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Encyclopedia > Mongolia

Монгол улс
Mongol uls
Mongolia
Flag of Mongolia
Flag Coat of arms
Anthem"Монгол улсын төрийн дуулал"
National anthem of Mongolia
Capital
(and largest city)
Ulan Bator
47°55′N, 106°53′E
Official languages Mongolian
Demonym Mongolian[1]
Government Parliamentary republic
 -  President Nambaryn Enkhbayar
 -  Prime Minister Sanjaagiin Bayar
Formation
 -  National Foundation Day 1206 
 -  Bogd Khanate of Mongolia December 29, 1911 
 -  Mongolian People's Republic November 24, 1924 
 -  Democratic Mongolia February 12, 1992 
Area
 -  Total 1,564,116 km² (19th)
603,909 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 0.6
Population
 -  July 2007 estimate 2,951,786[2] (139th)
 -  2000 census 2,407,500[3] 
 -  Density 1.7/km² (238th)
4.4/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2007 estimate
 -  Total $8.448 billion (143th)
 -  Per capita $2,900 (130th)
Gini (2002) 32.8 (medium
HDI (2007) 0.700 (medium) (114th)
Currency Tögrög (MNT)
Time zone (UTC+7 to +8[4][5])
Internet TLD .mn
Calling code +976

Mongolia (pronounced /mɒŋˈɡoʊliə/) (Mongolian: Монгол улс, ) is a landlocked country in East-Central Asia. It borders Russia to the north and China to the south. The capital and largest city is Ulan Bator. Mongolia's political system is a parliamentary republic. Mongolia may refer to: Mongolia, a modern state in East Asia Inner Mongolia, an autonomous region of the Peoples Republic of China Outer Mongolia, a former political division of the Chinese Beiyang Government Greater Mongolia, a geographical region in East Asia, which shares the culture and history of the... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mongolia. ... Image File history File links Mongolia_coa. ... The Flag of Mongolia, 1:2 The current flag of Mongolia was adopted on February 12, 1992. ... COA of Mongolia (since 1992) The official coat of arms of Mongolia was adopted in 1992 following the fall of the communist government. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... The National Anthem of Mongolia was approved in 1950, to set music by the composer B.Damdinsuren. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... Life in sparsely populated Mongolia has become more urbanized. ... Template:Infobox Settlementcookis and ceam For the band, see Ulan Bator (band). ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... Parliamentary republics around the world, shown in Orange (Parliamentary republics with a non-executive President) and Green (Parliamentary republics with an executive President linked to Parliament). ... The President of Mongolia is the head of state of Mongolia. ... Nambaryn Enkhbayar (Mongolian: ; born June 1, 1958, in Ulaanbaatar) is the current President of Mongolia. ... The Prime Minister of Mongolia is the highest member of the Mongolian governments executive arm, and heads the Mongolian cabinet. ... Sanjiin Bayar (Mongolian: ) (b. ... Although people have inhabited Mongolia since the Stone Age, Mongolia only became politically important after iron weapons entered the area in the 3rd century B.C. In general, Mongolia at this point had a similar history to the rest of the nomadic steppe that lies between Siberia Northern Russia to... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Peoples Repubic of Mongolia was a communist state in central Asia which existed between 1924 and 1990. ... is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different surface areas  here is a list of areas between 1 million km² and 10 million km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A percentage is a way of expressing a proportion, a ratio or a fraction as a whole number, by using 100 as the denominator. ... This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... PPP of GDP for the countries of the world (2003). ... There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... This article includes two lists of countries of the world[1] sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita, the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year divided by the average population for the same year. ... Graphical representation of the Gini coefficient The Gini coefficient is a measure of inequality of income distribution or inequality of wealth distribution. ... This page talks about Human Development Index, for other HDIs see HDI (disambiguation) World map indicating Human Development Index (2007). ... This talks about the countries in the Human Development Index, for information on the Human Development Index, please Click Here World map indicating Human Development Index (2007) (Colour-blind compliant map) For red-green color vision problems. ... ISO 4217 Code MNT User(s) Mongolia Inflation 9. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... UTC redirects here. ... A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is a top-level domain used and reserved for a country or a dependent territory. ... .mn is the Internet country code top-level domain ( ccTLD) for Mongolia. ... This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E.164. ... A landlocked country is one that has no coastline. ... For other uses, see Country (disambiguation). ... East Asia Geographic East Asia. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... Template:Infobox Settlementcookis and ceam For the band, see Ulan Bator (band). ... A political system is a system of politics and government. ... Parliamentary republics around the world, shown in Orange (Parliamentary republics with a non-executive President) and Green (Parliamentary republics with an executive President linked to Parliament). ...


At 1,564,116 square kilometres, Mongolia is the nineteenth largest, and the least densely populated independent country in the world with a population of around 2.9 million people. It is also the world's second-largest landlocked country after Kazakhstan. The country contains very little arable land, as much of its area is covered by arid and unproductive steppes, with mountains to the north and west and the Gobi Desert to the south. Approximately thirty percent of the country's 2.9 million people are nomadic or semi-nomadic. The predominant religion in Mongolia is Tibetan Buddhism, and the majority of the state's citizens are of the Mongol ethnicity, though Kazakhs, Tuvans, and other minorities also live in the country, especially in the west. About 38% of the population lives in Ulan Bator. Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... Landlocked countries of the world according to The World Factbook. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The steppe of Western Kazakhstan in early spring In physical geography, steppe (from Slavic step) is a plain without trees (apart from those near rivers and lakes); it is similar to a prairie, although a prairie is generally reckoned as being dominated by tall grasses, while short grasses are said... The Gobi Desert lies in the territory of the Peoples Republic of China and the Country of Mongolia. ... Look up million in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the 2006 historical epic set in Kazakhstan, see Nomad (2006 film). ... Tibetan Buddhism is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet, the Himalayan region (including northern Nepal, Bhutan, Sikkim and Ladakh), Mongolia, Buryatia, Tuva and Kalmykia (Russia), and northeastern China (Manchuria: Heilongjiang, Jilin). ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... This article or section should be merged with ethnic group Ethnicity is the cultural characteristics that connect a particular group or groups of people to each other. ... Languages Kazakh (and/or languages in country of residence) Religions Sunni Islam The Kazakhs (also spelled Kazaks, Qazaqs; Kazakh: Қазақтар []; Russian: Казахи; the English name is transliterated from Russian) are a Turkic people of the northern parts of Central Asia (largely Kazakhstan, but also found in parts of Uzbekistan, China, Russia, and... Tuvans or Tuvinians (Tuvan: Тывалар, Tyvalar) are a group of Turkic people who make up about two thirds of the population of Tuva, Russia. ...

Contents

History

Main article: History of Mongolia

The area of Mongolia was part of various steppe empires like those of the Hsiung-nu, Göktürks, Uighurs, and others. Mongolia became the center of the Mongol Empire in the thirteenth century. After the empire collapsed, Mongolia returned to the old patterns of internal strife, until the Khalkha nobles submitted to the Manchu in 1691. The country was then part of the Qing empire until 1911, when an independent Mongolian government was formed under the Bogd Khan. The Mongolian People's Republic was proclaimed in 1924, leading to the adoption of communist policies and a very close alignment to the Soviet Union. After the fall of communism in Mongolia in 1990, Mongolia adopted a new constitution which was ratified in 1992. This officially marked the transition of Mongolia to a multi-party political system. Although people have inhabited Mongolia since the Stone Age, Mongolia only became politically important after iron weapons entered the area in the 3rd century B.C. In general, Mongolia at this point had a similar history to the rest of the nomadic steppe that lies between Siberia Northern Russia to... Xiongnu (匈奴; meaning Xiongs slaves, Xiong being a Chinese transliteration of a national name but also meaning savage/raucous/ferocious, however some argued that the two words are both transliteration, in this case the sense of slaves does not exist) was the term given by the Chinese to nomadic... The Göktürks or Kök-Türks were a Turkic people of ancient Central Asia and China. ... Uyghurs (also called Uighurs, Uygurs, or Uigurs) (Chinese: 維吾爾 or 维吾尔 in pinyin: wéiwúěr) are a Turkic ethnic group of people living in northwestern China (mainly in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, where they are the dominant ethnic group together with Han people), Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan. ... Expansion of the Mongol Empire Historical map of the Mongol Empire (1300~1405), the gray area is Timurid dynasty. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... The Khalkha, or Halh (Халх [χɑɬχ]) in modern Khalkha Mongolian, is a subgroup of the Mongols. ... The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... The Khalkha Jebtsundamba Khutughtu (also known as Javzandamba Hutagt in Khalkha Mongolian; also as Rje Btsun Dam Pa or Jetsun Dampa in Tibetan — all meaning lit. ... States in which the constitution mandates power to a sole party are colored brown. ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ...


