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Encyclopedia > Monsanto
Monsanto Company
Type Agriculture/Public (NYSEMON)
Founded St. Louis, Missouri (1901)
Headquarters St. Louis, Missouri, USA
Key people John Francis Queeny (1859–1933), Founder
Hugh Grant, Chairman, President, & CEO
Terrell K. Crews, CFO
Robb Fraley, Chief Technology Officer
Industry Agriculture
Products Herbicides, pesticides, crop seeds, rBST
Revenue $7.344 billion USD (2006)
Net income $689 million USD (2006)
Employees 16,500 (May, 2006)
Website www.monsanto.com

The Monsanto Company (NYSEMON) is a multinational agricultural biotechnology corporation. It is the world's leading producer of the herbicide glyphosate, marketed as "Roundup". Monsanto is also by far the leading producer of genetically engineered (GE) seed, holding 70%–100% market share for various crops. Agracetus, owned by Monsanto, exclusively produces Roundup Ready soybean seed for the commercial market. In March 2005, it finalized the purchase of Seminis Inc, making it also the largest conventional seed company in the world. It has over 16,000 employees worldwide, and an annual revenue of US$7.344 billion reported for 2006.[1] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), nicknamed the Big Board, is a New York City-based stock exchange. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Missouri Coordinates: , Country State County Independent City Government  - Mayor Francis G. Slay (D) Area  - City  66. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Missouri Coordinates: , Country State County Independent City Government  - Mayor Francis G. Slay (D) Area  - City  66. ... John Francis Queeny founded the Monsanto Company in 1901. ... “CFO” redirects here. ... Chief Technical Officer or Chief Technology Officer, usually seen as CTO, is a business executive position whose holder is focussed on technical issues in a company. ... A herbicide is a pesticide used to kill unwanted plants. ... A cropduster spreading pesticide. ... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ... Look up revenue in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... “USD” redirects here. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Net income is equal to the income that a firm has after subtracting costs and expenses from the total revenue. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... “USD” redirects here. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about work. ... A website (alternatively, Web site or web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos and other digital assets that is hosted on one or several Web server(s), usually accessible via the Internet, cell phone or a LAN. A Web page is a document, typically written in HTML... The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), nicknamed the Big Board, is a New York City-based stock exchange. ... A multinational corporation (MNC) is a corporation or enterprise that manages production establishments or delivers services in at least two countries. ... This article needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ... For other uses, see Corporation (disambiguation). ... A herbicide is a pesticide used to kill unwanted plants. ... It has been suggested that Roundup be merged into this article or section. ... Roundup is the brand name of a systemic, broad-spectrum herbicide produced by the U.S. life sciences giant Monsanto. ... Kenyans examining insect-resistant transgenic Bt corn. ... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ... Agriculture (from Agri Latin for ager (a field), and culture, from the Latin cultura cultivation in the strict sense of tillage of the soil. A literal reading of the English word yields tillage of the soil of a field.) is the production of food, feed, fiber and other goods by... The Agracetus Campus of Monsanto is the largest soybean transformation laboratory in the world. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Seminis is the largest developer, grower and marketer of fruit and vegetable seeds in the world. ... Employment is a contract between two parties, one being the employer and the other being the employee. ... Look up revenue in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... One thousand million (1,000,000,000) is the natural number following 999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,001. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Monsanto's development and marketing of genetically engineered seed and bovine growth hormone, as well as its aggressive litigation and political lobbying practices, have made the company controversial around the world and a primary target of the anti-globalization movement and environmental activists. While other chemical and biotech multinationals face similar criticisms, Monsanto tends to be targeted more routinely and more strongly. Some activists have referred to Monsanto's products as frankenfoods. Kenyans examining insect-resistant transgenic Bt corn. ... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ... Bovine somatotropin (bST), or bovine growth hormone (BGH), is a protein hormone that occurs naturally in the pituitary gland of cattle. ... This article is about the political effort. ... Anti-WEF grafiti in Lausanne. ... Environmentalism is activism aimed at improving the environment, particularly nature. ... Environmentalism is activism aimed at improving the environment, particularly nature. ... Frankenfood (named after Mary Shelleys character in her novel Frankenstein) is a label of disapproval applied to food products deemed to have been produced by unnatural—and by implication, obscene—means. ...

Contents

History of Monsanto

Agriculture

General
Agribusiness · Agriculture
Agricultural science · Agronomy
Animal husbandry
Extensive farming
Factory farming · Free range
Green Revolution
History of agriculture
Industrial agriculture
Intensive farming · Organic farming
Permaculture
Sustainable agriculture
Urban agriculture
Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 644 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (900 × 838 pixel, file size: 187 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... In agriculture, agribusiness is a generic term that refers to the various businesses involved in the food production chain, including farming, seed, agrichemicals, farm machinery, wholesaling, processing, distribution, and retail sales. ... Agricultural science is a broad multidisciplinary field that encompasses the parts of exact, natural, economic, and social sciences that are used in the practice and understanding of agriculture. ... Agronomy is a branch of agricultural science that deals with the study of crops and the soils in which they grow. ... Shepherd with his sheep in Făgăraş Mountains, Romania. ... The small pig farm in Swiss mountains. ... The factual accuracy of part of this article is disputed. ... Free range is a method of farming husbandry where the animals are permitted to roam freely instead of being contained in small sheds. ... The Green Revolution is a term used to describe the worldwide transformation of agriculture that led to significant increases in agricultural production between the 1940s and 1960s. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... These female brood sows are confined most of their lives in gestation crates too small to enable them to turn around. ... Intensive Farming Intensive agriculture is an agricultural production system characterized by the high inputs as relative to land area (as opposed to extensive farming). ... Organic farming is a form of agriculture which avoids or largely excludes the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, plant growth regulators, and livestock feed additives. ... Permaculture Mandala summarising the ethics and principles of permaculture design. ... It has been suggested that Small-scale agriculture be merged into this article or section. ... Urban (or peri-urban) agriculture is the practice of agriculture (including crops, livestock, fisheries, and forestry activities) within or surrounding the boundaries of cities. ...

