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Encyclopedia > Mongolians
Honorary guard of Mongolia.

The Mongols are an ethnic group that originated in what is now Mongolia, Russia, and China, particularly Inner Mongolia. They currently number about 8.5 million and speak the Mongol language. They form one of the 56 nationalities officially recognized by the People's Republic of China. There are approximately 2.3 million Mongols in Mongolia, 4 million Mongols living in Inner Mongolia, and 2 million Mongols living in neighboring provinces. In addition, there are a number of ethnic groups in North China and Russia related to the Mongols: the Daur, Buryat, Evenk, Dorbod, Tuvans and Kalmyk. Download high resolution version (2560x1326, 306 KB)This image is in public domain File links The following pages link to this file: Mongols ... Download high resolution version (2560x1326, 306 KB)This image is in public domain File links The following pages link to this file: Mongols ... A guard is either a person or an organisation. ... Mongolia (Khalkha Mongolian: Монгол Улс) is a landlocked nation in central Asia, bordered by Russia to the north and the Peoples Republic of China to the south. ... This article or section should be merged with ethnicity An ethnic group is a group of people who identify with one another, or are so identified by others, on the basis of a boundary that distinguishes them from other groups. ... Mongolia (Khalkha Mongolian: Монгол Улс) is a landlocked nation in central Asia, bordered by Russia to the north and the Peoples Republic of China to the south. ... The Great Wall of China, stretching over 6,700 km, was erected beginning in the 3rd century BC to guard the north from raids by men on horses. ... Inner Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠨᠺᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠺᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ r Mongghul-un bertegen Jasaqu Orun; Chinese: 内蒙古自治区; Hanyu Pinyin: N i Měnggǔ Z qū) is an Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Mongolic languages are a group of languages spoken in Central Asia. ... The Peoples Republic of China officially describes itself as a multinational unitary state and as such officially recognizes 56 nationalities or Mínzú (民族), within China: the Han being the majority (>92%), and the remaining 55 nationalities being the national minorities. ... The Peoples Republic of China (PRC) comprises most of the cultural, historic, and geographic area known as China. ... Mongolia (Khalkha Mongolian: Монгол Улс) is a landlocked nation in central Asia, bordered by Russia to the north and the Peoples Republic of China to the south. ... Inner Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠨᠺᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠺᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ r Mongghul-un bertegen Jasaqu Orun; Chinese: 内蒙古自治区; Hanyu Pinyin: N i Měnggǔ Z qū) is an Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Daur people are an ethnic group. ... The Buryats, numbering approximately 350,000, are the largest ethnic minority group in Mongolian descent and share many customs with their Mongolian cousins, including nomadic herding and erecting yurts for shelter. ... The Evenks (obsolete: Tungus) are a nomadic indigenous people, one of the Northern Indigenous Peoples (pop. ... Tuvans (or Tuvinians) is a group of Turkic people, make up about two thirds of the population of Tuva. ... The Republic of Kalmykia ( Russian: Респу́блика Калмы́кия; Kalmyk: Хальм Тангч) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ...

Contents

History

Though few in number (approximately 200,000 people at the height of their empire), Mongols were important in world history. Under the leadership of Genghis Khan, the Mongols created the second largest empire in world history, ruling 35 million km² (13.8 million miles²) and more than 100 million people, nearly equal to the British Empire in land area. At its height, the Mongol Empire spanned from Korea to Hungary, and included most of the lands in between, such as Afghanistan, Georgia, Armenia, Russia, Persia, China, and much of the Middle East. Genghis Khan (Mongolian: Чингис Хаан, Jenghis Khan, Jinghis Khan, Chinghiz Khan, Jinghiz Khan, Chinggis Khan, Changaiz Khan, original name Temüjin, Temuchin, Mongolian: Тэмүүжин) (c. ... The Mongol Empire was founded by Genghis Khan in 1206. ... The Mongol Empire was founded by Genghis Khan in 1206. ... Korea is a formerly unified country, situated on the Korean Peninsula in northern East Asia, bordering on China to the west and Russia to the north. ... The Republic of Hungary (Magyar Köztársaság) or Hungary (Magyarország) is a landlocked country in Central Europe, bordered by Austria, Slovakia, Ukraine, Romania, Serbia, Croatia and Slovenia. ... Afghanistan (Pashtu/Dari-Persian: Afğānistān افغانستان) is a country in Central Asia. ... Georgia ( Georgian: საქართველო Sakartvelo), known from 1991 to 1995 as the Republic of Georgia, is a country to the east of the Black Sea in the southern Caucasus. ... Armenia - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Persian art is conscious of a great past, and monumental in many respects. ... The Great Wall of China, stretching over 6,700 km, was erected beginning in the 3rd century BC to guard the north from raids by men on horses. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...