Early history

Many ethnicities have inhabited Mongolia since prehistoric times. Most of these people were nomads who, from time to time, formed great confederations that rose to prominence. The first of these, the XiongnuHuns, were brought together to form a confederation by Modu Shanyu Mete Khan in 209 BC. They defeated the Donghu, who had previously been the dominant power in eastern Mongolia. The Huns became the greatest threat to China for the following three centuries; the Great Wall of China was built partly as defence against the Huns. Marshal Meng Tian of the Qin Empire dispersed more than 300,000 soldiers along the Great Wall to prevent an expected invasion from the north. It is believed that after their decisive defeat by the Chinese in AD 428–431, some of the Huns migrated West to become the Huns. After the Huns migrated west, Rouran, a close relative of the Mongols, came to power before being defeated by the Göktürks, who then dominated Mongolia for centuries. A Xiongnu belt buckle. ... For other uses, see Hun (disambiguation). ... Modu Shanyu (born in BC) was a military leader Shanyu and emperor of Khunnu Empire located in modern-day Mongolia. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC - 200s BC - 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC Years: 214 BC 213 BC 212 BC 211 BC 210 BC - 209 BC - 208 BC 207 BC... Donghu(Chinese 东胡;pinyin dong hu), was an ancient nomad tribe or tribe union in Northeast China. ... The Great Wall of China (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally Long wall) or (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally The long wall of 10,000 Li (里)[1]) is a series of stone and earthen fortifications in China, built, rebuilt, and maintained between the 5th century BC and the 16th... Meng Tian (蒙恬) was a general of the Qin Dynasty who distinguished himself against the Xiongnu and the construction of the Great Wall of China. ... The Qin Dynasty (Wade-Giles) (秦朝 221 BC - 207 BC) was preceded by the Zhou Dynasty and followed by the Han Dynasty in China. ... The Great Wall in the winter The Great Wall of China (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: , pinyin: Wànlǐ Chángchéng; literally The long wall of 10,000 Li (里)¹) is a Chinese fortification built from the 5th century BC until the beginning of the 17th century, in order to protect... For other uses, see Hun (disambiguation). ... Rouran (Chinese: ; Wade-Giles: Jou Jan, literally Soft-like), Juan Juan (Chinese: ; pinyin: , literally meaning the Wriggling Insects, a name given by the Toba ruling elites of northern China), or Ruru (Chinese: ; Wade-Giles: Ju Ju, literally meaning Fodder) was the name of a confederation of nomadic tribes on the... For other uses, see Mongols (disambiguation). ... The Göktürks or Kök-Türks were a Turkic people of ancient Central Asia and China. ...


During the seventh and eighth centuries, Mongolia was controlled by the Göktürks, who were succeeded by the ancestors of today's Uyghur and then by the Khitan and Jurchen. By the tenth century, the country was divided into numerous tribes linked through transient alliances. The 7th century is the period from 601 - 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... The Göktürks or Kök-Türks were a Turkic people of ancient Central Asia and China. ... An ancestor is a parent or (recursively) the parent of an ancestor. ... For the language spoken by this ethnic group, see Uyghur language. ... The Khitan (or Khitai, Chinese: ; pinyin: Qìdān) were an ethnic group which dominated much of Manchuria in the 11th century and has been classified by Chinese historians as one of the Eastern proto-Mongolic ethnic groups Donghu (東胡族 dōng hú zú). They established the Liao Dynasty in 907... The Jurchens (Chinese: 女真, pinyin: nǚzhēn) were a Tungusic people who inhabited parts of Manchuria and northern Korea until the seventeenth century, when they became the Manchus. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... http://www. ...


Mongol Empire

Main article: Mongol Empire
Genghis Khan's conquests
Genghis Khan's conquests

In the chaos of the late twelfth century, a chieftain named Temüjin finally succeeded in uniting the Mongol tribes between Manchuria and the Altai Mountains. In 1206, he took the title Genghis Khan, and he and his successors began expanding the Mongol Empire into the largest contiguous land empire in world history, going as far northwest as the Kievan Rus, and as far south as northern Vietnam, Tibet, Iran. Expansion of the Mongol Empire Historical map of the Mongol Empire (1300~1405), the gray area is Timurid dynasty. ... Image File history File links Gengis_Khan_empire-fr. ... Image File history File links Gengis_Khan_empire-fr. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the republic in Russia, see Altai Republic. ... This article is about the person. ... This article is about the political and historical term. ... Kievan Rus′ (Ки́евская Ру́сь, Kievskaya Rus in Russian; Київська Русь, Kyivs’ka Rus’ in Ukrainian) was the early, mostly East Slavic¹ state dominated by the city of Kiev (ru: Ки́ев, Kiev; uk: Ки́їв, Kyiv), from about 880 to the middle of the 12th century. ...


After Genghis Khan's death, the empire had been subdivided into four kingdoms, or "Khanates", but the final split-up occured only after Möngke's death in 1259. One of the khanates, the "Great Khanate", consisting of the Mongol homeland and China, in 1271 became the Yuan Dynasty. The first Yuan emperor, Kublai Khan, set up his centre in present day Beijing. After more than a century of power, the Yuan Dynasty was replaced by the Ming Dynasty in 1368, and the Mongol court fled north. The Ming armies pursued the Mongols into their homeland and defeated them, but were not able to conquer Mongolia. However, they were successful in sacking and destroying the Mongol capital Karakorum and other cities in 1388. The Chinese wiped out the cultural progress of the Mongols achieved during the imperial period and Mongolia was thrown back to the unruly state of pre-imperial times. This article is about the person. ... Möngke Khan (Мөнх хаан), also transliterated as Mongke, Mongka, Möngka, Mangu or Mangku (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; c. ... Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 (Cont. ... For other uses, see Kublai Khan (disambiguation). ... Peking redirects here. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... Events Timur ascends throne of Samarkand. ...

The expansion of the Mongol Empire.
The expansion of the Mongol Empire.

Image File history File links Mongol_Empire_map. ... Image File history File links Mongol_Empire_map. ... Expansion of the Mongol Empire Historical map of the Mongol Empire (1300~1405), the gray area is Timurid dynasty. ...

Post-Imperial period

The next centuries were often marked by violent and chaotic power struggles between various factions, notably the Genghisids and the non-Genghisid Oirads. The legitimate Khan would often (but not always) be a mere figurehead. In the early years, the Chinese also staged several invasions into Mongolia (like the five expeditions led by the Yongle Emperor), but later they mainly concentrated on improving their border defenses and buying the Mongols off by means of tributary trade. Oirats (also spelled Oyrats or Oyirads; Mongolian: Ойрадын Ojradyn) refers to both a Western Mongol people of Europe and Asia and, historically, to a Turkic people now known as the Altays. ... The Yongle Emperor (May 2, 1360 – August 12, 1424), born Zhu Di (Chu Ti) , was the third emperor of the Ming Dynasty of China from 1402 to 1424. ...


In the early 15th century, the Oirads under Esen Tayisi gained the upper hand, and even raided China in 1449 in a conflict over Esen's right to pay tribute, capturing the Chinese emperor in the process. However, Esen was murdered in 1454, and the Genghisids recovered. Around 1470, Mandukhai seems to have secured the throne for her adopted son and legitimate Khan, Batumöngke, who ruled until 1517. In the mid-16th century, Altan Khan of the Tümed, a grandson of Batumöngke - but no legitimate Khan himself - became powerful. He founded Hohhot in 1557 and his meeting with the Dalai Lama in 1578 sparked the second introduction of Tibetan Buddhism to Mongolia. Abtai Khan of the Khalkha converted to buddhism in 1585 and founded the Erdene Zuu monastery in 1586. His grandson Zanabazar became the first Jebtsundamba Khutughtu in 1640. A 15th century Mongolian prince of the Oirad horde. ... The Tumu Crisis (Chinese: 土木之變; pinyin: TÅ­mù zhÄ« bìan); also called Crisis of Tumubao (土木堡之變); or Battle of Tumu (土木之役), was a frontier conflict between Mongolia and the Chinese Ming Dynasty which led to the capture of the Zhengtong Emperor on September 8, 1449. ... Zhu Qizhen (November 29, 1427 – February 23, 1464) was an emperor of the Ming Dynasty. ... Mandukhai Khatun is also known as Manduhai the Wise Queen of the Mongols. ... Dayan Khan (given name: Batu Möngke; ?-1543?), was a Mongol Khan who reconstructed the Mongol Empire. ... Altan Khan (1507-1582), whose given name was Anda, was the de facto ruler of the Right Wing of the Mongols and exercised his power over whole Mongolia. ... Hohhot (Chinese: 呼和浩特; Pinyin: HÅ«héhàotè; Mongolian: Ð¥Ó©Ñ… хот), occasionally spelled Huhehot or Huhhot, is the capital city of the Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region in the Peoples Republic of China. ... This article is about the Dalai Lama lineage. ... Tibetan Buddhism is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet, the Himalayan region (including northern Nepal, Bhutan, Sikkim and Ladakh), Mongolia, Buryatia, Tuva and Kalmykia (Russia), and northeastern China (Manchuria: Heilongjiang, Jilin). ... The stupas and wall around Erdene Zuu Temple at Erdene Zuu monastery. ... The Khalkha Jebtsundamba Khutughtu (also known as Javzandamba Hutagt in Khalkha Mongolian; also as Rje Btsun Dam Pa or Jetsun Dampa in Tibetan — all meaning lit. ... The Khalkha Jebtsundamba Khutughtu (also known as Javzandamba Hutagt in Khalkha Mongolian; also as Rje Btsun Dam Pa or Jetsun Dampa in Tibetan — all meaning lit. ...


The last Mongol Khan was Ligden Khan in the early 17th century. He got into conflicts with the Manchu over the looting of Chinese cities, and managed to alienate most Mongol tribes. He died in 1634 on his way to Tibet, in an attempt to evade the Manchu and destroy the Yellow Church. Lingdan Khutaghtu Khan, also Ligdan, Legdan or Likdan (ruled 1604-1634), was the last in the Borjigin dynasty of Mongol Khans who ruled from Chaharia. ... The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ... The Geluk (dge lugs) School was founded by Tsongkhapa (1357-1419), Tibets best known religious reformer and arguably its greatest philosopher. ...


