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Encyclopedia > Monotheism
Part of a series on
God

Theistic approaches
Deism · Henotheism
Monotheism · Panentheism
Pantheism · Monolatrism
This article is about the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... For other uses, see Ceremonial Deism. ... Henotheism (Greek heis theos one god) is a term coined by Max Müller, to mean devotion to a single God while accepting the existence of other gods. ... Panentheism (from Greek (pân) all; (en) in; and (Theós) god; all-in-God) is the theological position that God is immanent within the Universe, but also transcends it. ... Pantheism (Greek: πάν ( pan ) = all and θεός ( theos ) = God) literally means God is All and All is God. It is the view that everything is of an all-encompassing immanent abstract God; or that the universe, or nature, and God are equivalent. ... Monolatrism or monolatry is a form of theology where adherents believe in the existence of multiple deities but worship only one. ...


Specific conceptions
Names · "God" · Existence · Gender
Creator · Architect · Demiurge · Sustainer
Lord · Father · Monad · Oneness
Supreme Being · The All · Personal
Unitarianism · Ditheism · Trinity
Omniscience · Omnipotence
Omnipresence · Omnibenevolence
in Bahá'í · in Buddhism · in Christianity
in Hinduism · in Islam · in Judaism
New Thought · in Sikhism This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Holy name redirects here. ... For other uses, see God (disambiguation). ... Arguments for and against the existence of God have been proposed by philosophers, theologians, and others. ... God is the divine being that created the omniverse. ... Great Architect of the Universe (GAOTU) is a term used within Freemasonry to denominate the Supreme Being which each member individually holds an adherence to. ... Demiurge (from the Greek , Latinized , meaning artisan or craftsman, literally worker in the service of the people, from of the people + work) is a term for a creator deity, responsible for the creation of the physical universe. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The Tetragrammaton in Phoenician (1100 BC to 300 CE), Aramaic (10th Century BC to 0) and modern Hebrew scripts. ... In many religions, the supreme God is given the title and attributions of Father. ... The Pythagorean Monad Monad, according to the Pythagoreans, was a term for God or the first being, or the totality of all beings. ... Oneness is a spiritual term referring to the experience of the absence of egoic identity boundaries, and, according to some traditions, the realization of the awareness of the absolute interconnectedness of all matter and thought in space-time, or ones ultimate identity with God (see Tat Tvam Asi). ... The term Supreme Being is often defined simply as God,[1] and it is used with this meaning by theologians of many religious faiths, including, but not limited to, Christianity,[2] Islam,[3] Hinduism,[4] Deism[5] and Scientology. ... The All is the Hermetic version of God, to some and not to others. ... The phrase personal God is religious term used far more often by laypeople than by theologians due to its numerous connotations. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Unitarianism is the belief... The term dualism is the state of being dual, or having a twofold division. ... This article concerns the holy Trinity of Christianity. ... Omniscience is the capacity to know everything infinitely, or at least everything that can be known about a character including thoughts, feelings, life and the universe, etc. ... Omnipotence (literally, all power) is power with no limits or inexhaustible, in other words, unlimited power. ... Omnipresence is the ability to be present in every place at any, and/or every, time; unbounded or universal presence. ... Omnibenevolence is sometimes used to describe the property of being perfectly or absolutely good. ... Baháís believe in a single, imperishable God, the creator of all things, including all the creatures and forces in the universe. ... Buddhism is sometimes regarded as a religion (or a spiritual philosophy) without an Absolute Creator God (who created the universe ex nihilo and to whom worship and adoration are due). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      // In... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Islam reveres the one God, who is considered the only Creator and Lord of the Universe. The main fundamental creed (shahadah) of Islam is There is but (one) God, and Muhammad is the Messenger of God. The Arabic word for The God is Allah (الله); Muslims consider him the same deity... The Conception of God in Judaism is henotheistic or (as Rabbinic Judaism) monotheistic. ... The New Thought Movement or New Thought is a loosely allied group of organizations, authors, philosophers, and individuals who share a set of metaphysical beliefs concerning healing, life force, Creative Visualization, and personal power. ... The fundamental belief of Sikhism is that God exists, not merely as an idea or concept, but as a Real Entity, indescribable yet knowable and perceivable to anyone who is prepare to dedicate the time and energy to become perceptive to His persona. ...


Experience and practices
Faith · Prayer · Belief · Revelation
Fideism · Gnosis · Metaphysics
Mysticism · Hermeticism · Esotericism For other uses, see Faith (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Prayer (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Believe. ... Revelation of the Last Judgment by Jacob de Backer Revelation is an uncovering or disclosure via communication from the divine of something that has been partially or wholly hidden or unknown, which could not be known apart from the unveiling (Goswiller 1987 p. ... In Christian theology, fideism is any of several belief systems which hold, on various grounds, that reason is irrelevant to religious faith. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Plato (left) and Aristotle (right), by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome) Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy investigating principles of reality transcending those of any particular science. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the magical and religious movement stemming from the teachings of Hermes Trismegistus. ... Look up Esotericism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Related topics
Philosophy · Religion · Ontology
God complex · Neurotheology
Euthyphro dilemma · Problem of evil (Theodicy)
For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... In philosophy, ontology (from the Greek , genitive : of being (part. ... A god complex is a colloquial term used to portray a perceived character flaw as if it were a psychological complex. The person who is said to have a god complex does not believe he is God, but is said to act so arrogantly that he might as well believe... Not to be confused with neuroethology. ... The Euthyphro dilemma is found in Platos dialogue Euthyphro, in which Socrates asks Euthyphro: Is the pious (τὸ ὅσιον) loved by the gods because it is pious, or is it pious because it is loved by the gods? (10a) In monotheistic terms, this is usually transformed into: Is what is moral... In the philosophy of religion and theology, the problem of evil is the problem of reconciling the existence of evil or suffering in the world with the existence of a god. ... Theodicy (IPA: ) (adjectival form theodicean) is a specific branch of theology and philosophy that attempts to reconcile the existence of evil or suffering in the world with the belief in an omniscient, omnipotent, and benevolent God, i. ...


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For the Celtic Frost album, see Monotheist (album)

In theology, monotheism (from Greek μόνος "one" and θεός "god") is the belief in the existence of one deity, or in the oneness of God.[1] In a Western context, the concept of "monotheism" tends to be dominated by the concept of the god of the Abrahamic religions and the Platonic concept of God as put forward by Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite. Monotheist is a comeback album by Swiss metal band Celtic Frost, released in 2006. ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... God, as a male deity, contrasts with female deities, or goddesses while the term goddess specifically refers to a female deity, words like gods and deities can be applied to all gods collectively, regardless of gender. ... See also: List of deities Look up deity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Oneness is a spiritual term referring to the experience of the absence of egoic identity boundaries, and, according to some traditions, the realization of the awareness of the absolute interconnectedness of all matter and thought in space-time, or ones ultimate identity with God (see Tat Tvam Asi). ... Symbols of the three main Abrahamic religions: Judaism, Christianity and Islam Map showing the prevalence of Abrahamic (purple) and Eastern (yellow) religions in each country. ... Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is the modern term for a school of religious and mystical philosophy that took shape in the 3rd century AD, founded by Plotinus and based on the teachings of Plato and earlier Platonists. ... Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite, also known as pseudo-Denys, refers to the anonymous theologian and philosopher of the 5th century whose Corpus Areopagiticum was falsely ascribed to Dionysius the Areopagite of Acts 17:34. ...


The concept of monotheism has largely been defined in contrast with polytheistic religions, and monotheism tends to overlap with other Unitary concepts, such as monism. Polytheism is belief in or worship of multiple gods or deities. ... In government, see Unitary state In mathematics, see Unitary matrix Unitary operator Unitary group Unitary representation This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... For other uses, see Monist (disambiguation). ...


Whereas monotheism is a self-description of religions subsumed under this term, there is no equivalent self-description for polytheist religions: monotheism asserts itself by opposing polytheism, while polytheism does not use the same argumentative device, as it includes a concept of divine unity despite worshipping a plethora of gods.[2] By the same token, monotheistic religions may still include concepts of a plurality of the divine, for example the Trinity, in which God is one being in three personal dimensions (the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit). Additionally, Christians believe Jesus to have two natures (divine and human), each possessing the full attributes of that nature, without mixture or intermingling of those attributes. Although Christian theology reserves worship for the Divine, the distinction between worshipping the divine nature of Jesus but not the human nature of Jesus can be difficult for non-Christians (and even Christian laity) to follow. This article is about the Christian Trinity. ...


Christians of a catholic tradition venerate the Saints among them Mary as human beings that had remarkable qualities, have lived their faith in God to the extreme and continue to assist in the process of salvation for others.[3] Veneration is a religious symbolic act giving honor to someone by honoring an image of that person, particularly applied to saints. ... General definition of saint In general, the term Saint refers to someone who is exceptionally virtuous and holy. ... Theotokos of Kazan Theotokos (Greek: , translit. ... Intercession of the saints is a Christian doctrine common to the Catholic and Orthodox Churches. ...

Contents

Origin and development

The word monotheism is derived from the Greek, μόνος meaning "single" and θεός meaning "god".[4] The English term was first used by Henry More. God, as a male deity, contrasts with female deities, or goddesses while the term goddess specifically refers to a female deity, words like gods and deities can be applied to all gods collectively, regardless of gender. ... Henry More. ...


