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Encyclopedia > Mongolian language
Mongolian
Монгол (Mongol)
(Mongɣul)
Spoken in: Mongolia, China, People's Republic of, Kyrgyzstan, Russia 
Region: All of Mongolia, Buryatia in Russia, Issyk-Kul in Kyrgyzstan, and Inner Mongolia, Liaoning, Jilin, and Heilongjiang provinces in China
Total speakers: 5.7 million
Language family: Altaic[1]
 Mongolic
  Eastern
   Oirat-Khalkha
    Khalkha-Buriat
     Mongolian 
Official status
Official language in: Flag of Mongolia Mongolia
Flag of the People's Republic of China People's Republic of China (Inner Mongolia)
Regulated by: no official regulation
Language codes
ISO 639-1: mn
ISO 639-2: mon
ISO 639-3: variously:
mon – Mongolian (generic)
khk – Khalkha Mongolian
mvf – Peripheral Mongolian

The Mongolian language ( , Mongɣul kele, Cyrillic: Монгол хэл, Mongol khel) is the best-known member of the Mongolic language family and the primary language of most of the residents of Mongolia, where it is officially written with the Cyrillic alphabet. It is also spoken in some of the surrounding areas in northern China, the Russian Far East and Kyrgyzstan. The majority of speakers in Mongolia speak the Khalkha (or Halh) dialect, while those in China speak the Chahar, Oyirad, and Barghu-Buryat dialect groups. The Buryat Republic (Russian: ; Buryat: Буряад Республика) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ... Issyk Kul from space, September 1992 Issyk Kul at sundown (2002) Issyk Kul beach (2002) Issyk Kul (also Ysyk Köl, Issyk-kol) (located at 42°30′N 77°30′E) is an endorheic lake in the northern Tian Shan mountains in northwestern Kyrgyzstan. ... Inner Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠨᠺᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠺᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ r Mongghul-un bertegen Jasaqu Orun; Chinese: 内蒙古自治区; Hanyu Pinyin: N i Měnggǔ Z qū) is an Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ...   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Liáoníng) is a northeastern province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... For the city, see Jilin City. ... Heilongjiang (Simplified Chinese: 黑龙江省; Traditional Chinese: 黑龍江省; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Postal System Pinyin: Heilungkiang) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China located in the northeastern part of the country. ... A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common proto-language. ... Altaic is a proposed language family that includes 66 languages [1] spoken by about 348 million people, mostly in and around Central Asia and northeast Asia. ... The Mongolic languages are a group of thirteen languages spoken in Central Asia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mongolia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... Inner Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠨᠺᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠺᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ r Mongghul-un bertegen Jasaqu Orun; Chinese: 内蒙古自治区; Hanyu Pinyin: N i Měnggǔ Z qū) is an Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes. ... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (pronounced also called azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is actually a family of alphabets, subsets of which are used by certain Slavic languages — Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian—as well as many other languages of the former Soviet Union... The Mongolic languages are a group of thirteen languages spoken in Central Asia. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (pronounced also called azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is actually a family of alphabets, subsets of which are used by certain Slavic languages — Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian—as well as many other languages of the former Soviet Union... Far Eastern Federal District (highlighted in red) Russian Far East (Russian: ; IPA: ) is a term that refers to the Russian part of the Far East, i. ... The Khalkha, or Halh (Халх [χɑɬχ]) in modern Khalkha Mongolian, is a subgroup of the Mongols. ...

Contents

Classification

Mongolian is a Mongolic language. The Altaic theory proposes that the Mongolic family is a member of the larger Altaic family, which would also include the Turkic and Tungusic languages. Related languages include Kalmyk spoken near the Caspian Sea and Buryat of East Siberia, as well as a number of minor languages in China along with the Nikudari and Mogholi languages of Afghanistan. The Mongolic languages are a group of thirteen languages spoken in Central Asia. ... Altaic is a proposed language family that includes 66 languages [1] spoken by about 348 million people, mostly in and around Central Asia and northeast Asia. ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. ... Tungusic languages (or Manchu-Tungus languages) are spoken in Eastern Siberia and Manchuria. ... Kalmyk (Kalmuck, Calmouk, Oirat) is the language of the Kalmyks, spoken in Kalmykia (Russian Federation), Western China and Western Mongolia. ... The Buryat language is a Mongolic language spoken by the Buryats. ... Nikudari is an archaic form of the Mongolian language which does not exist in Mongolia today. ... Moghol is a Mongolic language spoken in Afghanistan by a few people around Herat. ...


Geographic distribution and dialects

Mongolian is the national language of Mongolia, where there are over two million speakers. There are also up to three million speakers in Northern China, mostly Inner Mongolia; however, some of them are bilingual with Chinese, and use of Mongolian is declining among younger people and in urban areas. Inner Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠨᠺᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠺᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ r Mongghul-un bertegen Jasaqu Orun; Chinese: 内蒙古自治区; Hanyu Pinyin: N i Měnggǔ Z qū) is an Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


Dialects of Mongolian differ in pronunciation, grammar and vocabulary to the point of creating difficulties in comprehension. The most widely recognized one is Khalkha, which is the official standard dialect in Mongolia and is spoken in most of the country, including the capital city. In China, the recently instituted official pronunciation standard is the dialect of the Plain Blue Banner in central Inner Mongolia, which belongs to the Chahar group. The Eight Banners (In Manchu: jakūn gūsa, In Chinese: 八旗 baqí) were administrative divisions into which all Manchu families were placed. ... The Chahar are a tribe of the Mongols. ...


Grammar

The following description is based primarily on urban Khalkha Mongolian, but much of it is also valid for Southern Central Mongolian, including Chahar.