Manchu domination

During the seventeenth century, the Manchu rose to prominence in the east. They conquered Inner Mongolia in 1636. The Khalkha submitted in 1691, bringing all but the west of today's Mongolia under the rule of the Qing Dynasty. The Western Mongols were subjugated in 1757. Until 1911, the Manchu maintained control of Mongolia with a series of alliances and intermarriages, as well as military and economic measures. Ambans were installed in Khüree, Uliastai, and Khovd, and the country was subdivided into ever more feudal and ecclesiastical fiefdoms. Over the course of the 19th century, as the feudal lords attached more importance to representation and less importance to the responsibilities towards thier subjects, as usurous practices of the Chinese traders had an ever deeper impact, and as the imperial tax began to be collected in silver instead of in animals, poverty became rampant. (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ... Inner Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠨᠺᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠺᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ r Mongghul-un bertegen Jasaqu Orun; Chinese: 内蒙古自治区; Hanyu Pinyin: N i Měnggǔ Z qū) is an Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Year 1636 (MDCXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Khalkha, or Halh (Халх [χɑɬχ]) in modern Khalkha Mongolian, is a subgroup of the Mongols. ... Events March 5 - French troops under Marshal Louis-Francois de Boufflers besiege the Spanish-held town of Mons March 20 - Leislers Rebellion - New governor arrives in New York - Jacob Leisler surrenders after standoff of several hours March 29 - Siege of Mons ends to the city’s surrender May 6... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... Oirats (also spelled Oyrats or Oyirads; Mongolian: Ойрадын Ojradyn) refers to both a Western Mongol people of Europe and Asia and, historically, to a Turkic people now known as the Altays. ... The Ambans were imperial administrators of Qing China in Tibet. ... September 2004 Ulan Bator, or Ulaanbaatar (Улаанбаатар, [UlaÉ£an BaÉ£atar]) in Mongolian, is the capital of Mongolia. ... Uliastai (Mongolian: ) is a city in Mongolia. ... Look up usury in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Independence

Bogd Khan, khan of Mongolia

With the fall of the Qing Dynasty, Mongolia declared independence in 1911. The new country's territory was approximately that of the former Outer Mongolia. The 49 hoshuns of Inner Mongolia as well as the Mongolians of the Alashan and Qinghai regions expressed their willingness to join the young Mongol Khanate. After the October Revolution in Russia, Chinese troops led by Xu Shuzheng occupied the capital in 1919. The Chinese dominance did not last: notorious Russian adventurer "Bloody" Baron Ungern who had fought with the "Whites" (Ataman Semyonov) against the Red Army in Siberia, led his troops into Mongolia and forced a showdown with the Chinese in Niislel Khüree. Ungern's forces triumphed, and he briefly in effect ruled Mongolia under the blessing of religious leader Bogd Khan. But Ungern's triumph was short-lived; he was chased out by the Red Army, which, while at it, liberated Mongolia from feudalism and ensured its political alignment with the Russian Bolsheviks. In 1924, after the death of the religious leader and king Bogd Khan, a Mongolian People's Republic was proclaimed with support from the Soviets. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Khalkha Jebtsundamba Khutughtu (also known as Javzandamba Hutagt in Khalkha Mongolian; also as Rje Btsun Dam Pa or Jetsun Dampa in Tibetan — all meaning lit. ... This article is about the title. ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see October Revolution (disambiguation). ... Xu Shuzheng (Traditional Chinese: 徐樹錚; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsü Shu-Cheng) (1880 – 29 December 1925), was a Chinese warlord in Republican China. ... Roman Fyodorovich Ungern von Sternberg, ca 1919 Baron Roman (or Robert) Nicolaus von Ungern-Sternberg, in Russian: Roman Fyodorovich Ungern von Shternberg (Роман Фёдорович Унгерн фон Штернберг; although born von Ungern-Sternberg, in later life he used an incorrect form Ungern von Sternberg) (January 22, 1886, new style — September 15, 1921) a. ... White Army redirects here. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ... Template:Infobox Settlementcookis and ceam For the band, see Ulan Bator (band). ... The Khalkha Jebtsundamba Khutughtu (also known as Javzandamba Hutagt in Khalkha Mongolian; also as Rje Btsun Dam Pa or Jetsun Dampa in Tibetan — all meaning lit. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... The Peoples Repubic of Mongolia was a communist state in central Asia which existed between 1924 and 1990. ...


Alignment with the Soviet Union

The Mongolian People's Republic was aligned closely with the Soviet Union. During the 1920s and 1930s, several high-ranking politicians who demanded a more independent course, like Dogsomyn Bodoo or Khorloogiin Dandzan, fell victim to violent power struggles and were killed. In 1928, Khorloogiin Choibalsan rose to power. Under his administration, forced collectivisation of livestock was instituted, and the destruction of Buddhist monasteries and Stalinist purges beginning 1937 left more than 30,000 people dead. The Peoples Repubic of Mongolia was a communist state in central Asia which existed between 1924 and 1990. ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Choibalsan. ... Collective farming is an organizational unit in agriculture in which peasants are not paid wages, but rather receive a share of the farms net output. ... Tibetan Buddhism is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet, the Himalayan region (including northern Nepal, Bhutan, Sikkim and Ladakh), Mongolia, Buryatia, Tuva and Kalmykia (Russia), and northeastern China (Manchuria: Heilongjiang, Jilin). ... Monastery of St. ... The Great Purge (Russian: , transliterated Bolshaya chistka) refers collectively to several related campaigns of political repression and persecution in the Soviet Union orchestrated by Joseph Stalin during the 1930s, which removed all of his remaining opposition from power. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


During the Soviet-Japanese Border War of 1939, the USSR defended Mongolia against Japan. Mongolian forces also took part in the Soviet offensive against Japanese forces in Inner Mongolia in August 1945 (see Operation August Storm). The (Soviet) threat of Mongolian forces seizing parts of Inner Mongolia[citation needed] induced the Republic of China to recognize Outer Mongolia's independence, provided that a referendum was held. The referendum took place on October 20, 1945, with (according to official numbers) 100% of the electorate voting for independence. After the establishment of the People's Republic of China, both countries recognized each other again on October 6, 1949. The communist rule also undertook the Mongolia's enemies of the people persecution resulting in the murder of monks and other people. Combatants Soviet Union Mongolian Peoples Republic Empire of Japan Manchukuo Commanders Georgy Zhukov Michitaro Komatsubara Strength 57,000 30,000 (initially), 60,000 (as positions reinforced) Casualties Archival research 7,974 killed, 15,251 wounded[1] Japanese government claim 8,440 killed, 8,766 wounded Soviet claim 60,000... Combatants Soviet Union Peoples Republic of Mongolia Japan Manchukuo Mengjiang Commanders Aleksandr Vasilevsky Otsuzo Yamada Strength Soviet Union 1,577,225 men, 26,137 artillery, 1,852 sup. ... Inner Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠨᠺᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠺᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ r Mongghul-un bertegen Jasaqu Orun; Chinese: 内蒙古自治区; Hanyu Pinyin: N i Měnggǔ Z qū) is an Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mongolias enemies of the people persecution was an enemies of the people persecution during the Mongolian Peoples Republic where religious figures including Buddhist monks, former leaders, and other alleged enemies among the population in Mongolia when it was allied with the Soviet Union. ... A Roman Catholic monk A monk is a person who practices monasticism, adopting a strict religious and ascetic lifestyle, usually in community with others following the same path. ...


After Choibalsan died in Moscow on January 26, 1952, Yumjaagiin Tsedenbal took power. In 1956 and again in 1962, Choibalsan's personality cult was condemned. Mongolia continued to align itself closely with the Soviet Union, especially after the Sino-Soviet split of the late 1950s. While Tsedenbal was visiting Moscow in August 1984, his severe illness prompted the parliament to announce his retirement and replace him with Jambyn Batmönkh. For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Monument of Yu. ... Adolf Hitler built a strong cult of personality, based on the Führerprinzip. ... The Sino-Soviet split was a major diplomatic conflict between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), beginning in the late 1950s, reaching a peak in 1969 and continuing in various ways until the late 1980s. ... This article is about the year. ... Jambyn Batmönkh (Mongolian: ; 10 March 1926-1997) was a Mongolian communist political leader. ...


1990 Democratic Revolution

Main article: 1990 Mongolian democratic revolution

The introduction of perestroika and glasnost in the USSR by Mikhail Gorbachev strongly influenced Mongolian politics even though Mongolia was a sovereign nation. The decline of communism in the Soviet Union and its collapse in Eastern Europe, combined with these two policies, were enough to lead to the peaceful Democratic Revolution of 1990. This, in turn, allowed Mongolia to begin engaging in economic and diplomatic relations with the Western world. The nation finished its transition from a communist state to a multi-party capitalist democracy with the ratification of a new constitution in 1992. 1990 Mongolian democratic revolution was a democratic revolution that started with hunger strike to overthrow the Mongolian Peoples Republic and eventually move toward the democratic present day Mongolia and the writing of the new constitution, etc. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... //   (Russian: IPA: ) is politics of maximal openness, transparency of activity of all official (governmental) institutes, and freedom of information. ... Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev[1] (Russian: , IPA: ; born 2 March 1931) is a Russian politician. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ...


Government and politics

Main article: Politics of Mongolia
Sukhbaatar Square with the parliament building and the offices of the prime minister and president

Government of Mongolia is characterized as a parliamentary democracy, which is governed under the Constitution of Mongolia that guarantees full freedom of expression, rights, worship and others. Media in Mongolia has public television and corporately owned newspapers. Mongolia has two main parties among many other parties. Until June 27, 2004, the predominant party in Mongolia was the social democratic Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party or abbreviated as the MPRP, a former communist party during the socialist republics. The main opposition party was the Democratic Party or DP, which controlled a governing coalition from 1996 to 2000. Until 1990, the Mongolian Government was modeled on the Soviet system; only the communist party--the MPRP--officially was permitted to function. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Sukhbaatar Square is a public square in capital Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia in front of the government building and the parliament State Great Hural. ... A parliamentarian is a specialist in parliamentary procedure. ... Constitution of Mongolia is the constitution of Mongolia, which is a democracy guaranteeing freedom of religion, rights, travel, expression, etc. ... Freedom of speech is the right to freely say what one pleases, as well as the related right to hear what others have stated. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Official logo of the Mongolian Peoples Revolutionary Party The Mongolian Peoples Revolutionary Party (Mongolian: Mongol Ardyn Khuvsgatt Nam, Монгол Ардын Хувьсгалт Нам) is a ex-communist political party in Mongolia. ... The Democratic Party (Ardchilsan Nam) is a political party in Mongolia. ...