The concept sees a gradual development out of notions of henotheism and monolatrism. In the Ancient Near East, each city had a local patron deity, such as Shamash at Larsa or Sin at Ur. The first claims of global supremacy of a specific god date to the Late Bronze Age, with Akhenaten's Great Hymn to the Aten (connected to Judaism by Sigmund Freud in his Moses and Monotheism), and, depending on dating issues, Zoroaster's Gathas to Ahura Mazda. Currents of monism or monotheism emerge in Vedic India in the same period, with e.g. the Nasadiya Sukta. Philosophical monotheism and the associated concept of absolute good and evil emerges in Classical Antiquity, notably with Plato (c.f. Euthyphro dilemma), elaborated into the idea of The One in Neoplatonism. Henotheism (Greek heis theos one god) is a term coined by Max Müller, to mean devotion to a single God while accepting the existence of other gods. ... Monolatrism or monolatry is a form of theology where adherents believe in the existence of multiple deities but worship only one. ... Overview map of the ancient Near East The terms ancient Near East or ancient Orient encompass the early civilizations predating classical antiquity in the region roughly corresponding to that described by the modern term Middle East (Egypt, Iraq, Turkey, Israel, Palestinian Authority, Lebanon, Jordan, Syria), during the time roughly spanning... Especie semi extinta en argentina que paso a la fama por maracar su territorio en cada arbol del barrio de urquiza. ... Shamash or Sama, was the common Akkadian name of the sun-god in Babylonia and Assyria, corresponding to Sumerian Utu. ... Larsa (the Biblical Ellasar, Genesis 14:1), was an important city of ancient Babylonia, the site of the worship of the sun-god, Shamash, represented by the ancient ruin mound of Senkereh (Senkera). ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... For other uses, see Ur (disambiguation). ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use) consisted of techniques for smelting copper and tin from naturally occurring outcroppings of ore, and then alloying those metals in order to cast bronze. ... For other uses, see Akhenaten (disambiguation). ... The Great Hymn to the Aten was found in the tomb of Ay, in the rock tombs at Akhetaten. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... Moses and Monotheism is a book by Sigmund Freud. ... Zoroaster (Greek Ζωροάστρης, Zōroastrēs) or Zarathustra (Avestan: Zaraθuštra), also referred to as Zartosht (Persian: ; Kurdish: ), was an ancient Iranian prophet and religious poet. ... The Gathas form the oldest part of Avesta, the holy scripture of the Zoroastrian religion, possibly composed by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) himself. ... Ahura Mazda () is the Avestan language name for a divinity exalted by Zoroaster as the one uncreated Creator, hence God. ... Map of early Iron Age Vedic India after Witzel (1989). ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... The Euthyphro dilemma is found in Platos dialogue Euthyphro, in which Socrates asks Euthyphro: Is the pious (τὸ ὅσιον) loved by the gods because it is pious, or is it pious because it is loved by the gods? (10a) In monotheistic terms, this is usually transformed into: Is what is moral... The Absolute is the totality of things; all that is, whether it has been discovered or not. ... Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is the modern term for a school of religious and mystical philosophy that took shape in the 3rd century AD, founded by Plotinus and based on the teachings of Plato and earlier Platonists. ...


In Islamic theology, a person who spontaneously "discovers" monotheism is called a ḥanīf, the original ḥanīf being Abraham. (Arabic , plural حنفاء) is an Arabic term that refers to pre-Islamic non-Jewish or non-Christian Arabian monotheists. ... For other uses, see Abraham (name) and Abram (disambiguation). ...


Austrian anthropologist Wilhelm Schmidt in the 1910s postulated an Urmonotheismus, "original" or "primitive monotheism", a thesis now widely rejected in comparative religion but still occasionally defended in creationist circles. Wilhelm Schmidt (1868-1954) was a German linguist, anthropologist, and ethnologist. ... Urmonotheismus, the German for primitive or original monotheism is a hypothesis first defended by Austrian anthropologist, Catholic priest and member of the Divine Word Missionaries Wilhelm Schmidt (1868–1954) in his Der Ursprung der Gottesidee appearing from 1912, opposing the Revolutionary Monotheism approach that traces the emergence of monotheistic thought... The Major religious groups of the world. ... Creationism is generally the belief that the universe was created by a deity, or alternatively by one or more powerful and intelligent beings. ...


Varieties

Further information: Comparative religionConceptions of God, and Theism

Some argue that there are various forms of monotheism, including: The Major religious groups of the world. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Theism is the belief in the existence of one or more divinities or deities. ...

  • Henotheism involves devotion to a single god while accepting the existence of other gods. Similarly, monolatrism is the worship of a single deity independent of the ontological claims regarding that deity.
  • Theism a term that refers to the belief in the existence of a god or divine being.
  • Deism is a form of monotheism in which it is believed that one god exists. However, a deist rejects the idea that this god intervenes in the world.
  • Monistic Theism is the type of monotheism found in Hinduis, encompassing pantheism, monism, and at the same time the concept of a personal god
  • Pantheism holds that the Universe itself is god. The existence of a transcendent supreme extraneous to nature is denied. Depending on how this is understood, such a view may well be presented as tantamount to atheism, deism or panentheism.
  • Panentheism, or Monistic Monotheism, is a form of theism that holds that god contains, but is not identical to, the Universe. The 'one god' is omnipotent and all-pervading, the universe is part of god, and god is both immanent and transcendent.
  • Substance monotheism, found in some indigenous African religions, holds that the many gods are different forms of a single underlying substance.

On the surface, monotheism is in contrast with polytheism, which is the worship of several deities. Polytheism is however reconcilable with Inclusive monotheism, which claims that all deities are just different names or forms for the single god. This approach is common in Hinduism, e.g. in Smartism. Exclusive monotheism, on the other hand, actively opposes polytheism. Monotheism is often contrasted with theistic dualism (ditheism). However, in dualistic theologies as that of Gnosticism, the two deities are not of equal rank, and the role of the Gnostic demiurge is closer to that of Satan in Christian theology than that of a diarch on equal terms with god (who is represented in pantheistic fashion, as Pleroma). Henotheism (Greek heis theos one god) is a term coined by Max Müller, to mean devotion to a single God while accepting the existence of other gods. ... Monolatrism or monolatry is a form of theology where adherents believe in the existence of multiple deities but worship only one. ... Theism is the belief in the existence of one or more divinities or deities. ... For other uses, see Ceremonial Deism. ... Monism is the metaphysical position that all is of one essential essence, substance or energy. ... Pantheism (Greek: πάν ( pan ) = all and θεός ( theos ) = God) literally means God is All and All is God. It is the view that everything is of an all-encompassing immanent abstract God; or that the universe, or nature, and God are equivalent. ... For other uses, see Monist (disambiguation). ... Pantheism (Greek: πάν ( pan ) = all and θεός ( theos ) = God) literally means God is All and All is God. It is the view that everything is of an all-encompassing immanent abstract God; or that the universe, or nature, and God are equivalent. ... For other uses, see Universe (disambiguation). ... Atheist redirects here. ... For other uses, see Ceremonial Deism. ... Panentheism (from Greek (pân) all; (en) in; and (Theós) god; all-in-God) is the theological position that God is immanent within the Universe, but also transcends it. ... Panentheism (from Greek (pân) all; (en) in; and (Theós) god; all-in-God) is the theological position that God is immanent within the Universe, but also transcends it. ... For other uses, see Universe (disambiguation). ... Immanence, derived from the Latin in manere to remain within, refers to philosophical and metaphysical theories of the divine as existing and acting within the mind or the world. ... In religion, transcendence is a condition or state of being that surpasses, and is independent of, physical existence. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Polytheism is belief in or worship of multiple gods or deities. ... See also: List of deities Look up deity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Smartism[1], (or Smarta Sampradaya, Smarta Tradition, as termed in Sanskrit), is a denomination of the Hindu religion. ... Exclusive monotheism is the beleif of monotheism without the acceptance of any other form of monotheism or polytheism. ... For other uses, see Dualism (disambiguation). ... Gnosticism (Greek: gnōsis, knowledge) refers to a diverse, syncretistic religious movement consisting of various belief systems generally united in the teaching that humans are divine souls trapped in a material world created by an imperfect god, the demiurge, who is frequently identified with the Abrahamic God. ... Demiurge (from the Greek , Latinized , meaning artisan or craftsman, literally worker in the service of the people, from of the people + work) is a term for a creator deity, responsible for the creation of the physical universe. ... This article is about the concept of Satan. ... Diarchy (or dyarchy) is a society or an organization with two rulers on an equal standing. ... Pleroma (Greek πληρωμα) generally refers to the totality of Gods powers. ...


Early History

In ancient Egypt

Ancient Middle-Eastern religions may have worshipped a single god within a pantheon and the abolition of all others, as in the case of the Aten cult in the reign of the Egyptian pharaoh Akhenaten. Iconoclasm during this pharaoh's rule is considered a chief origin for the subsequent destruction by some groups of idols, holding that no other god before the preferred deity (dually and subtly acknowledging the existence of the other gods, but only as foes to be destroyed for their drawing of attention away from the primary deity). The traditional Middle East and the G8s Greater Middle East Political & transportation map of the traditional Middle East today The Middle East is a historical and political region of Africa-Eurasia with no clear definition. ... [1] Aten (or Aton) was the disk of the sun in ancient Egyptian mythology, and originally an aspect of Ra. ... For other uses, see Pharaoh (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Akhenaten (disambiguation). ... Statues in the Cathedral of Saint Martin, Utrecht, attacked in Reformation iconoclasm in the 16th century. ...


Other issues such as Divine Right of Kings may possibly also stem from pharaonic laws on the ruler being the demigod or representative of the Creator on Earth. The massive tombs in the Egyptian pyramids which aligned with astronomical observations, perhaps exemplify this relationship between the pharaoh and the heavens. The Divine Right of Kings is a European political and religious doctrine of political absolutism. ... The term demigod, meaning half-god, is a modern distinction, often misapplied in Greek mythology. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... For the New York prison see The Tombs. ... A view of the pyramids at Giza from the plateau to the south of the complex. ... Astronomy is one of the few sciences where amateurs can still play an active role, especially in the discovery and monitoring of transient phenomena. ...


