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Encyclopedia > Monk
St. Anthony the Great, considered the Father of Christian Monasticism

A monk (Greek μοναχός, monachos, derived from Greek monos, alone), in modern parlance also referred to as a "monastic", is a person who practices religious asceticism, the conditioning of mind and body in favor of the spirit, and does so living either alone or with any number of like-minded people, whilst always maintaining some degree of physical separation from those not sharing the same purpose. The concept is ancient and can be seen in many religions and in philosophy. Monk may refer to: Monk, person who practices a strict religious and ascetic lifestyle As a surname: George Monk (also spelled Monck), British general and politician in the Commonwealth and Restoration period. ... Image File history File links St Anthony the Great Source: St Anthony File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links St Anthony the Great Source: St Anthony File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


In the Greek language the term can apply to men or women; but in modern English it is in use only for men, while nun is used for female monastics. For other uses, see Nun (disambiguation). ...


Although the term monachos-“monk” is of Christian origin, in the English language it tends to be used analogously or loosely also for ascetics from other religious or philosophical backgrounds.


The term "monk" is generic. In some religious or philosophical traditions it therefore may be considered interchangeable with other generic terms such as ascetic. However, being generic, it is not interchangeable with terms that denote particular kinds of monk, such as cenobite, hermit, anchorite, hesychast, solitary. Look up Generic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Generic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The word ascetic derives from the ancient Greek term askesis (practice, training or exercise). ... Cenobite may mean: Cenobitic, a follower of a Cenobitic monastic tradition Cenobite (Hellraiser), a demon in Clive Barkers Hellraiser This is a disambiguation page—a list of articles associated with the same title. ... For other uses, see Hermit (disambiguation). ... Anchorite (male)/anchoress (female), from the Greek anachōreō, signifying to withdraw, to depart into the country outside the circumvallated city, denotes someone – prominently in earlier Christian and medieval times – who for religious reasons withdraws from the secular society and leads an intensely prayer-oriented and, circumstances permitting, Mass-focused... Hesychasm (Greek hesychasmos, from hesychia, stillness, rest, quiet, silence) is an eremitic tradition of prayer in the Eastern Orthodox Church, and some other Eastern Churches of the Byzantine Rite, practised (Gk: hesychazo: to keep stillness) by the Hesychast (Gr. ... Look up Solitary in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Contents

Etymology

Monk

A monk (Greek: μοναχός, monachos, Latin: monachus) is a general term for a person who leads the "monastic life" in a "monastery".


Nowadays it tends to be wrongly assumed that it signifies a monk living in community, who is, however, merely a kind of monk, namely a cenobite. The cenobitic tradition is a monastic tradition that stresses community life. ...


From early Church times there has been a lively discussion of the meaning of the term monk (derived from Greek: monos, alone), namely whether it denotes someone living alone/away from the rest of society, or someone celibate/focused on God alone. The Western rule giver Benedict of Nursia understood it as meaning the latter, namely a celibate dedicated to God. This is evident from the fact that his list of the four kinds of monks includes hermits. Look up Benedict in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Hermit (disambiguation). ...


The four kinds of monks identified by Benedict of Nursia in chapter 1 of his Rule for Monks as well as in the Rule of the Master are the following: Saint Benedict redirects here. ... St. ... The Rule of the Master is an anonymous sixth century collection of monastic precepts. ...

1. The cenobites live in community in a monastery, serve God under a religious rule and do so under the leadership of an abbot (or in the case of a community of women, an abbess). Benedict points out in ch. 1.13 that they are the "strong kind", which by logic of the context must mean the larger number rather than the better kind.
2. The hermits and anchorites have thorough experience as cenobites in a monastery. "They have built up their strength and go from the battle line in the ranks of their brothers to the single combat of the desert; self-reliant now, without the support of another, they are ready with God's help to grapple single-handed with the vices of body and mind". Benedict himself twice lived for prolonged periods as a hermit, which may account for the comparative length of the characterics of their life in this list.
3. The sarabaites, censured by Benedict as the most detestable kind of monks, are pretenders that have no cenobitic experience, follow no rule and have no superior.
4. The gyrovagues, censured by Benedict as worse than sarabaites, are wandering monks without stability in a particular monastery. The cenobitic tradition is a monastic tradition that stresses community life. ... For other uses, see Hermit (disambiguation). ... Anchorite (male)/anchoress (female), from the Greek anachōreō, signifying to withdraw, to depart into the country outside the circumvallated city, denotes someone – prominently in earlier Christian and medieval times – who for religious reasons withdraws from the secular society and leads an intensely prayer-oriented and, circumstances permitting, Mass-focused... Sarabaites were a class of Catholic monks widely spread before the time of St. ... Gyrovagues (sometimes Gyrovagi or Gyruvagi) were wandering monks without fixed residence or leadership who relied on charity and the hospitality of others. ...

In the English language, but not in German and French, a distinction is made between monks and friars, the latter being members of mendicant orders. A friar is a member of a religious order of men. ... The mendicant orders are religious orders which depend directly on begging, or the charity of the people for their livelihood. ...


Monastery

Main article: Monastery

A monastery is the dwelling of one or more monks. Monastery of St. ...


The term monastery is already used by the Jewish philosopher Philo (c. 20 BCE - 50 CE, resident in Alexandria, Egypt) in his description of the life of the Therapeutae and Therapeutides, people with common religious aspirations who then were dwelling on a low-lying hill above the Mareotic Lake near Alexandria in houses at a distance of each other that safeguarded both solitude and security (cf. On the Contemplative Life ch. III, in the Loeb Classical Library edition see §25). Philo (20 BC - 50 AD), known also as Philo of Alexandria and as Philo Judaeus And as Yedidia, was a Hellenized Jewish philosopher born in Alexandria, Egypt. ... This article is about the city in Egypt. ... The Therapeutae (male, pl. ... Lake Mariout (also spelled Maryut or Mariut) is a salt lake of about 250 square km in northern Egypt. ... This article is about the city in Egypt. ...

In each house there is a consecrated room which is called a sanctuary or closet (monastērion), and closeted (monoumenoi) in this they are initiated into the mysteries of the sanctified life. They take nothing into it, either drink or food or any other of the things necessary for the needs of the body, but laws and oracles delivered through the mouth of prophets, and hymns and anything else which fosters and perfects knowledge and piety. They keep the memory of God alive and never forget it … Twice every day they pray, at dawn and at eventide … The interval between early morning and evening is spent entirely in spiritual exercise. They read the holy scriptures and seek wisdom from their ancestral philosophy … For six days they seek wisdom by themselves in solitude in the closets (monastēriois) mentioned above … But every seventh day they meet together as for a general assembly … (in a) common sanctuary … (Philo, On The Contemplative Life, ch. III).

Christian monks

Main article: Christian monasticism

The Order of Friars Minor is a major mendicant movement founded by Saint Francis of Assisi. ...