Particular
Aquaculture · Christmas trees · Dairy farming
Grazing · Hydroponics · IMTA
Intensive pig farming · Lumber
Maize · Orchard
Poultry farming · Ranching · Rice
Sheep husbandry · Soybean
System of Rice Intensification
Wheat
Workers harvest catfish from the Delta Pride Catfish farms in Mississippi General Agribusiness · Agriculture Agricultural science · Agronomy Animal husbandry Challenges of industrial farming Extensive farming Factory farming · Free range Green Revolution History of agriculture Industrial agriculture Industrial agriculture (animals) Industrial agriculture (crops) Intensive farming · Organic farming Permaculture Sustainable agriculture Zero... A Christmas tree farmer in the U.S. state of Florida explains the pruning and shearing process of cultivation to a government employee. ... Dairy farming is a class of agricultural, or more properly, an animal husbandry enterprise, raising female cattle, goats, or other lactating animals for long-term production of milk, which may be either processed on-site or transported to a dairy factory for processing and eventual retail sale. ... Grazing To feed on growing herbage, attached algae, or phytoplankton. ... Tiny tomato plants grown in a stealth hydroponics grow box. ... Harvesting of kelp (Saccharina latissima, previously known as Laminaria saccharina) cultivated in proximity to Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) at Charlie Cove, Bay of Fundy, Canada. ... Intensively farmed pigs in batch pens Intensive piggeries (or hog lots) are a type of factory farm specialized for the raising of domestic pigs up to slaughter weight. ... Timber in storage for later processing at a sawmill Lumber or Timber is a term used to describe wood, either standing or that has been processed for use—from the time trees are felled, to its end product as a material suitable for industrial use—as structural material for construction... This article is about the maize plant. ... A community apple orchard originally planted for productive use during the 1920s, in Westcliff on Sea (Essex, England) An orchard is an intentional planting of trees or shrubs maintained for food production. ... Poultry farming is the practice of raising poultry, such as chickens, turkeys, ducks geese, as a subcategory of animal husbandry, for the purpose of farming meat or eggs for food. ... This article is about a type of land use and method of raising livestock. ... For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ... Australian Sheep Sheep husbandry is the raising and breeding of domestic sheep. ... Binomial name (L.) Merr. ... The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) is a method of increasing the yield of rice produced in farming. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ...

Issues
Animal rights · Animal welfare
Antibiotics
Battery cage · Biosecurity · BSE
Crop rotation
Ethical consumerism
Environmental science
Foie gras
Foodborne illness
Foot-and-mouth disease
Genetically modified food
Gestation crate
Growth hormone
Pesticide
Veal crates
Water conservation
Weed control
For the album by Moby, see Animal Rights (album). ... Animal welfare is the viewpoint that animals, especially those under human care, should not suffer unnecessarily, including where the animals are used for food, work, companionship, or research. ... An antibiotic is a drug that kills or slows the growth of bacteria. ... Battery Cage is an American electronic music project led by Tyler Newman. ... A biosecurity guarantee attempts to ensure that ecologies sustaining either people or animals are maintained. ... Classic image of a cow with BSE. A notable feature of such disease is the inability (of the infected animal) to stand. ... Satellite image of circular crop fields in Haskell County, Kansas in late June 2001. ... Ethical consumerism is buying things that are made ethically. ... Environmental science is the study of the interactions among the physical, chemical and biological components of the environment; with a focus on pollution and degradation of the environment related to human activities; and the impact on biodiversity and sustainability from local and global development. ... Pâté de foie gras (right) with pickled pear. ... A foodborne illness (also foodborne disease) is any illness resulting from the consumption of food. ... Not to be confused with hand, foot and mouth disease. ... Kenyans examining insect-resistant transgenic Bt corn. ... Female pigs used for breeding are confined in 7 ft by 2 ft gestation crates for most of their lives. ... Growth hormone (GH) or somatotropin (STH) is a protein hormone which stimulates growth and cell reproduction in humans and other animals. ... A cropduster spreading pesticide. ... Veal is the meat of young calves (usually male) appreciated for its delicate taste and tender texture. ... Water conservation refers to reducing use of fresh water, through technological or social methods. ... Weed control, a botanical component of pest control, stops weeds from reaching a mature stage of growth when they could be harmful to domesticated plants, sometimes livestocks, by using manual techniques including soil cultivation, mulching and herbicides. ...

Large corporations
Bernard Matthews
Cargill
ContiGroup Companies
McCain Foods Limited
Maple Leaf Foods
Monsanto
Philip Morris
Smithfield Foods
Tyson Foods
Wayne Farms
Bernard Matthews is a food processing company headquartered in Norwich, Norfolk, with 57 farms throughout Norfolk, Suffolk and Lincolnshire [1]. They produce and market turkey and other meat products, oven-ready turkeys, day-old turkeys, fish products and other poultry products. ... Cargill, Incorporated is a privately held, multinational corporation, and is based in the state of Minnesota in the United States. ... Formed in 1813, ContiGroup Companies, Inc (CGC) was originally founded by Simon Fribourg in Arlon, Belgium as a grain-trading firm. ... McCain Foods Limited, a privately owned company established in 1957 by the McCain brothers in Florenceville, New Brunswick, Canada, is the worlds largest producer of french fries and other oven-ready frozen foods. ... Maple Leaf Foods TSX: MFI is a major Canadian food processing company. ... Altria Group, Inc. ... Smithfield Packing Company was founded in 1936 by Joseph W. Luter and his son Joseph W. Luter, Jr. ... Tyson Foods, Inc. ... Formerly operating under Allied Mills, the Poultry Division of ContiGroup Companies, Wayne Farms LLC is the sixth largest vertically integrated producer and processor of poultry in the United States. ...

Categories
Agriculture by country
Agriculture companies
Agriculture companies, U.S.
Biotechnology
Farming history
Livestock
Meat processing
Poultry farming

Agropedia Portal

Monsanto was founded in St. Louis, Missouri, in 1901, by John Francis Queeny, a 30-year veteran of the pharmaceutical industry. He funded the start-up with his own money and capital from a soft drink distributor, and gave the company his wife's maiden name. The company's first product was the artificial sweetener saccharin, which it sold to the Coca-Cola Company. It also introduced caffeine and vanillin to Coca-Cola, and became one of that company's main suppliers.[citation needed] In 1919, Monsanto established its presence in Europe by entering into a partnership with Graesser's Chemical Works at Cefn Mawr in Ruabon, Wales to produce vanillin, salicylic acid, aspirin and later rubber. Image File history File links Portal. ... John Francis Queeny founded the Monsanto Company in 1901. ... A soft drink is a drink that contains no alcohol. ... A sweetener is a food additive which adds the basic taste of sweetness to a food. ... The skeletal formula of saccharin Saccharin[1] is the oldest artificial sweetener. ... The Coca-Cola Companys headquarters in Atlanta, GA. The Coca-Cola Company (NYSE: KO) is an international beverage and food manufacturer whose headquarters are in Atlanta, Georgia, in the United States of America. ... Caffeine is a xanthine alkaloid compound that acts as a stimulant in humans. ... Vanillin, methyl vanillin, or 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde, is an organic compound with the molecular formula C8H8O3. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Cefn Mawr is a village in the community of Cefn within the county borough of Wrexham, north-east Wales. ... Ruabon (Welsh: Rhiwabon) is a small village south of Wrexham in north Wales. ... This article is about the country. ... Vanillin, methyl vanillin, or 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde, is an organic compound with the molecular formula C8H8O3. ... Salicylic acid is the chemical compound with the formula C6H4(OH)CO2H, where the OH group is adjacent to the carboxyl group. ... This article is about the drug. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ...