Zoroastrianism

Zoroastrianism is considered to be one of the earliest monotheistic beliefs, but the Zoroastrian definition of monotheism is neither comparable nor compatible with the monotheism of other religions that - in addition to being monotheistic - are also monist. Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... For other uses, see Monist (disambiguation). ...


In Zoroaster's revelation, Ahura Mazda is a transcendental and universal god, the one uncreated Creator (standard appellation) and to whom all worship is ultimately directed. However, Zoroaster also perceives Mazda to be wholly good, and that his creation is wholly good. In conflict with creation is anti-creation, evident in the created world as decay and disorder. Since anti-creation is purely destructive it cannot have been created (otherwise it would self-destruct) and hence must - like the Creator himself - be uncreated. Ahura Mazda () is the Avestan language name for a divinity exalted by Zoroaster as the one uncreated Creator, hence God. ...


In the Gathas, Zoroaster does not acknowledge any divinity other than Ahura Mazda. However, the hymns of Indo-Iranian religious tradition (of which the Gathas are a part) are always addressed to a specific divinity and those closely associated with him, and in this sense the Gathas are not (necessarily) a denial of the other divinities, but the exhaltation of a specific one. Although not mentioned by name (in the Gathas, Ahura Mazda is itself an epithet, not yet a proper name), Zoroaster implicitly acknowledges the existence of other Ahuras "Lords", as in "thou who art the mightiest Ahura and the Wise (Mazda) One" (Yasna 33.11). In addition to these lords that are "worthy of worship" (yazata), Zoroaster also refers to the daevas as the 'wrong' gods, or 'false' gods, or gods 'that should not be worshipped' and whose followers are to be brought onto the path of righteousness. In later Zoroastrian tradition, the daevas are demons, but this is not yet evident in the prophet's own poetry. The Gathas (Gāθās) are the most sacred of the texts of the Zoroastrian faith, and are traditionally believed to have been composed by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) himself. ... Ahura is the Avestan language designation for a class of divinity, adopted by Zarathustra (Zoroaster) from prehistoric proto-Indo-Iranian religion. ... Ahura is the Avestan language designation for a class of divinity, adopted by Zarathustra (Zoroaster) from prehistoric proto-Indo-Iranian religion. ... See Avesta Municipality for the Swedish town Yasna 28. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Zoroastrian angelology. ... The Daeva are a fictional clan of vampires in the role-playing game Vampire: The Requiem, published by White Wolf Game Studio . ...


Zoroastrianism is thus monotheistic inasfar as all worship is ultimately directed to Ahura Mazda. However, unlike Zurvanite Zoroastrianism, neither revealed nor present-day Zoroastrianism is monist. At no time did Zoroastrianism preclude the existence or worship of other divinities, which are today considered to be aspects or evidence of creation and hence of the Creator. The invocation of divinities besides Ahura Mazda is however common practice in Zoroastrian tradition, and is not necessarily either a sign of henotheism (the one extreme interpretation) or the worship of pure abstractions (the other extreme): In the past it was common for an individual, household or clan to adopt a patron divinity and although several attempts have been made to define ancient Zoroastrianism on the evidence of such adoptions - for instance, in inscriptions or in theophoric names - these are inherently unsuitable for that purpose. Zurvan is the Persian god of infinite time, space and fate. ... Theophoric names are exceedingly common in the Ancient Near East and Mesopotamia, where the personal name of an individual included the name of a god in whose care the individual is entrusted. ...


Abrahamic religions

Further information: Abrahamic religion

The major source of monotheism in the modern Western World is the narrative of the Hebrew Bible, the source of Judaism, which was created from the 13th century BCE to the 4th century BCE. Judaism may have received influences from various non-biblical religions present in Egypt and Syria. This can be seen by the Torah's reference to Egyptian culture in Genesis and the story of Moses, as well as the mention of Hittite and Hurrian cultures of Syria in the Genesis story of Abraham. Symbols of the three main Abrahamic religions: Judaism, Christianity and Islam Map showing the prevalence of Abrahamic (purple) and Eastern (yellow) religions in each country. ... Occident redirects here. ... This article is about the term Hebrew Bible. For the Jewish scriptures see Tanakh. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Template:Jews and Jewdaism Template:The Holy Book Named TorRah The Torah () is the most valuable Holy Doctrine within Judaism,(and for muslims) revered as the first relenting Word of Ulllah, traditionally thought to have been revealed to Blessed Moosah, An Apostle of Ulllah. ... The Hittites (also Hethites) and Children of Heth, translating Hebrew HTY and BNY-HT are the second of the eleven Canaanite nations in the Hebrew Bible. ... The word Hurrian may refer to: An ancient people of the Near East, the Hurrians. ...


In traditional Jewish thought, which provided the basis of the Christian and Islamic religions, monotheism was regarded as its most basic belief. Judaism and Islam have traditionally attempted to interpret scripture as exclusively monotheistic whilst Christianity diverted to a more complex form of tripartite monotheism, as a result of considering the Holy Spirit to be a part of God, and attributing divinity to Jesus, a Judean Jew, in the first century AD, defining him as the son of God. Thus, "Father, Son and Holy Spirit". The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Islam (Arabic: ; ( â–¶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Exclusive monotheism is the beleif of monotheism without the acceptance of any other form of monotheism or polytheism. ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... The technical term used to refer to Trinitarian Christianitys understanding of God. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Map of the southern Levant, c. ...


Monotheism in the Hebrew Bible

It is often argued that the Hebrew Bible takes a position not of monotheism, but of henotheism. God reveals himself not as the only god, but rather as the god whom Abraham knows. (Gen 15:7) In such a respect, the god of Israel is not God alone, but the god who was worshipped by Abraham's clan. In this context, the god of Israel is a type of tribal deity, that although was worshipped alone, did not explicitly exclude the existence of other gods, who were not relevant to them.[5] This article is about the term Hebrew Bible. For the Jewish scriptures see Tanakh. ... Henotheism (Greek heis theos one god) is a term coined by Max Müller, to mean devotion to a single God while accepting the existence of other gods. ...


In the early Mosaic era, the possibility of other gods is left an open question, although by this stage Israel claims that their god is greater. (Ex 18:11) This same subtle shift is shown in 2 Chr 2:5, and could indicate that Israel understood that the god they recognised was God alone, and other gods were therefore false. This would be Monotheism in the proper sense of the word. By the time of the prophet Isaiah, Monotheism is solidly and explicitly accepted. “Thus says the LORD, the King of Israel and his Redeemer, the LORD of hosts: "I am the first and I am the last; besides me there is no god.” (Is 44:6) Thus, the development of the people of Israel to a true Monotheism, appears to be a gradual process, with the exception of Gen 1:1. It is therefore likely that Gen 1:1 was redacted later than the other examples supplied, and so, the development of Monotheism comes firstly on a tribal level, and gradually advances to recognition that the god of Israel is the only god. It is into this context that Christianity emerges, and thus Christianity was from the outset Monotheistic. (John 1:1)


A strictly literal interpretation of Deuteronomy 4:39 excludes the possibility of henotheism. The verse states: "Know this day, and take it to heart, that the LORD is God in heaven above and on earth below; there is none else." According to the view that Deuteronomy is a late addition to the Five Books of Moses, this would reflect the later adoption of monotheism. However, if Deuteronomy is taken to be part of the original text, as it generally is among those who use it as scripture, this would indicate that the monotheistic concept existed from the time the Torah was composed. It has been suggested that Yahweh be merged into this article or section. ...


In the west, the Hebrew Bible has been the primary source describing how and when Monotheism was introduced into the Middle East and the west. As believed by followers of some of the Abrahamic religions, it teaches that when Abraham discovered God (Genesis 12:1-9 [4] ; 13:14-18 [5] ; 15 [6] 18 [7] ; and 22 [8]), he thus became the world's first Monotheist. According to these, until then, in ancient history all cultures believed in a variety of multiple deities such as in idolatry, forces and creatures of nature as in animism, or in celestial bodies as in astrology, but did not know the one and only true god. This article is about the term Hebrew Bible. For the Jewish scriptures see Tanakh. ... In historical scholarship, a primary source is a document, or other source of information that was created at or near the time being studied, by an authoritative source, usually one with direct personal knowledge of the events being described. ... map showing the prevalence of Abrahamic (purple) and Dharmic (yellow) religions in each country. ... For other uses, see Abraham (name) and Abram (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Genesis (disambiguation). ... Ancient redirects here. ... The Adoration of the Golden Calf by Nicolas Poussin Idolatry is a major sin in the Abrahamic religions regarding image. ... This article is about the physical universe. ... The term Animism is derived from the Latin anima, meaning soul.[1][2] In its most general sense, animism is simply the belief in souls. ... Hand-coloured version of the anonymous Flammarion woodcut (1888). ... In Judaism, the name of God is more than a distinguishing title. ...


However, the Hebrew Bible teaches that, at Creation, Adam and Eve knew God (and so did their descendants) but that over the ages, God and his name were forgotten. This is how one of the most important Jewish sages, Maimonides describes the process in his work the Mishneh Torah: This article is about the biblical text. ... Michelangelos Creation of Adam, from the Sistine Chapel. ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... Commonly used image indicating one artists conception of Maimonidess appearance Maimonides (March 30, 1135 or 1138–December 13, 1204) was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher in Spain, Morocco and Egypt during the Middle Ages. ... The Mishneh Torah or Yad ha-Chazaka is a code of Jewish law by one of the most important Jewish authorities, Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon, better known as Maimonides or by the Hebrew abbreviation RaMBaM (usually written Rambam in English). ...