The Mongols were a nomadic people who in the 13th century found themselves encompassed by large, city-dwelling agrarian civilizations. However, none of these civilizations, with the possible exception of the Islamic Caliphate located in Baghdad, were part of a strong central state. Asia, Russia, and the Middle East were either declining kingdoms, or divided city states. Taking the strategic initiative, the Mongols exploited this power vacuum and linked all of these areas into a mutually supporting trade network. Communities of nomadic people move from place to place, rather than settling down in one location. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... An Anglicized/Latinized version of the Arabic word خليفة or Khalīfah, Caliph (  listen?) is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... World map showing location of Asia A satellite composite image of Asia Asia is the central and eastern part of the continent of Eurasia, defined by subtracting the European peninsula from Eurasia. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...


The Mongols were largely dependent on trade with the city-dwelling peoples, but resorted to raiding villages when times were particularly hard. As nomads, they could not accumulate a surplus against bad times, or support artisans. When trade was reduced by the northern Chinese kingdoms in the 1200s, shortly after Genghis Khan became Khan of the Mongol tribes, the Mongols repeated their tradition of getting their goods by looting Northern China. Centuries: 12th century - 13th century - 14th century Decades: 1150s 1160s 1170s 1180s 1190s - 1200s - 1210s 1220s 1230s 1240s 1250s Years: 1200 1201 1202 1203 1204 1205 1206 1207 1208 1209 Events and Trends 1200 University of Paris receives charter from Philip II of France 1202-1204 Fourth Crusade - diverted to... Genghis Khan (Mongolian: Чингис Хаан, Jenghis Khan, Jinghis Khan, Chinghiz Khan, Jinghiz Khan, Chinggis Khan, Changaiz Khan, original name Temüjin, Temuchin, Mongolian: Тэмүүжин) (c. ... For the Star Trek character see Khan Noonien Singh. ...


Conquest, in the Khan's initial viewpoint, did not consist of subordination of competing cultures to the nomadic way of life. Rather, it took the form of looting and destruction, if there was resistance. If there was no resistance, Mongols usually left the town unharmed and demanded that the townspeople pay them tribute. As a nomad, Genghis Khan is supposed to not have understood or cared of the supposed benefits in the city dwellers' way of life. This contrasts with their dependence on trade with the cities. However, theories on the economics of these relationships still lay seven centuries in the future.


The Khan's initial plan of conquest if people resisted was sacking all that was valuable, and then razing the city and killing the resistance, leaving only artists and human shields (for future campaigns) to survive. Genghis Khan himself was extremely supportive to people that were loyal to him and even to his enemies. Different theories exist as to why the Mongols initially behaved in such an extreme manner. From a military perspective, the Mongols were often far from home territory and greatly out-numbered, and wouldn't want to leave enemies in their rear. Terror also served as a useful weapon in reducing an opponent's ability to rally support against Mongol invasion. Economically, destroying population centers gave the Mongols more room to graze their herds. Genghis Khan (Mongolian: Чингис Хаан, Jenghis Khan, Jinghis Khan, Chinghiz Khan, Jinghiz Khan, Chinggis Khan, Changaiz Khan, original name Temüjin, Temuchin, Mongolian: Тэмүүжин) (c. ...


One such example is the capture of Beijing in 1215. Rather than adding the city to the Mongol Kingdom, it was instead thoroughly sacked for silk and other valuables. Beijing  listen? ( Chinese: 北京; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Pei-ching; ; Postal System Pinyin: Peking), is the capital city of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Events June 15 - King John of England forced to put his seal to Magna Carta, outlining the rights of landowning men (nobles and knights) and restricts the kings power. ...


As the Mongols grew more powerful, advisers convinced Genghis Khan to start building a vassal empire. If the city-dwelling peoples were allowed to continue their way of life, they could produce a surplus of food and goods, a portion of which could be paid to the Khan as taxes. Given the Khan's extraordinary success in his aggressive foreign policy, this wealth could be equally extraordinary. The Khan agreed, taking his tribute in tax of 10%, and saving countless lives and cultures in the process. Until 1225 they continued these invasions through Western Asia, into Persia and Russia. A vassal, in European medieval feudalism terminology, is one who through a commendation ceremony (composed of homage and fealty) enters into mutual obligations with a lord, usually military conscription and mutual protection, in exchange for a fief. ... Events Births Thomas Aquinas, Christian philosopher and theologian. ... Persian art is conscious of a great past, and monumental in many respects. ...