In its second decade, the 1920s, Monsanto expanded into basic industrial chemicals like sulfuric acid, and the decade ended with Queeny's son Edgar Monsanto Queeny taking over the company in 1928. R-phrases S-phrases , , , Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Related strong acids Selenic acid Hydrochloric acid Nitric acid Related compounds Hydrogen sulfide Sulfurous acid Peroxymonosulfuric acid Sulfur trioxide Oleum Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ...


The 1940s saw Monsanto become a leading manufacturer of plastics, including polystyrene, and synthetic fibers. Since then, it has remained one of the top 10 US chemical companies. Other major products have included the herbicides 2,4,5-T and Agent Orange, aspartame (NutraSweet), bovine somatotropin (bovine growth hormone; BST), and PCBs.[citation needed] Also in this decade, Monsanto operated the Dayton Project, and later Mound Laboratory in Miamisburg, Ohio, for the Manhattan Project, the development of the first nuclear weapons and, after 1947, the Atomic Energy Commission. In 1947, an accidental explosion of ammonium nitrate fertilizer loaded on the French ship S.S. Grandcamp destroyed an adjacent Monsanto styrene manufacturing plant, along with much of the port at Galveston Bay. The explosion, known as the Texas City Disaster, is considered the largest industrial accident in US history, with the highest death toll. As the decade ended, Monsanto acquired American Viscose from England's Courtauld family in 1949. The term plastics covers a range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic condensation or polymerization products that can be molded or extruded into objects or films or fibers. ... Polystyrene (IPA: ) is a polymer made from the monomer styrene, a liquid hydrocarbon that is commercially manufactured from petroleum by the chemical industry. ... Synthetic Fibers are the result of an extensive search by scientists to increase and improve upon the supply of naturally occurring animal and plant fibers that have been used in making cloth. ... For other uses, see Agent Orange (disambiguation). ... Aspartame (or APM) (IPA: ) is the name for an artificial, non-saccharide sweetener, aspartyl-phenylalanine-1-methyl ester; i. ... NutraSweet is the company that makes and sells aspartame, an artificial sugar substitute. ... Growth hormone is a polypeptide hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland which stimulates growth and cell reproduction in humans and other vertebrate animals. ... Bovine somatotropin (bST), or bovine growth hormone (BGH), is a protein hormone that occurs naturally in the pituitary gland of cattle. ... Labelling transformers containing PCBs Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of organic compounds with 1 to 10 chlorine atoms are attached to biphenyl and a general structure of C12H10-xClx. ... The Dayton Project was one of several sites involved in the Manhattan Project to build the first atomic bombs. ... The Manhattan Project resulted in the creation of the first nuclear weapons, and the first-ever nuclear detonation, known as the Trinity test of July 16, 1945. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... Shield of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Related Compounds Other anions Ammonium nitrite; ammonium perchlorate Other cations Sodium nitrate; potassium nitrate; hydroxylammonium nitrate Related compounds Nitrous oxide Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references The chemical compound ammonium nitrate, the nitrate of... For other uses, see Ship (disambiguation). ... C8H8 redirects here. ... Galveston Bay is a large estuary located along Texass coastline. ... The Texas City Disaster of April 16, 1947, started with the mid-morning fire and detonation of approximately 17,000,000 pounds (8,500 tons) of ammonium nitrate on board the French-registered vessel SS Grandcamp in the port at Texas City, Texas, killing 581 people. ... Industrial disasters are mass disasters caused by industrial companies, either by accident, negligence or incompetence. ...


In 1954, Monsanto partnered with German chemical giant Bayer to form Mobay and market polyurethanes in the US. In the 1960s and 1970s, Monsanto became the leading producer of Agent Orange for US Military operations in Vietnam.[citation needed] Bayer AG (IPA pronunciation //) (ISIN: DE0005752000, NYSE: BAY, TYO: 4863 ) is a German chemical and pharmaceutical company founded in Barmen, Germany in 1863. ... Mobay Chemical Corporation, based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, was a joint venture of Monsanto and Bayer to market polyurethanes in the United States. ... A polyurethane is any polymer consisting of a chain of organic units joined by urethane links. ... For other uses, see Agent Orange (disambiguation). ...


1980 saw Monsanto establish the Edgar Monsanto Queeny safety award [1] in honor of its former CEO (19281960), to encourage accident prevention. Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Monsanto scientists became the first to genetically modify a plant cell in 1982.[citation needed] Five years later, Monsanto conducted the first field tests of genetically engineered crops. Genetic engineering, genetic modification (GM), and gene splicing (once in widespread use but now deprecated) are terms for the process of manipulating genes in an organism, usually outside of the organisms normal reproductive process. ...


Through a process of mergers and spin-offs between 1997 and 2002, Monsanto has made a transition from chemical giant to biotech giant. Part of this process involved the 1999 sale by Monsanto of their phenylalanine facilities to Great Lakes Chemical (GLC) for $125 million. In 2000, GLC sued Monsanto because of a $71 million dollar shortfall in expected sales. Phenyl alanine is an α-amino acid with the formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH2C6H5. ...


With the dawn of the new millennium in 2001, retired Monsanto chemist William S. Knowles was named a co-winner of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his research on catalytic asymmetric hydrogenation, which was carried out at Monsanto beginning in the 1960s until his 1986 retirement. William S. Knowles (born June 1, 1917) is a American chemist. ... This is a list of Nobel Prize laureates in Chemistry from 1901 to 2006. ...


Throughout 2004 and 2005, Monsanto filed lawsuits against many farmers in Canada and the U.S. The lawsuits have been on the grounds of patent infringement, specifically the farmer's sale of seed containing Monsanto's patented genes–which require the farmer initial purchase of the seed and its technology–unknowingly sown by wind carrying the seeds from neighboring crops. These instances began in the mid to late 1990s, with one of the most significant cases being decided in Monsanto's favor by the Canadian Supreme Court. By a 5-4 vote in late May of 2004, that court ruled that "by cultivating a plant containing the patented gene and composed of the patented cells without license, the appellants [canola farmer Percy Schmeiser] deprived the respondents of the full enjoyment of the monopoly." With this ruling, the Canadian courts followed the U.S. Supreme Court in its decision on patent issues involving plants and genes. A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a government to an inventor or applicant for a limited amount of time (normally maximum 20 years from the filing date, depending on extension). ... The Supreme Court Building in Ottawa The Supreme Court of Canada is Canadas highest court and is located in the capital city of Ottawa. ...