In the days of Enosh mankind made a huge error...they reasoned that since the Lord created the stars and the heavenly spheres and placed them in the skies giving them great significance, and they serve before Him, it is therefore fitting to praise and elevate them and give them honor believing this to be the Lord's will to honor that which He makes great and honorable...The people then built altars to worship the stars and to praise and bow down to them...and this was the essence of idol worship (avoda zara)...After a few generations false prophets arose and said that the Lord had actually commanded people to worship the stars...and they built images in their honor...spreading these false images by building them in gathering places, under trees, on tops of hills, and in valleys, gathering people who bowed down to them declaring: 'Such and such an image brings good or bad luck and therefore fear it'...after a number of generations, the Divine Name was completely forgotten...until the mighty one (Abraham), began to question this in his mind and asked 'How could it be that the heavenly sphere moves without a Mover behind it? because it is impossible that it moves itself', and he had no teacher and no-one to inform him for he lived in Ur of the Chaldees surrounded by foolish idol worshippers...He (Abraham) subsequently arose and made it known to the people that there is only one Lord in the entire world and that only He should be worshipped, gathering people from city to city and kingdom to kingdom until he came to the land of Canaan calling out as it says: 'Abraham planted a tamarisk tree in Beersheba, and there he called in the name of God, Lord of the Universe (El olam) (Genesis 21:33)' The generations of Adam are the two lines of descent from Adam, both ending in the name Lamech, which are given in Genesis. ... This article is about the astronomical object. ... Look up Altar in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... False prophet is a label given to a person who is viewed as illegitimately claiming charismatic authority within a religious group. ... For other uses, see Abraham (name) and Abram (disambiguation). ... Ur Kaśdim or Ur of the Chaldees (אור כשדים) is the town in the Hebrew Bible and related literature where Abraham was said to have been born. ... Map of Canaan For other uses, see Canaan (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Abraham (name) and Abram (disambiguation). ... Beersheba (Hebrew: ‎, Beer Sheva, Arabic: ‎, Bir as-Sabi, Turkish: ) is the largest city in the Negev desert of southern Israel, often being referred to as the Capital of the Negev. ...

Maimonides, Mishneh Torah, Sefer Mada ("Book of Knowledge"), Chapter 1, Hilchos Avodah Zarah

Commonly used image indicating one artists conception of Maimonidess appearance Maimonides (March 30, 1135 or 1138–December 13, 1204) was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher in Spain, Morocco and Egypt during the Middle Ages. ... The Mishneh Torah or Yad ha-Chazaka is a code of Jewish law by one of the most important Jewish authorities, Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon, better known as Maimonides or by the Hebrew abbreviation RaMBaM (usually written Rambam in English). ...

Jewish view

Further information: Judaism

Judaism is one of the oldest known monotheistic faiths. The best-known Jewish statements of monotheism occur in the Shema prayer, the Ten Commandments and Maimonides' 13 Principles of faith, Second Principle: This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Shema Yisrael (or Shma Yisroel or just Shema) (Hebrew: שמע ישראל; Hear, [O] Israel) are the first two words of a section of the Torah (Hebrew Bible) that is used as a centerpiece of all morning and evening Jewish prayer services and closely echoes the monotheistic message of Judaism. ... For other uses, see Ten Commandments (disambiguation). ... Commonly used image indicating one artists conception of Maimonidess appearance Maimonides (March 30, 1135 or 1138–December 13, 1204) was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher in Spain, Morocco and Egypt during the Middle Ages. ... There are a number of basic Jewish principles of faith that were formulated by medieval rabbinic authorities. ...

God, the Cause of all, is one. This does not mean one as in one of a pair, nor one like a species (which encompasses many individuals), nor one as in an object that is made up of many elements, nor as a single simple object that is infinitely divisible. Rather, God is a unity unlike any other possible unity. This is referred to in the Torah (Deuteronomy 6:4): "Hear Israel, the LORD is our God, the LORD is one." This article is about the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ...

There has historically been disagreement between the Hasidic Jews and the Mitnagdim Jews on various Jewish philosophical issues surrounding certain concepts of monotheism. A similar situation of differing views is seen in modern times among Dor Daim, students of the Rambam, segments of Lithuanian Jewry, and portions of the Modern Orthodox world toward Jewish communities that are more thoroughly influenced by Lurianic Kabbalistic teachings such as Hasidism and large segments of the Sepharadi and Mizrahi communities. This dispute is likely rooted in the differences between what are popularly referred to as the "philosophically inclined" sources and the "kabbalistic sources;" the "philosophic sources" include such Rabbis as Saadia Gaon, Rabenu Bahya ibn Paquda, Abraham ibn Ezra, and Maimonides. The "kabbalistic sources" include Rabbis such as Nahmanides, Bahya ben Asher, Rabbi Yitzhak Saggi Nehor, and Azriel. The Vilna Gaon is usually granted great respect in modern times by those who side with both views; by the more kabbalistic segments of Judaism he is regarded as a great kabbalist; those who take the other side of the issue regard him as a strict advocate of the people of Israel's historical monotheism. Hasidic Judaism (Hebrew: Chasidut חסידות) is a Haredi Jewish religious movement. ... Mitnagdim or misnagdim is a Hebrew word (מתנגדים) meaning opponents; this term was used to refer to European religious Jews who opposed Hasidic Judaism. ... Dor Daim, sometimes known as Dardaim, are adherents of the Dor Deah movement in Judaism. ... Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon (Hebrew: רבי משה בן מיימון; Arabic: Mussa bin Maimun ibn Abdallah al-Kurtubi al-Israili; March 30, 1135—December 13, 1204), commonly known by his Greek name Maimonides, was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher. ... Lithuanian Jews (known in Yiddish and Haredi English as Litvish (adjective) or Litvaks (noun)) are Ashkenazi Jews with roots in Lita, a region including not only present-day Lithuania but also Latvia, much of Belarus and the northeastern SuwaÅ‚ki region of Poland. ... Modern Orthodox Judaism is a philosophy that attempts to adapt Orthodox Judaism and interaction with the surrounding non-Jewish, modern world. ... Luria refers to: Salvador Luria, Itaian physician Solomon Luria, Polish poskim Alexander Romanovich Luria, Russian neuropsychologist Isaac Luria, Spanish kabbalist Luria, a long poem by Robert Browning published in 1847 Others Luria-Delbruck experiment Luria Broth This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise... The tree of life Kabbalah (קבלה Reception, Standard Hebrew Qabbala, Tiberian Hebrew Qabbālāh; also written variously as Cabala, Cabalah, Cabbala, Cabbalah, Kabala, Kabalah, Kabbala, Qabala, Qabalah) is a religious philosophical system claiming an insight into divine nature. ... Hasidic Judaism (Hebrew: Chasidut חסידות) is a Haredi Jewish religious movement. ... Sephardi Jews (ספרדי, Standard Hebrew SÉ™fardi, Tiberian Hebrew ardî; plural Sephardim: ספרדים, Standard Hebrew Sfaradim, Tiberian Hebrew ) are a subgroup of Jews, generally defined in contrast to Ashkenazi Jews and/or Mizrahi Jews. ... Mizrachi is also an organisation of the Religious Zionist Movement Mizrahi Jews or Oriental Jews (מזרחי eastern, Standard Hebrew Mizraḥi, Tiberian Hebrew Mizrāḥî; plural מזרחים easterners, Standard Hebrew Mizraḥim, Tiberian Hebrew Mizrāḥîm) are Jews of Middle Eastern origin; that is to say, their ancestors never left the Middle East. ... The tree of life Kabbalah (קבלה Reception, Standard Hebrew Qabbala, Tiberian Hebrew Qabbālāh; also written variously as Cabala, Cabalah, Cabbala, Cabbalah, Kabala, Kabalah, Kabbala, Qabala, Qabalah) is a religious philosophical system claiming an insight into divine nature. ... Saadia Ben Joseph Gaon (892-942), the Hebrew name of Said al-Fayyumi, was a rabbi who was also a prominent Jewish exilarch, philosopher, and exegete. ... Bahya ibn Paquda (also: Pakuda) Full name: Bahya ben Joseph ibn Pakuda, known to Talmud scholars (in Hebrew) as the Rabbeinu Bechaya (Our Rabbi Behaya), was a Jewish philosopher and rabbi who lived at Saragossa, Spain, in the first half of the eleventh century. ... Rabbi Abraham Ben Meir Ibn Ezra (also known as Ibn Ezra, or Abenezra) (1092 or 1093-1167), was one of the most distinguished Jewish men of letters and writers of the Middle Ages. ... Commonly used image indicating one artists conception of Maimonidess appearance Maimonides (March 30, 1135 or 1138–December 13, 1204) was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher in Spain, Morocco and Egypt during the Middle Ages. ... Nahmanides (1194 - c. ... Not to be confused with Bahya ibn Paquda. ... Azriel was one of the most important Jewish mystics in the Spanish town of Gerona (north of Barcelona) during the thirteenth century when it was an important center of the Kabbalah. ... Elijah Ben Solomon, the Vilna Gaon The Vilna Gaon (April 23, 1720 – October 9, 1797) was a prominent Jewish rabbi, Talmud scholar, and Kabbalist. ...


The Shema

Main article: Shema

Judaism's earliest history, beliefs, laws, and practices are preserved and taught in the Torah (the Hebrew Bible) which provides a clear textual source for the rise and development of what is named Judaism's ethical monotheism which means that: Shema Yisrael (שמע ישראל) are the first two words of a section of the Hebrew Bible that is used as a centerpiece of all morning and evening Jewish prayer services and closely echoes the monotheistic message of Judaism. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Jewish history is the history of the Jewish people, faith, and culture. ... There are a number of basic Jewish principles of faith that were formulated by medieval rabbinic authorities. ... Main article: Mitzvah i know year 11 stella girls are looking at this right. ... Minhag (Hebrew: מנהג Custom, pl. ... Template:Jews and Jewdaism Template:The Holy Book Named TorRah The Torah () is the most valuable Holy Doctrine within Judaism,(and for muslims) revered as the first relenting Word of Ulllah, traditionally thought to have been revealed to Blessed Moosah, An Apostle of Ulllah. ... This article is about the term Hebrew Bible. For the Jewish scriptures see Tanakh. ...