Lexicon

The Mongolian vocabulary includes historic loanwords especially from Old Turkic, Sanskrit (often through Uigur), Tibetan, Chinese and Tungusic and keeps adopting more recent ones from Russian, Chinese and English. Commissions in the Mongolian state have been busy translating new terminology into Mongolian, so that Mongolian words such as 'president' <jerönhijlögč> ("generalizer") and 'beer' <šar ajrag> ("yellow kumys") exist (though this one is second to Russian <pivo>). There are quite a few loan translations, e.g. ‘population’ <hün am> (“person mouth”) from Chinese rénkŏu (人口; 'population'). A loanword (or loan word) is a word directly taken into one language from another with little or no translation. ... The Turkic language spoken by the Gokturks and used on the Orkhon inscriptions. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... The Turkic language spoken by the Gokturks and used on the Orkhon inscriptions. ... The Tibetan language is spoken primarily by the Tibetan people who live across a wide area of eastern Central Asia bordering South Asia, as well as by large number of Tibetan refugees all over the world. ... Tungusic languages (or Manchu-Tungus languages) are spoken in Eastern Siberia and Manchuria. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Terminology is the study of terms and their use — of words and compound words that are used in specific contexts. ... // In linguistics, a calque (pronounced ) or loan translation is a word or phrase borrowed from another language by literal, word-for-word (Latin: verbum pro verbo) or root-for-root translation. ...


Morphology

Modern Mongolian is an agglutinative, exclusively suffixing language; the suffixes are most often composed of a single morpheme. It has a rich number of morphemes to build up more complex words from simple roots. For example, the word <bajguullagynh> consists of the root <baj-> ‘to be’, an epenthetic <-g->, the causative <-uul-> (then ‘to found’), the derivative suffix <–laga> that forms nouns created by the action (‘organisation’) and the complex suffix <–ynh> denoting something that belongs to the modified word (<-yn> would be genitive). For the music festival, see Agglutination Metal Festival. ... In morpheme-based morphology, a morpheme is the smallest lingual unit that carries a semantic interpretation. ... The root is the primary lexical unit of a word, which carries the most significant aspects of semantic content and cannot be reduced into smaller constituents. ... In poetry and phonetics, epenthesis (, from Greek epi on + en in + thesis putting) is the insertion of a consonant, a vowel, or a whole syllable into a word, usually to facilitate pronunciation. ... In linguistics, derivation is the process of creating new lexemes from other lexemes, for example, by adding a derivational affix. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Nominal compounds are quite frequent. Some derivational verbal suffixes are rather productive, e.g. <jar’-> 'to speak', <jarilts-> 'to speak with each other'. Formally, verbal suffixes that create independent words can roughly be divided into three classes: final verbs, which can only be used sentence-finally, i.e. <-na> (mainly future or generic statements) or –ø (second person imperative); participles (often called “verbal nouns”), which can be used clause-finally or attributively, i.e. <-san> (probably perfective, otherwise past) or <-maar> (‘want to’); and converbs, which can link clauses or function adverbially, i.e. <-ž> (qualifies for any adverbial function or neutrally connects two sentences) or <-tal> (the action of the main clause takes place until the action expressed by the suffixed verb begins). In linguistics, a compound is a lexeme (a word) that consists of more than one other lexeme. ... It has been suggested that Verbal agreement be merged into this article or section. ... In linguistics, a participle (from Latin participium, a calque of Greek μετοχη partaking) is a non-finite verb form that can be used in compound tenses or voices, or as a modifier. ... In grammar, the perfective aspect is an aspect that exists in many languages. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... In linguistics, a sentence is a unit of language, characterized in most languages by the presence of a finite verb. ... In grammar, a clause is a word or group of words ordinarily consisting of a subject and a predicate, although in some languages and some types of clauses, the subject may not appear explicitly. ...


Roughly speaking, Mongolian has eight cases: nominative (unmarked), genitive, dative, accusative, ablative, instrumental, comitative and directional. In addition, a number of postpositions exist that usually govern genitive, ablative or comitative case or an oblique form, that is, the stem plus sometimes -Vn either for lexical historical reasons or analogy (thus maybe becoming an attributive case suffix). Nouns can take reflexive-possessive clitics indicating that the marked noun is possessed by the subject of the sentence: <Bi najz(-)aa alsan> I friend-[reflexive-possessive] kill-[perfective] ‘I killed my friend’. There are also rather noun-like adjectives that will be converted into nouns when taking any case suffix, but cannot function nominatively without the multifunctional clitic <n’>. Plural does not need to be marked, but plural suffixes are becoming more and more common. In grammar, the case of a noun or pronoun indicates its grammatical function in a greater phrase or clause; such as the role of subject, of direct object, or of possessor. ... The nominative case is a grammatical case for a noun, which generally marks the subject of a verb, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments. ... Markedness is a linguistics concept that developed out of the Prague School (also known as the Prague linguistic circle). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The dative case is a grammatical case generally used to indicate the noun to whom something is given. ... The accusative case (abbreviated ACC) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb. ... In linguistics, ablative case (also called the sixth case) (abbreviated ABL) is a name given to cases in various languages whose common thread is that they mark motion away from something, though the details in each language may differ. ... In linguistics, the instrumental case (also called the eighth case) indicates that a noun is the instrument or means by which the subject achieves or accomplishes an action. ... The Comitative case is used where English would use in company with or together with. It, and many other cases, are found in the Finnish language, the Hungarian language, and the Estonian language. ... In the Finnish language, the Allative case is the fifth of the locative cases, with the basic meaning of onto. Its ending is -lle, for example pöytä (table) and pöydälle (onto the top of the table). ... Analogy is both the cognitive process of transferring information from a particular subject (the analogue or source) to another particular subject (the target), and a linguistic expression corresponding to such a process. ... In linguistics, a noun or noun substantive is a lexical category which is defined in terms of how its members combine with other grammatical kinds of expressions. ... In linguistics, a clitic is an element that has some of the properties of an independent word and some more typical of a bound morpheme. ... According to a tradition that can be tracked back to Aristotle, every sentence can be divided in two main constituents, one being the subject of the sentence and the other being its predicate. ... In grammar, an adjective is a word whose main syntactic role is to modify a noun or pronoun (called the adjectives subject), giving more information about what the noun or pronoun refers to. ... A process of word formation where a word is created from another word without any change in its form (for example no derivational affixes are involved). ... Look up plural in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Personal pronouns exist for the first and second person, while the old demonstrative pronouns have come to form third person (proximal and distal) pronouns. Other word (sub-)classes include interrogative pronouns, conjunctions (which take participles), spatials and quite a few particles. (Word classes are treated with some simplification here. For a more precise treatment, see Sechenbaatar 2003.) Personal pronouns are pronouns often used as substitutes for proper or common nouns. ... A demonstrative pronoun in grammar and syntax is a pronoun that shows the place of something. ... An interrogative pronoun (also known simply as an interrogative) is a pronoun used in asking questions. ... In linguistics, the term particle is often employed as a useful catch-all lacking a strict definition. ...