History of Christian monasticism

Monasticism drew its origin from the examples of the Prophet Elias and John the Baptist who both lived alone in the desert, the desert having been regarded throughout Old Testament times as a place of spiritual renewal and return to God, whether for the benefit of the individual and as a representative of the community. At the beginning of his public ministry Jesus of Nazareth subjected himself for forty days to physical and spiritual testing in the desert; and the Gospels record other times in which he retired for periods of solitary prayer. In the early church, individuals would live ascetic lives, though usually on the outskirts of civilization. Communities of virgins are also mentioned by early church authors, but again these communities were either located in towns, or near the edges of them. Elijah, 1638, by José de Ribera This article is about the prophet in the Hebrew Bible. ... St. ... The Wilderness of Zin/Desert of Zin (Hebrew: מדבר צן, Midbar Tzin) is a geographic area mentioned by the Torah as containing Kadesh-Barnea within it[1]; most scholars, as well as traditional sources, consequently identify this wilderness as being part of the Arabah[2]. The similarly named wilderness of Sin is... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... The Early Christians is a term used to refer to the early followers of Jesus of Nazareth, before the emergence of established Christian orthodoxy. ...


The first famous Christian known to adopt the life in a desert was St. Anthony the Great (251 - 356), sometime in the latter part of the 3rd century. He lived alone as an anchorite in the Egyptian desert until he attracted a circle of followers, after which he retired further into the desert to escape the adulation of men. In the beginning, St. Anthony had an experienced ascetic who gave him advice, but he also lived near the town. St. Anthony was the first to go out into the desert for the sole purpose of pursuing God in solitude. As the idea of devoting one's entire life to God grew, more and more monks joined him, even in the far desert. Under St. Anthony's system, they each lived in isolation. Later, loose-knit communities began to be formed, coming together only on Sundays and major feast days for Holy Communion. These are referred to as sketes, named after the location in Egypt where this system began. The concept of monks all living together under one roof and under the rule of a single abbot is attributed to St. Pachomios (ca. 292 - 348), who lived in the beginning of the 4th century, and is referred to as coenobitic monasticism. At this same time, St. Pachomios' sister became the first abbess of a monastery of women (convent). Christian monasticism spread throughout the Eastern Roman Empire. At its height it was not uncommon for coenobitic monasteries to house upwards of 30,000 monks. For the 13th century saint, see Saint Anthony of Padua. ... Events July 1 – In the Battle of Abrittus, the Goths defeat the Romans; emperors Decius and Herennius Etruscus are killed. ... Events February 8 - Roman authorities make an attempt to arrest Athanasius on the accusation of supporting the usurper Magnentius. ... // Overview Events 212: Constitutio Antoniniana grants citizenship to all free Roman men 212-216: Baths of Caracalla 230-232: Sassanid dynasty of Persia launches a war to reconquer lost lands in the Roman east 235-284: Crisis of the Third Century shakes Roman Empire 250-538: Kofun era, the first... Anchorite (male)/anchoress (female), from the Greek anachōreō, signifying to withdraw, to depart into the country outside the circumvallated city, denotes someone – prominently in earlier Christian and medieval times – who for religious reasons withdraws from the secular society and leads an intensely prayer-oriented and, circumstances permitting, Mass-focused... // Great Feasts of the Orthodox Church Easter/Pascha The feast of the Resurrection of Jesus, called Easter or Pascha, is the greatest of the feasts of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... The Eucharist is either the Christian sacrament of consecrated bread and wine or the ritual surrounding it. ... A skete is a group of hermits following a monastic rule, allowing them to worship in comparative solitude, although with a level of support present not available for a lone hermit. ... For other uses, see Abbot (disambiguation). ... For the genus of jumping spider, see Pachomius (spider). ... [edit] Events [edit] By Place [edit] Roman Empire Constantius Chlorus divorces Helena, mother of Constantine the Great (approximate date). ... Events Births Saint Jerome, Christian writer Deaths Categories: 348 ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... The cenobitic tradition is a monastic tradition that stresses community life. ... An Abbess (Latin abbatissa, fem. ... A Beguine convent in Amsterdam. ... Byzantine redirects here. ...


As Christianity grew and diversified, so did the style of monasticism. In the East, monastic norms came to be regularized through the writings of St. Basil the Great (c. 330 - 379) and St. Theodore the Studite (c. 758 - c. 826), coalescing more or less into the form in which it is still found today. In the West, there was initially some distrust of monasticism, due to fears of extremism previously observed in certain heretical groups, most notably Gnosticism. Largely through the writings of St. John Cassian (c. 360433) monasticism came to be accepted in the West as well. St. Benedict of Nursia (c. 480547) set forth the very first monastic rule in the west. In the beginning, Western monasticism followed much the same pattern as its Eastern forebears, but over time the traditions diversified. Basil (ca. ... Events May 11 - Constantine I refounds Byzantium, renames it New Rome, and moves the capital of the Roman Empire there from Rome. ... January 19 - Theodosius I is elevated as Roman Emperor at Sirmium. ... Theodore the Studite ( ca. ... Events End of the reign of Empress Koken of Japan; she is succeeded by Emperor Junnin. ... Events The Danish king accepts Christianity. ... Extremism is a term used to describe the actions or ideologies of individuals or groups outside the perceived political center of a society; or otherwise claimed to violate common standards of ethics and reciprocity. ... For other uses, see Heresy (disambiguation). ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... John Cassian (c. ... First invasions of the Saxons in Britain. ... Events Petronius Maximus becomes Roman Consul John of Antioch and Cyril of Alexandria sign the Formula of Reunion, thus ending their conflict over the Nestorian controversy and the Council of Ephesus. ... Saint Benedict redirects here. ... Events Odoacer defeats an attempt by Julius Nepos to recapture Italy, and has Julius killed; Odoacer also captured Dalmatia. ... Events Ida founds the kingdom of Bernicia at Bamburgh (traditional date). ... Monastery of St. ...


Monasticism in Eastern Christianity

In the Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and Eastern Catholic Churches, monasticism holds a very special and important place. Far more common than in the Roman Catholic Church, the spiritual health of the Orthodox Church can be measured by the quality of its monks and nuns. Orthodox monastics separate themselves from the world in order to pray unceasingly for the world. They do not, in general, have as their primary purpose the running of social services, as is common in Western Christianity, but instead are concerned with attaining theosis, or union with God. However, care for the poor and needy has always been an obligation of monasticism, so Orthodox monasteries are not normally "cloistered" like some contemplative Western houses are, though the level of contact will vary from community to community. Orthodox hermits, on the other hand, have little or no contact with the outside world. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The Eastern Catholic Churches are autonomous particular Churches in full communion with the Pope of Rome. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... World is a key concept in theology. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      In Eastern Orthodox and...