(1) There is one God from whom emanates one morality for all humanity. (2) God's primary demand of people is that they act decently toward one another...The God of ethical monotheism is the God first revealed to the world in the Hebrew Bible. Through it, we can establish God's four primary characteristics:
  1. God is supernatural.
  2. God is personal.
  3. God is good.
  4. God is holy.
...in the study of Hebrew history: Israel's monotheism was an ethical monotheism. Dennis Prager

When Moses returned with the Ten Commandments, the second of those stated that "you shall have no other gods before me" (Exodus 20:3), right after the first, which affirmed the existence of God. Furthermore, Israelites recite the Shema Yisrael ("Hear O' Israel") which partly says, "Hear, O' Israel: The Lord our God, the Lord is one." Monotheism was and is the central tenet of the Israelite and the Jewish religion. For other uses, see Ten Commandments (disambiguation). ... This article is about the second book in the Torah. ... Shema Yisrael (or Shma Yisroel or just Shema) (Hebrew: שמע ישראל; Hear, [O] Israel) are the first two words of a section of the Torah (Hebrew Bible) that is used as a centerpiece of all morning and evening Jewish prayer services and closely echoes the monotheistic message of Judaism. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

The Shema
Hebrew שמע ישראל יי אלהנו יי אחד
Common transliteration Shema Yisrael Adonai Eloheinu Adonai Echad
English Hear, O Israel! The LORD is our God! The LORD is One!

The literal word meanings are roughly as follows:

  • Shema — 'listen' or 'hear.' The word also implies comprehension.
  • Yisrael — 'Israel', in the sense of the people or congregation of Israel
  • Adonai — often translated as 'Lord', it is used in place of the Tetragrammaton
  • Eloheinu — 'our God', a plural noun (said to imply majesty rather than plural number) with a pronominal suffix ('our')
  • Echad — 'one'

In this case, Elohim is used in the plural as a form of respect and not polytheism. It has been suggested that Yahweh be merged into this article or section. ...


Gen.1:26 And Elohim said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness: and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.


Elohim is morphologically plural in form in Hebrew, but generally takes singular agreement when it refers to the god of Israel (so the verb meaning "said" in this verse is vayyomer ויאמר with singular inflection, and not vayyomru ויאמרו with plural inflection), and yet in this case the "our" and "us" seems to create a presumption of plurality, though it may just be God talking to angels and not another god. This article is about the Hebrew word. ...


Judaism, however, insists that the "LORD is One," as in the Shema, and at least two interpretations exist to explain the Torah's use of the plural form. The first is that the plural form "Elohim" is analogous to the royal plural as used in English. The second is that, in order to set an example for human kings, Elohim consulted with his court (the angels, just created) before making a major decision (creating man). Pluralis majestatis (majestic plural) is the plural pronoun where it is used to refer to one person alone. ...


Christian view

Christians profess belief in one God. Historically, most Christian churches have taught that the nature of God is something of a mystery. Among Early Christians there was considerable debate over the nature of godhead, with some factions arguing for the divinity of Jesus and others calling for a unitary conception of God. These issues of Christology were to form one of the main subjects of contention at the First Council of Nicea. The Early Christians is a term used to refer to the early followers of Jesus of Nazareth, before the emergence of established Christian orthodoxy. ... In Christianity, the Godhead is a unit consisting of God the Father, Jesus Christ (the Son), and the Holy Spirit. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Christology is a field of study... The First Council of Nicaea, which took place during the reign of the emperor Constantine in 325, was the first ecumenical (from Greek oikumene, worldwide) conference of bishops of the Christian Church. ...


The First Council of Nicaea, held in Nicaea in Bithynia (in present-day Turkey), convoked by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in 325, was the first ecumenical[6] conference of bishops of the Christian Church, and most significantly resulted in the first uniform Christian doctrine, called the Nicene Creed. With the creation of the creed, a precedent was established for subsequent 'general (ecumenical) councils of Bishops' (Synods) to create statements of belief and canons of doctrinal orthodoxy— the intent being to define unity of beliefs for the whole of Christendom. Iznik tiles inside the Selimiye Mosque in Edirne Ä°znik (which derives from the former Greek name Νίκαια, Nicaea) is a city in Turkey which is known primarily as the site of the First and Second Councils of Nicaea, the first and seventh Ecumenical councils in the early history of the Christian... Bithynia was an ancient region, kingdom and Roman province in the northwest of Asia Minor, adjoining the Propontis, the Thracian Bosporus and the Euxine (today Black Sea). ... This is a list of Roman Emperors with the dates they controlled the Roman Empire. ... Head of Constantines colossal statue at Musei Capitolini Gaius Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus[1] (February 27, 272–May 22, 337), commonly known as Constantine I, Constantine the Great, or (among Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic[2] Christians) Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor, proclaimed Augustus by his troops on... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      An... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Icon depicting the Holy Fathers of the First Council of Nicaea holding the Nicene Creed. ... The word ecumenical comes from a Greek word that means pertaining to the whole world. ... A synod (also known as a council) is a council of a church, usually a Christian church, convened to decide an issue of doctrine, administration or application. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Canon law is the term used for... “Orthodox” redirects here. ... This T-and-O map, which abstracts the known world to a cross inscribed within an orb, remakes geography in the service of Christian iconography. ...


The purpose of the council was to resolve disagreements in the Church of Alexandria over the nature of Jesus in relationship to the Father; in particular, whether Jesus was of the same substance as God the Father or merely of similar substance. St. Alexander of Alexandria and Athanasius took the first position; the popular presbyter Arius, from whom the term Arian controversy comes, took the second. The council decided against the Arians overwhelmingly (of the estimated 250-318 attendees, all but 2 voted against Arius). Mark the Evangelist (43-63) Anianus (61-82) Avilius (83-95) Kedron (96-106) Primus (106-118) Justus (118-129) Eumenes (131-141) Mark II (142-152) Celadion (152-166) Agrippinus (167-178) Julian (178-189) Demetrius (189-232) Heraclas (232-248) Dionysius (248-264) Maximus (265-282) Theonas (282... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... In many religions, the supreme God is given the title and attributions of Father. ... St. ... Athanasius of Alexandria (also spelled Athanasios) was a Christian bishop of Alexandria in the fourth century. ... Presbyter in the New Testament refers to a leader in local Christian congregations, a synonym of episkopos, which has come to mean bishop. ... Arius (AD/CE 256 - 336, poss. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Arminius · Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box... Vote redirects here. ...


Most modern Christian traditions follow this decision, which was codified in 381 and reached its full development through the work of the Cappadocian Fathers. They consider God to be a triune entity, called the Trinity, comprised of the three "Persons" God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Spirit, the three of this unity are described as being "of the same substance" (ὁμοούσιος). The true nature of the Trinity is held to be an inexplicable mystery. The Cappadocian Fathers are the 4th century church fathers Basil the Great, Gregory Nazianzen, and Basils brother Gregory of Nyssa, who made major contributions to the definition of the Trinity finalized at the First Council of Constantinople in 381 and the Nicene Creed. ... This article is about the Christian Trinity. ... In many religions, the supreme God is given the title and attributions of Father. ... This 11th-century portrait is one of many images of Jesus in which a halo with a cross is used. ... In various religions, most notably Trinitarian Christianity, the Holy Spirit (also called the Holy Ghost; in Hebrew רוח הקודש Ruah haqodesh) is the third Person of the Holy Trinity. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ...


Some critics contend that the Trinity originated in the Pagan Celtic tradition, in which many gods and goddesses were tripartite, and that its incorporation into Christianity is a corruption of the original doctrines, similar to the adoption of many Pagan gods and goddesses such as Brigid as Christian Saints. Other critics contend that because of the adoption of a tripartite conception of deity, Christianity is actually a form of Tritheism or Polytheism. This concept dates from the teachings of the Alexandrian Church, which claimed that Jesus, having appeared later in the Bible than his "Father," had to be a secondary, lesser, and therefore "distinct" god. This controversy led to the convention of the Nicean council in 325 CE. While this might be the case in various unorthodox (non-Nicene) instances, Christianity is popularly understood as Tripartite monotheism.[7] For Jews and Muslims, the idea of God as a trinity is heretical - it is considered akin to polytheism. Christians overwhelmingly assert that monotheism is central to the Christian faith, as the very Nicene Creed (among others) which gives the orthodox Christian definition of the Trinity does begin with: "I believe in one God". Pagan may refer to: A believer in Paganism or Neopaganism Bagan, a city in Myanmar also known as Pagan Pagan (album), the 6th album by Celtic metal band Cruachan Pagan Island, of the Northern Mariana Islands Pagan Lorn, a metal band from Luxembourg, Europe (1994-1998) Pagans Mind, is... Celtic polytheism refers to the religious beliefs and practices of ancient Celts until the Christianization of Celtic-speaking lands. ... A Triple Goddess symbol (probably originating from Classical Greek lunar symbolism), representing the three aspects of the moon (waxing crescent, full moon, waning crescent) and womankind (maiden, mother, crone). ... In Irish mythology as it is presently constituted, Brigit or Brighit (exalted one) was the daughter of the Dagda (and therefore one of the Tuatha Dé Danann) and wife of Bres of the Fomorians. ... General definition of saint In general, the term Saint refers to someone who is exceptionally virtuous and holy. ... Tritheism is the belief that there are three equally powerful gods who form a triad. ... Polytheism is belief in or worship of multiple gods or deities. ... Icon depicting the Holy Fathers of the First Council of Nicaea holding the Nicene Creed. ... The technical term used to refer to Trinitarian Christianitys understanding of God. ... Languages Historical Jewish languages Hebrew, Yiddish, Ladino, others Liturgical languages: Hebrew and Aramaic Predominant spoken languages: The vernacular language of the home nation in the Diaspora, significantly including English, Hebrew, Yiddish, and Russian Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Arabs and other Semitic groups For the Jewish religion, see Judaism. ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... This article is about the Christian Trinity. ... Heresy, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, is a theological or religious opinion or doctrine maintained in opposition, or held to be contrary, to the ‘catholic’ or orthodox doctrine of the Christian Church, or, by extension, to that of any church, creed, or religious system, considered as orthodox. ... Polytheism is belief in or worship of multiple gods or deities. ...