Negation is mostly expressed by <-güj> after participles and by the negation particle <biš> after nouns and adjectives; negation particles preceding the verb (for example in converbal constructions) exist, but tend to be replaced by analytical constructions.


Syntax

Phrase structure

The nominal phrase has the order: demonstrative pronoun/numeral, adjective, noun. Attributive sentences usually precede the whole NP. Titles or occupations of people, low numerals indicating groups and focus clitics are put behind the head noun. Possessive pronouns (in different forms) may either precede or follow the NP. E.g. <bidnij uulzsan ter sajhan zaluugaas č> we-genitive meet-perfective that beautiful young_man-ablative focus ‘even from that beautiful young man that we have met’, <Dorž bagš maan’> Dorj teacher our ‘our teacher Dorj’. Different cultures have different traditional numeral systems used for writing numbers and for naming large numbers. ... In linguistics, the topic (or theme) is the thing being predicated (talked about), and the comment (or rheme) is the thing being said about the topic. ... A possessive pronoun is a part of speech that attributes ownership to someone or something. ...


The verbal phrase consists of the predicate’s complements and the adverbials modifying it in front of it and, mainly if the predicate is sentence-final, modal particles behind it. E.g. <Ter helehgüjgeer ünijg bičsen šüü> S/he without_saying it-accusative write-perfective particle ‘She wrote it without saying [i.e. that she would do so] (so I can assure you).’ In this clause the adverbial should precede the complement as it is itself derived from a verb and could take ‘it’ as its complement. If the adverbial was an adjective à la <hurdan> 'fast', it could immediately precede the predicate. There are also instances in which the adverb must immediately precede the predicate. Modal particles are always uninflected words, and are a type of grammatical particle. ... Look up predicate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The predicate itself may consist of a noun or an adjective with or without a copula, but if the subject isn’t marked by <bol> or <n'> as topic , a bare noun will look a little awkward. Participles will never take a copula. Consider this example: <aldag> 'kills regularly' <aldag bajna> 'kills regularly (as I have come to know by some time of observance)': though <bajna> would be a mere copula if put behind a noun, in this case it indicates referentiality. However, any participle can be followed by an auxiliary carrying additional information. For example, if the verbal noun expressing regularity is chosen, the information “perfective” will have to be encoded in an auxiliary: <aldag bajsan> 'killed regularly' If the speaker wished to express how s/he acquired such knowledge, an additional <bajna> could be added. Simple progressive aspect is built up by a verb, the neutral converb <-ž> and the auxiliary <baj->. In place of <baj->, some other verbs could express other aspects like completion: <uuž orhison> drink-CV leave-perfective 'drank up'. However, a few aktionsarten may be expressed adverbially: <ehelž uusan> begin-CV drink-perfective 'began to drink' (or <uuž ehelsen> with the same meaning). For other uses, see Copula (disambiguation). ... In linguistics, the topic (or theme) is the thing being predicated (talked about), and the comment (or rheme) is the thing being said about the topic. ... The aktionsart or lexical aspect of a verb is a part of the way in which that verb it is structured in relation to time. ...


Clauses

Unmarked phrase order is subject, object, predicate (also referred to as SOV). While the predicate generally has to remain in clause-final position, the other phrases are free to change order or to wholly disappear. The topic tends to be placed clause-initially, new information rather before the predicate. Noun phrase heads modified by long attributive clauses will for the sake of understandability be placed clause-initially. Topic can form a phrase of its own (with <bol> or even <n’>), but this option isn’t extensively used. According to a tradition that can be tracked back to Aristotle, every sentence can be divided in two main constituents, one being the subject of the sentence and the other being its predicate. ... An object in grammar is a sentence element and part of the sentence predicate. ... SOV is an acronym for several terms: SOV - Symphony Orchestra Vorarlberg. ... In grammar, a modifier (aka qualifier) is a word or sentence element that limits or qualifies another word, a phrase, or a clause. ...


Mongolian has passive and causative voice. In a passive sentence the entirely oblique agent takes either dative or instrumental case, the first of which is more common. The verb takes a suffix <-gd->. In the causative, the person caused to do something would take instrumental, or accusative, if the simple verb would have been intransitive, and the verb would take <-uul->. Causative morphology is also used in some passive contexts: <Bi tüünd čaduulsan> I s/he-dative fool-caustive-perfective ‘I was fooled by her/him’. Animacy is an important component, thus English 'The bread was eaten by me' would not be acceptable in Mongolian. <-ld-> (reciprocal), <-tsgaa-> (plurative) and <-lts-> (cooperative) are voice constructions as well. In grammar, voice is the relationship between the action or state expressed by a verb, and its arguments (subject, object, etc. ... Animacy is a grammatical category, usually of nouns, which influences the form a verb takes when it is associated with that noun. ... A reciprocal is a linguistic structure that marks a particular kind of relationship between grammatical agents. ...