In 1227, Genghis Khan died; his third son Ogedei Khan was elected by the tribes to succeed him. Ogedei Khan continued the expansion into North-Eastern Asia, conquering Korea and Northern China in the process. The armies of the Mongols had reached Poland and Egypt by 1241, and were poised to continue. When Ogedei Khan suddenly died, Mongol law required all descendants of Genghis to return and elect a new Khan. The leader of the European expedition rushed back to press his claim. Nearly a decade later, Mongka Khan, grandson of Genghis and nephew of Ogedei, took the throne, through the assistance of his mother Sorghaghtani Beki. By this time, the Western expansion had lost its momentum. These events are credited in several counterfactual historical scenarios with saving nascent European civilization from a second "Dark Age" precipitated by Mongol conquest. Such scenarios must be taken with knowledge of its origin in mind though. Events Henry III of England declares himself of age and assumes power Births September 30 - Pope Nicholas IV Deaths March 18 - Pope Honorius III (b. ... Ögedei, (also Ögädäi, Ögedäi, etc. ... Korea is a formerly unified country, situated on the Korean Peninsula in northern East Asia, bordering on China to the west and Russia to the north. ... The Republic of Poland, a democratic country with a population of 38,626,349 and area of 312,685 km², is located in Central Europe, between Germany to the west, the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south, Ukraine and Belarus to the east, and the Baltic Sea, Lithuania and... The Arab Republic of Egypt, commonly known as Egypt, (in Arabic: مصر, romanized Miṣr or Maṣr, in Egyptian dialect) is a republic mostly located in north-eastern Africa. ... Events April 5 - Mongols of Golden Horde under the command of Subotai defeat feudal polish nobility, including Knights Templar, in the battle of Liegnitz April 27 - Mongols defeat Bela IV of Hungary in the battle of Sajo. ... Möngke Khan (1208-1259, also transliterated as Mongke, Mongka, Möngka, Mangu) was the fourth khan of the Mongol Empire. ... Sorghaghtani Beki (died 1252) was the mother of four of the great figures in Mongol history, especially Möngke Khan, Kublai Khan, and Hulagu Khan. ...


The name Mongol during 12th and 13th century Mongol reign presumably included soldiers and generals in Middle East, China, Eastern and central Europe that all fought under the identity of being Mongols although not being exclusively ones that had a heritage in modern Mongolia. The name probably was a very symbolic and powerful concept to the ones that pledged allegiance to the Mongol Empire, Genghis Khan, his successor Great Khans and to themselves. This is probably the genius of Genghis Khan to unify all these different people under one identity and a single and powerful fighting force with superb military strategy, dedication and mobility. The word Mongol should not be interpreted literally in historical perspective to many who identified themselves as being Mongols.


Various members of the Mongol Court, including Sorghaghtani Beki, were Nestorian Christians. While the court was nominally Buddhist and maintained a policy of being open to all religions, it was known as particularly sympathetic to Christians (which may have helped contribute to the legend of Prester John). In 1253 the court followed the suggestion from Crusader Kingdoms in Syria to attack the Muslim capitals of Baghdad and Cairo. Baghdad was conquered and sacked in 1258, with the city's Christians spared, and the Abbasid caliph killed. However, with the troops on the road to Cairo, Mongka Khan died in 1259. Much of the force returned home for the selection of the new leader, and Egyptian troops repelled the attack in 1260. This marked the farthest West the Mongol Empire would progress. The term Nestorianism is eponymous, even though the person who lent his name to it always denied the associated belief. ... Statues of Buddha such as this, the Tian Tan Buddha statue in Hong Kong, remind followers to practice right living. ... This article is about the religious people known as Christians. ... Prester John (also Presbyter John) was a legendary Christian ruler in Asia (some say his kingdom was in Northern Africa), combining the roles of patriarch and king. ... For broader historical context, see 13th century. ... This article is about historical Crusades . ... The Syrian Arab Republic is a country in the Middle East, bordering (from south to north) on Lebanon, Israel, Jordan, Iraq and Turkey. ... A street map of Baghdad Average temperature (red) and precipitations (blue) in Baghdad Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq and the Baghdad Province. ... View of the modern citys skyline. ... Events= February 10 - Mongols overrun Baghdad, burning it to the ground and killing 800,000 citizens Llywelyn the Last declares himself Prince of Wales. ... Abbasid provinces during the caliphate of Harun al-Rashid Abbasid was the dynastic name generally given to the caliphs of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Muslim empire, that overthrew the Umayyid caliphs. ... An Anglicized/Latinized version of the Arabic word خليفة or Khalīfah, Caliph (  listen?) is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... Events The chronicle of Matthew Paris ends due to his death. ... Events End of the reign of Emperor Go-Fukakusa of Japan Emperor Kameyama ascends to the throne of Japan September 3 - Mongols defeated by Mameluks at Battle of Ain Jalut Samogatians and Curonians defeats Teutonic knights in Battle of Durbe Births Maximus Planudes, Byzantine grammarian and theologian Deaths Monarchs/Presidents...


