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Encyclopedia > Monolithic kernel
Graphical overview of a monolithic kernel
Graphical overview of a monolithic kernel

A monolithic kernel is a kernel architecture where the entire kernel is run in kernel space in supervisor mode. In common with other architectures (microkernel, hybrid kernels), the kernel defines a high-level virtual interface over computer hardware, with a set of primitives or system calls to implement operating system services such as process management, concurrency, and memory management in one or more modules.[citation needed] Image File history File links Please see the file description page for further information. ... A monolithic architecture is where processing, data and the user interface all reside on the same system. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... A kernel connects the application software to the hardware of a computer. ... In computer engineering the kernel is the core of an operating system. ... In computer terms, supervisor mode is a hardware-mediated flag which can be changed by code running in system-level software. ... Graphical overview of a microkernel A microkernel is a minimal computer operating system kernel providing only basic operating system services (system calls), while other services (commonly provided by kernels) are provided by user-space programs called servers. ... Graphical overview of a hybrid kernel Hybrid kernels are essentially microkernels that have some non-essential machine code in the kernel address space in order for that code to run more quickly than it would were it to be in user space. ... In computing, a system call is the mechanism used by an application program to request service from the operating system. ... In computing, a process is an instance of a computer program that is being executed. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Edsger Dijkstra The Dining Philosophers, a classic problem involving concurrency and shared resources In computer science, concurrency is a property of systems which consist of computations that execute overlapped in time, and which may permit the sharing of common resources between those... Memory management is the act of managing computer memory. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Modularity (programming). ...


Even if every module servicing these operations is separate from the whole, the code integration is very tight and difficult to do correctly, and, since all the modules run in the same address space, a bug in one module can bring down the whole system. However, when the implementation is complete and trustworthy, the tight internal integration of components allows the low-level features of the underlying system to be effectively utilized, making a good monolithic kernel highly efficient. In a monolithic kernel, all the systems such as the filesystem management run in an area called the kernel mode.[citation needed] See Filing system for this term as it is used in libraries and offices In computing, a file system is a method for storing and organizing computer files and the data they contain to make it easy to find and access them. ... In processors with memory protection, kernel mode (as opposed to user mode) is the mode in which the operating system kernel runs. ...


Loadable modules

More modern monolithic kernels such as OpenVMS, Linux, FreeBSD and Solaris can dynamically load (and unload) executable modules at runtime. This modularity of the kernel is at the binary (image) level and is not at the kernel architecture level. The two can be completely independent, but are sometimes confused.[clarify] Modular monolithic kernels are not to be confused with the architectural level of modularity inherent in microkernels or hybrid kernels. Practically, dynamically loading modules is simply a more flexible way of handling the kernel image at runtime - as opposed to rebooting with a different kernel image. The modules allow easy extension of the kernel's capabilities as required. Dynamically loadable modules incur a small overhead when compared to building the module into the kernel image, however in some cases loading modules dynamically (as-needed) helps to keep the amount of code running in kernel space to a minimum.[citation needed]. OpenVMS[1] (Open Virtual Memory System or just VMS) is the name of a high-end computer server operating system that runs on the VAX[2] and Alpha[3] family of computers developed by Digital Equipment Corporation of Maynard, Massachusetts (DIGITAL was then purchased by Compaq, and is now owned... The Linux kernel is a Unix-like operating system kernel. ... FreeBSD is a free, open source Unix-like operating system descended from Unix via the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) branch through 386BSD and 4. ... Solaris is a computer operating system developed by Sun Microsystems. ... Graphical overview of a microkernel A microkernel is a minimal computer operating system kernel providing only basic operating system services (system calls), while other services (commonly provided by kernels) are provided by user-space programs called servers. ... Graphical overview of a hybrid kernel Hybrid kernels are essentially microkernels that have some non-essential machine code in the kernel address space in order for that code to run more quickly than it would were it to be in user space. ... In computer engineering the kernel is the core of an operating system. ...


Monolithic kernel examples

Diagram of the relationships between several Unix-like systems A Unix-like operating system is one that behaves in a manner similar to a Unix system, while not necessarily conforming to or being certified to any version of the Single UNIX Specification. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section can be improved by converting lengthy lists to text. ... Syllable is a free software hobby operating system for Intel x86 Pentium and compatible processors. ... Filiation of Unix and Unix-like systems Unix (officially trademarked as UNIX®) is a computer operating system originally developed in the 1960s and 1970s by a group of AT&T employees at Bell Labs including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie and Douglas McIlroy. ... Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD, sometimes called Berkeley Unix) is the Unix derivative distributed by the University of California, Berkeley, starting in the 1970s. ... Solaris is a computer operating system developed by Sun Microsystems. ... Instructions on how to use the directory command. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Microsofts disk operating system, MS-DOS, was Microsofts implementation of DOS, which was the first popular operating system for the IBM PC, and until recently, was widely used on the PC compatible platform. ... Windows 95 is a consumer-oriented graphical user interface-based operating system. ... Windows 98 (codenamed Memphis) is a graphical operating system released on June 25, 1998 by Microsoft and the successor to Windows 95. ... Windows Millennium Edition, or Windows Me (IPA pronunciation: [miː], [ɛm iː]), is a hybrid 16-bit/32-bit graphical operating system released on September 14, 2000 by Microsoft. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Screenshot of Mac OS 8. ... OpenVMS[1] (Open Virtual Memory System or just VMS) is the name of a high-end computer server operating system that runs on the VAX[2] and Alpha[3] family of computers developed by Digital Equipment Corporation of Maynard, Massachusetts (DIGITAL was then purchased by Compaq, and is now owned... The XTS-400 is a multi-level secure computer system. ...

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Kernel (computer science) (Linux Reviews) (5719 words)
While monolithic kernels will try to achieve these goals by executing all the code in the same address space to increase the performance of the system, microkernels run most of their services in user space, aiming to improve maintainability and modularity of the codebase.
Multi-tasking kernels are able to give the user the illusion that the number of processes being run simultaneously on the computer is higher than the maximum number of processes the computer is physically able to run simultaneously.
While monolithic kernels execute all of their code in the same address space (kernel space) to increase the performance of the system, microkernels try to run most of their services in user space, aiming to improve maintainability and modularity of the codebase.
Kernel (1095 words)
The monolithic approach defines a high-level virtual interface over the hardware, with a set of primitives or system calls to implement operating system services such as process management, concurrency, and memory management in several modules that run in supervisor mode.
Proponents of the monolithic kernel approach make the case that if code is not correct, it does not belong in a kernel, and if it is, there is little advantage in the microkernel approach.
Monolithic kernels are typically preferred over microkernels due to the lower level of complexity of dealing with all system control code in one address space.
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