convergence Zone form a line across the eastern Pacific Ocean. ... The trade winds are a pattern of wind found in bands around Earths equatorial region. ... The Harmattan is a dry and dusty wind blowing northeast and west off the Sahara into the Gulf of Guinea between November and March (winter). ... The ITCZ, or InterTropical Convergence Zone, is a belt of low pressure girdling the globe at the equator. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


South American Monsoon

Much of Brazil experiences seasonal wind patterns that bring a summer maximum to precipitation. Rio de Janeiro is infamous for flooding as a result of monsoon rains. This article is about the Brazilian city. ...


See also

A semi-arid wasteland near Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu. ... The Glossary of Meteorology defines a monsoon trough simply: A line in a weather map showing the locations of minimum sea level pressure in a monsoon region. ... The Monsoon Cup is a major sporting event in Malaysia. ...

References

  1. ^ Monsoon. Britannica. Retrieved on 2007-05-15.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Aerial view of Goddard Space Flight Center. ...

External links

Wikinews has related news:
Asian monsoon rains force millions to flee

  Results from FactBites:
 
Monsoon (226 words)
Monsoons blow from the land toward the sea in winter, and from the sea toward land in the summer.
The summer monsoons roar onto the subcontinent from the southwest.
The summer monsoon winds in India bring moisture from the Indian Ocean; Pakistan is north of the ocean and receives much less rain.
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