Kublai Khan quickly succeeded Mongka Khan, moved the court to Beijing, formed the Yuan dynasty, and re-started the invasion of China, in the first war with guns on both sides. After 18 years, Kublai Khan conquered both Northern and Southern China, forming the largest empire in history (famously described by Marco Polo). Kublai Khan or Khubilai Khan (1215 - 1294), Mongol military leader, was Khan (1260-1294) of the Mongol Empire and founder and first Emperor (1279-1294) of the Yuan Dynasty. ... Beijing  listen? ( Chinese: 北京; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Pei-ching; ; Postal System Pinyin: Peking), is the capital city of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Yuan Dynasty (Mongolian: Dai Ön Yeke Mongghul Ulus; Chinese: 元朝) lasting officially from 1271 to 1368, also called the Mongol Dynasty, was the name given to the significant ruling family of Borjigin in Asia. ... This article is about firearms and similar devices. ... Marco Polo (September 15, 1254 - January 8, 1324) was a Venetian trader and explorer who, together with his father and uncle, was one of the first Westerners to travel the Silk Road to China (which he called Cathay) and visited Great Khan of Mongol Empire, Kubilai Khan (grandson of Genghis...


However, by the early 14th century, the prominence of trade and a possible cooling of the world's climates led to worldwide outbreaks of plague, which encouraged revolt and invasion. Early Ming Emperors led campaigns into Mongolia and destroyed Harhorin and Khar Khot, but later Ming Emperors resorted to more defensive policies. Meanwhile, various Mongolian tribes fought against each other, usually Western Mongols (Oirat) against Eastern Mongols (Chahar, Tumed, Ordos or Khalkha), and continued to threaten China's borders. Their frequent raids finally led to the construction of the Great Wall of China. (13th century - 14th century - 15th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 14th century was that century which lasted from 1301 to 1400. ... Plague redirects here. ... The Ming Dynasty (Chinese: 明朝; Pinyin: míng cháo) was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644, though claims to the Ming throne (now collectively called the Southern Ming) survived until 1662. ... Mongolia (Khalkha Mongolian: Монгол Улс) is a landlocked nation in central Asia, bordered by Russia to the north and the Peoples Republic of China to the south. ... Harhorin (Хархорин), or Khara Khorum in Classical Mongolian, is a town in Övörhangay aymag, Mongolia. ... The Oyirad (also spelled Oirat) is an alliance of the western Mongols. ... Chakhar is a group of the Mongols. ... Ordos can refer to: the Ordos Desert in Inner Mongolia House Ordos, a fictional organisation appearing in Dune spin-offs This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Khalkha, or Halh (Халх) in modern Khalkha Mongolian, is a subgroup of the Mongols. ... The Great Wall of China (TC: 長城; SC: 长城, Pinyin: Chángchéng), also known in China as the Great Wall of 10,000 Li¹ (SC: 万里长城, Pinyin: Wànlĭ Chángchéng), is an ancient Chinese fortification built from the end of the 14th century until the beginning of the 16th century, during the...


