FACTOID # 24: Looking for table makers? Head to Mississippi, with an overwhlemingly large number of employees in furniture manufacturing.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Monoamine oxidase inhibitor

Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are a class of powerful antidepressant drugs prescribed for the treatment of depression. They are particularly effective in treating atypical depression, and have also shown efficacy in smoking cessation. Ahu Tongariki, restored by Chilean archaeologist Claudio Cristino in the 1990s This is about the statues of Easter Island, for the seamount see Moai (seamount) Main article: Easter Island Moai (or mo‘ai) are monolithic human figures carved from rock on the Polynesian island of Rapa Nui (Easter Island), mostly... Image File history File links Gen w/ Deepview from PDB:1GOS File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Gen w/ Deepview from PDB:1GOS File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Monoamine oxidase Monoamine oxidases (singular abbreviation MAO) (EC 1. ... Prozac, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, Venlafaxine An antidepressant is a psychiatric medication or other substance (nutrient or herb) used for alleviating depression or dysthymia (milder depression). ... On the Threshold of Eternity. ... Atypical Depression (AD) is a subtype of Dysthymia and Major Depression characterized by mood reactivity — being able to experience improved mood in response to positive events. ... Efficacy is the ability to produce a desired amount of a desired effect. ...


Due to potentially lethal dietary and drug interactions, MAOIs had been reserved as a last line of defense, used only when other classes of antidepressant drugs (for example selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and tricyclic antidepressants) have been tried unsuccessfully. Recently, however, a patch form of the drug selegiline, called Emsam, was developed. It was approved for use by the FDA on February 28, 2006.[1] When applied transdermally the drug does not enter the gastro-intestinal system as it does when taken orally, thereby decreasing the dangers of dietary interactions associated with MAOI pills. SSRI redirects here; for other uses, see SSRI (disambiguation). ... Chemical structure of the tricyclic antidepressant amitriptyline Tricyclic antidepressants are a class of antidepressant drugs first used in the 1950s. ... Selegiline (l-deprenyl, Eldepryl® or Anipryl® [veterinary]) is a drug used for the treatment of early-stage Parkinsons disease and senile dementia. ... Emsam is a transdermal patch for the MAOI antidepressant Selegiline. ... is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Contents

Uses

Therapeutic use

In the past they were prescribed for those resistant to tricyclic antidepressant therapy, but newer MAOIs are now sometimes used as first-line therapy. They are also used for treating agoraphobia or social anxiety. Currently, the availability of selegiline and moclobemide provides a safer alternative, although these substances are not always as effective as their predecessors. Chemical structure of the tricyclic antidepressant amitriptyline. ... Agoraphobia is an anxiety disorder precipitated by the fear of having a symptom attack or panic attack in a setting from which there is no easy means of escape. ... Social anxiety is an experience of fear, apprehension or worry regarding social situations and being evaluated by others. ... Selegiline (l-deprenyl, Eldepryl® or Anipryl® [veterinary]) is a drug used for the treatment of early-stage Parkinsons disease and senile dementia. ... Moclobemide (sold as Aurorix®, Manerix®) is a psychiatric drug primarily used to treat depression and social anxiety. ...


MAO inhibitors can also be used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease (by affecting dopaminergic neurons), as well as providing an alternative for migraine prophylaxis. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Dopamine#Functions in the Brain. ... Prophylaxis refers to any medical or public health procedure whose purpose is to prevent, rather than treat or cure, disease. ...