Compound sentences

One way to conjoin clauses is to have the first clause end in a converb. An example: <Bi üünijg olbol čamd ögnö> I it-accusative find-conditional_converbal_suffix you-dative give-future ‘If I find it I’ll give it to you’. Some verbal nouns in the instrumental or most often dative function very similar to converbs: above sentence with <olohod> find-imperfective-dative ‘When I find it I’ll give it to you’. Quite often, postpositions govern complete clauses. In contrast, conjunctions take verbal nouns without case: <jadarsan učraas untlaa> become_tired-perfective because sleep-witnessed_perfective 'I slept because I was tired'. Finally, there are usually clause-initial particles with relating meaning: <Bi olson, harin čamd ögöhgüj> I find-perfective but you-dative give-imperfective-negation ‘I’ve found it, but I won’t give it to you’.


Mongolian has a complementizer auxiliary verb <ge-> very similar to Japanese to iu. <ge-> literally means ‘to say’ and in converbal form <gež> precedes a verbum sentiendi et dicendi. As a verbal noun <gedeg> (with <n’> or case) it can form a subset of complement clauses. As <gene> it may function as an evidentialis marker. A complementizer, as used in linguistics (especially generative grammar), is a syntactic category (part of speech), roughly equivalent to the term subordinating conjunction in traditional linguistics. ... In linguistics, an auxiliary (also called helping verb, auxiliary verb, or verbal auxiliary) is a verb functioning to give further semantic or syntactic information about the main or full verb following it. ... Look up Complement in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In linguistics, evidentiality is a modality that allows (or requires) speakers to specify why they believe a given statement—i. ...


Except for clauses governed by certain postpositions, attribute clauses, clauses with complementizer and some very short converbal clauses (which some speakers reject anyway), Mongolian clauses are in strictly paratactic order, such that a hypotactic sentence like 'We will, IF you help us, repair the damage.' could in this order with the same syntactic relations not be constructed in Mongolian.


In the subordinate clause the subject, if different from the subject of main clause, sometimes has to take accusative or genitive case. Subjects in either instrumental or ablative case marginally occur as well. Subjects of attribute clauses in which the head has a function (as is the case for all English relative clauses) demand that if the subject is not the head it has to take instrumental or rather genitive case, e.g. <tüünij idsen hool> that_one-genitive eat-perfective meal ‘the meal that s/he had eaten’. A clause is a group of words consisting of a subject (often just a single noun) and a predicate (sometimes just a single verb). ... An independent clause (or main clause, or coordinate clause) can stand by itself as a grammatically viable simple sentence. ... A relative clause is a subordinate clause that modifies a noun. ... In linguistics, the head is the morpheme that determines the category of a compound or the word that determines the syntactic type of the phrase of which it is a member. ...


Phonology

Mongolian divides vowels into two groups. For historical reasons, these have traditionally been labeled as "front vowels" (e, u, o) and "back vowels, "(a,ʊ,ɔ). However, Svantesson et al have analyzed the groups as what they term instead "non-pharyngeal" (formerly "front") and "pharyngeal" (formerly "back"). There is also one neutral vowel, /i/, which does not belong to either group. Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Vowel harmony (also metaphony) is a type of long-distance assimilatory phonological process involving vowels. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... A back vowel is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. ...


All the vowels in a non-compound word, including all its suffixes, must belong to the same group. If the first vowel is pharyngeal, then every vowel of the word must be either /i/ or a pharyngeal vowel. Likewise, if the first vowel is a non-pharyngeal vowel, then every vowel of the word must be either /i/ or a non-pharyngeal vowel. In the case of suffixes, which must change their vowels to conform to different words, there are roughly two patterns. Some suffixes can occur with /a/, /ɔ/, /e/, or /o/, following the last phonemic vowel in the root word, in which case /ʊ/ and /u/ lead to [a] and [e] respectively. For example, /orx/ ‘household’ + /Ar/ ‘instrumental’ → /orxor/ ‘by a household’, /xarʊɮ/ ‘sentry’ + /Ar/ ‘instrumental’ → /xarʊɮar/ ‘by a sentry’. Other suffixes can occur in either /ʊ/ or /u/, in which case all pharyngeal vowels lead to /ʊ/ and all non-pharyngeal vowels lead to /u/. For example, /aw/ ‘to take’ + // ‘causative’ → /awʊɮ/. If the only vowel in the root word is /i/, the suffixes will use the non-pharyngeal suffix forms.


Pronunciation of long and short vowels depends on the syllable's position in the word. In word-initial syllables there is a straightforward difference in length. In word-internal and word-final syllables, long vowels are not as long and short vowels are short to the point where, in many non-initial syllables, there is phonemically speaking no vowel at all. For example, <hojor> 'two', <ažil> 'work', and <saarmag> 'neutral' are, phonemically, /xɔjr/, /atʃɮ/, and /saːrmɡ/ respectively. In such cases, an epenthetic vowel is allophonically inserted so as to prevent disallowed consonant clusters. Thus, in the examples given above, the words are phonetically [xɔjɔ̆r], [atʃĭɮ], and [saːrmăɡ]. The phonetic form of the epenthetic vowel follows from that of the vowel in the preceding syllable. Usually it is a centralized version of the same sound, with the following exceptions: /u/ produces [e], /i/ will be ignored if there is a non-neutral vowel earlier in the word, and a postalveolar or palatalized consonant will be followed by an epenthetic [i], as in [atʃĭɮ]. For the computer operating system, see Syllable (operating system). ... Phonology (Greek phonÄ“ = voice/sound and logos = word/speech), is a subfield of linguistics which studies the sound system of a specific language (or languages). ... In poetry and phonetics, epenthesis (, from Greek epi on + en in + thesis putting) is the insertion of a consonant, a vowel, or a whole syllable into a word, usually to facilitate pronunciation. ... In phonetics, an allophone is one of several similar phones that belong to the same phoneme. ... Phonetics (from the Greek word φωνή, phone meaning sound or voice) is the study of the sounds of human speech. ...