The internal struggle gave the emerging Manchu the possibility to incorporate the Mongol tribes bit by bit. In 1636, the Chahar of Inner Mongolia were conquered, in 1691, the Khalkha of Outer Mongolia submitted to the Kangxi Emperor in order to escape from the threat of being conquered by the Oirat, and in the 1750s, the Qianlong Emperor completely destroyed the Oirat Jungar Empire in today's Xinjiang. The Manchu (manju in Manchu; 滿族 (pinyin: mǎnzú) in Chinese, often shortened to 滿 (pinyin: mǎn) are an ethnic group who originated in northeastern Manchuria. ... Chakhar is a group of the Mongols. ... Inner Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠨᠺᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠺᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ r Mongghul-un bertegen Jasaqu Orun; Chinese: 内蒙古自治区; Hanyu Pinyin: N i Měnggǔ Z qū) is an Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Khalkha, or Halh (Халх) in modern Khalkha Mongolian, is a subgroup of the Mongols. ... This article needs cleanup, so as to conform to a higher standard. ... The Oyirad (also spelled Oirat) is an alliance of the western Mongols. ... The Qianlong Emperor (September 25, 1711–February 7, 1799) was the fifth emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty, and the fourth Qing emperor to rule over China. ... The Oyirad (also spelled Oirat) is an alliance of the western Mongols. ... Jüün Ghar was a tribe of the Oyirad Mongols. ... Xinjiang (Chinese: 新疆; pinyin: Xīnjiāng; Wade-Giles: Hsin1-chiang1; Postal Pinyin: Sinkiang; literal meaning: New Frontier; Uyghur: شينجاڭ) Uyghurs Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC), sometimes known as Chinese Turkestan, Eastern Turkestan (Turkestan also spelt Turkistan) or Uyghuristan. ...


Military innovation

See Military advances of Genghis Khan Representation of 12th and 13th century Mongol soldiers in Naadam. ...


Timeline of conquest

The Mongols attempted two unsuccessful invasions of Japan. The first invasion fleet was utterly destroyed by a typhoon (kamikaze) in 1281. The second Mongolian fleet survived the typhoon, but their provisions were lost. Landed troops both starved because of the lack of supplies and were annihilated in battles with Japanese infantry and samurai. This article is about weather phenomena. ... A Japanese Zero about to hit the USS Missouri. ... Events February 22 - Martin IV becomes Pope August 15 - Kamikaze storm wipes out invading Mongol army in the coast of Japan The Ottoman Empire was founded as an autonomous state (Beylik) in present day Bilecik, Turkey, by Osman Bey. ... Japanese samurai in armour, 1860 photograph. ...


Mongol victories include their invasion of Java, and south East Asia (Modern day Vietnam). The tropical climate proved unsuitable to cavalry, and while Vietnam was made a vassal state, Java remained autonomous much to the fury of Kublai.

  • 1200, Northern China — unknown
  • 1215, Yanjing China (today Beijing) — unknown
  • 1221, Nishapur, Persia — ~1.7 million killed in assault
  • 1221, Merv, Persia — ~1.4 million killed in assault
  • 1221, Meru Chahjan, Persia — ~1.3 million killed in assault
  • 1221, Rayy, Persia — ~1.6 million killed in assault
  • 1236, Bilär,Bulgar cities, Volga Bulgaria — 150,000 or more, nearly half of population
  • 1237-1240, Kievan Rus' — half of population
  • 1241, Wahlstatt — defeat of a combined Polish-German force in lower Silesia (Poland); the Mongols turn back to attend to the election of a new Grand Khan.
  • 1258, Baghdad — ~800,000 people. Results in destruction of Abbasid dynasty

Events University of Paris receives charter from Philip II of France Births Matthew Paris, English Benedictine monk and chronicler (approximate date). ... Events June 15 - King John of England forced to put his seal to Magna Carta, outlining the rights of landowning men (nobles and knights) and restricts the kings power. ... Beijing  listen? ( Chinese: 北京; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Pei-ching; ; Postal System Pinyin: Peking), is the capital city of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Centuries: 12th century - 13th century - 14th century Decades: 1170s 1180s 1190s 1200s 1210s - 1220s - 1230s 1240s 1250s 1260s 1270s Years: 1216 1217 1218 1219 1220 - 1221 - 1222 1223 1224 1225 1226 See also: 1221 state leaders Events End of the reign of Emperor Juntoku of Japan Emperor Chukyo briefly reigns... Tomb of Omar Khayyam, Neishabur Nishapur (or Neyshâbûr; نیشابور in Persian) is a town in the province of Khorasan in northeastern Iran, situated in a fertile plain at the foot of the Binalud Mountains, near the regional capital of Mashhad. ... Persian art is conscious of a great past, and monumental in many respects. ... Merv was a major oasis-city in Central Asia, on the Silk Road, located near todays Mary, Turkmenistan. ... Persian art is conscious of a great past, and monumental in many respects. ... Persian art is conscious of a great past, and monumental in many respects. ... Ray, also spelled Rayy or Rages (ری in Persian) is the most historic city in the province of Tehran, Iran. ... Persian art is conscious of a great past, and monumental in many respects. ... Bilär (Bülär) – Medieval city in Volga Bulgaria in 10th – 13th centuries. ... Bulgars (also Bolgars or proto-Bulgarians) a people of Central Asia, probably originally Pamirian, whose branches became Slavicized and perhaps Turkic over time. ... Volga Bulgaria or Volga-Kama Bolghar, is a historic state that existed between the 7th and 13th centuries around the confluence of the Volga and Kama rivers in what is now the Russian Federation. ... Kievan Rus′ (Ки́евская Ру́сь, Kievskaya Rus in Russian; Київська Русь, Kyivs’ka Rus’ in Ukrainian) was the early, mostly East Slavic¹ state dominated by the city of Kiev (ru: Ки́ев, Kiev; uk: Ки́їв, Kyiv), from about 880 to the middle of the 12th century. ... Legnickie Pole (German Wahlstatt) is a small village near Legnica in Lower Silesia, Poland. ... Events= February 10 - Mongols overrun Baghdad, burning it to the ground and killing 800,000 citizens Llywelyn the Last declares himself Prince of Wales. ... A street map of Baghdad Average temperature (red) and precipitations (blue) in Baghdad Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq and the Baghdad Province. ... Abbasid provinces during the caliphate of Harun al-Rashid Abbasid was the dynastic name generally given to the caliphs of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Muslim empire. ...