Mode of action

MAOIs act by inhibiting the activity of monoamine oxidase preventing the breakdown of monoamine neurotransmitters, which increases their availability. There are two isoforms of monoamine oxidase, MAO-A and MAO-B. MAO-A preferentially deaminates serotonin, melatonin, epinephrine and norepinephrine. MAO-B preferentially deaminates phenylethylamine and trace amines. Dopamine is equally deaminated by both types. Many formulations have forms of fluoride attached to assist in permeating the blood-brain barrier, which is suspected as a factor in pineal gland effects. Monoamine oxidase Monoamine oxidases (singular abbreviation MAO) (EC 1. ... In biochemistry, monoamines are a group of organic compounds containing only one amino group. ... Chemical structure of D-aspartic acid, a common amino acid neurotransmitter. ... In biology, a protein isoform is a version of a protein with some small differences, usually a splice variant or the product of some posttranslational modification. ... Deamination is the removal of an amine group from a molecule. ... For the professional wrestling stable, see Ravens Nest#Serotonin. ... Melatonin, 5-methoxy-N-acetyltryptamine, is a hormone found in all living creatures from algae[1] to humans, at levels that vary in a diurnal cycle. ... Adrenaline redirects here. ... Norepinephrine (INN)(abbr. ... Phenethylamine is an alkaloid and monoamine. ... Trace amines are endogenous compounds structurally related to classical biogenic amines, such as catecholamines, serotonin and histamine. ... For other uses, see Dopamine (disambiguation). ... Fluoride is the ionic form of fluorine. ... The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a membranic structure that acts primarily to protect the brain from chemicals in the blood, while still allowing essential metabolic function. ... The pineal gland (also called the pineal body or epiphysis) is a small endocrine gland in the brain. ...


Reversibility

The early MAOIs inhibited monoamine oxidase irreversibly. When they react with monoamine oxidase, they permanently deactivate it, and the enzyme cannot function until it has been replaced by the body, which can take about two weeks. A few newer MAOIs, notably moclobemide, are reversible, meaning that they are able to detach from the enzyme to facilitate usual catabolism of the substrate. The level of inhibition in this way is governed by the respective concentrations of the substrate and the MAOI. Moclobemide (sold as Aurorix®, Manerix®) is a psychiatric drug primarily used to treat depression and social anxiety. ... Anabolism is the aspect of metabolism that contributes to growth. ... For other uses, see Substrate. ...


Harmaline found in Peganum harmala is a "reversible inhibitor of MAO-A (RIMA)."[2] Harmala, also known at various times as Telepathine and Banisterine, is a blanket term for a group of naturally occurring beta-carbolines including harmine, harmaline, and others. ... Binomial name Peganum harmala Syrian Rue (Peganum harmala) is a plant of the family Nitrariaceae. ... For the Icelandic ríma poetry see rímur. ...


Selectivity

In addition to reversibility, MAOIs differ by their selectivity of the MAO receptor. Some MAOIs inhibit both MAO-A and MAO-B equally, other MAOIs have been developed that target one over the other.


MAO-A inhibition reduces the breakdown of primarily serotonin, epinephrine, and norepinephrine and thus has a higher risk of serotonin syndrome and/or a hypertensive crisis. Tyramine is broken down by MAO-A, therefore inhibiting its action may result in excessive build up of it, so diet must be monitored for tyramine intake. For the professional wrestling stable, see Ravens Nest#Serotonin. ... Adrenaline redirects here. ... Norepinephrine (INN)(abbr. ... Serotonin syndrome is a rare, but potentially life-threatening adverse drug reaction that results from intentional self-poisoning, therapeutic drug use, inadvertent interactions between drugs, or the recreational use of certain drugs. ... A hypertensive emergency is severe hypertension with acute impairment of an organ system (especially the central nervous system, cardiovascular system and/or the renal system) and the possibility of irreversible organ-damage. ... In organic chemistry tyramine (4-hydroxy-phenethylamine, para-tyramine, p-tyramine) is a monoamine compound derived from the amino acid tyrosine. ...


