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Encyclopedia > Mongol invasion of Russia
History of Russia
Early East Slavs
Khazars
Kievan Rus'
Vladimir-Suzdal
Novgorod Republic
Volga Bulgaria
Mongol invasion
Golden Horde
Muscovy
Khanate of Kazan
Imperial Russia
Revolution of 1905
Revolution of 1917
Civil War
Soviet Union
Russian Federation

The Mongol Invasion of Russia was an invasion of the medieval state of Kievan Rus' by a large army of nomadic Mongols, starting in 1223. The invasion precipitated the breakup of Kievan Rus' and influenced development of Russian history, including rise of the Moscow principality. The history of Russia begins with that of the East Slavs, the ethnic group that eventually split into the Russians, Ukrainians, and Belarusians. ... The East Slavs are the ethnic group that evolved into the Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusian peoples. ... The site of the Khazar fortress at Sarkel. ... Kievan Rus′ (Russian: , Kievskaya Rus; Ukrainian: , Kyivs’ka Rus’) was the early, mostly East Slavic¹ state dominated by the city of Kiev (Russian: Ки́ев, Kiev; Ukrainian: Ки́їв, Kyiv), from about 880 to the middle of the 12th century. ... Vladimir-Suzdal Principality, Vladimir-Suzdal Rus (Владимирско-Суздальская Русь), or Vladimir-Suzdal Grand Duchy (Влади́миро-Су́здальское кня́жество) was one of major principalities within the Kievan Rus and after its collapse. ... Medieval walls of Novgorod City The Novgorod Feudal Republic (Новгородская феодальная республика in Russian, or Novgorodskaya feodalnaya respublika) was a powerful medieval state which stretched from the Baltic Sea to the Ural Mountains between the 12th and 15th century. ... Volga Bulgaria or Volga-Kama Bolghar, is a historic state that existed between the 7th and 13th centuries around the confluence of the Volga and Kama rivers in what is now the Russian Federation. ... This article refers to the Mongol state in what is now Russia. ... Muscovy (Moscow principality (княжество Московское) to Grand Duchy of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское) to Russian Tsardom (Царство Русское) is a traditional Western name for the Russian state that existed from the 14th century to the late 17th century. ... Map of Kazan Khanate, early 1500s The Kazan Khanate (Tatar: Qazan xanlığı) (1438-1552) was a Tatar state on the territory of former Volga Bulgaria with its capital in Kazan. ... Big Coat of Arms of the Russian Empire, adopted in 1882 Central element from the Coat of Arms of the Russian Empire Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of Russian history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian... The Russian Revolution of 1905 was a country-wide spasm of both anti-government and undirected violence. ... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a political movement in Russia that climaxed in 1917 with the overthrow of the Provisional Government that had replaced the Russian Tsar system, and led to the establishment of the Soviet Union, which lasted until its collapse in 1991. ... The Russian Civil War was fought between 1918 and 1922. ... Kievan Rus′ (Russian: , Kievskaya Rus; Ukrainian: , Kyivs’ka Rus’) was the early, mostly East Slavic¹ state dominated by the city of Kiev (Russian: Ки́ев, Kiev; Ukrainian: Ки́їв, Kyiv), from about 880 to the middle of the 12th century. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... Events August 6 - Louis VIII is crowned King of France. ... Muscovy (Moscow principality (княжество Московское) to Grand Duchy of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское) to Russian Tsardom (Царство Русское) is a traditional Western name for the Russian state that existed from the 14th century to the late 17th century. ...

Contents


Background

As it was undergoing fragmentation, Kievan Rus' faced the unexpected irruption of an irresistible foreign foe coming from the mysterious regions of the Far East. For our sins, says the Russian chronicler of the time, unknown nations arrived. No one knew their origin or whence they came, or what religion they practised. That is known only to God, and perhaps to wise men learned in books. Far East is an inexact term often used for East Asia and Southeast Asia combined, sometimes including also the easternmost territories of Russia, i. ...