From 2000 to 2004, the MPRP was back in power, but results of the 2004 elections required the establishing of the first ever coalition government in Mongolia between the MPRP and MDC (Motherland Democratic Coalition). The coalition broke down in January 2006, the current government has been formed with the MPRP, some small parties and some DP defectors.


President

Main article: President of Mongolia

Mongolia's president has a symbolic role, but can block the parliament's decisions, who can then overrule the veto by a 2/3 majority. Mongolia's Constitution provides three requirements for taking office as President: the individual must be a native-born Mongolian, be at least 45 years of age, and have resided in Mongolia for five years prior to taking office. The current President is Nambaryn Enkhbayar. The President of Mongolia is the head of state of Mongolia. ... Image File history File links Nambaryn_Enkhbayar_2005. ... Image File history File links Nambaryn_Enkhbayar_2005. ... The President of Mongolia is the head of state of Mongolia. ... Nambaryn Enkhbayar (Mongolian: ; born June 1, 1958, in Ulaanbaatar) is the current President of Mongolia. ... President is a title held by many leaders of organizations, companies, trade unions, universities, and countries. ... President is a title held by many leaders of organizations, companies, trade unions, universities, and countries. ... Nambaryn Enkhbayar (Mongolian: ; born June 1, 1958, in Ulaanbaatar) is the current President of Mongolia. ...


The State Great Khural

Main article: State Great Khural

Mongolia uses a unicameral parliamentary system in which the president has a symbolic role and the government chosen by the legislature exercises executive power. The legislative arm, the State Great Khural, has one chamber with 76 seats and is chaired by the speaker of the house. It elects its members every four years by general elections. The State Great Khural is powerful in the Mongolian government with the president being largely symbolic and the prime minister being confirmed from the parliament. The State Great Khural (Sometimes Hural or translated as Assembly) is the Parliament of Mongolia. ... Unicameralism is the practice of having only one legislative or parliamentary chamber. ... States currently utilizing parliamentary systems are denoted in red and orange—the former being constitutional monarchies where authority is vested in a parliament, the the latter being parliamentary republics whose parliaments are effectively supreme over a separate head of state. ... President is a title held by many leaders of organizations, companies, trade unions, universities, and countries. ...


Prime Minister and the Cabinet

The Prime Minister of Mongolia is elected by the State Great Khural. The current prime minister is Sanjaagiin Bayar, who was elected by sixty-seven votes to two on November 22, 2007[6]. The deputy prime minister is Miyeegombyn Enkhbold (since December 5, 2007)[7]. There are ministers of each department (finance, defense, labor, agriculture, etc.) and those offices constitute the prime minister's cabinet. The Prime Minister of Mongolia is the highest member of the Mongolian governments executive arm, and heads the Mongolian cabinet. ... The Prime Minister of Mongolia is the highest member of the Mongolian governments executive arm, and heads the Mongolian cabinet. ... Sanjiin Bayar (Mongolian: ) (b. ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Miyeegombyn Enkhbold (Mongolian: ; born 1964) is the current Prime Minister of Mongolia. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


The cabinet is nominated by the prime minister in consultation with the president and confirmed by the State Great Khural. This article is about the governmental body. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... The State Great Khural (Sometimes Hural or translated as Assembly) is the Parliament of Mongolia. ...


Foreign relations and military

Mongolia maintains positive relations and has diplomatic missions with many countries such as the United States, Russia, North and South Korea, Japan, and the People's Republic of China. The government has focused a great deal on encouraging foreign investments and trade. Mongolia supported the 2003 invasion of Iraq, and has sent several successive contingents of 103 to 180 troops each to Iraq and Afghanistan. Also 200 Mongolian troops are serving in Sierra Leone on a UN mandate to protect the UN's special court set up there. From 2005 to 2006, about 40 troops were deployed with the Belgian and Luxembourgish contingent in Kosovo. On November 21, 2005, George W. Bush became the first-ever sitting U.S. President to visit Mongolia.[8] In the wake of the former Soviet Unions economic collapse, Mongolia began to pursue an independent and nonaligned foreign policy. ... // The military of Mongolia has three branches: General purpose forces, Border defence forces, Internal security forces. ... North Korea, officially the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea (DPRK; Korean: Chosŏn Minjujuŭi Inmin Konghwaguk; Hangul: 조선민주주의인민공화국; Hanja: 朝鮮民主主義人民共和國), is a country in eastern Asia, covering the northern half of the peninsula of Korea. ... This article is about the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... The Special Court for Sierra Leone is an independent judicial body set up to try those who bear greatest responsibility for the war crimes and crimes against humanity committed in Sierra Leone after 30 November 1996 during the Sierra Leone Civil War. ... For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ...


Mongolia has embassies in Almaty, Ankara, Bangkok, Berlin, Beijing, Brussels, Budapest, Cairo, Warsaw, Washington, D.C., Vienna, Vientiane, Havana, Delhi, London, Moscow, Ottawa, Paris, Prague, Pyongyang, Seoul, Sofia, Tokyo, Hanoi, and Singapore, a consulate in Irkutsk and Ulan-Ude, and a diplomatic mission to the United Nations in New York City and to the European Union in Geneva.[9] Map showing Almatys location in Kazakhstan Almaty Orthodox church Mosque Almaty (Алматы; formerly known as Alma-Ata, also Vernyj, Vyernyi (Верный) in Imperial Russia) is the largest city in Kazakhstan, with a population of 1,185,900 (2004) (8% of the population of Kazakhstan) citizens. ... Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the countrys second largest city after Ä°stanbul. ... Location within in Thailand Coordinates: , Country Settled Ayutthaya Period Founded as capital 21 April 1782 Government  - Type Special administrative area  - Governor Apirak Kosayothin Area  - City 1,568. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Peking redirects here. ... For other places with the same name, see Brussels (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Budapest (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Warsaw (disambiguation) and Warszawa (disambiguation). ... ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the capital of Cuba. ... , For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital city of Canada. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... For other uses, see Prague (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with PyeongChang. ... Short name Statistics Location map Map of location of Seoul. ... This article is about the capital of Bulgaria. ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ... Hanoi (Vietnamese: Hà Ná»™i, Hán Tá»±: 河内)  , estimated population 3,145,300 (2005), is the capital of Vietnam. ... Irkutsk (Russian: ) is one of the largest cities in Siberia and the administrative center of Irkutsk Oblast, situated 5,185 kilometers (3,222 mi) by rail from Moscow. ... Ulan-Ude (Ула́н-Удэ́, Buryat: Улаан-Удэ), formerly Verkhneudinsk (Верхнеу́динск), the capital of Buryatia, Russia, is located at the foot of the mountains and is divided into two parts by the Uda river, a tributary of the Selenga river. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Geneva (pronunciation //; French: Genève //, German:   //, Italian: Ginevra //, Romansh: Genevra) is the second most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich), and is the most populous city of Romandy (the French-speaking part of Switzerland). ...


Geography and climate

Main article: Geography of Mongolia
The southern portion of Mongolia is taken up by the Gobi Desert, while the northern and western portions are mountainous
The southern portion of Mongolia is taken up by the Gobi Desert, while the northern and western portions are mountainous
Mongolian landscape
Mongolian landscape

At 1,564,116 km²[10] (603,909 mi²), Mongolia is the world's nineteenth-largest country (after Iran). It is significantly larger than the next-largest country, Peru. The map showing the major cities and the neighbouring countries of Mongolia The southern part of the territory of Mongolia is desert. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2000x1649, 1359 KB) Mongolia. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2000x1649, 1359 KB) Mongolia. ... The Gobi Desert lies in the territory of the Peoples Republic of China and the Country of Mongolia. ...


The geography of Mongolia is varied with the Gobi desert to the south and with cold and mountainous regions to the north and west. Mongolia consists of relatively flat steppes. The highest point in Mongolia is the Khüiten Peak in the Tavan bogd massif in the far west at 4,374 m (14,350 feet). The basin of the lake Uvs Nuur, shared with Tuva Republic in Russia, is a natural World Heritage Site. This article is about the ecological zone type. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Satellite shot of the Uvs Nuur Basin. ... Tuva or Tyva (Russian: Республика Тыва [Тува], Respublika Tyva [Tuva]) (pop. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State...


Most of the country is hot in the summer and extremely cold in the winter, with January averages dropping as low as -30°C (-22°F).[11] The country is also subject to occasional harsh climatic conditions known as zud. Ulan Bator has the lowest average temperature of any national capital in the world. Mongolia is high, cold, and windy. It has an extreme continental climate with long, cold winters and short summers, during which most of its annual precipitation falls. The country averages 257 cloudless days a year, and it is usually at the center of a region of high atmospheric pressure. Precipitation is highest in the north (average of 20 to 35 centimeters per year) and lowest in the south, which receives 10 to 20 centimeters annually. The extreme south is the Gobi, some regions of which receive no precipitation at all in most years. A Zud is a Mongolian term for the extreme conditions which exist after a hot summer is followed by a cold winter; it can include dust storms as well as blizzards. ...


