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Encyclopedia > Monocyte
Monocyte

A monocyte is a leukocyte, part of the human body's immune system that protects against blood-borne pathogens and moves quickly (aprox. 8-12 hours) to sites of infection in the tissues. Monocytes are usually identified in stained smears by their large bilobate nucleus. Image File history File links PBMonozyt. ... Image File history File links PBMonozyt. ... White Blood Cells is also the name of a White Stripes album. ... Physical Features of the Human Body The human body is the entire physical structure of a human organism. ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... A pathogen (literally birth of pain from the Greek παθογένεια) is a biological agent that can cause disease to its host. ...

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Physiology

Monocyte
Monocyte

Monocytes are produced by the bone marrow from haematopoietic stem cell precursors called monoblasts. Monocytes circulate in the bloodstream for about one to three days and then typically move into tissues throughout the body. They constitute between three to eight percent of the leukocytes in the blood. In the tissues monocytes mature into different types of macrophages at different anatomical locations. Image File history File links Monocyte. ... Image File history File links Monocyte. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Mouse embryonic stem cells. ... Monoblast Monoblasts are normally found in bone marrow and do not appear in the normal peripheral blood. ... Macrophages (Greek: big eaters) are cells found in tissues that are responsible for phagocytosis of pathogens, dead cells and cellular debris. ...


Monocytes are responsible for phagocytosis (ingestion) of foreign substances in the body. Monocytes can perform phagocytosis using intermediary (opsonising) proteins such as antibodies or complement that coat the pathogen, as well as by binding to the microbe directly via pattern-recognition receptors that recognize pathogens. Monocytes are also capable of killing infected host cells via antibody, termed antibody-mediated cellular cytotoxicity. Vacuolization may be present in a cell that has recently phagocytized foreign matter. Steps of a macrophage ingesting a pathogen: a. ... An opsonin is any molecule that acts as a binding enhancer for the process of phagocytosis. ... Each antibody binds to a specific antigen; an interaction similar to a lock and key. ... A complement protein attacking an invader. ... Schematic of typical animal cell, showing subcellular components. ...


Monocytes which migrate from the bloodstream to other tissues are called macrophages. Macrophages are responsible for protecting tissues from foreign substances but are also suspected to be the predominant cells involved in triggering atherosclerosis. They are cells that possess a large smooth nucleus, a large area of cytoplasm and many internal vesicles for processing foreign material. A macrophage of a mouse stretching its arms to engulf two particles, possibly pathogens Macrophages (Greek: big eaters, from makros large + phagein eat) are cells within the tissues that originate from specific white blood cells called monocytes. ... In cell biology, a vesicle is a relatively small and enclosed compartment, separated from the cytosol by at least one lipid bilayer. ...


Diagnostic use

A scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of normal circulating human blood. One can see red blood cells, several knobby white blood cells including lymphocytes, a monocyte, a neutrophil, and many small disc-shaped platelets.
A scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of normal circulating human blood. One can see red blood cells, several knobby white blood cells including lymphocytes, a monocyte, a neutrophil, and many small disc-shaped platelets.

A monocyte count is part of a complete blood count and is expressed either as a ratio of monocytes to the total number of white blood cells counted, or by absolute numbers. Both may be useful in determining or refuting a possible diagnosis. Monocytosis is the state of excess monocytes in the peripheral blood. It may be indicative of various disease states. Examples of processes that can increase a monocyte count include:
- chronic inflammation
- stress response
- hyperadrenocorticism
- immune-mediated disease
- pyogranulomatous disease
- necrosis
- red cell regeneration
Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1800x2239, 1365 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Immune system Scanning electron microscope White blood cell Platelet Neutrophil granulocyte Lymphocyte Monocyte ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1800x2239, 1365 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Immune system Scanning electron microscope White blood cell Platelet Neutrophil granulocyte Lymphocyte Monocyte ... Schematics of shorthand for complete blood count commonly used by physicians. ... Monocytosis is an increase in the number of circulating monocytes. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into inflammation. ... In medical terms, stress is the disruption of homeostasis through physical or psychological stimuli. ... Cushings syndrome (also called hypercortisolism or hyperadrenocorticism) is an endocrine disorder caused by high levels of cortisol in the blood from a variety of causes, including primary pituitary adenoma (known as Cushings disease), primary adrenal hyperplasia or neoplasia, ectopic ACTH production (e. ... Immune-mediated diseases are conditions which result from abnormal activity of the bodys immune system. ... Necrosis (in Greek Νεκρός = Dead) is the name given to accidental death of cells and living tissue. ... “Red cell” redirects here. ...


Dendritic cells

Monocytes can be used to generate dendritic cells in vitro. (Sallusto et al. 1995) Dendritic cells (DC) are immune cells and form part of the mammal immune system. ...


See also

Agranulocytes are a category of white blood cells characterised by the absence of granules in their cytoplasm. ... Schematics of shorthand for complete blood count commonly used by physicians. ... Haematopoiesis is the formation of blood cellular components. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A phagocyte is a cell that ingests and destroys foreign matter such as microorganisms or debris via a process known as phagocytosis. ... “White Blood Cells” redirects here. ...

References

F. Sallusto et al. (1995) Dendritic cells use macropinocytosis and the mannose receptor to concentrate macromolecules in the major histocompatibility complex class-ii compartment down-regulation by cytokines and bacterial products, Journal of Experimental Medicine 182:389


External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Expression of the monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 receptor CCR2 is increased in hypercholesterolemia: differential ... (6607 words)
Expression of the monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 receptor CCR2 is increased in hypercholesterolemia: differential effects of plasma lipoproteins on monocyte function -- Han et al.
Monocyte CCR2 expression was determined by semi-quantitative RT-PCR as described in Figure 1 and the expression levels before (before) and after (after) estrogen replacement therapy were compared.
THP-1 monocytes were treated with HDL as described in Figure 5 and the effect on the expression of functional CCR2 protein on the cell surface was analyzed by ligand binding assay as described under Materials and Methods.
MedFriendly.com: Monocyte (475 words)
A monocyte is a relatively large type of white blood cell with one nucleus.
Monocytes contain delicate chromatin material with a lacy or stringy pattern that appears more condensed where the strands are in contact with each other.
Monocytes are normally found in loose connective tissue, the spleen, lymph nodes, and bone marrow.
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