MAO-B inhibition reduces the breakdown mainly of dopamine and phenethylamine so there are no dietary restrictions associated with this. Two such drugs, selegiline and rasagiline have been approved by the FDA without dietary restrictions, except in high dosage treatment where they lose their selectivity. [1][3] For other uses, see Dopamine (disambiguation). ... Phenethylamine, or β-Phenylethylamine, is an alkaloid and monoamine. ... Selegiline (l-deprenyl, Eldepryl® or Anipryl® [veterinary]) is a drug used for the treatment of early-stage Parkinsons disease and senile dementia. ... Rasagiline (trade name Azilect®) is a irreversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase used as a monotherapy in early Parkinsons disease or as an adjunct therapy in more advanced cases. ...


Dangers

When ingested orally, MAOIs inhibit the catabolism of dietary amines. Sufficient intestinal MAO-A inhibition can lead to hypertensive crisis, when foods containing tyramine are consumed (so-called "cheese syndrome"), or hyperserotonemia if foods containing tryptophan are consumed. The amount required to cause a reaction exhibits great individual variation and depends on the degree of inhibition, which in turn depends on dosage and selectivity. A hypertensive emergency is severe hypertension with acute impairment of an organ system (especially the central nervous system, cardiovascular system and/or the renal system) and the possibility of irreversible organ-damage. ... In organic chemistry tyramine (4-hydroxy-phenethylamine, para-tyramine, p-tyramine) is a monoamine compound derived from the amino acid tyrosine. ... Cheese syndrome is the name of a condition that is commonly associated with the usage of monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), a class of anti-depressants. ... Serotonin syndrome is a rare, but potentially life-threatening adverse drug reaction that results from intentional self-poisoning, therapeutic drug use, inadvertent interactions between drugs, or the recreational use of certain drugs. ... Tryptophan (abbreviated as Trp or W)[1] is one of the 20 standard amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins, and an essential amino acid in the human diet. ...


The exact mechanism by which tyramine causes a hypertensive reaction is not well understood, but it is assumed that tyramine displaces norepinephrine from the storage vesicles.[4] This may trigger a cascade in which excessive amounts of norepinephrine can lead to a hypertensive crisis. Another theory suggests that proliferation and accumulation of catecholamines causes hypertensive crises. Catecholamines are chemical compounds derived from the amino acid tyrosine that act as hormones or neurotransmitters. ...


Tyrosine is the precursor to catecholamines, not tyramine. Tyramine is a breakdown product of tyrosine. In the gut and during fermentation tyrosine, an amino acid, is decarboxylated to tyramine. Ordinarily, tyramine is deaminated in the liver to an inactive metabolite, but when the hepatic MAO (primarily MAO-A) is inhibited, the "first-pass" clearance of tyramine is blocked and circulating tyramine levels can climb. Elevated tyramine competes with tyrosine for transport across the blood-brain barrier (via aromatic amino acid transport) where it can then enter adrenergic nerve terminals. Once in the cytoplasmic space, tyramine will be transported via the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT) into synaptic vesicles thereby displacing norepinephrine. The mass transfer of norepinephrine from its vesicular storage space into the extracellular space via mass action can precipitate the hypertensive crisis. Hypertensive crises can sometimes result in stroke or cardiac arrhythmia if not treated. This risk is generally not present with RIMAs. Both kinds of intestinal MAO inhbition can cause hyperpyrexia, nausea and psychosis if foods high in levodopa are consumed. Tyrosine (from the Greek tyros, meaning cheese, as it was first discovered in 1846 by German chemist Justus von Liebig in the protein casein from cheese[1][2]), 4-hydroxyphenylalanine, or 2-amino-3(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propanoic acid, is one of the 20 amino acids that are used by cells... A Decarboxylation is any chemical reaction in which a carboxyl group (-COOH) is split off from a compound as carbon dioxide (CO2). ... The liver is the largest internal organ in the human body, and is an organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. ... Epinephrine Norepinephrine The adrenergic receptors (or adrenoceptors) are a class of G protein-coupled receptors that are targets of the catecholamines. ... Schematic showing the cytoplasm, with major components of a typical animal cell. ... The Vesicular Monoamine Transporter is a transport protein located within the presynaptic cell. ... For the Icelandic ríma poetry see rímur. ... In medicine, hyperpyrexia is an excessive and unusual elevation of body temperature above 107. ... For other uses, see Psychosis (disambiguation). ... Levodopa (INN) or L-DOPA (3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine) is an intermediate in dopamine biosynthesis. ...