Vowel chart

Front Central Back
Short Long Short Long Short Long
Close i u
Near-Close ʊ ʊː
Close-Mid e o
Open-mid ɔ ɔː
Open a

Mongolian also has four diphthongs, /ui/, /ʊi/, /ɔi/, and /ai/. Short /o/ is phonetically [ɵ]. Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... A central vowel is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. ... A back vowel is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. ... A close vowel is a type of vowel sound used in many spoken languages. ... Vowels See also: IPA, Consonants Near‑close Close‑mid Mid Open‑mid Near‑open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... A close-mid vowel is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. ... The open-mid vowels make a class of vowel sounds used in some spoken languages. ... An open vowel is a vowel sound of a type used in most spoken languages. ... In phonetics, a diphthong (also gliding vowel) (Greek δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally with two sounds, or with two tones) is a monosyllabic vowel combination involving a quick but smooth movement from one vowel to another, often interpreted by listeners as a single vowel sound or phoneme. ...


Consonant chart

Labial Dental Palatal Velar Uvular
Plain Palatalized Plain Palatalized Palatalized Plain
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive Voiceless aspirated () (pʲʰ) tʲʰ (kʲʰ) ()
Voiceless p t
Voiced ɡʲ ɡ ɢ
Affricate Voiceless aspirated tsʰ tʃʰ
Voiceless (f) ts
Fricative s ʃ x
Lateral fricative ɮ ɮʲ
Trill r
Approximant w̜ʲ j

Mongolian lacks a true phoneme /l/; instead, it has a voiced alveolar lateral fricative, /ɮ/. Syllable-finally, /n/ (if it doesn't precede another /n/) is realized as [ŋ]. The consonants in parentheses occur only in loanwords. Labials are consonants articulated either with both lips (bilabial articulation) or with the lower lip and the upper teeth (labiodental articulation). ... Dentals are consonants such as t, d, n, and l articulated with either the lower or the upper teeth, or both, rather than with the gum ridge as in English. ... Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth). ... Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth, known also as the velum). ... Uvulars are consonants articulated with the back of the tongue against or near the uvula, that is, further back in the mouth than velar consonants. ... Palatalization means pronouncing a sound nearer to the hard palate, making it more like a palatal consonant; this is towards the front of the mouth for a velar or uvular consonant, but towards the back of the mouth for a front (e. ... Palatalization means pronouncing a sound nearer to the hard palate, making it more like a palatal consonant; this is towards the front of the mouth for a velar or uvular consonant, but towards the back of the mouth for a front (e. ... Palatalization means pronouncing a sound nearer to the hard palate, making it more like a palatal consonant; this is towards the front of the mouth for a velar or uvular consonant, but towards the back of the mouth for a front (e. ... A nasal consonant is produced when the velum—that fleshy part of the palate near the back—is lowered, allowing air to escape freely through the nose. ... A stop or plosive or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... In phonetics, a voiceless consonant is a consonant that does not have voicing. ... In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of air that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents. ... In phonetics, a voiceless consonant is a consonant that does not have voicing. ... A voiced consonant is a sound made as the vocal cords vibrate, as opposed to a voiceless consonant, where the vocal cords are relaxed. ... An affricate is a consonant that begins like a stop (most often an alveovelar, such as [t] or [d]) and that doesnt have a release of its own, but opens directly into a fricative (or, in one language, into a trill). ... In phonetics, a voiceless consonant is a consonant that does not have voicing. ... In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of air that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents. ... In phonetics, a voiceless consonant is a consonant that does not have voicing. ... Fricatives (or spirants) are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together. ... Laterals are L-like consonants pronounced with an occlusion made somewhere along the axis of the tongue, while air from the lungs escapes at one side or both sides of the tongue. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the articulator and the place of articulation. ... Approximants are speech sounds that could be regarded as intermediate between vowels and typical consonants. ... In human language, a phoneme is the theoretical representation of a sound. ... The voiced alveolar lateral fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ...


Writing systems

Mongolian has been written in a variety of alphabets over the years. Many Mongolian writing systems have been devised over the centuries. ...


The traditional Mongolian script was adapted from Uyghur script in 1208, although it has undergone transformations, and occasionally been supplemented by other scripts. The Mongolian alphabet was used in Mongolia until 1931, when it was temporarily replaced by the Latin alphabet, and finally by Cyrillic in 1937. The traditional alphabet was abolished completely by the pro-Soviet government in 1941, and a short-lived attempt to reintroduce the traditional alphabet after 1990 was abandoned after some years. The term Mongolian alphabet may refer to any of three scripts used over the centuries to write the Mongolian language. ... The Uyghur alphabet is any of the following: A descendant of the Sogdian alphabet, used for texts of Buddhist, Manichæan and Christian contents for 700–800 years in East Turkestan. ... Abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz redirects here. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (or azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is an alphabet used for several East and South Slavic languages; (Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian) and many other languages of the former Soviet Union, Asia and Eastern Europe. ...