Modern history

In 1921, Outer Mongolia revolted with Russian support, forming modern Mongolia. A Communist government was formed in 1924. The USSR defended Mongolia from Japanese invasion. However, the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party, for reasons both practical and philosophical, enacted an often brutal if not entirely effective sweeping of Mongolian tradition, working against the Buddhist religions, clan-ism, and script, and for collectivism (as opposed to the traditional nomadic lifestyle). Mongolia aligned itself with Russia after the Sino-Soviet split of 1958. In 1990 the Communist government was overthrown, and by 1992 Mongolia established a parliamentary government. Mongolia (Khalkha Mongolian: Монгол Улс) is a landlocked nation in central Asia, bordered by Russia to the north and the Peoples Republic of China to the south. ... Communism - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) .( Russian: Сою́з Сове́тских Социалисти́ческих Респу́блик (СССР)  listen?; tr. ... Official language Japanese Capital Tokyo Largest City Tokyo Emperor Akihito Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 60th 377,835 km² 0. ... The Mongolian Peoples Revolutionary Party (Mongolian: Mongol Ardyn Khuvsgatt Nam, Монгол Ардын Хувьсгалт Нам) is a political party in Mongolia. ... Statues of Buddha such as this, the Tian Tan Buddha statue in Hong Kong, remind followers to practice right living. ... All people of the world unite, to overthrow American imperialism, to overthrow Soviet revisionism, to overthrow the reactionaries of all nations! (Chinese poster, 1969) The Sino-Soviet split was a conflict between the Soviet Union and the Peoples Republic of China, beginning in the late 1950s, reaching a peak... 1958 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... A parliamentarian is a specialist in parliamentary procedure. ...


Inner Mongolia forms an autonomous state within China. Han Chinese have been massively re-settled there, and are the dominant ethnic group, and China places many of the same cultural restrictions on Mongols as did Soviet Mongolia. However, Mongols are exempt from the government's one-child policy, and the PRC officially promotes the Mongol language. Inner Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠨᠺᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠺᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ r Mongghul-un bertegen Jasaqu Orun; Chinese: 内蒙古自治区; Hanyu Pinyin: N i Měnggǔ Z qū) is an Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Han Chinese (Simplified: 汉; Traditional: 漢; Pinyin: hàn) is a term which refers to the majority ethnic group within China and the largest single human ethnic group in the world. ... The one-child policy is the current birth control policy of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Peoples Republic of China (PRC) comprises most of the cultural, historic, and geographic area known as China. ... The Mongolic languages are a group of languages spoken in Central Asia. ...


The Russian Federation also has some autonomous regions for descendants of the Mongols, such as the Buryats: The Russian Federation (Russian: Росси́йская Федера́ция, transliteration: Rossiyskaya Federatsiya or Rossijskaja Federacija), or Russia (Russian: Росси́я, transliteration: Rossiya or Rossija), is a country that stretches over a vast expanse of eastern Europe and northern Asia. ... The Buryats, numbering approximately 350,000, are the largest ethnic minority group in Mongolian descent and share many customs with their Mongolian cousins, including nomadic herding and erecting yurts for shelter. ...