Chronic use of MAOIs may provide some antidepressant effects that are thought to be mediated by metabolism of tyramine to octopamine, a reaction catalyzed by phenyl-N-methyl transferase that normally converts dopamine to norepinephrine. Octopamine may then act as a "false transmitter" in that it is stored and released like the endogenous transmitter norepinephrine. However, it is a poor agonist of postsynaptic adrenoceptors while retaining agonist activity at presynaptic autoreceptors. This action reduces adrenergic transmission by diminishing postsynaptic receptor activation and by a presynaptic autoinhibitory effect. Finally, octopamine may serve as an agonist at a novel "trace amine" receptor expressed at low levels throughout the brain. Octopamine is a biogenic amine which is closely related to noradrenaline, and has a similar action to dopamine. ...


Examples of foods and drinks with potentially high levels of tyramine include fermented substances, such as Chianti and other aged wines, and aged cheeses. Liver is also a well-known source. (See a list of foods containing tyramine). Examples of levodopa-containing foods include broad beans (also known in the United States as fava beans). These diet restrictions are not necessary for those taking selective MAO-B inhibitors. In organic chemistry tyramine (4-hydroxy-phenethylamine, para-tyramine, p-tyramine) is a monoamine compound derived from the amino acid tyrosine. ... Valdelsa (part of Chianti Colli Fiorentini sub-area). ... For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... Cheese is a solid food made from the milk of cows, goats, sheep, and other mammals. ... The liver is the largest internal organ in the human body, and is an organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. ... This is a list of foods containing tyramine, which can produce hypertensive crises in individuals who take monoamine oxidase inhibitors and can also trigger migraines. ... Binomial name L. Vicia faba, the broad bean, fava bean, faba bean, horse bean, field bean, tic bean, or foul is a species of bean (Fabaceae) native to north Africa and southwest Asia, and extensively cultivated elsewhere. ...


It deserves separate mention that some meat extracts and yeast extracts (Bovril, Marmite, Vegemite) contain extremely high levels of tyramine, and should not be used with these medications. Bovril in a 250g jar Bovril is the trademarked name of a thick, salty beef extract, sold in a distinctive, bulbous jar. ... A jar of the British version of Marmite Marmite is a British and New Zealand savoury spread made from yeast extract, a by-product of beer brewing. ... Vegemite on toast. ...


When MAOIs were first introduced, these risks were not known, and over the following four decades, fewer than 100 people have died from hypertensive crisis.[citation needed] Presumably due to the sudden onset and violent appearance of the reaction, MAOIs gained a reputation for being so dangerous that, for a while, they were taken off the market in America entirely. It is now known that, used as directed under the care of a qualified psychiatrist, this class of drugs remains a safe alternative for intermediate- to long-term use.


The most significant risk associated with the use of MAOIs, is the potential for interactions with over-the-counter and prescription medicines, illicit drugs and certain supplements (e.g. St. John's Wort). It is vital that a doctor supervise such combinations to avoid adverse reactions. For this reason, many users carry an MAOI-card, which lets emergency medical personnel know what drugs to avoid. (E.g. adrenaline dosage should be reduced by 75%, and duration is extended) Binomial name Hypericum perforatum Linnaeus, St Johns wort used alone refers to the species Hypericum perforatum, also known as Klamath weed or Goat weed, but is used with qualifiers to refer to any species of the genus Hypericum. ...


