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Encyclopedia > Mongols
Mongols
Ghenghis Khan
Kublai Khan
Total population

10 million (est.) Image File history File links Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 1536 pixel, file size: 158 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This image is in public domain File links The following pages link to this file: Genghis Khan ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 462 × 600 pixels Full resolution (715 × 928 pixel, file size: 73 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Image File history File links Sorghaghtani_Beki. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (620x856, 693 KB)A portrait of Emperor Chengzong of Yuan China. ...

Regions with significant populations
Flag of the People's Republic of China China (5.8 million)
Flag of Mongolia Mongolia (2.4 million)
Flag of Russia Russia (0.5 million)
Language(s)
Mongolic languages
Religion(s)
Predominantly Tibetan Buddhism and Shamanism with minorities of Islam, Christianity, Atheism
Related ethnic groups
Khalkha, Daurs, Buryats, Dorbots, Kalmyks, Oirats, Chahars, Tümeds, Ordoses, Bayad, Dariganga, Urianhai, Üzemchin, Zakhchin.

The name Mongols (Mongolian: Монгол Mongol) specifies one or several ethnic groups largely located now in Mongolia, China, and Russia. Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mongolia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... The Mongolic languages are a group of thirteen languages spoken in Central Asia. ... Tibetan Buddhism is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet, the Himalayan region (including northern Nepal, Bhutan, Sikkim and Ladakh), Mongolia, Buryatia, Tuva and Kalmykia (Russia), and northeastern China (Manchuria: Heilongjiang, Jilin). ... This article is about the practice of shamanism; for other uses, see Shaman (disambiguation). ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... “Atheist” redirects here. ... The Khalkha, or Halh (Халх [χɑɬχ]) in modern Khalkha Mongolian, is a subgroup of the Mongols. ... The Daur people (Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ; the former name Dahur is considered derogatory) are an ethnic group. ... The Buryats, numbering approximately 436,000, are the largest ethnic minority group in Siberia and are mainly concentrated in their homeland, the Buryat Republic. ... The Dorbots (Mongolian: Дөрвөд Dörvöd) are a tribe within the Oirat Mongol people. ... The Republic of Kalmykia (Russian: Респу́блика Калмы́кия; Kalmyk: Хальм Тангч) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... Oirats (also spelled Oyrats or Oyirads; Mongolian: Ойрадын Ojradyn) refers to both a Western Mongol people of Europe and Asia and, historically, to a Turkic people now known as the Altays. ... The Chahar are a tribe of the Mongols. ... Tuvans or Tuvinians (Tuvan: Тывалар, Tyvalar) are a group of Turkic people who make up about two thirds of the population of Tuva, Russia. ... Mongols are one or several ethnic groups largely located in Mongolia, China, and Russia. ...

Contents

Definition

A narrow definition includes the Mongols proper (self-designation Monggol), which can be roughly divided into eastern and western Mongols. In a wider sense, the Mongol peoples includes all people who speak a Mongolic language, such as the Kalmyks of eastern Europe. The Mongolic languages are a group of thirteen languages spoken in Central Asia. ... The Republic of Kalmykia (Russian: Респу́блика Калмы́кия; Kalmyk: Хальм Тангч) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ...


The name Monggol appeared first in 8th century records of the Chinese Tang dynasty, but then only resurfaced in the 11th century during the rule of the Khitan.[1] At first it was applied to some small and still insignificant tribes in the area of the Onon River. In the 13th century, it grew into an umbrella term for a large group of Mongolic and Turkic tribes united under the rule of Genghis Khan. For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... The Khitan (or Khitai, Chinese: ; pinyin: Qìdān) were an ethnic group which dominated much of Manchuria in the 11th century and has been classified by Chinese historians as one of the Eastern proto-Mongolic ethnic groups Donghu (東胡族 dōng hú zú). They established the Liao Dynasty in 907... Onon gol is a river in Mongolia and Russia of length 818 km and watershed 94,010 sq. ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... This article is about the person. ...