As of February of 2005, Monsanto has patent claims on breeding techniques for pigs which would grant them ownership of any pigs born of such techniques and their related herds. Greenpeace claims Monsanto is trying to claim ownership on ordinary breeding techniques.[2] Monsanto claims that the patent is a defensive measure to track animals from its system. They furthermore claim their patented method uses a specialized insemination device that requires less sperm than is typical.[3] Greenpeace protest against Esso / Exxon Mobil. ...


In 2006, the Public Patent Foundation filed requests with the U.S. Patent Office to revoke four patents that Monsanto has used in patent lawsuits against farmers. In the first round of reexamination, claims in all four patents were rejected by the Patent Office in four separate rulings dating from February through July 2007[4]. Monsanto has since filed responses in the reexaminations. The United States Patent and Trademark Office (PTO or USPTO) is an agency in the United States Department of Commerce that provides patent and trademark protection to inventors and businesses for their inventions and corporate and product identification. ...


Spin-offs and mergers

Through a confusing series of transactions, the Monsanto that existed from 1901–2000 and the current Monsanto are legally two different corporations. Although they share the same name, corporate headquarters, many of the same executives and other employees, and responsibility for liabilities arising out of its former activities in the industrial chemical business, the agricultural chemicals business is the only segment carried forward from the pre-1997 Monsanto Company to the current Monsanto Company. A timeline follows:


1985: Monsanto purchases G. D. Searle & Company. In this merger, Searle's aspartame business became a separate Monsanto subsidiary, the NutraSweet Company. G.D. Searle & Company was a company focusing on life sciences, specifically pharmaceuticals, agriculture, and animal health. ...


1997: Monsanto spins off its industrial chemical and fiber divisions into Solutia. This transfers the financial liability related to the production and contamination with PCBs at the Illinois and Alabama plants. In January, Monsanto announced the purchase of Holden's Foundations Seeds, a privately-held seed business owned by the Holden family along with its sister sales organization, Corn States Hybrid Service, of Williamsburg and Des Moines, Iowa, respectively. The combined purchase price totaled $925M. Also, in April, Monsanto purchases the remaining shares of Calgene. Solutia Inc. ... Labelling transformers containing PCBs Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of organic compounds with 1 to 10 chlorine atoms are attached to biphenyl and a general structure of C12H10-xClx. ...


1999: Monsanto sells Nutrasweet Co. and two other companies.


2000: Monsanto merges with Pharmacia and Upjohn. Later in the year, Pharmacia forms a new subsidiary, also named Monsanto, for the agricultural divisions, and retains the medical research divisions, which includes products such as Celebrex. Pharmacia was originally a government owned Swedish pharmaceutical company. ... The Upjohn Company was a pharmaceutical manufacturing firm founded in 1886 by Dr. William E. Upjohn in Kalamazoo, Michigan. ... Celecoxib (INN) (IPA: ) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used in the treatment of osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, acute pain, painful menstruation and menstrual symptoms, and to reduce numbers of colon and rectum polyps in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis. ...


2002: Pharmacia spins off its remaining interest in Monsanto, which has since existed as a separate company: the "new Monsanto." As part of the deal, Monsanto agrees to indemnify Pharmacia against any liabilities that might be incurred from judgments against Solutia. As a result, the new Monsanto continues to be a party to numerous lawsuits that relate to operations of the old Monsanto.


Sponsorships

Monsanto has been the corporate sponsor of many attractions at Disneyland and Walt Disney World. For other uses, see Disneyland (disambiguation). ... Cinderella Castle, at the center of the Magic Kingdom, is Walt Disney World Resorts most recognizable icon Introduction Owned and operated by The Walt Disney Company, the Walt Disney World Resort in Florida, USA is home to four theme parks, two water parks, several resort hotels and golf courses...


At Disneyland they include:

  • Hall of Chemistry
  • Fashions and Fabrics through the Years
  • House of The Future
  • Adventure Thru Innerspace

And at Walt Disney World they included:

  • Magic Eye Theatre
  • Circle Vision 360

All attractions that the company has ever sponsored were located in Tomorrowland. Tomorrowland is one of the many themed lands at the many Disneyland parks run by The Walt Disney Company around the world. ...


Corporate governance

Current members of the board of directors of Monsanto are: Frank V. AtLee III, John W. Bachmann, Hugh Grant, Arthur H. Harper, Gwendolyn S. King, Sharon R. Long, C. Steven McMillan, William U. Parfet, George H. Poste, Robert J. Stevens. In relation to a company, a director is an officer (that is, someone who works for the company) charged with the conduct and management of its affairs. ... Gwendolyn S. King (born in East Orange, New Jersey) is an American businesswoman. ... George Poste, D.V.M., Ph. ...


Former Monsanto employees currently hold positions in US government agencies such as the FDA and EPA and even the Supreme Court. These include Clarence Thomas, Michael Taylor, Ann Veneman and Linda Fisher.[citation needed] Linda Fisher has even been back and forth between positions at Monsanto and the EPA.[citation needed]Donald Rumsfeld reportedly earned $12 million from increased stock value when G. D. Searle & Company was sold to Monsanto in 1985.[5] United States may refer to: Places: United States of America SS United States, the fastest ocean liner ever built. ... The United States Food and Drug Administration is the government agency responsible for regulating food, dietary supplements, drugs, cosmetics, medical devices, biologics and blood products in the United States. ... EPA redirects here. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the... Clarence Thomas (born June 23, 1948) is an American jurist and has been an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States since 1991. ... Ann Margaret Veneman (born June 29, 1949) is currently the Executive Director of UNICEF. She was the first woman to become the United States Secretary of Agriculture. ... EPA redirects here. ... Donald Henry Rumsfeld (born July 9, 1932) is a U.S. Republican politician and businessman, who was the 13th Secretary of Defense under President Gerald Ford from 1975 to 1977, and the 21st Secretary of Defense under President George W. Bush from 2001 to 2006. ... G.D. Searle & Company was a company focusing on life sciences, specifically pharmaceuticals, agriculture, and animal health. ...


Environmental and health record

Monsanto has been identified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as being the "potentially responsible party" for 56 contaminated sites (Superfund Sites) in the United States.[6] Monsanto has been sued, and settled, multiple times for damaging the health of its employees or residents near its Superfund Sites through pollution and poisoning.[7][8] [9] In 2004 The Wildlife Habitat Council and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Environmental Performance Track presented a special certificate of recognition to Monsanto Company during WHC's 16th Annual Symposium.