Orthodox monasticism does not have religious orders as are found in the West, nor do they have Rules in the same sense as the Rule of St. Benedict. Rather, Eastern monastics study and draw inspiration from the writings of the Desert Fathers as well as other Church Fathers; probably the most influential of which are the Greater Asketikon and Lesser Asketikon of St. Basil the Great and the Philokalia, which was compiled by St. Nikodemos of the Holy Mountain and St. Makarios of Corinth. Hesychasm is of primary importance in the ascetical theology of the Orthodox Church. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... St Benedict of Nursia The Rule of St Benedict by Benedict of Nursia (fl. ... The Desert Fathers were Christian Hermits who lived in the Sahara desert of Egypt, beginning in about the third century. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers... The Philokalia (Gk. ... Hesychasm (Greek hesychasmos, from hesychia, stillness, rest, quiet, silence) is an eremitic tradition of prayer in the Eastern Orthodox Church, and some other Eastern Churches of the Byzantine Rite, practised (Gk: hesychazo: to keep stillness) by the Hesychast (Gr. ...


Most communities are self-supporting, and the monastic’s daily life is usually divided into three parts: (a) communal worship in the catholicon (the monastery's main church); (b) hard manual labour; and (c) private prayer, spiritual study, and rest when necessary. Meals are usually taken in common in a sizable dining hall known as a trapeza (refectory), at elongated refectory tables. Food is usually simple and is eaten in silence while one of the brethren reads aloud from the spiritual writings of the Holy Fathers. The monastic lifestyle takes a great deal of serious commitment and hard work, it forces the person to overcome their own flaws and weaknesses; those newcomers with romantic notions about this sort of lifestyle usually do not last more than a few days. Within the coenobitic community, all monks conform to a common way of living based on the traditions of that particular monastery. In struggling to attain this conformity, the monastic comes to realize his own shortcomings and is guided by his spiritual father in how to deal honestly with them. Attaining this level of self-discipline is perhaps the most difficult and painful accomplishment any human being can make; but the end goal, to become like an angel on earth (an "earthly angel and a heavenly man", as the church hymns put it), is the reason monastics are held in such high esteem. For this same reason, Bishops are almost always chosen from the ranks of monks. The Summa grammaticalis quae vocatur Catholicon, or Catholicon, was completed March 7, 1286 by John Balbi (Johannes Januensis de Balbis) , of Genoa, a Dominican. ... A refectory is a dining room, especially in monasteries, boarding schools and academic institutions. ... A refectory table is a highly elongated table[1] used originally for dining in monasteries in Medieval times. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers... St Sergii Radonezhsky was one of the most famous of startsy. ... A hymn is a type of song, usually religious, specifically written for the purpose of praise, adoration or prayer, and typically addressed to a god or other religiously significant figure. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article...


Eastern monasticism is found in three distinct forms: anchoritic (a solitary living in isolation), coenobitic (a community living and worshiping together under the direct rule of an abbot or abbess), and the "middle way" between the two, known as the skete (a community of individuals living separately but in close proximity to one another, who come together only on Sundays and feast days, working and praying the rest of the time in solitude, but under the direction of an elder). One normally enters a coenobitic community first, and only after testing and spiritual growth would one go on to the skete or, for the most advanced, become a solitary anchorite. However, one is not necessarily expected to join a skete or become a solitary; most monastics remain in the cenobuim the whole of their lives. The form of monastic life an individual embraces is considered to be his vocation; that is to say, it is dependent upon the will of God, and is revealed by grace. A hermit (from the Greek erēmos, signifying desert, uninhabited, hence desert-dweller) is a person who lives to some greater or lesser degree in seclusion from society. ... The cenobitic tradition is a monastic tradition that stresses community life. ... A skete is a group of hermits following a monastic rule, allowing them to worship in comparative solitude, although with a level of support present not available for a lone hermit. ... A vocation is an occupation, either professional or voluntary, that is seen to those who carry it out as offering more than simply financial reward. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      In Christianity...


In general, Orthodox monastics have little or no contact with the outside world, including their own families. The purpose of the monastic life is union with God, the means is through leaving the world (i.e., the life of the passions). After tonsure, Orthodox monks and nuns are never permitted to cut their hair. The hair of the head and the beard remain uncut as a symbol of the vows they have taken, reminiscent of the Nazarites from the Old Testament. The Tonsure of monks is the token of a consecrated life, and symbolizes the cutting off of their self-will. A Nazarite or Nazirite, Nazir in Hebrew, was a Jew who took an ascetic vow described in the Book of Numbers at 6:1-21. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism... Tonsure is the practice of some Christian churches of cutting the hair from the scalp of clerics as a symbol of their renunciation of worldly fashion and esteem. ...


Degrees of Christian Orthodox monasticism

The Great Schema worn by Orthodox monks and nuns of the highest degree

The process of becoming a monk is intentionally slow, as the vows taken are considered to entail a life-long commitment to God, and are not to be entered into lightly. In Orthodox monasticism after completing the novitiate, there are three ranks of monasticism. There is only one monastic habit in the Eastern Church (with certain slight regional variations), and it is the same for both monks and nuns. Each successive grade is given a portion of the habit, the full habit being worn only by those in the highest grade, known for that reason as the "Great Schema", or "Great Habit." One is free to enter any monastery of one's choice; but after being accepted by the abbot (or abbess) and making vows, one may not move from place to place without the blessing of one's ecclesiastical superior. The Great Schema worn by Orthodox monks and nuns of the highest degree In the Eastern Orthodox Church, the process of becoming a monk or nun is intentionally slow, as the vows taken are considered to entail a life-long commitment to God, and are not to be entered into... Download high resolution version (431x722, 42 KB)The Great Schema or Megaloschema - this is my own drawing of what one looks like File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (431x722, 42 KB)The Great Schema or Megaloschema - this is my own drawing of what one looks like File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... A vow (Lat. ... St. ...


The various profession rites are normally performed by the Abbot, but if the abbot has not been ordained a priest, or if the monastic community is a convent, a hieromonk will perform the service. The abbot or hieromonk who performs a tonsure must be of at least the rank he is tonsuring into. In other words, only a hieromonk who has been tonsured into the Great Schema may himself tonsure a Schemamonk. A bishop, however, may tonsure into any rank, regardless of his own. A hieromonk in Eastern Orthodoxy is a monk and the priest at the same time. ...


Novice (Slavonic: Poslushnik), lit. "one under obedience"—Those wishing to join a monastery begin their lives as novices. After coming to the monastery and living as a guest for not less than three days, the abbot or abbess may bless the candidate to become a novice. There is no formal ceremony for the clothing of a novice, he or she simply receives permission to wear the clothing of a novice. In the Eastern monastic tradition, novices may or may not dress in the black inner cassock (Greek: Anterion, Eisorasson; Slavonic: Podriasnik) and wear the soft monastic hat (Greek: Skoufos, Slavonic: Skufia), depending on the tradition of the local community, and in accordance to the abbot’s directives. The inner-cassock and the skoufos are the first part of the Orthodox monastic "habit. In some communities, the novice also wears the leather belt. He is also given a prayer rope and instructed in the use of the Jesus Prayer. If a novice chooses to leave during the period of the novitiate, no penalty is incurred. He may also be asked to leave at any time if his behaviour does not conform to the monastic life, or if the superior discerns that he is not called to monasticism. When the abbot or abbess deems the novice ready, he is asked if he wishes to join the monastery. Some, out of humility, will choose to remain novices all their lives. Every stage of the monastic life must be entered into voluntarily. Clergy in Cassocks A Roman Catholic priest from Belgian Congo wearing the Roman cassock. ... Church Slavonic may refer to: Old Church Slavonic language Church Slavonic language This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... A Skufia (also Skufiya or Skoufos) is an item of clerical clothing worn by worn by Orthodox Christian monastics (in which case it is black [1]) or awarded to clergy as a mark of honor (in which case it is usually red or purple). ... -1... Christogram with Jesus Prayer in Romanian: Doamne Iisuse Hristoase, Fiul lui Dumnezeu, miluieÅŸte-mă pe mine păcătosul. ...