MAOIs should not be combined with other psychoactive substances (antidepressants, illicit drugs, painkillers, stimulants, etc.) except under expert care. Certain combinations can cause lethal reactions, common examples including SSRIs, tricyclics, MDMA, meperidine, tramadol, and dextromethorphan. Agents with actions on epinephrine, norepinephrine or dopamine must be administered at much lower doses due to potentiation and prolonged effect. Purely opiate-acting analgesics, such as morphine and buprenorphine may be used safely with MAOIs, but may require a dosage adjustment. SSRI redirects here; for other uses, see SSRI (disambiguation). ... Chemical structure of the tricyclic antidepressant amitriptyline. ... ecstasy and religious ecstasy MDMA, most commonly known today by the street name ecstasy, is a synthetic entactogen of the phenethylamine family whose primary effect is to stimulate the brain to rapidly secrete large amounts of serotonin, causing a general sense of openness, empathy, energy, euphoria, and well-being. ... Pethidine (INN) or meperidine (USAN) (also referred to as: isonipecaine; lidol; operidine; pethanol; piridosal; Algil®; Alodan®; Centralgin®; Demerol®; Dispadol®; Dolantin®; Dolestine®; Dolosal®; Dolsin®; Mefedina®) is a fast-acting opioid analgesic drug. ... Tramadol (INN) (IPA: ) is an atypical opioid which is a centrally acting analgesic, used for treating moderate to severe pain. ... Dextromethorphan (DXM or DM) is an antitussive (cough suppressant) drug found in many over-the-counter cold and cough medicines. ... An analgesic (colloquially known as a painkiller) is any member of the diverse group of drugs used to relieve pain (achieve analgesia). ... This article is about the drug. ... Buprenorphine, is an opioid drug with partial agonist and antagonist actions. ...


Drug interactions

Pseudoephedrine (commonly abbreviated as PSE) is a sympathomimetic amine commonly used as a decongestant. ... Reserpine is an indole alkaloid antipsychotic and antihypertensive drug that has been used for the control of high blood pressure and for the relief of psychotic behaviors, although because of the development of better drugs for these purposes and because of its numerous side-effects, it is rarely used today. ... Guanethidine is an antihypertensive drug. ... Chemical structure of the tricyclic antidepressant amitriptyline. ... Levodopa (INN) or L-DOPA (3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine) is an intermediate in dopamine biosynthesis. ... An anticholinergic agent is a member of a class of pharmaceutical compounds which serve to reduce the effects mediated by acetylcholine in the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system. ... An H1 antihistamine is a histamine antagonist which serves to reduce or eliminate effects mediated by histamine, an endogenous chemical mediator released during allergic reactions, through action at the H1 receptor. ... Barbituric acid, the basic structure of all barbiturates Barbiturates are drugs that act as central nervous system depressants, and by virtue of this they produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to anesthesia. ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ... An opioid is a chemical substance that has a morphine-like action in the body. ... Pethidine (INN) or meperidine (USAN) (also referred to as: isonipecaine; lidol; pethanol; piridosal; Algil®; Alodan®; Centralgin®; Demerol®; Dispadol®; Dolantin®; Dolargan® (in Poland);[1] Dolestine®; Dolosal®; Dolsin®; Mefedina®) is a fast-acting opioid analgesic drug. ... MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine), most commonly known today by the street name Ecstasy (often abbreviated E, X, or XTC), is a semisynthetic member of the phenethylamine class of psychoactive drugs. ... Serotonin syndrome is a rare, but potentially life-threatening adverse drug reaction that results from intentional self-poisoning, therapeutic drug use, inadvertent interactions between drugs, or the recreational use of certain drugs. ... Dextromethorphan (DXM or DM) is an antitussive (cough suppressant) drug found in many over-the-counter cold and cough medicines. ... Serotonin syndrome is a rare, but potentially life-threatening adverse drug reaction that results from intentional self-poisoning, therapeutic drug use, inadvertent interactions between drugs, or the recreational use of certain drugs. ... Sumatriptan (Imitrex®, Imigran®) is a triptan drug originally developed by Glaxo for the treatment of migraine headaches. ...