Monsanto is the largest producer of glyphosate herbicides through its popular brand, Roundup. Roundup has been a source of ongoing controversy, as researches in several studies have argued it causes cancer,[10][11] while a review of the toxicity of roundup concluded that "under present and expected conditions of new use, there is no potential for Roundup herbicide to pose a health risk to humans".[12]. A herbicide is a pesticide used to kill unwanted plants. ... Roundup is the brand name of a systemic, broad-spectrum herbicide produced by the U.S. life sciences giant Monsanto. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ...


MON863 Liver and Kidney Toxicity

Maize MON863 genetically engineered and approved for human consumption in Europe was shown to increase triglycerides in female rats by 20-40%, caused increased weight gain in female rats of 3.7%, a decrease in male rat weight of 3.3%, and increased certain indicators associated with liver and kidney toxicity. The study was conducted by Seralini, Cellier and Spiroux de Vendomois who reanalyzed Monsanto's own data. Monsanto's 90 day in-house food safety trial on rats was the only study conducted on the crop prior to approval for human consumption. Monsanto claimed that there were no significant differences between rats that ate GM maize MON863 and the control maize. Interestingly Monsanto tried to block access to the data from the scientific community interested in peer reviewing the data. Upon reanalysis, Monsanto's data showed significant differences between GE fed rats and controls.The data showed that MON863 causes liver and kidney toxicity as well as several other physiological changes. [13] MON863 is a genetically modified (GM) variety of maize produced by Monsanto and approved for human consumption in the European Union. ...


"Terminator" seed controversy

Since 1998 Monsanto has been attempting to merge or purchase Delta & Pine Land Company. D&PL has been involved with a seed technology nicknamed "Terminator", which produces plants that produce sterile seed to prevent farmers from replanting their crop's seed, rather than properly purchasing the seed from Monsanto for every planting. In recent years, widespread opposition from environmental organisations and farmer associations has grown, mainly out of the concerns that these seeds increase farmers' dependency on seed suppliers (having to buy these each year for seeding new crops).Whilst Monsanto faced considerable public outcry over the use of such technology, it officially acquired D&PL in June of 2007. Terminator Technology is the colloquial name given to proposed methods for restricting the use of genetically modified plants by causing second generation seeds to be sterile. ...


Dumping of toxic waste in the UK

Between 1965 and 1972, Monsanto paid contractors to dump thousands of tons of highly toxic waste in UK landfill sites, knowing that their chemicals were liable to contaminate wildlife and people. The Environment Agency said the chemicals were found to be polluting Groundwater and the atmosphere 30 years after they were dumped.[14] A contractor is in a legal sense one who enters into a binding agreement to perform a certain service or provide a certain product in exchange for valuable consideration, usually money but sometimes other goods or services in a barter arrangement. ... Toxic waste is waste material, often in chemical form, that can cause death or injury to living creatures. ... Look up landfill in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... (see also the List of environmental organizations) The Environment Agency (Welsh: Asiantaeth yr Amgylchedd) of England and Wales was created by the Environment Act 1995, along with the Scottish Environment Protection Agency. ... It has been suggested that Pollutant be merged into this article or section. ... Missing main definition------ someone add if you know it please. ... For other uses, see Atmosphere (disambiguation). ...


The Brofiscin quarry, near Cardiff, erupted in 2003, spilling fumes over the surrounding area, however the local community was unaware that the quarry housed toxic waste. A UK government report shows that 67 chemicals, including Agent Orange derivatives, dioxins and PCBs exclusively made by Monsanto, are leaking from one unlined porous quarry that was not authorized to take chemical wastes. It emerged that the groundwater has been polluted since the 1970s.[15] The government was criticised for failing to publish information about the scale and exact nature of this contamination. According to the Environment Agency it could cost £100m to clean up the site in south Wales, called "one of the most contaminated" in the UK.[16] This article is about the capital city of Wales. ... For other uses, see Quarry (disambiguation). ... Toxic waste is waste material, often in chemical form, that can cause death or injury to living creatures. ... The United Kingdom is a unitary state and a democratic constitutional monarchy. ... For other uses, see Agent Orange (disambiguation). ... “PCB” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Quarry (disambiguation). ... Missing main definition------ someone add if you know it please. ... (see also the List of environmental organizations) The Environment Agency (Welsh: Asiantaeth yr Amgylchedd) of England and Wales was created by the Environment Act 1995, along with the Scottish Environment Protection Agency. ... Generally, remediation means providing a remedy, so environmental remediation deals with the removal of pollution or contaminants from environmental media such as soil, groundwater, sediment, or surface water for the general protection of human health and the environment or from a brownfield site intended for redevelopment. ... Approximate extent of South East Wales. ...


Indonesian bribing convictions

In January 2005, Monsanto agreed to pay a $1.5m fine for bribing an Indonesian official. Monsanto admitted a senior manager at Monsanto directed an Indonesian consulting firm to give a $50,000 bribe to a high-level official in Indonesia's environment ministry in 2002, in a bid to avoid Environmental impact assessment on its genetically modified cotton. Monsanto told the company to disguise an invoice for the bribe as "consulting fees". Monsanto also has admitted to paying bribes to a number of other high-ranking Indonesian officials between 1997 and 2002. Monsanto faced both criminal and civil charges from the Department of Justice and the SEC. Monsanto has agreed to pay $1m to the Department of Justice and $500,000 to the SEC to settle the bribe charge and other related violations.[17] Bribery is the practice of offering a professional money or other favours in order to circumvent ethics in a variety of professions. ... An official is someone who holds an office (function or mandate, regardless whether it carries an actual working space with it) in an organisation or government and participates in the exercise of authority (either his own or that of his superior and/or employer, public or legally private). ... Management consulting (sometimes also called strategy consulting) refers to both the practice of helping companies to improve performance through analysis of existing business problems and development of future plans, as well as to the firms that specialize in this sort of consulting. ... An Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is an assessment of the likely influence a project may have on the environment. ... Genetic engineering, genetic modification (GM), and gene splicing (once in widespread use but now deprecated) are terms for the process of manipulating genes in an organism, usually outside of the organisms normal reproductive process. ... For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... for other uses please see Crime (disambiguation) A crime is an act that violates a political or moral law. ... Civil law has at least three meanings. ... The Robert F. Kennedy Department of Justice Building in Washington, D.C. “Justice Department” redirects here. ... SEC is a TLA which can refer to: In general context, an abbreviation for second. ... SEC is a TLA which can refer to: In general context, an abbreviation for second. ...