The East Slavic princes first heard of them from the wild nomadic Polovtsians, who usually pillaged the Russian settlers on the frontier but who now preferred friendship and said: These terrible strangers have taken our country, and to-morrow they will take yours if you do not come and help us. In response to this call Mstislav the Bold and Mstislav III of Kiev formed a league and went out eastward to meet the foe, but they were utterly defeated in a great battle on the banks of the Kalka (1223), which has remained to this day in the memory of the Russian common people. Now the country was at the mercy of the invaders, but, instead of advancing, they suddenly retreated and did not reappear for thirteen years, during which the princes went on quarrelling and fighting as before, till they were startled by a new invasion much more formidable than its predecessor. The Cumans, also known as Polovtsy (Slavic for yellowish) were a nomadic West Turkic tribe living on the north of the Black Sea along the Volga. ... Mstislav Romanovich the Old (Мстислав Романович Старый in Russian) (? - 1223), Prince of Pskov (1179 - ?), Smolensk (1197 - ?), Belgorod (1206), Galich (? - ?) and Grand prince of Kiev (1212-1223). ... Mstislav Romanovich the Old (Мстислав Романович Старый in Russian) (? - 1223), Prince of Pskov (1179 - ?), Smolensk (1197 - ?), Belgorod (1206), Galich (? - ?) and Grand prince of Kiev (1212-1223). ... Battle of Kalka River (31st May, 1223 N.S.) was the first military engagement between the Mongol armies of Genghis Khan and the East Slavic warriors. ...


Invasion of Batu Khan

The vast Mongol hordes of some 150,000 mounted archers, commanded by Batu Khan and Subutai, crossed the Volga and invaded Volga Bulgaria in the autumn of 1236. It took them a year to extinguish resistance of the Volga Bulgarians, Kypchaks, and Alani. Batu Khan (Russian: Batyi, Батый) (c. ... Subutai was the primary strategist and good friend of Genghis Khan and Ogedei Khan. ... For other meanings of the word Volga see Volga (disambiguation) Волга Length 3,690 km Elevation of the source 225 m Average discharge  ? m³/s Area watershed 1. ... The Mongol invasion of Volga Bulgaria lasted from 1223 to 1236. ... Volga Bulgaria or Volga-Kama Bolghar, is a historic state that existed between the 7th and 13th centuries around the confluence of the Volga and Kama rivers in what is now the Russian Federation. ... Kypchaks (also Kipchaks, Qipchaqs) are an ancient Turkic people, first mentioned in historical chronicles of Central Asia in the 1st millennium BC. The western Kypchaks were also named Kuman, Kun and Polovtsian (pl. ... The word Alani has several meanings: Alani is the Hawaiian name of a number of species of shrubs and trees in the genus Melicope, family Rutaceae. ...


In November 1237 Batu Khan sent his envoys to the court of Yuri II of Vladimir and demanded his submission. A month later, the hordes besieged Ryazan. After six days of the bloodiest battle, this capital was totally annihillated, never to be restored. Alarmed by the news, Yury II sent his sons to detain the invaders, but they were soundly defeated. Having burnt down Kolomna and Moscow, the horde laid siege to Vladimir on February 4, 1238. Three days later the capital of Vladimir-Suzdal was taken and burnt to the ground. The royal family perished in the fire, while the grand prince hastily retreated northward. Crossing the Volga, he mustered a new army, which was totally exterminated by the Mongols on the Sit' River on March 4. Events Thomas II of Savoy becomes count of Flanders. ... Yuri II (Юрий II), also known as Georgy II of Vladimir, Georgy II Vsevolodovich (Георгий II Всеволодович) (1189 - 1238) was grand prince of Vladimir between 1212 and 1216, and again between 1218 and 1238. ... Population 358,000 (census 2004) Time zone Moscow: UTC+3 Latitude/Longitude 56°09′ N 40°25′ E Vladimir (Влади́мир) is a city in Russia, administrative center of Vladimir Oblast. ... Ryazan (Ряза́нь) is a city in Central Russia federal district, the administrative center of the Ryazan Oblast. ... Kolomna (Russian: Коломна) is an ancient Russian town, founded in 1177 on the Moskva River and Oka River. ... Saint Basils Cathedral and Spasskaya Tower of Moscow Kremlin at Red Square. ... Population 358,000 (census 2004) Time zone Moscow: UTC+3 Latitude/Longitude 56°09′ N 40°25′ E Vladimir (Влади́мир) is a city in Russia, administrative center of Vladimir Oblast. ... February 4 is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events In the Iberian peninsula, James I of Aragon captures the city of Valencia September 28 from the Moors; the Moors retreat to Granada. ... Vladimir-Suzdal Principality, Vladimir-Suzdal Rus (Владимирско-Суздальская Русь), or Vladimir-Suzdal Grand Duchy (Влади́миро-Су́здальское кня́жество) was one of major principalities within the Kievan Rus and after its collapse. ... For other meanings of the word Volga see Volga (disambiguation) Волга Length 3,690 km Elevation of the source 225 m Average discharge  ? m³/s Area watershed 1. ... March 4 is the 63rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (64th in leap years). ...