The name "Gobi" is a Mongol term for a desert steppe, which usually refers to a category of arid rangeland with insufficient vegetation to support marmots but with enough to support camels. Mongols distinguish Gobi from desert proper, although the distinction is not always apparent to outsiders unfamiliar with the Mongolian landscape. Gobi rangelands are fragile and are easily destroyed by overgrazing, which results in expansion of the true desert, a stony waste where not even Bactrian camels can survive. Species See text. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Bactrian Camel range The Bactrian Camel (Camelus bactrianus) is a large even-toed ungulate native to the steppes of eastern Asia. ...


Administrative divisions

Aimags of Mongolia
Aimags of Mongolia

Mongolia is divided into 21 aimags (provinces), which are in turn divided into 315 sums (districts). The capital Ulan Bator is administrated separately as a khot (municipality) with provincial status. The aimags are: Mongolia is divided into 21 aymags or provinces. ... Sum map of Mongolia A sum (Mongolian: , arrow) is a second level administrative subdivision (district) of Mongolia. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 393 pixelsFull resolution (3017 × 1482 pixel, file size: 61 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 393 pixelsFull resolution (3017 × 1482 pixel, file size: 61 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Mongolia is divided into 21 aymags or provinces. ... A province is a territorial unit, almost always a country subdivision. ... Addition is one of the basic operations of arithmetic. ... Local government areas called districts are used, or have been used, in several countries. ... Template:Infobox Settlementcookis and ceam For the band, see Ulan Bator (band). ... A municipality is an administrative entity composed of a clearly defined territory and its population and commonly referring to a city, town, or village, or a small grouping of them. ...

Founded 1931 Capital Tsetserleg Area 55,300 km² Population  â€¢ Total (2000)  â€¢ Density 97,091 1. ... Founded 1940 Capital Ölgii Area 45,700 km² Population  â€¢ Total (2005)  â€¢ Density 95,758 2. ... Founded 1941 Capital Bayankhongor Area 115,977. ... Founded 1938 Capital Bulgan Area 48,700 km² Population  â€¢ Total (2000)  â€¢ Density 61,776 1. ... Founded 1994 Capital Darkhan Area 3,275 km² Population[1]  â€¢ Total (2005)  â€¢ Density 90,400 27. ... Dornod aymag (Дорнод аймаг) is one of the 21 provinces of Mongolia. ... DornogovÄ­ aymag (Дорноговь аймаг) is one of the 21 provinces of Mongolia. ... DundgovÄ­ aymag (Дундговь аймаг) is one of the 21 provinces of Mongolia. ... Founded 1940 Capital Altai Area 141,400 km² Population  â€¢ Total (2000)  â€¢ Density 63,673 0. ... GovÄ­sümber aymag (Говьсүмбэр аймаг) is one of the 21 provinces of Mongolia. ... Founded 1930 Capital Öndörkhaan Area 80,300 km² Population  â€¢ Total (2004)  â€¢ Density 71,200 0. ... Founded 1931 Capital Khovd Area 76,100 km² Population  â€¢ Total (2000)  â€¢ Density 86,831 1. ... Founded 1931 Capital Mörön Area 100,600 km² Population  â€¢ Total (2000)  â€¢ Density 119,063 1. ... ÖmnögovÄ­ aymag (Өмнөговь аймаг) is one of the 21 provinces of Mongolia. ... Founded 1994 Capital Erdenet Area 844 km² Population  â€¢ Total (2006)  â€¢ Density 86,285 102. ... Founded 1931 Capital Arvaikheer Area 62,900 km² Population  â€¢ Total (2000)  â€¢ Density 111,420 1. ... Selenge aymag (Сэлэнгэ аймаг) is one of the 21 provinces of Mongolia. ... Founded 1943 Capital Baruun-Urt Area 82,300 km² Population  â€¢ Total (2005)  â€¢ Density 52,800 0. ... Töv aymag (Төв аймаг = Central Aimag) is one of the 21 provinces of Mongolia. ... Uvs aymag (Увс аймаг) is one of the 21 provinces of Mongolia. ... Founded 1931 Capital Uliastai Area 82,500 km² Population  â€¢ Total (2005)  â€¢ Density 78,668 0. ...

Economy

Main article: Economy of Mongolia
1,000 tugrug
1,000 tugrug

Mongolia's economy is centered on agriculture and mining. Mongolia has rich mineral resources, and copper, coal, molybdenum, tin, tungsten, and gold account for a large part of industrial production. // Overview 5000 tugruk note Economic activity traditionally in Mongolia has been based on agriculture and breeding of livestock. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... The Tugrug (төгрөк in Mongolian) (MNT, Tugrik) is the official currency of Mongolia. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... Coal Example chemical structure of coal Coal (pronounced ) is a fossil fuel formed in swamp ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... General Name, Symbol, Number molybdenum, Mo, 42 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 5, d Appearance gray metallic Standard atomic weight 95. ... This article is about the metallic chemical element. ... For other uses, see Tungsten (disambiguation). ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ...


There are currently over 30,000 independent businesses in Mongolia, chiefly centered around the capital city[citation needed]. The majority of the population outside urban areas participate in subsistence herding; livestock typically consists of sheep, goats, cattle, horses, and Bactrian camels. Agricultural crops include wheat, barley, vegetables, tomato, watermelon, sea-buckthorn and fodder crops. GDP per capita in 2006 was $2,100.[12] Although GDP has risen steadily since 2002 at the rate of 7.5% in an official 2006 estimate, the state is still working to overcome a sizable trade deficit. A massive ($11 billion) foreign debt to Russia was settled by the Mongolian government in 2004 with a $250 million payment. Despite growth, the proportion of the population below the poverty line is estimated to be 35.6% in 1998, 36.1% in 2002-2003, 32.2% in 2006[13], and both the unemployment rate and inflation rate are relatively high at 3.2% and 6.0%, respectively (in 2006)[13] A man herding goats in Tunisia Herding is the act of bringing individual animals together into a group, maintaining the group and moving the group from place to place—or any combination of those. ... Species See text. ... For the animal, see goat. ... For general information about the genus, including other species of cattle, see Bos. ... Who ever deleted my page is a prat and i wil hunt them down on lucy and shout at them loudly! RAAAAARRR! connie sansom ... Binomial name Camelus bactrianus Linnaeus, 1758 The Bactrian Camel (Camelus bactrianus) is a large even-toed ungulate native to the steppes of eastern Asia. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ... For other uses, see Barley (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tomato (disambiguation). ... For the political designation, see Eco-socialism. ... Species Hippophae rhamnoides Hippophae salicifolia Hippophae tibetana The sea-buckthorns (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) are deciduous shrubs in the genus Hippophae, family Elaeagnaceae. ...


The Mongolian Stock Exchange, established in 1991 in Ulan Bator, is the world's smallest stock exchange by market capitalisation.[14][15] The Mongolian Stock Exchange (Mongolian: Монголын Хєрєнгийн Бирж/Mongolyn Kherengiin Birj), located in Ulan Bator, is Mongolias sole stock exchange. ... Market capitalization, often abbreviated to market cap, mkt. ...


Industrial sector

Industry currently accounts for 21.4% of GDP, approximately equal to the weight of the agriculture sector (20.4%). These industries include construction materials, mining (coal, copper, molybdenum, fluorspar, tin, tungsten, and gold), oil, food and beverages, processing of animal products, and cashmere and natural fiber manufacturing. The industrial production growth rate is estimated to be 4.1% in 2002. Mining is continuing to rise as a major industry of Mongolia as evidenced by number of Chinese, Russian and Canadian firms opening and starting mining business in Mongolia.[12] Domestic food production, especially packaged food production has been increasingly coming up with speed with investments from foreign companies.


Science and technology

Mongolia has increasingly started to develop its technology industry since the democratic revolution of the early 1990s, and many new technology companies have been founded. Also, some technology companies in nearby countries, such as South Korea and the People's Republic of China, have started to open offices in Mongolia. Number of telecommunications companies and internet service providers have been established resulting in greater competition in the internet and phone market, especially in cell phones. A company in Mongolia established a cellphone service covering all areas of Mongolia. Relative to electronics and other mechanical industries, software industry has been more focused on by the Mongolian and foreign companies that opened up offices in Mongolia. Telecommunication involves the transmission of signals over a distance for the purpose of communication. ... “ISP” redirects here. ...


Service sector

A market in Tsetserleg, a common place for trade in the outer areas of Mongolia
A market in Tsetserleg, a common place for trade in the outer areas of Mongolia

After the democratic revolution of the early 1990s, Mongolian domestic production has picked up, providing basic food production to its residents through increasing competition among companies. According to the CIA World Factbook, in 2003, the service sector accounted for 58% of the GDP, with 29% of the labor force of 1.488 million involved. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 465 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 698 pixel, file size: 686 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to en. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 465 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 698 pixel, file size: 686 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to en. ... Tsetserleg, also spelled Tsetserlik, Tsetserlig or Cècèrlèg, is the capital of Arhangay aymag, or province, in Mongolia. ...


However, investment from other countries (including China, Japan, South Korea, Germany and Russia) has helped to add more paved roads. The most important is a 1000 km north-south road leading from the Russian border at Sükhbaatar to the Chinese border at Zamyn-Üüd. The air transport company of Mongolia is MIAT. Zamyn-Üüd (Mongolian: , roads gate) is a sum (district) of Dornogovi Province in southeastern Mongolia. ... Museum voor Industriële Archeologie en Textiel (MIAT) In het MIAT komt de industriële samenleving van 1750 tot nu volop aan bod. ...


Petroleum products are mainly (80%) imported from Russia, which makes Mongolia vulnerable to supply side shocks. This is one strong example of the influence of Mongolia's neighbors on its economy. Petro redirects here. ...