Monsanto fined in France for false herbicide advertising

Monsanto was fined $19,000 dollars in a French court on January 26th, 2007 for misleading the public about the environmental impact of its record selling herbicide Roundup. A former chairman of Monsanto Agriculture France was found guilty of false advertising for presenting Roundup as biodegradable and claiming that it left the soil clean after use. Environmental and consumer rights campaigners brought the case in 2001 on the basis that glyphosate, Roundup's main ingredient, is classed as "dangerous for the environment" and "toxic for aquatic organisms" by the European Union. Monsanto's French distributor Scotts France was also fined 15,000 euros. Both defendants were ordered to pay damages of 5,000 euros to the Brittany Water and Rivers association and 3,000 euros to the CLCV consumers group.[18] // Glossary and basic concepts Note: There exist significant problems with applying non-French terminology and concepts related to law and justice to the French justice system. ... An Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is an assessment of the likely influence a project may have on the environment. ... A herbicide is a pesticide used to kill unwanted plants. ... Roundup is the brand name of a systemic, broad-spectrum herbicide produced by the U.S. life sciences giant Monsanto. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Roundup is the brand name of a systemic, broad-spectrum herbicide produced by the U.S. life sciences giant Monsanto. ... Biodegradation is the decomposition of material by microorganisms. ... Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland Technically, soil forms the pedosphere: the interface between the lithosphere (rocky part of the planet) and the biosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere. ... It has been suggested that Roundup be merged into this article or section. ... Consumer organizations are advocacy groups that seek to protect people from corporate abuse. ...


Legal issues

Monsanto is notable for its involvement in high profile lawsuits, as both plaintiff and defendant. It has been involved in a number of class action suits, where fines and damages have run into the hundreds of millions of dollars, usually over health issues related to its products. Monsanto has also made frequent use of the courts to defend its patents, particularly in the area of biotechnology. It has been suggested that civil trial be merged into this article or section. ... A plaintiff, also known as a claimant or complainer, is the party who initiates a lawsuit (also known as an action) before a court. ... A defendant or defender is any party who is required to answer the complaint of a plaintiff or pursuer in a civil lawsuit before a court, or any party who has been formally charged or accused of violating a criminal statute. ... In law, a class action is an equitable procedural device used in litigation for determining the rights of and remedies, if any, for large numbers of people whose cases involve common questions of law and fact. ... For other uses, see Patent (disambiguation). ... The structure of insulin Biotechnology is technology based on biology, especially when used in agriculture, food science, and medicine. ...


As defendant

In 1917, the US government filed suit against Monsanto over the safety of its original product, saccharin. Monsanto eventually won, after several years in court. 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... The skeletal formula of saccharin Saccharin[1] is the oldest artificial sweetener. ...


It was sued, along with Dow and other chemical companies by veterans for the side effects of its Agent Orange defoliant, used by the US military in the Vietnam War.[19] The Dow Chemical Company (NYSE: DOW TYO: 4850) is an American multinational corporation headquartered in Midland, Michigan. ... For other uses, see Agent Orange (disambiguation). ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000...


In 2000, GLC sued Monsanto for the $71 million dollar shortfall in expected sales. Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ...


More recently, it lost a series of court decisions resulting in US$700 million in damages being awarded to thousands of residents of the town of Anniston, Alabama that had been polluted over a period of years by Monsanto's PCB byproducts. It was settled with the following judgment. Though the PCB production was outlawed in 1979 and Monsanto ceased production in 1977, it failed to clear up the levels of PCB already in the natural population, until detection by the federal Soil Detection Service. At their own initiative, the company dredged a few hundred yards of the contaminated Snow Creek and surrounding tributaries, but far from enough. After the truth was uncovered by the wider public, prompting swift investigations by the EPA and incinerators were introduced to burn large quantities of sarin and mustard gas produced by Monsanto[2]. On February 22 2002, Monsanto was found guilty of ”negligence, wantonness, suppression of truth, nuisance, trespass, and outrage.”[citation needed] Nickname: The Model City Location in Alabama Coordinates: County Calhoun Settled April 1872 Incorporated 3 July 1883 Mayor Hoyt W. “Chip” Howell, Jr. ... “PCB” redirects here. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On October 13th, 2004, the European plant variety rights on a conventionally-bred strain of soft-milling wheat owned by French company RAGT Genetique were withdrawn at RAGT's request. The strain, called Galatea, was developed by Unilever and purchased by Monsanto in 1998; RAGT purchased the strain from Monsanto in May 2004 along with Monsanto's European wheat and barley business. Galatea is a cross between a European wheat strain and a conventional Indian variety Nap Hal. Greenpeace considers RAGT's withdrawal to represent a victory by Greenpeace over Monsanto and claim that they played a central role by proving that the variety in question was not the cross-bred strain described in the application but was really the traditional strain Nap Hal bred by Indian farmers, despite the contrary text of the application. RAGT says it withdrew its plant variety rights for commercial reasons and Greenpeace played no role in its decision.[citation needed] For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Plant breeders rights, also known as plant variety rights (PVR), are intellectual property rights granted to the breeder of a new variety of plant. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ... Unilever is a widely listed [2] [3] multi-national corporation, formed of Anglo-Dutch parentage, that owns many of the worlds consumer product brands in foods, beverages, cleaning agents and personal care products. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Binomial name L. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is an annual cereal grain, which serves as a major animal feed crop, with smaller amounts used for malting and in health food. ... Greenpeace protest against Esso / Exxon Mobil. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ...


Also in 2004, the world's largest agrichemical company, Switzerland's Syngenta, launched a US lawsuit charging Monsanto with using coercive tactics to monopolize markets. [3] There are several lawsuits going both ways between Monsanto and Syngenta. In agriculture, agrichemical (or agrochemical) is a generic term for the various synthetic chemical products manufactured and sold for use in growing crops. ... Syngenta AG is a world-leading agribusiness committed to sustainable agriculture through innovative research and technology. ... A tactic is a method employed to help achieve a certain goal. ... This article is about the economics of markets dominated by a single seller. ...


As of September 20 2006, Monsanto is on trial in Carcassonne, France, for having allegedly illegally imported, in 1999, 100 tonnes of soya seed contaminated with GM varieties. 50 tonnes were sold to 23 farmers by local agriculture suppliers. 50 tonnes were sent back to the USA. 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


As plaintiff

Since the mid-1990s, it has sued some 150 US farmers for patent infringement in connection with its GE seed. The usual claim involves violation of a technology agreement that prohibits farmers from saving seed from one season's crop to plant the next. One farmer received an eight-month prison sentence, in addition to having to pay damages, when a Monsanto case turned into a criminal prosecution.[citation needed] Monsanto reports that it pursues approximately 500 cases of suspected infringement annually. For the band, see 1990s (band). ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... The prosecutor is the chief legal representative of the prosecution in countries adopting the common law adversarial system or the civil law inquisitorial system. ...