  • Kalmykia Autonomous Republic (Western Mongolians - Oirats)
  • Ust-Orda Buryats Autonomous District
  • Aga-Buryat Autonomous District
  • Buryatia Autonomous Republic

Mongols in Mongolia, especially those that are nomads are regarded as one of the most kindest and warmest of people in the world by most Westerners that had the chance to see first-hand Mongolian nomadic people. The Republic of Kalmykia (Russian: Респу́блика Калмы́кия; Kalmyk: Хальм Тангч) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... Categories: Stub | Autonomous Districts of Russia ... Categories: Stub | Autonomous Districts of Russia ... The Buryat Republic (Russian: Респу́блика Буря́тия; Buryat: Буряад Республика) is a Russian Federation (a republic). ... Mongolia (Khalkha Mongolian: Монгол Улс) is a landlocked nation in central Asia, bordered by Russia to the north and the Peoples Republic of China to the south. ... Communities of nomadic people move from place to place, rather than settling down in one location. ...



Chinese ethnic groups (classification by PRC government)

Achang - Bai - Blang - Bonan - Buyei - Chosen - Dai - Daur - De'ang - Derung - Dong - Dongxiang - Ewenki - Gaoshan - Gelao - Gin - Han - Hani - Hezhen - Hui - Jingpo - Jino - Kazak - Kirgiz - Lahu - Lhoba - Li - Lisu - Man - Maonan - Miao - Monba - Mongol - Mulao - Naxi - Nu - Oroqen - Pumi - Qiang - Russ - Salar - She - Sui - Tajik - Tatar - Tu - Tujia - Uygur - Uzbek - Va - Xibe - Yao - Yi - Yugur - Zang - Zhuang The Peoples Republic of China officially describes itself as a multinational unitary state and as such officially recognizes 56 nationalities or Mínzú (民族), within China: the Han being the majority (>92%), and the remaining 55 nationalities being the national minorities. ... The Peoples Republic of China (PRC) comprises most of the cultural, historic, and geographic area known as China. ... The Achang (阿昌族), also known as the Ngacang or Maingtha, people are an ethnic group. ... Bamileke languages (ISO 639 alpha-3, bai) Baccalaureus in Arte Ingeniaria Band Aid (band) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Blang people are an ethnic group. ... The Bonan people (保安族; pinyin: bǎoān zú) are an ethnic group living in Gansu and Qinghai provinces in northwestern China. ... The Buyei or Bouyei people (Self called: Puyi, Puzhong, Burao, Puman; Chinese: 布依族; pinyin: bùyī Zú) are an ethnic group living in southern China. ... The Korean people are one of the main East Asian ethnic groups. ... The Dai is the officially recognized name of an ethnic group living in southern Yunnan Province of China, and also in Laos, Vietnam, Thailand, and Myanmar. ... The Daur people are an ethnic group. ... The Deang people are an ethnic group. ... The Derung people (own name: tɯɹɯŋ, Chinese: 独龙族 Dúlóng Zú) are an ethnic group. ... Categories: Ethnic groups of China | Ethnicity stubs ... The Dongxiang people (Chinese: 东乡族; pinyin: Dōngxiāngzú) are an ethnic group closely related to the Mongolians. ... The Evenks (obsolete: Tungus) are a nomadic indigenous people, one of the Northern Indigenous Peoples (pop. ... A Rukai villege Chief visiting Department of Anthropology in Tokyo Imperial University during the Japanese rule. ... The Gelao people (own name: Klau, Chinese: 仡佬族 Gēlǎozú) are an ethnic group. ... Gin, or Jing Nationality (京族) in Mandarin Chinese, is the name given to ethnic Vietnamese living in China. ... Han Chinese (Simplified: 汉; Traditional: 漢; Pinyin: hàn) is a term which refers to the majority ethnic group within China and the largest single human ethnic group in the world. ... The Hani people (own name: Haqniq, Chinese: 哈尼族 Hānízú) are an ethnic group. ... The Hezhen people (Chinese: 赫哲族: Hèzhé Zú; they call themselves Nanio, Kilən, and Xədʑən) are an ethnic group. ... The Hui (回) ethnic group is unrelated to the Hui (徽) dialects. ... The Jingpo people (Chinese: 景颇族 Jǐngpōzú; own names: Jingpo, Tsaiva, Lechi) are an ethnic group. ... The Jino people (Chinese: 基诺族 Jīnuòzú; own name: tɕyno or kino) are an ethnic group. ... A Kazakh and his camel The Kazakhs (Qazaq, Quazaq), (in Kazakh: Казак; in Russian: Казах; English term is the transliteration from Russian) are a Turkic people of the northern parts of Central Asia famous in the past for the fierce love of freedom, skillful horse riding, hunting with semi-domesticated... Kirghiz (also Kyrgyz) are