Demographics

Demographics of Mongolia (2005 FAO data; number of inhabitants in thousands)
Demographics of Mongolia (2005 FAO data; number of inhabitants in thousands)

Mongolia's total population as of July 2007 is estimated by U.S. Census Bureau[16] at 2,951,786 people ranking at around 138th in the world in terms of population. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division[17] estimates Mongolia's total population (mid. 2007) as 2,629,000 (11% less then U.S. Census Bureau). But UN estimations are very close to those made by Mongolian National Statistical Office - 2,612,900 (end of June 2007). Life in sparsely populated Mongolia has become more urbanized. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Possible meanings: Faro Airport (Portugal) Federation of Astrobiology Organizations Financial Aid Office Food and Agriculture Organization This page expands a three-character combination which might be any or all of: an abbreviation, an acronym, an initialism, a word in English, or a word in another language. ... The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census) is a part of the United States Department of Commerce. ... The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census) is a part of the United States Department of Commerce. ...


It has a very small population relative to its two border neighbors, China and Russia. Though the majority of Mongolian citizens are of Mongol descent there are small populations of Kazakh, Tuvan, and Tungus peoples. Mongolia's population growth rate is estimated at 1.2% (2007 est.).[17] About 59% of the total population is under age 30, 27% of whom are under 14. This relatively young and growing population has, as in many developing countries, placed strains on Mongolia's economy. Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... Kazakh may refer to An ethnic group: the Kazakhs The Kazakh language The Culture of Kazakhstan Suhbat. ... Tuvans or Tuvinians (Tuvan: Тывалар, Tyvalar) are a group of Turkic people who make up about two thirds of the population of Tuva, Russia. ... Tungus can mean several things: Tungus is an obsolete term for the Evenks of Russia. ...


Mongolia according the latest UN estimations[17] is total fertility rate (children per woman) decline world leader: in 1970-1975 fertility was estimated 7.33, but 2005-2010 prospects are 1.87 (4 times less). This article is about the United Nations, for other uses of UN see UN (disambiguation) Official languages English, French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, Arabic Secretary-General Kofi Annan (since 1997) Established October 24, 1945 Member states 191 Headquarters New York City, NY, USA Official site http://www. ...

A young Mongolian boy in front of a yurt in the countryside
A young Mongolian boy in front of a yurt in the countryside

Life in sparsely populated Mongolia has become more urbanized. About 60% of the people live in the capital (40% of total population) and in other provincial centers. Semi-nomadic life still predominates in the countryside where many families stay in villages during the cold winters and live in yurts during the summer, though agricultural communities that are settled year-round are becoming more common. Around 40% of the population continue to live a traditional nomadic or semi-nomadic lifestyle.[18] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 1536 pixel, file size: 158 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 1536 pixel, file size: 158 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... A Yurt is a portable felt dwelling structure used by nomads in the steppes of Central Asia. ... Communities of nomadic people move from place to place, rather than settling down in one location. ... A Yurt is a portable felt dwelling structure used by nomads in the steppes of Central Asia. ...


Ethnic Mongols account for about 85% of the population and consist of Khalkha and other groups, all distinguished primarily by dialects of the Mongol language. The Khalkha make up 90% of the ethnic Mongol population. The remaining 10% include Buryats, Durbet Mongols and others in the north and Dariganga Mongols in the east. Turkic peoples (Kazakhs, Tuvans, and Chantuu (Uzbek)) constitute 7% of Mongolia's population, and the rest are Tungusic peoples, Chinese, and Russians. Most, but not all, Russians left the country following the withdrawal of economic aid and collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. The Khalkha, or Halh (Халх [χɑɬχ]) in modern Khalkha Mongolian, is a subgroup of the Mongols. ... The Turkic people are any of various peoples whose members speak languages in the Turkic family of languages. ... Languages Kazakh (and/or languages in country of residence) Religions Sunni Islam The Kazakhs (also spelled Kazaks, Qazaqs; Kazakh: Қазақтар []; Russian: Казахи; the English name is transliterated from Russian) are a Turkic people of the northern parts of Central Asia (largely Kazakhstan, but also found in parts of Uzbekistan, China, Russia, and... Tuvans or Tuvinians (Tuvan: Тывалар, Tyvalar) are a group of Turkic people who make up about two thirds of the population of Tuva, Russia. ...


Languages

The official language of Mongolia is Khalkha Mongolian, which uses the Cyrillic alphabet, and is spoken by 90% of the population. A variety of different dialects are spoken across the country. In the west the Kazakh and Tuvan languages, among others, are also spoken. The Russian language is the most frequently spoken foreign language in Mongolia, followed by English, though English has been gradually replacing Russian as the second language.[citation needed] Korean has gained a popularity as tens of thousands of Mongolians work in South Korea.[19] Interest in Chinese, as the language of the second neighbouring power, has been growing. Japanese is also popular among the younger people. A number of older educated Mongolians speak some German, as they studied in the former East Germany, while a few speak other languages from the former Eastern Bloc. Besides that, many younger Mongolians are fluent in the Western European languages as they study or work in foreign countries including Germany, France and Italy. The Mongolian language (, mongol khel) is the best-known member of the Mongolic language family and the primary language of most of the residents of Mongolia, where it is officially written with the Cyrillic alphabet. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (pronounced also called azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is actually a family of alphabets, subsets of which are used by certain Slavic languages — Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian—as well as many other languages of the former Soviet Union... For dialects of programming languages, see Programming language dialect. ... Kazakh (also Qazaq and variants[2], natively , , ‎; pronounced ) is a Turkic language closely related to Nogai and Karakalpak. ... Tuvan (Tuvan: Тыва дыл Tyva dyl), also known as Tuvinian, Tyvan, or Tuvin, is one of the Turkic languages. ... Russian ( , transliteration: , IPA: ) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia and the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Mongolians in South Korea form one of the worlds largest populations of emigrants from Mongolia. ... This article is about the state which existed from 1949 to 1990. ... A map of the Eastern Bloc 1948-1989. ...


Mongolian is one of the Mongolic languages. Mongolic is frequently included in the Altaic languages, a group of languages named after the Altay Mountains that also includes the Turkic and Tungusic languages. The Mongolic languages are a group of thirteen languages spoken in Central Asia. ... Altaic is a proposed language family that includes 66 languages [1] spoken by about 348 million people, mostly in and around Central Asia and northeast Asia. ... A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common proto-language. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. ... Tungusic languages (or Manchu-Tungus languages) are spoken in Eastern Siberia and Manchuria. ...


Religion

Gandantegchinlen Khiid, Buddhist monastery in Ulan Bator
Gandantegchinlen Khiid, Buddhist monastery in Ulan Bator

According to the CIA World Factbook;[20] 50% of Mongolia's population follow the Tibetan Buddhism, 40% is listed as having no religion, 6% is Shamanist and Christian, and 4% is Muslim. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2304 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2304 pixel, file size: 1. ... Template:Infobox Settlementcookis and ceam For the band, see Ulan Bator (band). ... Tibetan Buddhism is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet, the Himalayan region (including northern Nepal, Bhutan, Sikkim and Ladakh), Mongolia, Buryatia, Tuva and Kalmykia (Russia), and northeastern China (Manchuria: Heilongjiang, Jilin). ... Shamanism is a range of traditional beliefs and practices that involve the ability to diagnose, cure, and sometimes cause human suffering by traversing the axis mundi and forming a special relationship with, or gaining control over, spirits. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ...


But according to the other latest sources from U.S. Department of State, 94% practice Tibetan Buddhism, followed by Islam (6%), Christianity and Shamanism (2%).[21][22] This article is about the practice of shamanism; for other uses, see Shaman (disambiguation). ...


Various forms of tengriism and shamanism have been widely practiced throughout the history of what is now modern day Mongolia, as such beliefs were common among nomadic people in Asian history. Such beliefs gradually gave way to Tibetan Buddhism, but shamanism has left a mark on Mongolian religious culture. Indeed, some shamanistic practices and traditions, such as the use of ovoo as religious sites, are still practiced. It has been suggested that Tengri be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about the practice of shamanism; for other uses, see Shaman (disambiguation). ... Tibetan Buddhism is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet, the Himalayan region (including northern Nepal, Bhutan, Sikkim and Ladakh), Mongolia, Buryatia, Tuva and Kalmykia (Russia), and northeastern China (Manchuria: Heilongjiang, Jilin). ... Ovoo An ovoo (Mongolian: , heap) is a type of shamanistic rock cairn found in Mongolia. ...


Throughout much of the twentieth century, the communist government ensured that the religious practices of the Mongolian people were largely repressed. Khorloogiin Choibalsan complied with the orders of Joseph Stalin, destroying almost all of Mongolia's over 700 Buddhist monasteries and killing thousands of monks. This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... For other uses, see Choibalsan. ... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from...

Lama monastery in Tsetserleg
Lama monastery in Tsetserleg

The fall of communism in 1991 restored the legality of public religious practice, and Tibetan Buddhism, which had been the predominant religion in the region before the rise of Communism, again rose to become the most widely practiced religion in Mongolia. The end of religious repression in the 1990s also allowed for other religions, such as Islam and Christianity, to spread in the country. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 801 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Source: He-ba-mue Description: Lama-Kloster Zezerleg, Mongolei File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 801 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Source: He-ba-mue Description: Lama-Kloster Zezerleg, Mongolei File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert... Not to be confused with Llama. ... Tsetserleg, also spelled Tsetserlik, Tsetserlig or Cècèrlèg, is the capital of Arhangay aymag, or province, in Mongolia. ...