Rassaphore, (Slavonic: Ryassophore), lit. "Robe-bearer"—If the novice continues on to become a monk, he is clothed in the first degree of monasticism at a formal service known as the Tonsure. Although there are no formal vows made at this point, the candidate is normally required to affirm his commitment to persevere in the monastic life. The abbot will then perform the tonsure, cutting a small amount of hair from four spots on the head, forming a cross. He is then given the outer cassock (Greek: Rasson, Exorasson, or Mandorrason; Slavonic: Riassa)—an outer robe with wide sleeves, something like the cowl used in the West, but without a hood—from which the name of Rassaphore is derived. He is also given a brimless hat with a veil, known as a klobuk, and a leather belt is fastened around his waist. His habit is usually black, signifying that he is now dead to the world, and he receives a new name. Although the Rassaphore does not make formal vows, he is still morally obligated to continue in the monastic estate for the rest of his life. Some will remain Rassaphores permanently without going on to the higher degrees. Tonsure is the practice of some Christian churches of cutting the hair from the scalp of clerics as a symbol of their renunciation of worldly fashion and esteem. ... A vow (Lat. ... A Roman Catholic monk wearing a cowl The cowl (from the Latin, cuculla) is a long, outer garment, with wide sleeves, worn by Catholic monks when participating in the liturgy. ... Eastern Orthodox Monks wearing klobuks. ...


Stavrophore, (Slavonic: Krestonosets), lit. "Cross-bearer"—The next level for Eastern monastics takes place some years after the first tonsure when the abbot feels the monk has reached an appropriate level of discipline, dedication, and humility. This degree is also known as the Little Schema, and is considered to be a "betrothal" to the Great Schema. At this stage, the monk makes formal vows of stability, chastity, obedience and poverty. Then he is tonsured and clothed in the habit, which in addition to that worn by the Rassaphore, includes the paramandyas (Slavonic: paraman), a piece of square cloth worn on the back, embroidered with the instruments of the Passion, and connected by ties to a wooden cross worn over the heart. The paramandyas represents the yoke of Christ. Because of this addition he is now called Stavrophore, or Cross-bearer. He is also given a wooden hand cross (or "profession cross"), which he should keep in his icon corner, and a beeswax candle, symbolic of monastic vigilance the sacrificing of himself for God. He will be buried holding the cross, and the candle will be burned at his funeral. In the Slavic practice, the Stavrophore also wears the monastic mantle. The rasson (outer robe) worn by the Stavrophore is more ample than that worn by the Rassaphore. The abbot increases the Stavrophore monk’s prayer rule, allows a more strict personal ascetic practice, and gives the monk more responsibility. The Passion is the theological term used for the suffering, both physical and mental, of Jesus in the hours prior to and including his trial and execution by crucifixion. ... A fairly elaborate Orthodox Christian icon corner as would be found in a private home The Icon Corner (Greek: Ikonostasi) is a small worship space prepared in the homes of Eastern Orthodox or Greek-Catholic Christians. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require restructuring. ...


Great Schema (Greek: Megaloschemos, Slavonic: Skhimnik)—Monks whose abbot feels they have reached a high level of spiritual excellence reach the final stage, called the Great Schema. The tonsure of a Schemamonk follows the same format as the Stavrophore, and he makes the same vows and is tonsured in the same manner. But in addition to all the garments worn by the Stavrophore, he is given the Analavos (Slavonic: Analav) which is the article of monastic vesture emblematic of the Great Schema. For this reason, the analavos itself is sometimes called the "Great Schema" (see picture above). The analavos comes down in the front and the back, somewhat like the scapular in Western monasticism, although the two garments are probably not related. It is often intricately embroidered with the instruments of the Passion and the Trisagion (the angelic hymn). The Greek form does not have a hood, the Slavic form has a hood and lappets on the shoulders, so that the garment forms a large cross covering the monk's shoulders, chest, and back. Another piece added is the Polystavrion or "Many Crosses", which consists of a cord with a number of small crosses plaited into it. The polystavrion forms a yoke around the monk and serves to hold the analavos in place, and reminds the monastic that he is bound to Christ and that his arms are no longer fit for worldly activities, but that he must labor only for the Kingdom of Heaven. Among the Greeks, the mantle is added at this stage. The paramandyas of the Megaloschemos is larger than that of the Stavrophore, and if he wears the klobuk, it is of a distinctive thimble shape, called a koukoulion, the veil of which is usually embroidered with crosses. In some monastic traditions the Great Schema is only given to monks and nuns on their death bed, while in others they may be elevated after as little as 25 years of service. Degree of Eastern Orthodox Monasticism The Great Schema worn by Orthodox monks and nuns of the highest degree The process of becoming a monk is intentionally slow, as the vows taken are considered to entail a life-long commitment to God, and are not to be entered into lightly. ... For the shoulder bone see the article Scapula. ... The Trisagion (Thrice Holy) is a standard hymn of the Divine Liturgy in most of the Eastern Orthodox Churches, Oriental Orthodox Churches and Eastern Catholic Churches. ... The Kingdom of Heaven (or the Kingdom of God, Hebrew מלכות השמים, malkhut hashamayim, Greek basileia tou theou) is a key concept detailed in all the three major monotheistic religions of the world — Islam, Judaism and Christianity. ... A Roman Catholic monk wearing a cowl The cowl (from the Latin, cuculla) is a long, outer garment, with wide sleeves, worn by Catholic monks when participating in the liturgy. ...


Eastern Orthodox monks are addressed as "Father" even if they are not priests; but when conversing among themselves, monks will often address one another as "Brother." Novices are always referred to as "Brother." Among the Greeks, old monks are often called Gheronda, or "Elder", out of respect for their dedication. In the Slavic tradition, the title of Elder (Slavonic: Starets) is normally reserved for those who are of an advanced spiritual life, and who serve a guides to others. St Sergii Radonezhsky was one of the most famous of startsy. ...


For the Orthodox, Mother is the correct term for nuns who have been tonsured Stavrophore or higher. Novices and Rassophores are addressed as "Sister". Nuns live identical ascetic lives to their male counterparts and are therefore also called monachai (the feminine plural of monachos), and their community is likewise called a monastery.