The specific origin of the Mongolic languages and associated tribes is unclear. Some researchers have proposed that they developed from a Tungusic splinter group; others suspect Paleosiberian influences.[1] Tungusic languages (or Manchu-Tungus languages) are spoken in Eastern Siberia and Manchuria. ... Paleosiberian (Palaeosiberian, Paleo-Siberian) languages or Paleoasian languages (from Greek palaios, ancient) is a term of convenience used in linguistics to classify a disparate group of languages spoken in remote regions of Siberia. ...


Geographic distribution

Today, people of Mongol origin live in Mongolia, China (Inner Mongolia), Russia, and a few other central Asian countries. Inner Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠨᠺᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠺᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ r Mongghul-un bertegen Jasaqu Orun; Chinese: 内蒙古自治区; Hanyu Pinyin: N... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ...


The differentiation between tribes and peoples (nationalities) is handled differently depending on the country. The Tumed, Chahar, Ordos, Bargut (or Barga), Buryats, Dörböds, Torguud, Dariganga, Üzemchin (or Üzümchin), Bayid, Khoton, Mingad, Zakchin, Darkhad, and Oirats (or Öölds or Ölöts) are all counted as tribes of the Mongols. The Chahar are a tribe of the Mongols. ... Ordos can refer to: the Ordos Desert in Inner Mongolia House Ordos, a fictional organisation appearing in Dune spin-offs This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Buryats, numbering approximately 436,000, are the largest ethnic minority group in Siberia and are mainly concentrated in their homeland, the Buryat Republic. ... The Dorbots (Mongolian: Дөрвөд Dörvöd) are a tribe within the Oirat Mongol people. ... Torguud people was originated from the royal guards of great khans of Mongol empire. ... Uzemchin people derived from the Mongols in eastern Mongolia. ... Language(s) Darkhad language Religion(s) Shamanism, Tibetan Buddhism The Darkhad (Mongolian: , craftsmen) are a Mongolian tribe living mainly in the Bayanzürkh, Ulaan-Uul, Renchinlkhümbe, and Tsagaannuur sums of Khövsgöl aimag in northern Mongolia. ... Oirats (also spelled Oyrats or Oyirads; Mongolian: Ойрадын Ojradyn) refers to both a Western Mongol people of Europe and Asia and, historically, to a Turkic people now known as the Altays. ...


Other geographically dispersed Mongol peoples include the Moghol, Hazara, and Aimak in Afghanistan and Pakistan. Moghol is a Mongolian language spoken in Afghanistan by a few people around Herat. ... Language(s) Hazaragi/Dari (Hazaragi and Dari dialects) Religion(s) Shia, some Sunni Related ethnic groups Mongol, Turkic, Iranian The Hazara are an ethnic group who reside mainly in the central region of Afghanistan, called Hazarajat or Hazaristan. ... The Aimak (or Eimak, Aimaq) are Persian-speaking nomadic or semi-nomadic tribes of mixed Iranian and Mongolian stock inhabiting the north and north-west Afghan highlands immediately to the north of Herat. ...


Mongolia

The population of Mongolia consists of 85% Mongols, numbering approximately 2.7 million. Among those, the Khalkha, Uriankhai and Buryats are counted as eastern Mongols. The Oirats, living mainly in the Altay region, belong to the western Mongols. The Khalkha, or Halh (Халх [χɑɬχ]) in modern Khalkha Mongolian, is a subgroup of the Mongols. ... There isnt a clear ethnic delineation for the application of the name Uriankhai. ... The Buryats, numbering approximately 436,000, are the largest ethnic minority group in Siberia and are mainly concentrated in their homeland, the Buryat Republic. ... Oirats (also spelled Oyrats or Oyirads; Mongolian: Ойрадын Ojradyn) refers to both a Western Mongol people of Europe and Asia and, historically, to a Turkic people now known as the Altays. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


China

This map shows Mongolia and Mongol autonomous subjects in the PRC.
This map shows Mongolia and Mongol autonomous subjects in the PRC.