Some Christian groups eschew orthodox theology, such as the Jehovah's Witnesses, followers of Mormonism, and Oneness Pentecostals, the Unitarians, Socinians, and some of the Radical Reformers (Anabaptists), do not teach the doctrine of the Trinity at all. The Rastafarians, like many Christians, hold that God is both a unity and a trinity, in their case God being Haile Selassie. For more general information about religious denominations that follow the teachings of Joseph Smith, Jr. ... Oneness Pentecostalism is a movement of Pentecostal Christianity that teaches the atoning death of Jesus Christ, His resurrection, His soon return, and the inerrancy of the word of God. ... Haile Selassie I The Rastafari movement (also known as Rastafari, or simply Rasta) is a new religious movement[1] that accepts Haile Selassie I, the former Emperor of Ethiopia, as God incarnate, called Jah[2] or Jah Rastafari. ... Haile Selassie Haile Selassie (Power of Trinity) (July 23, 1892 – August 27, 1975) was the last Emperor (1930–1936; 1941–1974) of Ethiopia, and is a religious symbol in the Rastafarian movement. ...


Islamic view

Main articles: Oneness of God (Islam) and Hanif

The Qur'an asserts the existence of a single and absolute truth that transcends the world; a unique and indivisible being who is independent of the creation.[8] The indivisibility of God implies the indivisibility of God's sovereignty which in turn leads to the conception of universe as a just and coherent moral universe rather than an existential and moral chaos (as in polytheism). Similarly the Qur'an rejects the binary modes of thinking such as the idea of duality of God by arguing that both good and evil generate from God's creative act and that the evil forces have no power to create anything. God in Islam is a universal God rather than a local, tribal or parochial one; an absolute who integrates all affirmative values and brooks no evil. [9] (Arabic , plural حنفاء) is an Arabic term that refers to pre-Islamic non-Jewish nor Christian Arabian monotheists. ... Bouguereaus LInnocence (Innocence). Both the child and the lamb represent fragility and peacefulness, as seen in religious art. ...


Tawhid constitutes the foremost article of the Muslim profession. [10] To attribute divinity to a created entity is the only unpardonable sin mentioned in the Qur'an. [9] Muslims believe that the entirety of the Islamic teaching rests on the principle of Tawhid. [11]


Bahá'í view

Main article: God in the Bahá'í Faith

The Oneness of God is one of the core teachings of the Bahá'í Faith. Bahá'ís believe that there is one supernatural being, God, who has created all existence. God is described as "a personal God, unknowable, inaccessible, the source of all Revelation, eternal, omniscient, omnipresent and almighty."[12] This article is about the generally recognized global religious community. ...


Bahá'ís believe that although people have different concepts of God and his nature, and call him by different names, everyone is speaking of the same entity. God is taught to be a personal god in that God is conscious of his creation and has a mind, will and purpose. At the same time the Bahá'í teachings state that God is too great for humans to fully understand him or to create a complete and accurate image of him. Bahá'u'lláh teaches that human knowledge of God is limited to those attributes and qualities which are understandable to us, and thus direct knowledge about the essence of God is not possible. Bahá'ís believe, thus, that through daily prayer, meditation, and study of revealed text they can grow closer to God. The obligatory prayers in the Bahá'í Faith involve explicit monotheistic testimony.[13][14] The phrase personal God is religious term used far more often by laypeople than by theologians due to its numerous connotations. ... Shrine of Baháulláh Baháulláh (ba-haa-ol-laa Arabic: Glory of God) (November 12, 1817 – May 29, 1892), born Mírzá usayn-`Alí Nuri (Persian: ), was the founder of the Baháí Faith. ... Baháís must, according to Baháulláh, say at least one of three revealed Obligatory Prayers (salaat in Arabic). ...


Eastern religions

Further information: Indian religions and Dharma

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Statue of Jain God Bahubali in Shravanabelagola, Karnataka attracts thousands of devotees. ... For other uses, see Dharma (disambiguation). ...

Hinduism

In Hinduism, views are broad and range from, monism, dualism, panentheism and pantheism, alternatively called monistic theism by some scholars, to strict monotheism, see Hindu denominations. Monotheism in Hinduism is known as "Ekanyana" and God Almighty is Ekam (One.) // In Hinduism the Vedic pantheon comprises clans of anthropomorphic deities as well as deified natural phenomena. ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... For other uses, see Monist (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Dualism (disambiguation). ... Panentheism (from Greek (pân) all; (en) in; and (Theós) god; all-in-God) is the theological position that God is immanent within the Universe, but also transcends it. ... Pantheism (Greek: πάν ( pan ) = all and θεός ( theos ) = God) literally means God is All and All is God. It is the view that everything is of an all-encompassing immanent abstract God; or that the universe, or nature, and God are equivalent. ... Hinduism encompasses many movements and schools fairly organized within Hindu denominations. ...


As one scholar has said, "...Hinduism includes both monism and monotheism. It is misleading to call the Abrahamic religions,"the monotheistic traditions," implying that monotheism is absent from the Eastern traditions. Vedanta includes many monotheistic schools; They may accept the existence of many gods and goddesses, but strongly emphasise the pre-eminence of the Supreme Deity.[15] For other uses, see Vedanta (disambiguation). ...


Many Hindus, including Smartas, believe in God having three aspects as Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva, the Trimurti (also called the Hindu trinity.) and these different aspects are part of one and the same God. Four major sects of modern Hinduism, Vaishnavism, Shaivism, Shaktism, and Smartism, all believe in one God but differ in their conceptions. The two primary form of differences are between the two monotheistic denominations of Vaishnavism which conceives God as Vishnu and Shaivism, which conceives God as Shiva. Other aspects of God are in fact aspects of Vishnu or Shiva. Smartas, who follow Advaita philosophy, are monists, and view multiple manifestations of the one god or source of being. Hindu monists see one unity, with the personal gods, different aspects of only one supreme being, like a single beam of light separated into colours by a prism, and are valid to worship. Some of the Smarta aspects of God include Devi, Vishnu, Ganesh, and Siva. Smartism is a denomination of the religion of Hinduism and is closely affiliated with the Advaita tradition. ... This article is about the Hindu god of creation. ... For other meanings, see Vishnu (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Shiva (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Hindu gods. ... Vaishnavism is one of the principal traditions of Hinduism, and is distinguished from other schools by its primary worship of Vishnu (and his associated avatars) as the Supreme God. ... This article is about the religion Shaivism. ... Shaktism focuses worship upon the Hindu Divine Mother, here manifested as Tridevi – the conjoined forms of Lakshmi , Parvati and Saraswati. ... Smartism[1], (or Smarta Sampradaya, Smarta Tradition, as termed in Sanskrit), is a denomination of the Hindu religion. ... Vaishnavism is one of the principal traditions of Hinduism, and is distinguished from other schools by its primary worship of Vishnu (and his associated avatars) as the Supreme God. ... For other meanings, see Vishnu (disambiguation). ... This article is about the religion Shaivism. ... For other uses, see Shiva (disambiguation). ... Smartism is a denomination of the religion of Hinduism and is closely affiliated with the Advaita tradition. ... Advaita Vedanta is probably the best known of all Vedanta schools of Hinduism, the others being Dvaita and Vishishtadvaita. ... For other uses, see Monist (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Shri Vidya be merged into this article or section. ... For other meanings, see Vishnu (disambiguation). ... Popular image of Ganesh In Hinduism, Ganesha (Gaṇeśa, lord of the hosts, also spelled Ganesa and sometimes referred to as Ganesh in Hindi, Bengali and other Indian vernaculars) is the god of wisdom, intelligence, education and prudence. ... This article is about the Hindu God. ...


It is the Smarta view that dominates the view of Hinduism in the West. By contrast with Smarta/Advaita belief, Vaishnavism and Shaivism follows a singular concept of God, or panentheistic monotheism or panentheistic monism. A Smarta following the Advaita tradition can select their "Ishta-deva" (God that one prays to most.) This is not strictly true of other faiths such as Vaishnavism; however, Vaishnavites may stress worship on one aspect of Vishnu such as Rama. Vaishnavism is one of the principal traditions of Hinduism, and is distinguished from other schools by its primary worship of Vishnu (and his associated avatars) as the Supreme God. ... This article is about the religion Shaivism. ... Panentheism (Greek words: pan=all and Theos=God) is the view that God is immanent within all creation and that the universe is part of God or that God is the animating force behind the universe. ... For other uses, see Monist (disambiguation). ... Smarta is a Hindu follower of Smartism. ... Advaita Vedanta is probably the best known of all Vedanta schools of Hinduism, the others being Dvaita and Vishishtadvaita. ... Ishta-Deva, or Ishta Devata is a term from Hinduism that means chosen Deity or revered aspect of God by a devotee and is a widely held concept in Smartism. ... Vaishnavism is one of the principal traditions of Hinduism, and is distinguished from other schools by its primary worship of Vishnu (and his associated avatars) as the Supreme God. ... For other meanings, see Vishnu (disambiguation). ... This article is about the incarnation of Vishnu. ...