Many (but not all) Orthodox seminaries are attached to monasteries, combining academic preparation for ordination with participation in the community's life of prayer, and hopefully benefiting from the example and wise counsel of the monks. Bishops are required by the sacred canons of the Orthodox Church to be chosen from among the monastic clergy. It should be noted that the requirement is specifically that they be monastics, not simply celibate (see clerical celibacy). Monks who have been ordained to the priesthood are called hieromonks (priest-monks); monks who have been ordained to the diaconate are called hierodeacons (deacon-monks). A Schemamonk who is a priest is called a Hieroschemamonk. Most monks are not ordained; a community will normally only present as many candidates for ordination to the bishop as the liturgical needs of the community require. For the Ecuadorian artist, see Manuel Rendón Seminario. ... Ordination is the process in which clergy become authorized by their religious denomination and/or seminary to perform religious rituals and ceremonies. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Canon law is the term used for... Clerical celibacy is the practice of various religious traditions in which clergy, monastics and those in religious orders (female or male) adopt a celibate life, refraining from marriage and sexual relationships, including masturbation and impure thoughts (such as sexual visualisation and fantasies). ... A hieromonk in Eastern Orthodoxy is a monk and the priest at the same time. ... The diaconate is one of three ordained offices in the Roman Catholic, Anglican, Eastern Orthodox, and Oriental Orthodox churches. ... A hieromonk in Eastern Orthodoxy is a monk and the priest at the same time. ...


Monasticism in Western Christianity

A Roman Catholic monk
A Roman Catholic monk

made it myself This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... made it myself This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ...

Roman Catholic monks in the Middle Ages

The religious vows taken in the West were first developed by St. Benedict of Nursia who wrote the very first monastic rule. These vows were three in number: obedience, conversion of life, and stability. Among later Western religious orders, these developed into the solemn vows of obedience, poverty, and chastity. A vow (Lat. ... Saint Benedict redirects here. ...


To become a monk, one had to first become an oblate or a novice. To become an oblate, one had to be given to the monastery by one's father. Then, if one was old enough, one could take their first vows and become a novice. Then, after several years, if the abbot (head of the monastery) allowed, one could become a monk. An Oblate in Christian monasticism (especially Roman Catholic and Anglican; the Orthodox Christian equivalent is called a Rasophore) is any person who has been offered to God, or have dedicated themselves to His service, in holy religion. ... For other uses, see Abbot (disambiguation). ...


The monks in the Middle Ages lived in a monastery, similar to a modern boarding school. Most monasteries were shaped like a cross so they would remember Jesus Christ, who died on a cross. The monastery had three vows: obedience, chastity, and poverty, which made up the evangelical counsels. Obedience meant that monks were willing to obey the Catholic Church, as represented by the abbot (head of the monastery), chastity meant that since they were willing to dedicate their lives to God, they sacrificed the love between men and women and would not marry; poverty meant they lived their lives of sharing, and shared all their possessions within the community and for the poor and would not hold back for themselves. The evangelical counsels or counsels of perfection are poverty, chastity, and obedience. ... For other uses, see Abbot (disambiguation). ... This article concerns how a man differs from women. ... Image of a woman on the Pioneer plaque sent to outer space. ...


Monks grew their own food and shared their work in the monastery. Some of the more qualified monks were set to more challenging tasks, while others did mundane work according to their abilities. The monks spent on average about seven hours a day on work, except for Sunday, which was the day of rest. For other uses, see Sabbath. ...


Monks wore a plain brown or black cape and a cross on a chain around their neck; underneath, they wore a hair shirt to remind themselves of the suffering Christ had undergone for them. A man became a monk when he felt a call to God and when he wanted to dedicate his life in God's service for the poor and gain knowledge of God. There could be other reasons individuals felt called into the monastery, such as wanting to be educated, as the monasteries were some of the few places in the world where one was taught to read and write. For other uses, see Cape (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that hairshirt be merged into this article or section. ...

Munich's city symbol celebrates its founding by Benedictine monks—and the origin of its name
Munich's city symbol celebrates its founding by Benedictine monks—and the origin of its name

The monks called each other "brother" to symbolize their new brotherhood within their spiritual family. The monasteries usually had a strict timetable that they were required to adhere to. They grew their food for themselves and ate it in complete silence. The monks were not allowed to talk to each other anywhere, except in very special places. The monks even had a hospital for the sick. Image File history File links Germany_München_Monks. ... Image File history File links Germany_München_Monks. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... For the college, see Benedictine College. ... For the town in the Republic of Ireland, see Hospital, County Limerick. ...


Anglican monks

A small but hugely influential aspect of Anglicanism is its religious orders of monks. Shortly after the beginning of the revival of the Catholic Movement in the Church of England, there was felt to be a need for a restoration of the contemplative life. In the 1840s, Anglican priest John Henry Newman established a community of men at Littlemore near Oxford. From then on, there have been (re-)established many communities of monks, friars and other religious communities for men in the Anglican Communion. There are Anglican Benedictines, Franciscans, Cistercians, and in the Episcopal Church in the USA, Dominicans), as well as home grown orders such as the Society of Saint John the Evangelist, among many more in almost every Province of the Anglican Communion. The term Anglican describes those people and churches following the religious traditions of the Church of England, especially following the Reformation. ... The terms Anglo-Catholic and Anglo-Catholicism describe people, groups, ideas, customs and practices within Anglicanism that emphasise continuity with Catholic tradition. ... J H Newman age 23 when he preached his first sermon. ... Littlemore is a village with a parish council that also represents parts of Rose Hill. ... This article is about the city of Oxford in England. ... A friar is a member of a religious mendicant order of men. ... Main article: Anglicanism The Anglican Communion is a world-wide affiliation of Anglican Churches. ... For the college, see Benedictine College. ... The Order of Friars Minor and other Franciscan movements are disciples of Saint Francis of Assisi. ... The Order of Cistercians (OCist) (Latin Cistercenses), otherwise Gimey or White Monks (from the colour of the habit, over which is worn a black scapular or apron) are a Catholic order of monks. ... The Episcopal Church may refer to several members of the Anglican Communion, including: Episcopal Church in the United States of America Scottish Episcopal Church Episcopal Church in Jerusalem and the Middle East Episcopal Church of Cuba idk of the Sudan Spanish Reformed Episcopal Church ... The Society of St. ...


Anglican religious life at one time boasted hundreds of orders and communities, and thousands of religious. An important aspect of Anglican religious life is that most communities of both men and women lived their lives consecrated to God under the vows of poverty, chastity and obedience (or in Benedictine communities, Stability, Conversion of Life, and Obedience) by practicing a mixed life of reciting the full eight services of the Breviary in choir, along with a daily Eucharist, plus service to the poor. The mixed life, combing aspects of the contemplative orders and the active orders remains to this day a hallmark of Anglican religious life. Breviary of Cologne, 12th or 13th century (Helsinki University Library) A breviary (from Latin brevis, short or concise) is a liturgical book containing the public or canonical prayers, hymns, the Psalms, readings, and notations for everyday use, especially for priests, in the Divine Office (i. ...