See also: Buddhism in Mongolia, Islam in Mongolia Buddha statue in the Erdene Zuu monastery, Karakorum. ... U.S. Department of State estimates that Muslims account for 6% of the population,[1] while Adherents gives a higher figure of 10%.[2] ^ [Muslim Population] ^ [[1]]      Islam in Asia Afghanistan Armenia Azerbaijan Bahrain Bangladesh Bhutan Brunei Cambodia China (Peoples Republic of China (Hong Kong Macau) Republic of China...


Education

During the state socialist period, education was one of the areas of significant achievement in Mongolia. Illiteracy was virtually eliminated, in part through the use of seasonal boarding schools for children of nomadic families. Funding to these boarding schools was cut in the 1990s, contributing to slightly increased illiteracy.


Primary and secondary education formerly lasted ten years, but has been expanded to eleven years recently and is set to be expanded further to twelve years.


Mongolian national universities are all spin-offs from the National University of Mongolia and the Mongolian University of Science and Technology [5]. The National University of Mongolia (short: NUM; mongolian , Mongol Ulsyn Ikh Surguul) is the oldest University in Mongolia. ...


The broad liberalization of the 1990s led to a boom in private institutions of higher education, although many of these establishments have difficulty living up to their name of "college" or "university".


Health

Health care in Mongolia is rapidly improving[citation needed], leading to a higher life expectancy and a drop in infant and child mortality. is the death of infants in the first year of life. ... Child mortality is the death of children in their first 5 years of life. ...


Average childbirth (fertility rate) is around 2.25[16] - 1.87[17] per woman (2007) and average life expectancy is 67[16]-68[17] years. Infant mortality is at 1.9%[23]-4%[24] and child mortality is at 4.3%.[25] The (total) fertility rate of a population is the average number of child births per woman. ... This article is about the measure of remaining life. ...


The health sector comprises 17 specialized hospitals and centers, 4 regional diagnostic and treatment centers, 9 district and 21 aimag general hospitals, 323 soum hospitals, 18 feldsher posts, 233 family group practices, and 536 private hospitals and 57 drug supply companies/pharmacies. In 2002 the total number of health workers was 33273, of which 6823 were doctors, 788 pharmacists, 7802-nurses and 14091 mid-level personnel. At present, there are 27.7 physicians and 75.7 hospital beds per 10.000 population overall.


Culture

Main article: Culture of Mongolia
Horse men during Naadam festival in July.
Horse men during Naadam festival in July.

The main festival is Naadam, which has been organised for centuries, consists of three Mongolian traditional sports, archery, horse-racing (over long stretches of open country, not the short racing around a track practiced in the West), and wrestling. Nowadays it is held on July 11 to July 13 in the honour of the anniversaries of the National Democratic Revolution and foundation of the Great Mongol State. Another very popular activity called Shagaa is the "flicking" of sheep ankle bones at a target several feet away, using a flicking motion of the finger to send the small bone flying at targets and trying to knock the target bones off the platform. This contest at Naadam is very popular and develops a serious audience among older Mongolians. In Mongolia, the khoomii, or throat singing, style of music is popular, particularly in parts of Western Mongolia. Cave paintings from the Khoud Tsenker region Mongolian Culture has been heavily influenced by the Mongol nomadic way of life. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1536x1024, 685 KB) Description Source: German Wikipedia Author: Fan111 Date: July 2004 Location: region between Ulanbaatar and Tsetserleg first upload in de wikipedia on 11:24, 28. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1536x1024, 685 KB) Description Source: German Wikipedia Author: Fan111 Date: July 2004 Location: region between Ulanbaatar and Tsetserleg first upload in de wikipedia on 11:24, 28. ... Horse racing at Naadam - a young jockey steers his horse past a second horse which died during the long-distance race Naadam ceremony in Ulaanbaatar, Central Stadium, 11 July 2006 Yurt at the Naadym festival at Tos-Bulak Naadam (Mongolian: , games) is the national festival of Mongolia held from July... For other uses, see Festival (disambiguation). ... Horse racing at Naadam - a young jockey steers his horse past a second horse which died during the long-distance race Naadam ceremony in Ulaanbaatar, Central Stadium, 11 July 2006 Yurt at the Naadym festival at Tos-Bulak Naadam (Mongolian: , games) is the national festival of Mongolia held from July... Archery is the practice of using a bow to shoot arrows. ... Throat singing, also known in the western world as overtone singing, harmonic singing, or harmonic chant; and many other regional names, is a type of singing that manipulates the harmonic resonances (or formants) created as air travels through the human vocal folds and out the lips. ...


The ornate symbol in the leftmost bar of the national flag is a Buddhist icon called soyombo. It represents the sun, moon, stars, and heavens per standard cosmological symbology abstracted from that seen in traditional thangka paintings. A Thangka is a painted or embroidered Tibetan banner which was hung in a monastery or a family altar and carried by lamas in ceremonial processions. ...


Sports and recreation

Mongolia's Naadam festival takes place over three days in the summer and includes horse racing, archery, and Mongolian wrestling. These three sports, traditionally recognized as the three primary masculine activities, are the most widely watched and practiced sports throughout the country. Horse racing at Naadam - a young jockey steers his horse past a second horse which died during the long-distance race Naadam ceremony in Ulaanbaatar, Central Stadium, 11 July 2006 Yurt at the Naadym festival at Tos-Bulak Naadam (Mongolian: , games) is the national festival of Mongolia held from July... Horse-racing is an equestrian sporting activity which has been practiced over the centuries; the chariot races of Roman times were an early example, as was the contest of the steeds of the god Odin and the giant Hrungnir in Norse mythology. ... Archery is the practice of using a bow to shoot arrows. ... Mongolian wrestling is a traditional Mongolian sport that has existed in Mongolia for centuries. ...

Bökhiin Örgöö, main arena of the Mongolian wrestling in Ulan Bator

Horse riding is especially central to Mongolian culture. The long-distance races that are showcased during Naadam festivals are one aspect of this, as is the popularity of trick riding. One example of trick riding is the legend that the Mongolian military hero Damdin Sükhbaatar scattered coins on the ground and then picked them up while riding a horse at full gallop. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Mongolian wrestling is a traditional Mongolian sport that has existed in Mongolia for centuries. ... Template:Infobox Settlementcookis and ceam For the band, see Ulan Bator (band). ... horse, see Horse (disambiguation). ... Sükhbaatar, ca 1920-1922 Damdin Sükhbaatar statue in Sükhbaatar Square Mongolian postage stamp of 1932 showing Sükhbaatar Damdin Sükhbaatar (Mongolian: , usually only Sükhbaatar, originally Sükh ) (February 2, 1893-February 22, 1923) was a Mongolian military leader known for his excellent horsemanship capabilities. ...


Other sports such as table tennis, basketball, and soccer are increasingly getting popular. More Mongolian table tennis players are competing internationally.


Wrestling is the most popular of all Mongol sports. It is the highlight of the Three Manly Games of Naadam. Historians claim that Mongol-style wrestling originated some seven thousand years ago. Hundreds of wrestlers from different cities and aimags around the country take part in the national wrestling competition.


There are no weight categories or age limits. Each wrestler has his own attendant herald. The aim of the sport is to knock one's opponent off balance and throw him down, making him touch the ground with his elbow and knee.


The winners are honored with ancient titles: the winner of the fifth round gets the honorary title of nachin (falcon), of the seventh and eighth rounds zaan (elephant), and of the tenth and eleventh rounds arslan (lion). The wrestler who becomes the absolute champion is awarded the title of avarga (Titan). Every subsequent victory at the national Naadam-festival will add an epithet to the avarga title, like "Invincible Titan to be remembered by all".


Beginning in 2003, the Mongolian parliament adopted a new law on Naadam, making amendments to some of the wrestling titles. The titles of iarudi and Khartsaga (Hawk) were added to the existing above-mentioned rules.


The traditional wrestling costume includes an open-fronted jacket, tied around the waist with a string. This is said to have come into use after the champion of a wrestling competition many years ago was discovered to be a woman. The jacket was introduced to ensure that only men could compete.


Mongolia's traditional wrestlers have made the transition to Japanese sumo wrestling with great success. Asashōryū Akinori was the first Mongolian to be promoted to the top sumo rank of yokozuna in 2003 and was followed by his countryman Hakuhō Shō in 2007. A sumo match Sumo (相撲 Sumō), or sumo wrestling, is today a competition contact sport wherein two wrestlers or rikishi face off in a circular area. ... AsashōryÅ« Akinori (born September 27, 1980 as Dolgorsürengiin Dagvadorj, Mongolian: , in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia) is the first sumo wrestler (rikishi) from Mongolia to reach yokozuna, the highest rank. ... Makuuchi (幕内 )) or makunouchi (幕の内 )), is the top division of professional sumo. ... Hakuhō Shō ) is a professional sumo wrestler (rikishi) born Munkhbat Davaajargal on March 11, 1985 in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. ...


Football is also played in Mongolia. The Mongolia national football team began playing again in the 1990s; it has yet to qualify for a major tournament. The Mongolia Premier League is the top domestic competition. Soccer redirects here. ... First International North Vietnam 3 - 1 Mongolia (North Vietnam; October 3, 1960) Largest win Mongolia 5 - 0 Guam (Thimphu, Bhutan; April 25, 2003) Worst defeat Uzbekistan 15 - 0 Mongolia (Chiang Mai, Thailand; December 5, 1998) World Cup Appearances none (First in -) Best result - AFC Asian Cup Appearances none (First in... Mongolia Premier League is the top division of the Mongolian Football Federation. ...