a Turkic ethnic group found primarily in Kyrgyzstan. ... The Lahu people (Chinese: 拉祜族 Lāhùzú; own names: Ladhulsi or Kawzhawd) are an ethnic group. ... With a population of just 2,300, the Lhoba (珞巴) are one of the smallest officially recognized ethnic groups in China. ... Li (黎 pinyin Lí) is a minority Chinese ethnic group. ... The Lisu people are an ethnic group who inhabit Burma (Myanmar), China, Thailand, and India in the state of Arunachal Pradesh. ... The Manchu (manju in Manchu; 滿族 (pinyin: mǎnzú) in Chinese, often shortened to 滿 (pinyin: mǎn) are an ethnic group who originated in northeastern Manchuria. ... The Maonan people are an ethnic group. ... The Hmong, also known as Miao (Chinese: 苗: Miáo; Vietnamese: Mẹo or Hmông; Thai: ม้ง (mong) or แม้ว (maew)), are an Asian ethnic group whose homeland is in the mountainous regions of southern China (especially Guizhou) that cross into northern Southeast Asia (northern Vietnam and Laos). ... ... The Mulao people are an ethnic group. ... Categories: Ethnic groups of China ... The Nu people (own names: Nusu, Anung, Zauzou; Chinese: 怒族; pinyin: nù zú) are one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Oroqen people(鄂伦春族) are an ethnic group in northern China. ... The Pumi people (Chinese: 普米族 Pǔmǐzú, own name: /phʐẽmi/) are an ethnic group. ... The Qiang (羌) people are an ethnic group. ... Russians (Русские - Russkie) are an East Slavic ethnic group, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries. ... The Salar people are an ethnic group in eastern Qinghai and southwestern Gansu. ... The She (畲) people are an ethnic group. ... The Sui Dynasty (隋朝 Hanyu Pinyin: Suí, 581-618) followed the Southern and Northern Dynasties and preceded the Tang Dynasty in China. ... Tajik (塔吉克族; pinyin: tǎjíkè zú) is one of the of the 56 nationalities officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of China. ... Tatars or Tartars is a collective name applied to the Turkic-speaking people of Europe and Asia. ... The Tu (土) people are an ethnic group. ... The Tujia (土家族) are an ethnic group numbering about 8 million, living in the Wuling Mountains of Chinas Hunan and Hubei provinces. ... Uyghurs (also called Uighurs, Uygurs, or Uigurs) ( Simplified Chinese: 维吾尔; Traditional Chinese: 維吾爾; pinyin: ) are a Turkic ethnic group of people living in northwestern China (mainly in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, where they are the dominant ethnic group together with Han people), Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan. ... Uzbeks are a Turkic ethnic group found primarily in Uzbekistan, but also in Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Xinjiang province of China and other countries in Central Asia. ... The Va nationality (Chinese: 佤族 Wǎzú; own names: Va, Ava, Parauk, i. ... The Xibe (Sibe; Chinese, 錫伯 Xíbó) are a Chinese ethnic group living mostly in northeast China and Xinjiang. ... The Yao nationality (瑶族, pinyin: Yáo zú) are an ethnic group. ... See Yi royal family for the royal family of Korea. ... The Yugur people are an ethnic group. ... A Tibetan pilgrim The Tibetans speak the Tibetan language natively and form one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of China (PRC), although in anthropological terms they include more than one ethnic group. ... The Zhuang people (Traditional Chinese: 壯族, Simplified Chinese: 壮族, Hanyu Pinyin: Zhuàngzú; own name: Bouчcueŋь/Bouxcuengh) are an ethnic group of people who mostly live in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in southern China. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Mongolian language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (877 words)
Mongolian (Монгол), is the best-known member of the Mongolian language family, and the primary language of most of the residents of Mongolia.
Mongolian has only first and second person pronouns; in place of third person pronouns, the demonstrative pronouns "this" (en), "that" (ter), "these" (ed nar), and "those" (ted nar) are used.
The Mongolian alphabet was used in Mongolia until 1943, when it was replaced by the Cyrillic alphabet, and Cyrillic is still the most common script found in Mongolia, while the traditional alphabet is being slowly reintroduced in the public school system.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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