Anglican monks proceed through their religious life first by responding to an inner call to the particular life. Then after counseling with his parish priest, the seeker makes a visit to a monastery and tests his vocation. Usually he must spend some time with the community as an aspirant, then he becomes a postulant, then novice, then come first profession, and usually life vows.


Some communities are contemplative, some active, but a distinguishing feature of the monastic life among Anglicans is that most practice the so-called "mixed life." They keep the full round of liturgical and private worship, but also usually have an active ministry of some sort in their immediate community. This activity could be anything from parish work to working with the homeless, retreats or any number of good causes.


Since the 1960s, there has been a sharp falling off in the numbers of religious in many parts of the Anglican Communion. Many once large and international communities have been reduced to a single convent or monastery comprised of elderly men or women. In the last few decades of the 20th century, novices have for most communities been few and far between. Some orders and communities have already become extinct.


There are however, still several thousand Anglican monks working today in approximately 200 communities around the world.


The most surprising growth has been in the Melanesian countries of the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu and Papua New Guinea. The Melanesian Brotherhood, founded at Tabalia, Guadalcanal, in 1925 by Ini Kopuria, is now the largest Anglican Community in the world with over 450 brothers in the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines and the United Kingdom. The Sisters of the Church, started by Mother Emily Ayckbown in England in 1870, has more sisters in the Solomons than all their other communities. The Community of the Sisters of Melanesia, started in 1980 by Sister Nesta Tiboe, is a growing community of women throughout the Solomon Islands. The Society of Saint Francis, founded as a union of various Franciscan orders in the 1920s, has experienced great growth in the Solomon Islands. Other communities of religious have been started by Anglicans in Papua New Guinea and in Vanuatu. Most Melanesian Anglican religious are in their early to mid 20s, making the average age 40 to 50 years younger than their brothers and sisters in other countries. This growth is especially surprising because celibacy was not traditionally regarded as a virtue in Melanesia. Melanesia (from Greek black islands) is a region extending from the west Pacific to the Arafura Sea, north and north-east of Australia. ... The Melanesian Brotherhood was formed in 1925 by Ini Kopuria, a policeman from Maravovo, Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands. ... Tabalia (pronounced TAHM ba lia) The land given by Ini Kopuria to the the Ira Reta Tasiu on North Eastern Guadalcanal. ... This article is about the island in the Pacific Ocean. ... Ini Kopuria, a police officer from Maravovo, Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands formed the Melanesian Brotherhood in 1925. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... The Society of Saint Francis is a Franciscan religious order within the Anglican Communion. ... Celibacy refers either to being unmarried or to sexual abstinence. ...


Another important development in Anglican monasticism are religious communities that allow both single and married people interested in the monastic lifestyle to become first order monks and nuns. An example of this is the Cistercian Order of the Holy Cross [1], an Order in full Anglican Communion with a traditional period of postulancy and noviceship for applicants in the Roman, Anglican or Orthodox faith traditions.


Buddhist monks

Main article at Bhikkhu

People of the Pali canon A Buddhist Monk in Sri Lanka In Pāli, a bhikkhu (male) or bhikkhuni (female) is a fully ordained Buddhist monk. ... Standard edition of the Thai Pali Canon The Pali Canon is the standard scripture collection of the Theravada Buddhist tradition. ...

Pali English

Community of Buddhist Disciples Pali (IAST: ) is a Middle Indo-Aryan dialect or prakrit. ... Sravaka (Sanskrit śrāvaka; Tibetan nyan thos; Pali sāvaka) is a hearer, a term applied to the personal disciples of the Buddha, distinguished as mahā-śrāvaka; it is also applied to hearers, or disciples in general; but its general connotation relates it...

Monastic Sangha

BhikkhuBhikkuṇī
Sikkhamānā
SamaṇeraSamaṇerī Monasticism is one of the most fundamental institutions of Buddhism. ... Sangha (संघ saṃgha) is a word in Pali or Sanskrit that can be translated roughly as association or assembly or community. It is commonly used in several senses to refer to Buddhist or Jain groups. ... A Buddhist Monk in Sri Lanka In Pāli, a bhikkhu (male) or bhikkhuni (female) is a fully ordained Buddhist monk. ... High-ranking Chinese bhikkunis in an alms round. ... In Buddhism, a sikkhamānā is a female novice (Pali: samaneri) training to become a nun (Pali: bhikkhuni). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into sangha. ... A samaneri (pali language) is novice nun, who lives according to the ten precepts. ...

MonkNun
Nun trainee
Novice (m., f.) For other uses, see Nun (disambiguation). ... // Main article: Buddhist Novitiate In many Buddhist orders, a man or woman who intends to take ordination must first become a novice, adopting part of the monastic code indicated in the vinaya and studying in preparation for full ordination. ...

Laity

Upāsaka, Upāsikā
Gahattha, Gahapati
Agārika, Agāriya In religious organizations, the laity comprises all lay persons collectively. ... Upāsaka (masculine) or Upāsikā (feminine) are from the Sanskrit and Pāli words for attendant.[1] This is the title of followers of Buddhism (Gautama Buddha) who are not monks, nuns or novices in a Buddhist order and who undertake certain vows. ... In canonical Buddhism, householder refers to a particular strata of society whose individuals are typified by having a home life and family. ... In canonical Buddhism, householder refers to a particular strata of society whose individuals are typified by having a home life and family. ...

Lay devotee (m., f.)
Householder
Layperson In canonical Buddhism, householder refers to a particular strata of society whose individuals are typified by having a home life and family. ...

Related Religions

Samaṇa
Ājīvaka
Brāhmaṇa
Nigaṇṭha A (Sanskrit) or (Pāli) is a wandering monk in certain ascetic traditions of ancient India, including: Jainism Buddhism Ä€jÄ«vika religion (now extinct) Mahavira, the 24th Jina, and Gautama Buddha were leaders of their shramana orders. ... Ajivika (also transliterated Ä€jÄ«vika) was an ancient philosophical and ascetic movement of the Indian subcontinent. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Wanderer
Ascetic
Brahmin
Jain ascetic The word ascetic derives from the ancient Greek term askesis (practice, training or exercise). ... The term Brahmin denotes both a member of the priestly class in the Hindu varna system, and a member of the highest caste in the caste system of Hindu society. ... JAIN is an activity within the Java Community Process, developing APIs for the creation of telephony (voice and data) services. ...

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The abbot of a Buddhist monastery instructing novices, Uttaradit, Thailand.
The abbot of a Buddhist monastery instructing novices, Uttaradit, Thailand.

Although the European term "monk" is often applied to Buddhism, the situation of Buddhist asceticism is different. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Uttaradit is a town in Thailand, capital of the Uttaradit province. ... A statue of the Sakyamuni Buddha in Tawang Gompa, India. ...


There is a trial period prior to ordination, to see if a candidate wishes to become a Buddhist monk. If he does, he remains in the monastery; otherwise, he is free to leave.