Several Mongolian women have excelled in pistol shooting: Munkhbayar Dorjsuren is a double world champion and Olympic bronze medal winner (now representing Germany), while Otryad Gundegmaa and Tsogbadrakh Munkhzul are, as of May 2007 ranked second and third in the world in the 25 m Pistol event.[26] The shooting sports include those competitive sports involving tests of proficiency (accuracy and speed) using various types of guns such as firearms and airguns (see Archery for more information on shooting sports that make use of bows and arrows). ... Dorzhsuren Munkhbayar (born July 29, 1969 in Ulanbataar) is a sport shooter, originally from Mongolia but now a German citizen, using the German spelling Munkhbayar Dorjsuren. ... May 2007 is the fifth month of that year. ... 25 m Pistol, formerly known as Sport Pistol, is one of the ISSF shooting events. ...


Architecture

A temple in the Dashichoiling ensemble in Ulan Bator

The traditional Mongolian dwelling is known as a yurt (Mongolian: ger). According to Mongolian artist and art critic N. Chultem, yurts and tents were the basis for development of the traditional Mongolian architecture. In the 16th ad 17th centuries, lamaseries were built throughout the country. Many of them started as yurt-temples. When they needed to be enlarged to accommodate the growing number of worshippers, the Mongolian architects used structures with 6 and 12 angles with pyramidal roofs to approximate to the round shape of a yurt. Further enlargement led to a quadratic shape of the temples. The roofs were made in the shape of marquees.[27] The trellis walls, roof poles and layers of felt were replaced by stone, brick, beams and planks, and became permanent.[28] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 510 pixelsFull resolution (1686 × 1074 pixel, file size: 94 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Gantyua is the photographer. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 510 pixelsFull resolution (1686 × 1074 pixel, file size: 94 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Gantyua is the photographer. ... A Yurt is a portable felt dwelling structure used by nomads in the steppes of Central Asia. ...

Chultem distinguished three styles in traditional Mongolian architecture: Mongolian, Tibetan and Chinese as well as combinations of the three. Among the first quadratic temples was Batu-Tsagaan (1654) designed by Zanabazar. An example of the yurt-style architecture is the lamasery Dashi-Choiling in Ulan Bator. The temple Lavrin (XVIII century) in the Erdene Zuu lamasery was built in the Tibetan tradition. An example of a temple built in the Chinese tradition is the lamasery Choijing Lamiin Sume (1904), which is a museum today. The quadratic temple Tsogchin in lamasery Gandan in Ulan Bator is a combination of the Mongolian and Chinese tradition. The temple of Maitreya (disassembled in 1938) is an example of the Tibeto-Mongolian architecture.[27] Dashi-Choiling monastery has commenced a project to restore the temple and the 80-feet sculpture of Maitreya. Image File history File linksMetadata Gurvger. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Gurvger. ... A Yurt is a portable felt dwelling structure used by nomads in the steppes of Central Asia. ... Peaks of Zuun Saikhanii Nuruu after a September snowstorm The Gurvansaikhan Mountains, also called the Gurvan Sayhan Mountains, is a mountain range in the Gobi desert region of southern Mongolia. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... The Khalkha Jebtsundamba Khutughtu (also known as Javzandamba Hutagt in Khalkha Mongolian; also as Rje Btsun Dam Pa or Jetsun Dampa in Tibetan — all meaning lit. ... The stupas and wall around Erdene Zuu Temple at Erdene Zuu monastery. ...


Music

Main article: Music of Mongolia

The music of Mongolia is strongly influenced by Tibetan Buddhism and nomadism. The natives dance the "tsam" to keep away evil spirits and it was seen the reminiscences of shamaning. The traditional music includes a variety of instruments and songs, including the song "koomi": delicately trained male voices, from the most serious tone to the highest, which are combined in full harmony. Mongolian musician Music is an integral part of Mongolian culture. ...


Popular music

The first rock band of Mongolia was Soyol-Erdene, founded in the 1960s. Their Beatles-like manner was severely criticised by the Communist censorship. It was followed by Mungunhurhree, Ineemseglel, Urgoo, etc., carving out the path for the genre in the harsh environment of Communist ideology. Mungunhurhree and Haranga were to become the pioneers in the Mongolia's heavy rock music. Haranga approached its zenith in the late 1980s and 1990s.


The leader of Haranga, famous guitarist Enh-Manlai, generously helped the growth of their following generations of rockers. Among the followers of Haranga was the band Hurd. In the early 1990s group Har-Chono put the beginning for Mongolia's folk-rock merging the elements of the Mongolian tenuto song (poorly described as "long" song) into the genre.


By that time, the environment for development of artistic thought had become largely liberal thanks to the new democratic society in the country. The 1990s saw development of rap, techno, hip-hop and also boy bands and girl bands flourished at the turn of the century.


See also

Model of the Maitreya Temple. ... Communications in Mongolia can be described as follows: Telephones - main lines in use: 404,400 (2004) Telephone system: domestic: 6. ... Cave paintings from the Khoud Tsenker region Mongolian Culture has been heavily influenced by the Mongol nomadic way of life. ... In the wake of the former Soviet Unions economic collapse, Mongolia began to pursue an independent and nonaligned foreign policy. ... This article is about the region. ... // The military of Mongolia has three branches: General purpose forces, Border defence forces, Internal security forces. ... The Mongolyn Skautyn Kholboo (Mongolian ; The Scout Association of Mongolia), the national Scouting organization of Mongolia, was founded in 1992, and became a member of the World Organization of the Scout Movement in 1994. ... Public holidays in Mongolia Categories: Public holidays by country | Mongolia ... Railways: total: 1,928 km broad gauge: 1,928 km 1. ...

References

  1. ^ "Mongol" is often used almost synonymously, but is usually not understood to include minorities like Kazakhs or Tuvans.
  2. ^ Mongolian National Statistical Office Bulletin Dec.2006,[1]
  3. ^ Mongolian National Statistical Office Yearbook 2002,[2]
  4. ^ "Mongolia Standard Time is GMT (UTC) +8, some areas of Mongolia use GMT (UTC) + 7" (Time Temperature.com). Retrieved on 2007-09-30.
  5. ^ "The Mongolian government has chosen not to move to Summer Time" (World Time Zone.com). Retrieved on 2007-09-30.
  6. ^ the Mongol Messenger: Mongolia’s 25th Prime Minister, Sanjiin Bayar promises he will tackle high priority issues
  7. ^ UBPost: Government Ministers approved
  8. ^ President George W. Bush Visits Mongolia, US embassy in Mongolia, 2005
  9. ^ Ulanbator
  10. ^ CIA World Factbook countries by area
  11. ^ Republic of Mongolia (2004). Retrieved on 2008-02-10.
  12. ^ a b CIA World Factbook: Mongolia
  13. ^ a b Statistical Yearbook of Mongolia 2006, National Statistical Office, Ulaanbaatar, 2007
  14. ^ Jeffs, Luke. "Mongolia earns a sporting chance with fledgling operation", Dow Jones Financial News Online, 2007-02-12. Retrieved on 2007-09-11. 
  15. ^ Cheng, Patricia. "Mongolian bourse seeks foreign investment", International Herald-Tribune, 2006-09-19. Retrieved on 2007-09-11. 
  16. ^ a b c U.S. Census Bureau International Data Base
  17. ^ a b c d e [3] World Population Prospects The 2006 Revision Highlights
  18. ^ Mongolia Today |Country briefs
  19. ^ Han, Jae-hyuck. "Today in Mongolia: Everyone can speak a few words of Korean", Office of the President, Republic of Korea, 2006-05-05. Retrieved on 2007-08-17. 
  20. ^ CIA Factbook - Mongolia
  21. ^ International Religious Freedom Report 2007 - Mongolia
  22. ^ Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs - Mongolia
  23. ^ National Ministry of Health Yearbook 2006[4]
  24. ^ UNICEF - At a glance: Mongolia
  25. ^ UBPost: Child Mortality Rate Has Decreased, UNICEF Says
  26. ^ World ranking: 25m Pistol Women. International Shooting Sport Federation (2007-05-29). Retrieved on 2007-06-04.
  27. ^ a b (1984) Искусство Монголии. 
  28. ^ Cultural Heritage of Mongolia. Indiana University. Retrieved on 2007-07-07.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The International Shooting Sport Federation (ISSF) is an organization that governs international shooting sports. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Indiana University, founded in 1820, is a nine-campus university system in the state of Indiana. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

The Country Studies are works published by the Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress ( USA), freely available for use by researchers. ... The U.S. Constitution, adopted in 1789 by a constitutional convention, sets down the basic framework of American government in its seven articles. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

External links

Mongolia Portal
Find more about Mongolia on Wikipedia's sister projects:
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Learning resources
  • The President of Mongolia (Mongolian)
  • Official Tourism Website of Mongolia
  • Wikimedia Atlas of Mongolia
  • Mongolia at the Open Directory Project
  • Mongolia travel guide from Wikitravel
  • Wikia has a wiki about this topic: Mongolia

  Results from FactBites:
 
Mongolia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3699 words)
Mongolia was the center of the Mongol Empire in the 13th century and was later ruled by China during the Manchu Qing Dynasty from the end of the 18th century until 1921, when an independent government was formed with Soviet assistance.
Mongolia's Constitution provides three requirements for taking office as President: the individual must be a native-born Mongolian, who is at least 45 years of age, and who has resided in Mongolia for five years prior to taking office.
96% of the Mongolia's population is Vajrayana Buddhist in the Tibetan tradition.
Mongolia (07/06) (4501 words)
Mongolia, which joined the World Trade Organization in 1997, is the only member of that organization to not be a participant in a regional trade organization.
Mongolia is seeking to join the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum (APEC) and became a full participant in the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) in July 1998.
Mongolia has contributed small numbers of troops to coalition operations in Iraq and Afghanistan since 2003, gaining experience which enabled it to deploy armed peacekeepers to both UN and NATO peacekeeping missions in 2005.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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