The Chinese census of 2000 counted 5.8 million Mongols (according to the narrow definition above). Most of them live in the Inner Mongolia autonomous region, followed by Liaoning province. Small numbers can also be found in provinces near those two. Ethnic Mongols in China (Chinese: 蒙古族) are citizens of the Peoples Republic of China who are ethnic Mongols. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 759 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (916 × 724 pixels, file size: 81 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 759 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (916 × 724 pixels, file size: 81 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... PRC is a common abbreviation for: Peoples Republic of China Palestinian Red Crescent Popular Resistance Committees This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Inner Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠨᠺᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠺᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ r Mongghul-un bertegen Jasaqu Orun; Chinese: 内蒙古自治区; Hanyu Pinyin: N...   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Liáoníng) is a northeastern province of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


Other peoples speaking Mongolic languages are the Daur, Monguor, Dongxiang, Bonan, and parts of the Yugur. Those do not officially count as part of the Mongol nationality, but are recognized as nationalities of their own. The Daur people (Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ; the former name Dahur is considered derogatory) are an ethnic group. ... The Monguor (Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) people are an ethnic group. ... The Dongxiang people (own name: Sarta or Santa; Simplified Chinese: 东乡族 Traditional Chinese︰東鄉族; Pinyin: Dōngxiāngzú) are an ethnic group closely related to the Mongolians, who practice Islam. ... The Bonan (also Baoan) people (保安族; pinyin: bǎoān zú) are an ethnic group living in Gansu and Qinghai provinces in northwestern China. ... The Yugur people are an ethnic group. ...


Russia

In Russia, the Buryats belong to the eastern Mongols. The western Mongols include the Oirats in the Russian Altay and the Kalmyks at the northern side of the Caspian Sea. Together they amount to roughly half a million people. The Buryats, numbering approximately 436,000, are the largest ethnic minority group in Siberia and are mainly concentrated in their homeland, the Buryat Republic. ... Oirats (also spelled Oyrats or Oyirads; Mongolian: Ойрадын Ojradyn) refers to both a Western Mongol people of Europe and Asia and, historically, to a Turkic people now known as the Altays. ... The Republic of Kalmykia (Russian: Респу́блика Калмы́кия; Kalmyk: Хальм Тангч) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the worlds largest lake or a full-fledged sea. ...


See also

Expansion of the Mongol Empire Historical map of the Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire, also known as the Mongolian Empire (Mongolian: , Mongolyn Ezent Güren; 1206–1405) was the largest contiguous empire in history and for sometime was the most feared in Eurasia. ... Although people have inhabited Mongolia since the Stone Age, Mongolia only became politically important after iron weapons entered the area in the 3rd century B.C. In general, Mongolia at this point had a similar history to the rest of the nomadic steppe that lies between Siberia Northern Russia to...

References

  1. ^ a b Mongolia: Ethnography of Mongolia. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved on 2007-07-22.

The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • Ethnic groups of Mongolia
  • Ethnic map of Mongolia

  Results from FactBites:
 
Mongols and Yuan China by Sanderson Beck (11119 words)
Mongol warriors were forbidden to speak of death, injury, or defeat.
Mongols and other foreigners (mostly from Persia) replaced most of the Confucian aristocrats in government, and the civil service exams were abolished.
As plays in the Mongol era had often been performed by prostitutes, the Ming dynasty considered actors and actresses as low as prostitutes; like them their sons were not allowed to take imperial examinations.
Mongols - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4479 words)
The Mongols were originally a confederation of tribes in competition with the Tatar Turks, Kerait, Merkit and Naiman confederations and therefore only one division of what is known today as the Mongol nation.
Mongols were originally shamans who pray to the supernatural God they believed existed beyond the sky and look down from the heavens.
The Mongols and Genghis Khan maintained a policy of being open to all religions, it was known as particularly sympathetic to Christians (which may have helped contribute to the legend of Prester John).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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