In the People's Republic of China, the Mongolian language is a co-official language with Mandarin Chinese in some regions, notably the entire Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. The traditional alphabet has always been used there, although Cyrillic was considered briefly before the Sino-Soviet split. There are two types of written Mongolian used in China: the classical script, which is official among Mongols nationwide, and the Clear script, used predominantly among Oirats in Xinjiang. Map of eastern China and Taiwan, showing the historic distribution of Mandarin Chinese in light brown. ... Inner Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠨᠺᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠺᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ r Mongghul-un bertegen Jasaqu Orun; Chinese: 内蒙古自治区; Hanyu Pinyin: N i Měnggǔ Z qū) is an Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Sino-Soviet split was a major diplomatic conflict between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), beginning in the late 1950s, reaching a peak in 1969 and continuing in various ways until the late 1980s. ... The Clear script (Mongolian: , todo bichig) was created in 1648 by the Oirat Buddhist monk Zaya-pandita Namkhaijamco[1] to write Mongolian. ... Oirats (also spelled Oyrats or Oyirads; Mongolian: Ойрадын Ojradyn) refers to both a Western Mongol people of Europe and Asia and, historically, to a Turkic people now known as the Altays. ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ...


The modified Cyrillic alphabet used for Mongolian is as follows:

Cyrillic Name IPA Transliteration Cyrillic Name IPA Transliteration
Аа а a a Пп пэ ( ), (pʰʲ ) ( p )
Бб бэ p,, b b Рр эр r, r
Вв вэ w, v Сс эс s s
Гг гэ ɡ,ɡʲ,ɢ´, k g Тт тэ ,tʰʲ t
Дд дэ t, d Уу у ʊ u
Ее е jε~jɜ, e je Үү ү u ü
Ёё ё jo Фф фэ~фа~эф ( f ) ( f )
Жж жэ ž Хх хэ~ха x, h
Зз зэ ts z Цц цэ tsʰ ts
Ии и i i Чч чэ tʃʰ č
Йй хагас и i j Шш ша~эш ʃ š
Кк ка ( k ), ( ) ( k ) Щщ ща~эшчэ (stʃ ) ( šč )
Лл эл ɮ,ɮʲ l Ъ ъ хатуугийн тэмдэг "
Мм эм m, m Ыы эр үгийн ы i y
Нн эн n, n Ьь зөөлний тэмдэг ʲ '
Оо о ɔ o Ээ э e e
Өө ө o ö Юю ю , ju ju
Яя я ja, j ja

Үү and Өө are sometimes written as Vv and Єє, mainly when using Russian software or keyboards that don't support them. Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ...


Historical Mongolian

The first surviving Mongolian text is the Stele of Yisüngge, a report on sports in Mongolian script on stone, that is most often dated at the verge of 1224 and 1225[2]. Other early sources are written in Mongolian, Phagspa (decrets), Chinese (the Secret history), Arabic (dictionaries) and a few western scripts[3]. These comprise the Middle Mongolian language that was spoken from the 13th to the early 15th[4] or late 16th[5] century. The documents in Mongolian script show some distinct linguistic characteristics and are therefore often distinguished by terming their language Preclassical Mongolian[6]. The next distinct period is Classical Mongolian that is dated from the 17th to the 19th century. It is a written language with a high degree of standardization in orthography and syntax that sets it quite apart from the subsequent Modern Mongolian. The most notable documents in this language are the Mongolian Kanjur and Tanjur [7] as well as a bunch of chronicles. The term Mongolian alphabet may refer to any of three scripts used over the centuries to write the Mongolian language. ... The word Wiki in Phagspa characters The Phagspa script (also square script) was an Abugida designed by the Lama Phagspa for the emperor Kublai Khan during the Yuan Dynasty in China, as a unified script for all languages within the Mongolian Empire. ... The Secret History of the Mongols is the first literary work of Mongolian culture. ... The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing languages such as Arabic, Persian, Urdu, and others. ... The Mongolian language (, mongol khel) is the best-known member of the Mongolic language family and the primary language of most of the residents of Mongolia, where it is officially written with the Cyrillic alphabet. ...


Changes in phonology

Consonants

Middle Mongolian documents show only two velar plosives <g> and <k> (and one allophone for each), but in some instances the <g> disappeared and in others not. There is no hint as to how this might be related to contextual factors, and while there is a hypothesis that this is related to distinctive vowel length or stress [8], it is a matter of dispute whether there is any factual evidence for this. Now there is a word-initial <h> that disappeared during the Middle Mongolian stage. This might be the same phoneme as one of the instances of <g> (possibly [x]). Thus, it is likely that x > h > Ø.[9] Eg Phagspa <haran>, Preclassical Mongolian <aran>, reconstructed in Proto-Mongolic as *haran ‘person’, became Modern Mongolian <aran>[10]. Phagspa čaqa’an, Preclassical čaγaγan[11], reconstructed for Late Pre-Proto-Mongolic as *ʧʰagahan ‘white’, became Modern Mongolian /ʦʰaga:n/. As also apparent from this example, affricates were fronted in Northern Modern Mongolian dialects such as Khalkha. /kʰ/ was spirantized to /x/ in Ulaanbaatar Khalkha and the Mongolian dialects South of it, eg Preclassical Mongolian <kündü>, reconstructed as *kʰynty ‘heavy’, became Modern Mongolian /xunt/[12] (but in Erdenet many speakers will say / kʰunt/). Originally word-final <n> turned into <ŋ>; if *n was originally followed by a vowel that later dropped, it remained unchanged, eg *kʰen became /xiŋ/, but *kʰoina became /xɔin/. After i-breaking, *[ʃ] became phonemic. Consonants in words containing back vowels that were followed by *i in Proto-Mongolian became palatalized in Modern Mongolian. In some words, word-final *n was dropped with most case forms, but still appeared with the ablative, dative and genitive.[13] Spirantization is a lenition process. ... Palatalization means pronouncing a sound nearer to the hard palate, making it more like a palatal consonant; this is towards the front of the mouth for a velar or uvular consonant, but towards the back of the mouth for a front (e. ...