List of MAOIs

Monoamine oxidase inhibitors include:

Isocarboxazid is a nonselective hydrazine-derived monoamine oxidase inhibitor used in treatment resistant depression. ... Moclobemide (sold as Aurorix®, Manerix®) is a psychiatric drug primarily used to treat depression and social anxiety. ... Phenelzine (brand name Nardil) is an antidepressant drug that belongs to the monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) class of drugs. ... Tranylcypromine (sold under the brand name Parnate®) is a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) used as an antidepressant drug. ... Selegiline (l-deprenyl, Eldepryl® or Anipryl® [veterinary]) is a drug used for the treatment of early-stage Parkinsons disease and senile dementia. ... Emsam is a transdermal patch for the MAOI antidepressant Selegiline. ... Rasagiline (trade name Azilect®) is a irreversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase used as a monotherapy in early Parkinsons disease or as an adjunct therapy in more advanced cases. ... Nialamide (Espril®, Niamid®, Niaquitil®, Nuredal®, Nyazin®, and Psicodisten®) was one of the first MAOI (monoamine oxidase inhibitor) antidepressants. ... Iproniazid is a monamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) that was developed as the first anti-depressant (Also first psychiatric drug). ... Iproclozide is a monoamine oxidase inhibitor antidepressant. ... Toloxatone is a monoamine oxidase inhibitor antidepressant. ... Linezolid (INN) (IPA: ) is a synthetic antibiotic, the first of the oxazolidinone class, used for the treatment of infections caused by multi-resistant bacteria including streptococcus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). ... Staphylococcus aureus - Antibiotics test plate. ... Oxazolidinones are the last generation of antibiotics used against gram-positive pathogens, including superbugs such as Staphylococcus aureus. ... Harmala, also known at various times as Telepathine and Banisterine, is a blanket term for a group of naturally occurring beta-carbolines including harmine, harmaline, and others. ... Binomial name L. Harmal seed capsules Harmal (Peganum harmala) is a plant of the family Nitrariaceae, native from the eastern Mediterranean region east to India. ... Binomial name (Spruce ex Griseb. ... Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. ... Ayahuasca (Quechua, pronounced ) is any of various psychoactive infusions or decoctions prepared from the Banisteriopsis spp. ... α-methyl-tryptamine, also known as α-MT or IT-290, is a synthetic drug of the tryptamine family. ... 5-MeO-DMT is a very powerful psychedelic tryptamine. ... 5-MeO-AMT (5-methoxy-α-methyltryptamine), also known as Amy is a psychedelic drug. ... 2C-T-7 is a psychedelic phenethylamine and is sometimes used as an entheogen. ... Ephedrine (EPH) is a sympathomimetic amine similar in structure to the synthetic derivatives amphetamine and methamphetamine. ... ecstasy and religious ecstasy MDMA, most commonly known today by the street name ecstasy, is a synthetic entactogen of the phenethylamine family whose primary effect is to stimulate the brain to rapidly secrete large amounts of serotonin, causing a general sense of openness, empathy, energy, euphoria, and well-being. ... Kavalactones are the main psychoactive components of the roots of kava, a shrub common on some Pacific Ocean islands. ... Dextroamphetamine is a powerful psychostimulant which produces increased wakefulness, energy and self-confidence in association with decreased fatigue and appetite. ...

Reversible type B selective MAOIs

Research prototypes

A lead compound in drug discovery is a chemical compound that has pharmacological or biological activity and whose chemical structure is used as a starting point for chemical modifications in order to improve potency, selectivity, or pharmacokinetic parameters. ... In medicine, a clinical trial (synonyms: clinical studies, research protocols, medical research) is a research study. ... Coumarin is a chemical compound/poison found in many plants, notably in high concentration in the tonka bean, woodruff, and bison grass. ... Umbelliferone or 7-hydroxycoumarin is a widespread natural product of the coumarin family. ... Pyridazine is a heteroaromatic organic compound with the molecular formula C4H4N2. ...