In Theravada Buddhism, bhikkhu is the term for monk. Their disciplinary code is called the patimokkha, which is part of the larger Vinaya. They live lives of mendicancy, and go on a morning almsround (Pali: pindapata) every day. The local people give food for the monks to eat, though the monks are not permitted to positively ask for anything. The monks live in wats (monasteries), and have an important function in traditional Asian society. Young boys can be ordained as samaneras. Both bhikkhus and samaneras eat only in the morning, and are not supposed to lead a luxurious life. Their rules forbid the use of money, although this rule is nowadays not kept by all monks. The monks are part of the Sangha, the third of the Triple Gem of Buddha, Dhamma, Sangha. Theravada (Pāli: theravāda; Sanskrit: स्थविरवाद sthaviravāda; literally, the Way of the Elders) is the oldest surviving Buddhist school, and for many centuries has been the predominant religion of Sri Lanka (about 70% of the population[1]) and most of continental Southeast Asia (Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand). ... A Buddhist Monk in Sri Lanka In Pāli, a bhikkhu (male) or bhikkhuni (female) is a fully ordained Buddhist monk. ... In Buddhism, the Patimokkha is the basic Theravada code of monastic discipline, consisting of 227 rules for fully ordained monks (bhikkhus) and 311 for nuns (bhikkhunis). ... The Vinaya (a word in Pali as well as in Sanskrit, with literal meaning discipline) is the textual framework for the Buddhist monastic community, or sangha. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... Pali (IAST: ) is a Middle Indo-Aryan dialect or prakrit. ... This article is about the Southeast Asian temple. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into sangha. ... Sangha (संघ saṃgha) is a word in Pali or Sanskrit that can be translated roughly as association or assembly or community. It is commonly used in several senses to refer to Buddhist or Jain groups. ... The Triratna or Three Jewels symbol, on a Buddha footprint. ... Siddhartha and Gautama redirect here. ... The word dharma (Sanskrit; धर्म in the Devanagari script) or dhamma (Pali) is used in most or all philosophies and religions of Indian origin, Dharmic faiths, namely Hinduism (Sanatana Dharma), Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism. ...

Chinese monk lighting incense in Beijing temple.

In Mahayana Buddhism, the term 'Sangha' is in principle restricted to those who have achieved certain levels of understanding. They are therefore called 'community of the excellent ones' (Tibetan: mchog kyi tshogs); however, these in turn need not be monks (i.e., hold such vows). Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (600x800, 378 KB) Monk Burning Incense, Beijing CHINA Taken with a Canon PowerShot A520. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (600x800, 378 KB) Monk Burning Incense, Beijing CHINA Taken with a Canon PowerShot A520. ... Peking redirects here. ... Relief image of the bodhisattva Kuan Yin from Mt. ... The Tibetan language is spoken primarily by the Tibetan people who live across a wide area of eastern Central Asia bordering South Asia, as well as by large number of Tibetan refugees all over the world. ... Missionaries of Charity Religious vows are the public vows taken by members of religious communities of the Roman Catholic, Anglican and Eastern Orthodox Churches. ...


Several Mahayana orders accept female practitioners as monks, instead of using the normal title of "nun", and they are considered equal to male ascetics in all respects.


In Vajrayana Buddhism, monkhood is part of the system of 'vows of individual liberation'; these vows are taken in order to develop one's own personal ethical discipline. The monks and nuns form the (ordinary) sangha. As for the Vajrayana vows of individual liberation, there are four steps: A lay person may take the 5 vows called 'approaching virtue' (in Tibetan 'genyen' <dge snyan>). The next step is to enter the monastic way of life (Tib. rabjung) which includes wearing monk's or nun's robes. After that, one can become a 'novice' (Pali samanera, Tib. getshül); the last and final step is to take all vows of the 'fully ordained monk' (gelong). This term 'gelong' (Tib. <dge long>, in the female form gelongma) is the translation of Skt. bikshu (for women bikshuni) which is the equivalent of the Pali term bhikkhuni; bhikkhu is the word used in Theravada Buddhism (Sri Lanka, Burma, Thailand). Vajrayāna Buddhism (Also known as Tantric Buddhism, Tantrayana, Mantrayana, Mantranaya, Esoteric Buddhism, Diamond Vehicle, or 金剛乘 Jingangcheng in Chinese; however, these terms are not always regarded as equivalent: one scholar[1] speaks of the tantra divisions of some editions of the Kangyur as including Sravakayana, Mahayana and Vajrayana texts) is... A dragon robe from Qing Dynasty of China A robe is a loose-fitting outer garment. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into sangha. ... High-ranking Chinese bhikkunis in an alms round. ... A Buddhist Monk in Sri Lanka In Pāli, a bhikkhu (male) or bhikkhuni (female) is a fully ordained Buddhist monk. ...



Chinese Buddhist monks have been traditionally linked with the practice of the Chinese martial arts or Kung fu, and monks are frequently important characters in martial arts films. This association is focused around the Shaolin Monastery. The Buddhist monk Bodhidharma, traditionally credited as the founder of Zen Buddhism in China, is also claimed to have introduced Kung fu to the country. This latter claim has however been a source of much controversy (see Bodhidharma, the martial arts, and the disputed India connection). Kung fu redirects here. ... Martial arts film is a film genre that originated in the Pacific Rim. ... , Main gate of the Shaolin Monastery in Henan, China. ... Bodhidharma (or Tat Moh)(fl. ... For other uses, see Zen (disambiguation). ... Bodhidharma, woodblock print by Yoshitoshi, 1887. ...


In Thailand, it is common for boys to spend some time living as a monk in a monastery. Most stay for only a few years and then leave, but a number continue on in the ascetic life for the rest of their lives.