In 2003, Monsanto sued Oakhurst Dairy in Maine for advertising that its milk products did not come from cows treated with bovine growth hormone, claiming that such advertising hurt its business. The president of Oakhurst responded by saying, "We ought to have the right to let people know what is and is not in our milk."[20] Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Official language(s) None (English and French de facto) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ... A glass of cows milk. ...


A high profile case in Canada, Monsanto Canada Inc. v. Schmeiser, went to the Supreme Court level. Monsanto sued an independent farmer, Percy Schmeiser, for patent infringement for growing genetically modified Roundup resistant canola. The case, begun in 1998, was portrayed in the media as a classic David-and-Goliath confrontation, with Schmeiser as the wronged little guy, facing the implacable Big Corporation. The Supreme Court decided in May 2004 that Monsanto's patent was valid, but rejected Monsanto's claim for damages. The court did not impose punitive damages on Schmeiser, which would not have been expected in a case involving a new question of law. The case did cause Monsanto's enforcement tactics to be highlighted in the media over the years it took to play out. Court membership Chief Justice: Beverley McLachlin Puisne Justices: John C. Major, Michel Bastarache, Ian Binnie, Louis LeBel, Marie Deschamps, Morris Fish, Rosalie Abella, Louise Charron Reasons given Majority by: McLachlin C.J. and Fish J. (paras. ... The Supreme Court of Canada (French: Cour suprême du Canada) is the highest court of Canada and is the final court of appeal in the Canadian justice system. ... Percy Schmeiser (born January 5, 1931) is a farmer from Bruno, Saskatchewan, Canada. ... Genetic engineering, genetic modification (GM), and gene splicing (once in widespread use but now deprecated) are terms for the process of manipulating genes in an organism, usually outside of the organisms normal reproductive process. ... Roundup is the brand name of a systemic, broad-spectrum herbicide produced by the U.S. life sciences giant Monsanto. ... In agriculture, Canola is a trademarked cultivar of genetically engineered rapeseed variants from which rapeseed oil is obtained. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ...


Monsanto has asked Spanish customs officials to inspect soymeal shipments to determine if they use Monsanto's "Roundup Ready" technology. Monsanto claims that 30% of Argentina's production uses black market-purchased Roundup Ready seed. Monsanto has petitioned to change the royalty collection system so that royalties are collected at harvest rather than upon purchase of the seed. [4]


Related legal actions

In USA

In 1997, Fox News reportedly bowed to pressure from Monsanto to suppress an investigative report on the health risks associated with Monsanto's bovine growth hormone product, Posilac.[citation needed] Posilac, a synthetic drug used to increase milk production in cows, is banned in most first-world countries, with the exception of the United States, where it can be found in much of the milk supply. Fox pressured its reporters, Steve Wilson[disambiguation needed] and Jane Akre, to alter their report, despite evidence that Monsanto had lied about the risks of contaminated milk and infected cattle.[citation needed] The reporters refused to comply, and were eventually fired. Wilson and Akre then sued Fox News in Florida state court, claiming they could not be fired for refusing to do something that they believed to be illegal. In 2000, a Florida jury found in favor of the reporters, however this decision was overturned in 2003 by an appeals court, on a technicality in the interpretation of the whistleblower's statute under which the original case had been filed, as fabricating the news is not actually illegal. The reporters' struggle with Fox News is ongoing. The findings in their original report were never directly challenged.[citation needed] For the band, see 1997 (band). ... Fox News Channels slogan is We Report, You Decide The Fox News Channel is a U.S. cable and satellite news channel. ... Bovine somatotropin (bST), or bovine growth hormone (BGH), is a protein hormone that occurs naturally in the pituitary gland of cattle. ... Bovine somatotropin (bST), or bovine growth hormone (BGH), is a protein hormone that occurs naturally in the pituitary gland of cattle. ... A glass of cows milk. ... The three worlds during the Cold War era; Blue: First World, Red: Second World, Green: Third World Coloured world map indicating Human Development Index (2004) (colour-blind compliant map) The 20 nations with the highest GDP per capita according to the International Monetary Fund. ... Steven Wilson Steven Wilson is the lead guitarist/singer for progressive rock band Porcupine Tree. ... Jane Akre and her husband Steve Wilson are former employees of Fox owned-and-operated station WTVT in Tampa, Florida. ... A glass of cows milk. ... An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Largest metro area Miami metropolitan area Area  Ranked 22nd  - Total 65,795[1] sq mi (170,304[1] km²)  - Width 361 miles (582 km)  - Length 447 miles (721 km)  - % water 17. ... A whistleblower s an employee, former employee, or member of an organization, especially a business or government agency, who reports misconduct to people or entities that have the power and presumed willingness to take corrective action. ...

This story can be seen in the feature length documentary film The Corporation.

The Corporation is a 2003 Canadian documentary film critical of the modern-day corporation, considering it as a class of person and evaluating its behaviour towards society and the world at large as a psychologist might evaluate an ordinary person. ...

Monsanto vs Andhra Pradesh Government in India

The state of Andhra Pradesh, India, at first resisted Bt cotton and later, as it proved immensely popular with farmers, has attempted to control its price. In 2005, after a commissions fact finding statement, the state agriculture minister barred the company from selling cotton seeds in the state of Andhra Pradesh. [5]. The order was later lifted. More recently, the Andhra Pradesh state government filed several cases [6]against Monsanto and its Mumbai based licensee Maharashtra Hybrid Seeds, after they challenged the order directing the company not to charge a trait price of more than Rs. 900 per pack of 450 grams of Bt. Cotton seed. [7][8].The Andhra Pradesh State Government has also sought a compensation package of about Rs 4.5 crore (about 1 Million US$) to be paid by the company to farmers affected in some districts. “Andhra” redirects here. ... “Andhra” redirects here. ... , “Bombay” redirects here. ... “Andhra” redirects here. ...


Criticism

In India

Monsanto has had a controversial history in India, starting with the accusations of terminator genes in its seed. There were angry demonstrations against the company. Later, its GM cotton seed was the subject of NGO agitation because of its higher cost. The company also faces increasing piracy of seed in India, with local farmers creating their own varieties.[9][10]. In 2003 Brazil followed suit with a similar protest in Goias.[11] Terminator Technology is the colloquial name given to proposed methods for restricting the use of genetically modified plants by causing second generation seeds to be sterile. ... Goiás is a state of Brazil, located in the central part of the country. ...