References

  1. ^ a b U.S. Food and Drug Administration (2006-02-28). ""FDA Approves Emsam (Selegiline) as First Drug Patch for Depression."". Press release. Retrieved on 2007-12-02.
  2. ^ Edward J. Massaro, Handbook of Neurotoxicology
  3. ^ BLTC Research [1] (2006). Rasagiline: a neuroprotective smart drug?. The Good Drug Guide. Retrieved on 2007-12-02. “At dosages above around 2 mg per day, rasagiline loses its selectivity for MAO type B and also inhibits MAO type A. An MAO-B selective regimen does not cause significant tyramine potentiation, the dreaded 'cheese effect' common to users of older unselective and irreversible MAOIs who eat tyramine-rich foods. Thus low-dosage rasagiline demands no special dietary restrictions.”
  4. ^ Jacob, Giris; Gamboa, Alfredo; Diedrich, André; Shibao, Cyndya; Robertson, David; Biaggioni, Italo (August 2005). "Tyramine-Induced Vasodilation Mediated by Dopamine Contamination: A Paradox Resolved". Hypertension 46 (2): 358. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. doi:10.1161/01.HYP.0000172353.62657.8b. PMID 15967868. “Tyramine displaces norepinephrine from neuronal vesicles into the axoplasm, and it is likely that some of it is converted to DHPG, and only a portion reaches the circulation.” 
  5. ^ PMID 17521909 (2007): "Human and rat monoamine oxidase-A are differentially inhibited by (S)-4-alkylthioamphetamine derivatives: insights from molecular modeling studies."
  6. ^ PMID 9832350 (1998): "Inhibition of platelet MAO-B by kava pyrone-enriched extract from Piper methysticum Forster (kava-kava)."
  7. ^ PMID 17824599 (2007): "Solid-phase synthesis and insights into structure-activity relationships of safinamide analogues as potent and selective inhibitors of type B monoamine oxidase."
  8. ^ PMID 17199024 (2007)
  9. ^ PMID 17915852 (2007): "Structures of human monoamine oxidase B complexes with selective noncovalent inhibitors: safinamide and coumarin analogs."
  10. ^ PMID 16884303 (2006): "Structural insights into monoamine oxidase inhibitory potency and selectivity of 7-substituted coumarins from ligand- and target-based approaches."
  11. ^ PMID 12443774 (2002): "Natural and synthetic geiparvarins are strong and selective MAO-B inhibitors. Synthesis and SAR studies"
  12. ^ PMID 17910428 (2007): "Synthesis and Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitory Activity of New Pyridazine-, Pyrimidine- and 1,2,4-Triazine-Containing Tricyclic Derivatives"
  13. ^ PMID 12467619 (2003): "Rational approaches towards reversible inhibition of type B monoamine oxidase. Design and evaluation of a novel 5H-Indeno[1,2-c]pyridazin-5-one derivative."
  14. ^ PMID 17034132 (2006): "Impact of Species-Dependent Differences on Screening, Design, and Development of MAO B Inhibitors"
In biochemistry, a lyase is an enzyme that breaks various chemical bonds by means other than hydrolysis and oxidation, often forming a new double bond or a new ring structure. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
monoamine oxidase inhibitor - Psychology of monoamine oxidase inhibitor | Encyclopedia.com: Dictionary Of Psychology (1190 words)
monoamine oxidase inhibitor - Psychology of monoamine oxidase inhibitor
Any of a group of antidepressant drugs that inhibit the action of the intracellular enzyme monoamine oxidase in neurons of the central nervous system, thereby slowing the metabolism of neurotransmitters such as adrenalin (epinephrine), noradrenalin (norepinephrine), and dopamine and allowing their concentrations to increase at the synapses (1).
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are the granddaddy of antidepressants, she...
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m