Vowels

Proto-Mongolic had *i, *e, *y, *ø, *u, *o, *a. First, *o and *u were pharyngealized to /ɔ/ and /ʊ/, then *y and *ø were velarized to /u/ and /o/. Thus, the vowel harmony shifted from a velar to a pharyngeal paradigm. *i in the first syllable back-vocalic words was assimilated to the following vowel; in word-initial position it became /ja/. *e followed by *y was rounded to *ø. VhV and VjV sequences where the second vowel was any vowel but *i were monophthongized. Short vowels in any syllable but the first were deleted from the phonetic representation of the word; long vowels in these positions became short vowels. [14] Pharyngealisation is a secondary feature of phonemes in a language. ... Velarization is a secondary articulation of consonants by which the back of the tongue is raised toward the velum during the articulation of the consonant. ...


Eg *imahan (*i becomes /ja/, *h disappears)> *jama:n (instable n drops; vowel reduction> jama(n) ‘goat’


and *emys- (regressive rounding assimilation)> *ømys- (vowel velaization)> *omus- (vowel reduction)> oms- ‘to wear’


Changes in morphology

Nominal system

While most case suffixes did change somewhat in form, ie were shortened, most of the modern case system remained intact. Important changes occurred with the comitative and the dative. The Middle Mongolian comitative <-luγ-a> could not be used attributively, but it was replaced by suffix <-taj> that originally derived adjectives denoting possession of the stem from nouns, eg <mori-tai> ‘having a horse’ became <mor’toj> ‘having a horse/with a horse’. As this adjective functioned parallel to <ügei> ‘not having’, it has been suggested[15] that a “privative case” (‘without’) has been introduced into Mongolian. There have been three different case suffixes in the dative-locative-directive domain that are grouped in different ways: <-a> as locative and <-dur>, <-da> as dative[16] or <-da> and <-a> as dative and <-dur> as locative [17], in both cases with some functional overlapping. As <dur> seems to be grammaticalized from <dotur-a> ‘within’, thus indicating a span of time[18], the second account seems to be more likely. Finally, the directive of modern Mongolian <-ruu> has been innovated. Gender agreement was abandoned.


Verbal system

Middle Mongolian had a greater set of final verb suffixes and a smaller number of participles which were less likely to be used as finite predicates. Their functional values seem to have shifted as well, but as the aspectual, temporal, modal and evidential nuances of Middle Mongolian verb forms are not well understood, it is impossible to state much about their semantic development. However, as several analytic forms to code imperfectivity have emerged that were not present in Middle Mongolian, final suffixes likely bore that burden then. The linking converb <n> became confined to stable verb combinations, while the number of converbs somewhat increased. The gender and number distinction exhibited by some final verbs got lost[19].


Changes in syntax

Word order in clauses with pronominal subject changed from Object-Predicate-Subject to Subject-Object-Predicate. The negation of verbs shifted from negation particles preceding final verbs to a negation particle following participles; thus, as final verbs could no longer be negated, their paradigm of negation was filled by particles.


Notes

  1. ^ The existence of the Altaic family is controversial. See Altaic languages.
  2. ^ eg Γarudi 2002: 7
  3. ^ Rybatzki 2003: 58
  4. ^ Rybatzki 2003: 57
  5. ^ Poppe 1964: 1
  6. ^ Rybatzki 2003: 57
  7. ^ Janhunen 2003a: 32
  8. ^ eg Tömörtogoo 2005
  9. ^ Svantesson et al. 2005: 113, 119-124
  10. ^ Today, /arn/ is somewhat unusual, but its plural /ard/ ‘people’ is common.
  11. ^ Adapted from Tömörtogoo 2002: 80
  12. ^ Svantesson et al. 2005: 133, 167
  13. ^ Svantesson et al. 2005: 124, 165-166, 205
  14. ^ Svantesson 2005: 181, 184, 186-187, 190-195
  15. ^ Janhunen 2003c: 27
  16. ^ Rybatzki 2003: 68
  17. ^ Γarudi 2002: 101-107
  18. ^ see Toγtambayar 2006: 18-35 for the detailed line of argumentation
  19. ^ The gender issue is fairly commonplace, see eg Rybatzki 2003: 75. A very convincing case for the numberus distinction between -ba and -bai is made in Tümenčečeg 1990: 103-108. She also argues that this has been the case for other suffixes.

Altaic is a proposed language family that includes 66 languages [1] spoken by about 348 million people, mostly in and around Central Asia and northeast Asia. ...

References

  • Γarudi (2002): Dumdadu üy-e-yin mongγul kelen-ü bütüče-yin kelberi-yin sudulul [The study of grammatical forms in Middle Mongolian]. Kökeqota: Öbür mongγul-un arad-un keblel-ün qoriy-a.
  • Janhunen, Juha (ed.) (2003): The Mongolic languages. London: Routledge.
  • Janhunen, Juha (2003a): Written Mongol. In: Janhunen 2003: 30-56.
  • Janhunen, Juha (2003b): Para-Mongolic. In: Janhunen 2003: 391-402.
  • Janhunen, Juha (2003c): Proto-Mongolic. In: Janhunen 2003: 1-29.
  • Poppe, Nicholas (1964 [1954]): Grammar of Written Mongolian. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.
  • Rybatzki, Volker (2003): Middle Mongol. In: Janhunen 2003: 47-82.
  • Sechenbaatar, Borjigin (2003): The Chakhar dialect of Mongol - A morphological description. Helsinki: Finno-Ugrian society.
  • Svantesson, Jan-Olof, Anna Tsendina, Anastasia Karlsson, Vivan Franzén (2005): The Phonology of Mongolian. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Toγtambayar, M. (2006): Mongγul kelen-ü kele ǰüiǰigsen yabuča-yin tuqai sudulul [Grammaticalization in Mongolian]. Liyuuning-un ündüsüten-ü keblel-ün qoriy-a.
  • Tömörtogoo, D. (2005): Mongol dörvölžin üsegijn durashalyn sudalgaa [Research on the Phagspa script]. Ulaanbaatar: IAMS.
  • Tsedendamba, Ts., C. Möömöö (ed.) (1997): Orčin cagijn mongol hel [Contemporary Mongolian]. Ulaanbaatar.
  • Tserenpil, D., Rita Kullmann (2005) [1996]: Mongolian grammar. Ulaanbaatar: Admon.
  • Tümenčečeg (1990): Dumdadu ǰaγun-u mongγul kelen-ü toγačin ögülekü tölüb-ün kelberi-nügüd ba tegün-ü ularil kögǰil. In: Öbür mongγul-un yeke surγaγuli 1990/3: 102-120.