All the Hindu scriptures (The Vedas, Upanishads and the Bhagavad Gita) ultimately stress the one-ness of God and describe God as the Eternal Truth that is birthless, ageless, and omnipresent. Many scholars interpret the verses as either Monotheistic and Pantheistic or a combination of both.


The Rig Veda, the first book of the four Vedas, contains evidence for monotheistic thought. Often quoted are pada 1.164.46c, A pada ( foot) in Sanskrit poetic meter (chandas) is a quarter of a full verse (the foot of a quadruped being one out of four), e. ...

ékam sád víprā́ bahudhā́ vadanti

"There is one truth, though the sages know them by many names", Rigveda 1.164.46


Out of the many verse, some other popular verses (Atharva Veda) verse 13.5.20


"He is One and One forever remaineth alone; Believe it. There is no second in God"


and the Nasadiya Sukta, dealing with a creator deity, especially verse 10.129.7: There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...

iyám vísṛṣṭiḥ yátaḥ ābabhûva / yádi vā dadhé yádi vā ná / yáḥ asya ádhyakṣaḥ paramé vyóman / sáḥ aṅgá veda yádi vā ná véda
"He, the first origin of this creation, whether he formed it all or did not form it, / Whose eye controls this world in highest heaven, he verily knows it, or perhaps he knows not." (trans. Griffith)

Many Hindus believe that God has six attributes. However, the actual number of auspicious qualities of God, are countless, with the following six qualities being the most important.

  • The number six is invariably given, but the individual attributes listed vary. One set of attributes (and their common interpretations) are:
    • Jñāna (Omniscience), defined as the power to know about all beings simultaneously;
    • Aishvarya (Sovereignty, derived from the word Ishvara), which consists in unchallenged rule over all;
    • Shakti (Energy), or power, which is the capacity to make the impossible possible;
    • Bala (Strength), which is the capacity to support everything by will and without any fatigue;
    • Vīrya (Vigor), or valour which indicates the power to retain immateriality as the supreme being in spite of being the material cause of mutable creations; and
    • Tejas (Splendor), which expresses his self-sufficiency and the capacity to overpower everything by his spiritual effulgence.; (cited from Bhakti Schools of Vedanta, by Swami Tapasyānanda.)

The Nyaya school of Hinduism has made several arguments regarding a monotheistic view. Omniscience is the capacity to know everything infinitely, or at least everything that can be known about a character including thoughts, feelings, life and the universe, etc. ... “Sovereign” redirects here. ... (Sanskrit ni-āyá, literally recursion, used in the sense of syllogism, inference)) is the name given to one of the six orthodox or astika schools of Hindu philosophy—specifically the school of logic. ...


The Naiyanikas have given an argument that such a God can only be one. In the Nyaya Kusumanjali, this is discussed against the proposition of the Mimamsa school—that let us assume there were many demigods (Devas) and sages (rishis) in the beginning, who wrote the Vedas and created the world. Nyaya says that: The main objective of the Purva (earlier) Mimamsa school was to establish the authority of the Vedas. ... For other uses, see Deva (disambiguation). ... A rishi (Sanskrit ऋषि: ) is a Hindu saint or sage and in its most strict canonical sense denotes a Vedic sage to whom Vedic hymns were originally revealed. // A Rishi is a person who can hold and transmit knowledge in the form of Light. ... The Vedas are part of the Hindu Shruti; these religious scriptures form part of the core of the Brahminical and Vedic traditions within Hinduism and are the inspirational, metaphysical and mythological foundation for later Vedanta, Yoga, Tantra and even Bhakti forms of Hinduism. ...

[if they assume such] omniscient beings, those endowed with the various superhuman faculties of assuming infinitesimal size, and so on, and capable of creating everything, then we reply that the law of parsimony bids us assume only one such, namely Him, the adorable Lord. There can be no confidence in a non-eternal and non omniscient being, and hence it follows that according to the system which rejects God, the tradition of the Veda is simultaneously overthrown; there is no other way open.

In other words, Nyaya says that the polytheist would have to give elaborate proofs for the existence and origin of his several celestial spirits, none of which would be logical. So it is much more logical to assume only One, eternal and omniscient God.

Monotheism in Vaishnavism

Further information: Bhagavan svayam

It is often argued that Vaishnavism is one of the earliest impicit manifistations of exclusive monotheism in the traditions of Vedas. Svayam bhagavan - (svayam bhagavān kṛṣṇa in IAST) is a Sanskrit term for the original deity of the Supreme God worshiped across many traditions of the Vaisnavism as the source of all, the monotheistic absolute Deity. [16][17] [18] Within Hinduism, Krishna is worshiped from a variety of perspectives.[19] However it must be noted that the Svayam bhagavan concept refers to the Supreme Being of the Orthodox Gaudiya Vaishnavism,[20] the Vallabha Sampradaya and the Nimbarka Sampradaya, where Krishna is worshiped as the source of all other avatars (including Vishnu).[21][22][23] A distinguishing feature of the Vaisnava teachings is that God, Krishna or Vishnu,[17] is a real person and His variegated creation is also real.[17][24] Vaishnavism is one of the principal traditions of Hinduism, and is distinguished from other schools by its primary worship of Vishnu (and his associated avatars) as the Supreme God. ... IAST, or International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration is the academic standard for writing the Sanskrit language with the Latin alphabet and very similar to National Library at Calcutta romanization standard being used with many Indic scripts. ... See also: List of deities Look up deity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Vaishnavism is the branch of Hinduism in which Vishnu or one of his avatars (i. ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Gaudiya Vaishnavism, (Bengal) Vaishnavism, is a sect of Hinduism founded by Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. ... The Sri Nimbarka Sampradaya (IAST ÅšrÄ« Nimbārka Sampradāya; Sanskrit श्रीनिम्बार्क सम्प्रदाय), also known as the Hamsa Sampradāya, Kumāra Sampradāya, Catuḥ Sana Sampradāya, Sanakādi Sampradāya etc, is one of the four authorised Vaiṣṇava Sampradāyas (philosophical schools characterised by leaders in disciplic succession) as... See Avatar (disambiguation) for other meanings. ... For other meanings, see Vishnu (disambiguation). ...


Krishna worshiped in Vaisnava religion as the Supreme came into being as soon as all creatures came into existence. Brahma was the first Vaisnava. Shiva Mahadeva is also a Vaisnava. The ancient Prajapaties are all Vaisnavas. Narada who is the born child of Brahma, is a Vaisnava. Thus pure monotheistic Vaisnava religion began with the beginning of history.[24] In the recent times man arrived once again at the instinctive monotheism of the Aryans and Vaisnavas.[25] This article is about the Hindu god of creation. ... For other uses, see Shiva (disambiguation). ... Mahadeva may refer to : Shiva and Vishnu - two gods in Hinduism Mahadeva (Buddhism) - a Buddhist monk and founder of the Mahasanghika school in about 320 BCE. Mahadeva - the name of an undertaker and a recipient of the Chief Ministers gold medal from the city of Bangalore, India Category: ... Vaishnavism is one of the principal divisions of Hinduism. ... Narada (Sanskrit: नारद, nārada) is the Hindu divine sage, who is an enduring chanter of the names Hari and Narayana which other names for Vishnu, considered to be the supreme God by Vaishnavites and many other Hindus. ...


Sikhism

Further information: Sikhism

Sikhism is a distinctly monotheistic faith that rose in northern India during the 16th and 17th centuries. Sikhs believe in one, timeless, omnipresent, supreme creator. The opening verse of the Guru Granth Sahib, known as the Mool Mantra signifies this: Sikhism (IPA: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ), founded on the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev and nine successive gurus in fifteenth century Northern India, is the fifth-largest religion in the world. ... Sikhism (IPA: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ), founded on the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev and nine successive gurus in fifteenth century Northern India, is the fifth-largest religion in the world. ... Religions Sikhism Scriptures Guru Granth Sahib Languages English, Punjabi] A Sikh (English: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is an adherent to Sikhism. ... The Adi Sri Guru Granth Sahib (Punjabi: , ), or Guru Granth Sahib, is the holy book, or scriptures, of the Sikhs. ... Mool Mantra is the very first Hymn that appears in the Sikh Holy Book called the Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji. ...

Punjabi: ੴ ਸਤਿ ਨਾਮੁ ਕਰਤਾ ਪੁਰਖੁ ਨਿਰਭਉ ਨਿਰਵੈਰੁ ਅਕਾਲ ਮੂਰਤਿ ਅਜੂਨੀ ਸੈਭੰ ਗੁਰ ਪ੍ਰਸਾਦਿ ॥
Transliteration: Ik ōaṅkār(or ikoo) sat nām karatā purakh nirabha'u niravair akāl mūrat ajūnī saibhaṁ gur prasād.
English: One Universal Creator God. The Name Is Truth. Creative Being Personified. No Fear. No Hatred. Image Of The Timeless One, Beyond Birth, Self-Existent. By Guru's Grace ~

The word "ੴ" is pronounced "Ik ōaṅkār" and is comprised to two parts. The first part is simply: "੧" - This is simply the digit "1" in Gurmukhi signifying the singularity of the creator. Together the word means: "There is only one creator god" Punjabi redirects here. ... Transliteration is the practice of transcribing a word or text written in one writing system into another writing system. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The Gurmukhi (ਗੁਰਮੁਖੀ or ਗੁਰਮੁੱਖੀ) script, derived from the Later Sharada script and standardised by Guru Angad Dev in the 16th century, was designed to write the Punjabi (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ) language. ...


It is often said that the 1430 pages of the Sri Guru Granth Sahib are all expansions on the Mool Mantra. Although the Sikhs have many names for God, they all refer to the same supreme being. Guru Granth Sahib (Granth is Punjabi for book, Sahib is Hindi meaning master, from Arabic, meaning companion, friend, owner, or master) or Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji or SGGS for short, is more than a holy book of the Sikhs. ... Mool Mantra is the very first Hymn that appears in the Sikh Holy Book called the Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji. ...