Child Labour

A subsidiary of Monsanto has been accused of employing child labour in the manufacture of cotton-seeds in India. The work involves handling of poisonous pesticides such as Endosulfan and the children get less than Rs.20 (half dollar) per day. [12] The company has refuted these claims on the basis that the children are not directly employed by the company. Endosulfan Endosulfan is a cyclodiene insecticide with the formula C9H6Cl6O3S, also used under the name thiodan and benzoepin. ...


Farmer Suicides in India

Frontline's "Seeds of Suicide: India's Desperate Farmers" [13] has detailed some of the struggles facing the Indian farmer. The transition to using the latest pest-resistant seeds and the necessary herbicides has been difficult. Farmers have been lured to genetically modified seeds promoted by Cargill and Monsanto by the promise of greater yields, research has shown that these seeds have delivered on the promise provided increased income and increasing total Indian cotton production since their introduction. However there are a number of other factors other than the seeds, affecting a crop and for some farmers, these environmental factors have cost entire harvests, the blame for which has incorrectly been put on Monsanto. Resulting debts from such gambles with genetically modified seeds have led some farmers into the equivalent of indentured servitude and alarming suicide rates [14] [15]. This problem has been exacerbated by current corporate influence in the government: whereas in the past government experts would give knowledgeable advice to farmers, now such positions are often filled by corporate representatives who receive incentives for promoting company products. Admittedly, it is not a system which keeps the farmers' best interest in mind.


In India Monsanto's GM seed business is run by a JV - Mahyco Monsanto Biotech (MMB) India Ltd [16] and markets its BT Cotton seeds under various names.The Andhra Pradesh government has registered a case against Monsanto for its high seed prices.[17].


Political contributions

Monsanto gave $106,500 to federal candidates in the 05/06 election cycle through its political action committee (PAC) - 32% to Democrats, 68% to Republicans. [21] In the United States, a political action committee, or PAC, is the name commonly given to a private group organized to elect or defeat government officials in order to promote legislation, often supporting the groups special interests. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... The Republican Party was established in 1854 by a coalition of former Whigs, Northern Democrats, and Free Soilers who opposed the expansion of slavery and held a Hamiltonian vision for modernizing the United States. ...


Lobbying

The company spent $3,640,000 for lobbying in 2006. $680,000 was to outside lobbying firms with the remainder being spent using in-house lobbyists.[22] Lobbying in the United States targets the United States Senate, the United States House of Representatives, and state legislatures. ...


See also

Roundup is the brand name of a systemic, broad-spectrum herbicide produced by the U.S. life sciences giant Monsanto. ... The Corporation is a 2003 Canadian documentary film critical of the modern-day corporation, considering it as a class of person and evaluating its behaviour towards society and the world at large as a psychologist might evaluate an ordinary person. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...

References

  1. ^ "Google Finance: Monsanto Company. Retrieved on January 6, 2007.
  2. ^ Greenpeace, 2 August 2005, "Monsanto files patent for new invention: the pig"
  3. ^ Stephanie Condron. "GM crop giant wants to patent a super-pig", Daily Mail (London), 2005-08-11, p. 18. 
  4. ^ Public Patent Foundation, "Monsanto Anti-Farmers Patents—Related Documents"
  5. ^ Mark Mazzetti; Richard J. Newman; Kenneth T. Walsh; Kevin Whitelaw; Jeff Glasser. "Rumsfeld Way", U.S. News & World Report, 2001-12-17, p. 20. 
  6. ^ http://www.publicintegrity.org/Superfund/report.aspx?aid=854
  7. ^ Monsanto Held Liable For PCB Dumping.
  8. ^ The Politics Behind the Scientific Debate on Dioxin.
  9. ^ MONSANTO KNEW ABOUT PCB TOXICITY FOR DECADES.
  10. ^ A case-control study of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and exposure to pesticides.
  11. ^ New Study Links Monsanto's Roundup to Cancer.
  12. ^ GM Williams, R Kroes, JC Munro (2000). "Safety evaluation and risk assessment of the herbicide Roundup and its active ingredient, glyphosate, for humans". Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 31-N2: 117-165.  PMID 10854122.
  13. ^ Gilles-Eric Seralini; Dominique Cellier; Joel Spiroux de Vendomois (2007). "New Analysis of a Rat Feeding Study with a Genetically Modified Maize Reveals Signs of Hepatorenal Toxicity". Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 52: 596–602. Springer. 
  14. ^ "The wasteland: how years of secret chemical dumping left a toxic legacy", The Guardian. Retrieved on 2007-09-27. 
  15. ^ "Brofiscin Quarry", environment agency. Retrieved on 2007-09-27. 
  16. ^ "Monsanto dumped toxic waste in UK", Guardian. Retrieved on 2007-09-27. 
  17. ^ "Monsanto fined $1.5m for bribery", BBC. Retrieved on 2007-09-28. 
  18. ^ "Monsanto Fined in France for 'False' Herbicide Ads", Organic Consumers Association. Retrieved on 2007-09-28. 
  19. ^ "Vietnam's war against Agent Orange", June 14, 2004. 
  20. ^ Democracy Now, Headlines (July 14, 2003). "Monsanto Sues Milk Producer For Advertising It Sells Hormone-Free Milk". Democracy Now. Retrieved on 2006-12-22.
  21. ^ 2006 PAC Summary Data, Open Secrets.
  22. ^ Monsanto lobbying expenses, Open Secrets.

is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... Greenpeace protest against Esso / Exxon Mobil. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Daily Mail is a British newspaper and the oldest tabloid, first published in 1896. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... U.S. News & World Report is a weekly newsmagazine. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Organic consumers wikipedia entry // Organic Consumers Association The Organic Consumers Association (OCA) is an online and grassroots non-profit public interest organization campaigning for health, justice, and sustainability. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Democracy Now! is an independent, award-winning news and opinion radio program airing on over 300 stations across North America every weekday, as well as both satellite television networks. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Bibliography

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Monsanto - SourceWatch (3442 words)
Also "In 1967, Monsanto entered into a joint venture with IG Farben" "It is the German chemical firm that was the financial core of the Hitler regime, and was the main supplier of Zyklon-B to the German government during the extermination phase of the Holocaust" [4][5]; IG Farben was not dissolved until 2003 [6].
Monsanto has sued many a farmer when their GM crops have turned up on the farmer's fields even though the farmers say they never planted them (examples)[36] [37] [38].
Monsanto was the creator of several attractions in Disney's Tommorrowland [46].
Monsanto ~ Home (167 words)
We apply innovation and technology to help farmers around the world be successful, produce healthier foods, better animal feeds and more fiber, while also reducing agriculture's impact on our environment.
Sun, 4 Nov 2007 Monsanto and Devgen Describe New Approach to Insect-Protection
Our Values, described in the Monsanto Pledge, guide our business decisions.
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