Finno-Ugrian Society (French: , Finnish: ) is a Finnish learned society, dedicated to the study of Finno-Ugric languages. ...

Further reading and resources

Mongolian grammars

  • Činggeltei (1999): Odu üj-e-jin mongɣul kelen-ü ǰüi. Köke qota: Öbür mongɣul-un arad-un keblel-ün qorij-a.

[The second edition of the most famous Inner Mongolian grammar. It shows a systematization that is typical for the Inner Mongolian grammar tradition.]

  • Poppe, Nicholas (1951): Khalkha-Mongolische Grammatik. Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner.
  • Poppe, Nicholas (1964 [1954]): Grammar of Written Mongolian. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.

[Poppe 1964 is still the reference work in western Mongolian philology. Poppe 1951 applies this model to contemporary Mongolian. The approach disregards meaning in favour of a simplified model of distribution.]

  • Luvsanvandan, Š. et al. (1966): Orčin cagijn mongol hel züj. Ulaanbaatar: Ulsyn hevlelijn hereg erhleh horoo.

[Luvsanvandan et al. 1966 and Tsedendamba and Möömöö 1997 represent the Outer Mongolian grammar tradition. It relies very heavily on literary examples.]

  • Street, John (1963): Khalkha structure. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

[the single modern-style (structuralist) Khalkh Mongolian grammar that cares for the language and not the formalism]


Specialized research works

  • Yümjiriin Mönkh-Amgalan (1998): Orčin tsagijn mongol helnij bajmžijn aj [The category of modality in Contemporary Mongolian]. Ulaanbaatar: Moncame.

[the most comprehensive work on modality in Mongolian] Yümjiriin Mönkh-Amgalan (Mongolian: ) is a Professor of linguistics at the National University of Mongolia. ...

  • Yu, Wonsoo (1991): A study of Mongolian negation. Indiana University.
  • Bjambasan, P. (2001): Mongol helnij ügüjsgeh har'caa ilerhijleh hereglüürüüd [The means to mark negation in Mongolian]. In: Mongol hel, sojolijn surguul: Erdem šinžilgeenij bičig 18: 9-20.

[Yu 1991 is a diachronic treatment of negation in Mongolian, Bjambasan 2001 describes a far greater range of forms in a very concise way.]

  • Sečenbaγatur et al. (2005): Mongγul kelen-ü nutuγ-un ayalγun-u sinǰilel-ün uduridqal [Introduction to Mongolian dialect studies]. Kökeqota: Öbür mongγul-un arad-un keblel-ün qoriy-a.
  • Sečen (2004): Odu üy-e-yin mongγul bičig-ün kelen-ü üge bütügekü daγaburi-yin sudulul [Derivational suffixes in Modern Written Mongolian]. Kökeqota: Öbür mongγul-un surγan kümüǰil-ün keblel-ün qoriy-a.

Dictionaries

  • Bawden, Charles (1997): Mongolian-English dictionary. London: Kegan Paul.
  • Ganhuyag, Ch. (2007): Mongolian English dictionary. Ulaanbaatar.

[the two most notable M-E dictionaries]

  • Chinbat, E. (2003): English Mongolian dictionary. Ulaanbaatar.
  • Amarsanaa, L. et al. (2006): Oxford Monsudar English Mongolian dictionary. Ulaanbaatar: Monsudar, Oxford University Press.

[Chinbat 2003 is the most comprehensive E-M dictionary, but requires command of Mongolian. Amarsanaa et al. 2006 doesn’t, contains fewer mistakes, but is comparably tiny. As a rule, it provides one single translation for any meaning of one English word.]

  • Cevel, Ja. (1966): Mongol helnij tovč tajlbar tol’. Ulaanbaatar.
  • Odontör, Š., Battögs, M. (2006): Mongol helnij tajlbar tol’. Ulaanbaatar. (CD)
  • Norčin, Č. et al. (1999): Mongγul kelen-ü toil. Kökeqota: Öbür mongγul-un arad-un keblel-ün qoriy-a.

[Cevel 1966 is the first monolingual Mongolian dictionary; the most notable monolingual dictionaries today are Odontör and Battögs 2006 for Outer Mongolia and Norčin et al. 1997 for Inner Mongolia]


See also

// (This article is referring to personal naming customs in the state of Mongolia (known prior to 1995 as the Mongolian Peoples Republic). ...

External links

Wikipedia
Mongolian language edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  • Subscription audio vocabulary course to learn Mongolian
  • Ethnologue report for Khalkha Mongolian
  • Monumenta Altaica. Grammars, Texts, Dictionaries, Bibliographies of Mongolian and other Altaic languages
  • Webster's Mongolian English Dictionary
  • Ganhuyag's Mongolian English dictionary
  • Mongolian English Russian German dictionary
  • "Mongolian dictionary with etymologies" by Andras Rajki
  • Lingua Mongolia Information on classical Mongolian, including an online dictionary
  • Omniglot - Mongolian Alphabets
  • GB18030 Support Package for Windows 2000/XP, including Chinese, Tibetan, Yi, classical Mongolian and Thai font by Microsoft
  • Mongolian bilingual dictionaries
  • Bolor Mongolian English dictionary
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