The Sikh holy scriptures refer to the One God who pervades the whole of Space and is the creator of all beings in the whole Universe. The following quotation from the Guru Granth Sahib highlights this point: For other uses, see Universe (disambiguation). ... The Adi Sri Guru Granth Sahib (Punjabi: , ), or Guru Granth Sahib, is the holy book, or scriptures, of the Sikhs. ...

"Chant, and meditate on the One God, who permeates and pervades the many beings of the whole Universe. God created it, and God spreads through it everywhere. Everywhere I look, I see God. The Perfect Lord is perfectly pervading and permeating the water, the land and the sky; there is no place without Him."

Guru Granth Sahib, Page 782

The Sikhs believe that God has many names - but they call God VāhiGurū. The word Guru means teacher in Sanskrit Similarly, the name Hari, Raam, Allah, Paarbrahm, Krsna which are names of God are frequently mentioned in the Sikh holy scriptures. The same god of the Muslims, Hindus, etc is known as the Akal Purakh (which means 'the true immortal', i.e God) or Waheguru, the primal being. The Adi Sri Guru Granth Sahib (Punjabi: , ), or Guru Granth Sahib, is the holy book, or scriptures, of the Sikhs. ... For other uses, see Guru (disambiguation). ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Hari (Sanskrit: हरि) is another name of Vishnu or God in Vaishnavism, Smarta or Advaitan Hinduism, and appears as the 650th name in the Vishnu sahasranama. ... RAAM may mean: United Arab List, Hebrew. ... Allah is the Arabic language word for God. ... Brahman (nominative ) is a concept of Hinduism. ... This article is about Krishna, the eighth avatar of Vishnu. ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... This article is about the Hindu religion; for other meanings of the word, see Hindu (disambiguation). ... Akal Purakh: is a Sikh name used for God. ... Waheguru (Punjabi: , or , ) means The Wonderful Lord in the Punjabi language. ...


It is also stated in Guru Granth Sahib ji that:

 Awal Allah Noor Upaya, Kudrat kae sab bandey ek noor tae sabh jag upjaya, kaun bhaley kaun mandey 

Which means that from that god we all are created nobody is above or beneath anyone.


Notes

  1. ^ “Monotheism”, in Britannica, 15th ed. (1986), 8:266.
  2. ^ Assman, Jan, Monotheism and Polytheism, in Johnston, Sarah Iles, Ancient Religions, pp. 17, The Belknap Press of Harvard University (2007), ISBN 978-0-674-02548-6
  3. ^ The Orthodox Church. Ware, Timothy. Penguin Books, 1997. ISBN 0-14-014656-3
  4. ^ The compound μονοθεισμός is current only in Modern Greek. There is a single attestation of μονόθεον in a Byzantine hymn (Canones Junii 20.6.43; A. Acconcia Longo and G. Schirò, Analecta hymnica graeca, vol. 11 e codicibus eruta Italiae inferioris. Rome: Istituto di Studi Bizantini e Neoellenici. Università di Roma, 1978)
  5. ^ R.G.Vincent, "Monotheism (in the Bible)" in New Catholic Encyclopedia, (1967), 9:1066.
  6. ^ Ecumenical, from Koine Greek oikoumenikos, literally meaning worldwide but generally assumed to be limited to the Roman Empire as in Augustus' claim to be ruler of the oikoumene/world; the earliest extant uses of the term for a council are Eusebius' Life of Constantine 3.6[1] around 338 "σύνοδον οἰκουμενικὴν συνεκρότει" (he convoked an Ecumenical council), Athanasius' Ad Afros Epistola Synodica in 369[2], and the Letter in 382 to Pope Damasus I and the Latin bishops from the First Council of Constantinople[3]
  7. ^ For Muslim critiques, see Allah Almighty's Response to pagan and trinitarian polytheism; Miller, Dr. Gary, A concise reply to Christianity.
  8. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named EncRel
  9. ^ a b Asma Barlas, Believing Women in Islam, p.96
  10. ^ D. Gimaret, Tawhid, Encyclopedia of Islam
  11. ^ Ramadan (2005), p.230
  12. ^ Effendi, Shoghi (1944). God Passes By. Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, p. 139. ISBN 0877430209. 
  13. ^ Smith, P. (1999). A Concise Encyclopedia of the Bahá'í Faith. Oxford, UK: Oneworld Publications. ISBN 1851681841. 
  14. ^ Momen, M. (1997). A Short Introduction to the Bahá'í Faith. Oxford, UK: One World Publications. ISBN 1851682090. 
  15. ^ hinduism.iskcon.com/tradition/1102.htm.
  16. ^ Delmonico, N. (2004). "The History Of Indic Monotheism And Modern Chaitanya Vaishnavism". The Hare Krishna Movement: The Postcharismatic Fate of a Religious Transplant. 
  17. ^ a b c Elkman, S.M.; Gosvami, J. (1986). Jiva Gosvamin's Tattvasandarbha: A Study on the Philosophical and Sectarian Development of the Gaudiya Vaisnava Movement. Motilal Banarsidass Pub. 
  18. ^ Klostermaier, K. (1974). "The Bhaktirasamrtasindhubindu of Visvanatha Cakravartin". Journal of the American Oriental Society 94 (1): 96-107. 
  19. ^ Mahony, W.K. (1987). "Perspectives on Krsna's Various Personalities". History of Religions 26 (3): 333-335. 
  20. ^ Kennedy, M.T. (1925). The Chaitanya Movement: A Study of the Vaishnavism of Bengal. H. Milford, Oxford university press. 
  21. ^ Ojha, P.N. (1978). Aspects of Medieval Indian Society and Culture. BR Pub. Corp.; New Delhi: DK Publishers' Distributors. 
  22. ^ Bhag 1.3.28 "All of the above-mentioned incarnations are either plenary portions or portions of the plenary portions of the Lord, but Lord Sri Krishna is the original Personality of Godhead."
  23. ^ See McDaniel, June, "Folk Vaishnavism and Ṭhākur Pañcāyat: Life and status among village Krishna statues" in Beck 2005, p. 39
  24. ^ a b Richard Thompson, Ph. D. (December 1994). "Reflections on the Relation Between Religion and Modern Rationalism". 
  25. ^ Dalmia-luderitz, V. (1992). "Hariscandra of Banaras and the reassessment of Vaisnava bhakti in the late nineteenth century". Devotional Literature in South Asia: Current Research, 1985-8. 

Main article: Greek language Modern Greek (Νέα Ελληνικά or Νεοελληνική, lit. ... Koine redirects here. ... Oikoumene, from the Greek Οικουμένη, which is the present participle of the verb Οικώ, meaning to inhabit. ... Pope Damasus I ( 305-383) was Pope from 366. ... The First Council of Constantinople (second ecumenical council) was called by Theodosius I in 381 to confirm the Nicene Creed and deal with other matters of the Arian controversy . ... The Encyclopedia of Islam (EI) is a scholarly encyclopedia covering all aspects of Islamic civilization and history. ... The last photograph of Shoghi Effendi, taken a few months before he died. ...

Further reading

  • Dever, William G.; (2003). Who Were the Early Israelites?, William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., Grand Rapids, MI.
  • Silberman, Neil A.; and colleagues, Simon and Schuster; (2001) The Bible Unearthed New York.
  • Whitelam, Keith; (1997). The Invention of Ancient Israel, Routledge, New York.
  • Hans Köchler, The Concept of Monotheism in Islam and Christianity. Vienna: Braumüller, 1982. ISBN 3-7003-0339-4 (Google Print)

Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... Hans Köchler (born October 18, 1948 in Schwaz, Tyrol, Austria) is a professor of Philosophy at the University of Innsbruck, Austria. ...

See also

Symbols of the three main Abrahamic religions: Judaism, Christianity and Islam Map showing the prevalence of Abrahamic (purple) and Eastern (yellow) religions in each country. ... Monism is the metaphysical position that all is of one essential essence, substance or energy. ... Kashmir Shaivism is a school of spiritual teaching and practice that arose during the eighth century in Kashmir, India. ... The People of Monotheism (Arabic: Ahl al-Tawhid) is one a name the Druze use for themselves. ... Psychology of religion is psychologys theory of religious experiences and beliefs. ... This article is about Kardecist spiritism. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... // In Hinduism the Vedic pantheon comprises clans of anthropomorphic deities as well as deified natural phenomena. ... Demiurge Demiurgus Latin Demiourgos Greek Demiurg race in computer game This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Theism is the belief in the existence of one or more divinities or deities. ... Polytheism is belief in or worship of multiple gods or deities. ... Atheist redirects here. ... For other uses, see Dualism (disambiguation). ... Pantheism (Greek: πάν ( pan ) = all and θεός ( theos ) = God) literally means God is All and All is God. It is the view that everything is of an all-encompassing immanent abstract God; or that the universe, or nature, and God are equivalent. ... Henotheism (Greek heis theos one god) is a term coined by Max Müller, to mean devotion to a single God while accepting the existence of other gods. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
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  Results from FactBites:
 
Monotheism - definition of Monotheism - Labor Law Talk Dictionary (1032 words)
Deism is a form of monotheism in which it is believed that one god exists, however, a Deist comes to his belief through reason, and rejects any religious revelations such as the Bible, the Tanakh, or the Qur'an.
Worship of a single god within a pantheon may also evolve into a form of monotheism, as in the case of the Aten cult in the reign of the Egyptian pharaoh Akhenaton, under the wifely influence of the Eastern-originating Nefertiti.
Monotheism can be divided into different types on the basis of its attitude to polytheism: inclusive monotheism claims that all polytheistic deities are just different names for the single monotheistic God; exclusive monotheism claims that these deities are distinct from the monotheistic God, and false (either invented, or demonic, in nature.)
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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