Vaishnava monks

Main article: Hare Krishna

Similar in appearance to Buddhist monks, monks from the International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON), or Hare Krishnas as they are popularly known, are the best known Vaishnava monks outside India. They are a common sight in many places around the world. Their appearance—simple saffron dhoti, shaved head with sikha, Tulasi neckbeads and tilaka markings—and social customs (sadhana) date back many thousands of years to the Vedic era with its varnasrama society. This social scheme includes both monastic and lay stages meant for various persons in various stages of life as per their characteristics (guna) and work (karma). Hare Krishna Mantra in Devanagari The Hare Krishna mantra, also referred to reverentially as the Maha Mantra (Great Mantra), is a sixteen-word Vaishnava mantra made well known outside of India by the International Society for Krishna Consciousness (commonly known as the Hare Krishnas)[1]. It is believed by practitioners... Founder of ISKCON: A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada The International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON), also known as the Hare Krishna movement, was founded in 1966 in New York City by A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. ... The International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON) is a new religious movement based on Bengali, or more specifically Gaudiya, Vaishnavism founded by A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, referred to by followers as His Divine Grace, in New York in 1966. ... Hare Krishna Mantra in Devanagari The Hare Krishna mantra, also referred to reverentially as the Maha Mantra (Great Mantra), is a sixteen-word Vaishnava mantra made well known outside of India by the International Society for Krishna Consciousness (commonly known as the Hare Krishnas)[1]. It is believed by practitioners... Vaishnavism is the branch of Hinduism in which Vishnu or one of his avatars (i. ... Binomial name Crocus sativus L. Saffron (IPA: ) is a spice derived from the flower of the saffron crocus (Crocus sativus), a species of crocus in the family Iridaceae. ... Similar to sarongs, dhotis are commonly worn with western-style oxford shirts by the men of South India. ... The sikha or shikha is a Sanskrit word that refers to a long tuft of hair left on top or on the back of the shaven head of a male Orthodox Hindu. ... The tulsi plant or Indian basil (ocimum sanctum) is an important symbol in the Hindu religious tradition. ... In Hinduism, the tilaka (pronounced tilak) is a mark worn on the forehead and other parts of the body. ... A Sadhana is a ritualistic meditation practice from Hindu and Buddhist spiritual traditions which is followed in order to achieve a form of spiritual purification or enlightenment. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Varna is a Sanskrit term derived from the root meaning to choose (from a group). ... The Sanskrit word guna () has the basic meaning of string or a single thread or strand of a cord or twine. In more abstract uses, it may mean a subdivision, species, kind, and generally quality. // In Classical literature (e. ... For other uses, see Karma (disambiguation). ...


ISKCON started as a predominantly monastic group but nowadays the majority of members live as lay persons. Many of them, however, spent some time as monks. New persons joining ISKCON as full-time members (living in its centers) first undergo a three-month Bhakta training, which includes learning the basics of brahmacari (monastic) life. After that they can decide if they prefer to continue as monks or as married Grihasthas. Bhakta is a Hindu term for a person who practices bhakti, that is loving devotion for God. ... Brahmacharya (pronounced /brʌmatʃərɪə/) is a Sanskrit word. ... Pronunciation Gri as the Gru in Gruel Has as the Hus in Husk tha as in thaw Word Root This is a Sanskrit word. ...


Brahmacari older than fifty years can become sannyasi. Sannyasa, a life of full dedication to spiritual pursuits, is the highest stage of life in the varnasrama society. It is permanent and one cannot give it up. A Sannyasi is given the title Swami. Older grihastha with grown-up children are traditionally expected to accept vanaprastha (celibate retired) life. Sanyasa (pronounced sanyaas) symbolises the conception of the mystic life in Hinduism where a person is now integrated into the spiritual world after wholly giving up material life. ... Sannyasa, (Devanagari: संन्यास) is the renounced order of life within Hinduism. ... Swami playing the Harmonium Swami is a primarily Hindu honorific, loosely akin to master. It is derived from the Sanskrit language and means owner of oneself, denoting complete mastery over instinctive and lower urges. ... A vanaprastha (from Sanskrit vana, forest, and prus, dwelling) is a person who is living in the forest as a hermit after partially giving up material desires. ...


The role of monastic orders in Indian and now also Western society has to some extent been adapted over the years in accordance with ever-changing social structures. Occident redirects here. ...


Madhvaacharya (Madhvacharya), the Dwaita philosopher, established ashta matha (Eight Monasteries). He appointed a monk (called swamiji or swamigalu in local parlance) for each matha or monastery who has the right to worship Lord Krishna by rotation. Each matha's swamiji gets a chance to worship after fourteen years. This ritual is called Paryaya. For Madhavacharya the Advaita saint, see Madhava Vidyaranya. ... Dvaita (Devanagari:द्बैत, Kannada:ದ್ವೈತ) (also known as Tattvavada and Bheda-vada), a school of Vedanta (the most widespread Hindu philosophy) founded by Madhvacharya, stresses a strict distinction between God (Vishnu) and the individual living beings (jivas). ... The Ashta-Mathas of Udupi are a group of eight mathas or monastaries established by Sri Madhvacharya the preceptor of the Dvaita school of Hindu thought. ... This article is about the Hindu deity. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ...


See also

The Ashta-Mathas of Udupi are a group of eight mathas or monastaries established by Sri Madhvacharya the preceptor of the Dvaita school of Hindu thought. ... For other uses, see Bede (disambiguation). ... A Buddhist Monk in Sri Lanka In Pāli, a bhikkhu (male) or bhikkhuni (female) is a fully ordained Buddhist monk. ... Brahmacharya (pronounced /brÊŒmatʃərɪə/) is a Sanskrit word. ... A statue of the Sakyamuni Buddha in Tawang Gompa, India. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... The film Into Great Silence (Die Große Stille) directed by Philip Groening, is an intimate portrayal of the everyday lives of Carthusian monks of the Grande Chartreuse, high in a remote corner of the French Alps (Chartreuse Mountains). ... The Book of the First Monks[1] is a medieval Christian work in the contemplative and eremetic tradition of the Carmelites. ... For other uses, see Hermit (disambiguation). ... Lay brothers are Catholic religious occupied solely with manual labour and with the secular affairs of a monastery or friary. ... Petrus Jacobi Thaborita (real name: Peter Jacobusz van Bolsward) (Bolsward, 1450 - 1527) was a Frisian monk, historian and writer. ... Monasticism (from Greek: monachos — a solitary person) is the religious practice in which one renounces worldly pursuits in order to fully devote ones life to spiritual work. ... The Monkey is another name for andrew zearfoss ]] in a number of table-top roleplaying and computer games, notably the Dungeons & Dragons game. ... Species Monachus schauinslandi Monachus monachus Monachus tropicalis Monachus is a genus (and a subgenus of the same name) of the Family Phocidae and the Order Pinnipedia and refers to the various monk seal species throughout the world. ... For other uses, see Nun (disambiguation). ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... A Taoist monk playing an instrument. ... St. ... Sanyasa (pronounced sanyaas) symbolises the conception of the mystic life in Hinduism where a person is now integrated into the spiritual world after wholly giving up material life. ... Sangha (संघ saṃgha) is a word in Pali or Sanskrit that can be translated roughly as association or assembly or community. It is commonly used in several senses to refer to Buddhist or Jain groups. ... Illustration from The Book of Days, published in 1869 The sea monk, or sometimes monk-fish, was a sea monster found off the coast of Denmark almost certainly in 1546 (Paxton & Holland 2005). ... Monk is an Emmy Award winning television show about the private detective Adrian Monk (Tony Shalhoub), afflicted by Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and multiple phobias. ...

External links

  • Monastic life and Monastery of Provence in France
  • "Monk" article in Catholic Encyclopedia (1911)
  • Monasticism Synopsis on Orthodox Church in America's Website (www.oca.org)
  • An Orthodox novice Photo from Valaam Monastery, Russia
  • A monk praying in his cell Photo from Valaam Monastery, Russia
  • Tonsure to Stavrophore Photo from Valaam Monastery, Russia
  • Hieroschemamonk Photo from Valaam Monastery, Russia
  • A hermit in the wilderness Photo from Valaam Monastery, Russia

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