Thereupon Batu Khan divided his army into smaller units, which ransacked 14 Russian cities: Rostov, Uglich, Yaroslavl, Kostroma, Kashin, Ksnyatin, Gorodets, Galich, Pereslavl-Zalessky, Yuriev-Polsky, Dmitrov, Volokolamsk, Tver, and Torzhok. The most difficult to take was the small town of Kozelsk, whose boy-prince Titus and inhabitants resisted the Mongols for 7 weeks. As the story goes, at the news of the Mongol approach, the whole town of Kitezh with all its inhabitants was submerged into a lake, where it may be seen to this day. The only major cities to escape destruction were Novgorod and Pskov. Rostov (Russian: Росто́в; Old Norse: Rostofa) is one of the oldest towns in Russia and an important tourist centre of the so called Golden ring. ... Transfiguration cathedral in the kremlin Uglich (Russian: У́глич, pronounced ooglitch) is a historic town in Yaroslavl Oblast, Russia, on the Volga River. ... Yaroslavl (Russian: ) is a city in Russia, an administrative center of Yaroslavl Oblast, located 250 km NE of Moscow at 57°37′ N 39°51′ E The historical part of the city is located at confluence of Volga and Kotorosl. ... Kostroma (Russian: Кострома́) is a historic city in central Russia, administrative centre of the Kostroma Oblast. ... Kashin (Кашин in Russian) is a town in the Tver Oblast in Russia, located on the Kashinka River (Volgas tributary) 204 km away from Moscow. ... Sknyatino is a former village in the Tver Oblast of Russia, situated at the confluence of the Nerl River and the Volga, about halfway between Uglich and Tver. ... Gorodets (Городец in Russian) is a town in the Nizhny Novgorod Oblast in Russia. ... The name may refer to Halych, of Galicia (Central Europe) Galich, Russia Alexander Galich, a Russian dissident bard This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Pereslavl-Zalessky (Пересла́вль-Зале́сский) is a town in Yaroslavl Oblast, Russia, on the shore of Lake Pleshcheyevo. ... Yuriev-Polsky (Yuriev Polskoy) (Юрьев-Польский or Юрьев Польской in Russian) is a town in the Vladimir Oblast in Russia, located in the upper reaches of the Koloksha River, 68 km northwest of Vladimir. ... Dmitrov (Дмитров in Russian) is a city in the Moscow Oblast in Russia. ... Volokolamsk (Волокола́мск in Russian) is an administrative center of the Volokolamsky District of the Moscow Oblast in Russia. ... Tvers coat of arms depicts grand ducal crown placed on a throne. ... Torzhok (Торжок in Russian) is a town in the Tver Oblast in Russia. ... Kozelsks Coat of Arms Kozelsk (Козельск in Russian, also spelt Kozielsk in English) is a town in the Kaluga Oblast in Russia, located on the Zhizdra River (Okas tributary) 72 km southwest of Kaluga. ... The Invisible Town of Kitezh (1913) by Konstantin Gorbatov Kitezh (Китеж in Russian) was a legendary town in what is today the Voskresensky District of the Nizhny Novgorod Oblast in Russia. ... Velikiy Novgorod (Но́вгород) is the foremost historic city of North-Western Russia, situated on the highway (and railway) connecting Moscow and St Petersburg. ... 10-ruble Russian coin of 2003 in the Ancient cities of Russia series - commemorating Pskov Pskov (Псков, ancient spelling Пльсковъ, also Pihkva (Estonian), Pleskau (German) and Psków (Polish)) is an ancient Russian city, located in the north-west of Russia near the present-day border with Estonia, on the river...


In the summer of 1238, Batu Khan devastated the Crimea and pacified Mordovia. In the winter of 1239, he sacked Chernigov and Pereyaslav. After many days of siege, the horde stormed Kiev in December 1239. Despite fierce resistance of Danylo of Halych, Batu Khan managed to take two of his principal cities, Halych and Volodymyr-Volyns'kyi. The Mongols then resolved to "reach the ultimate sea", where they could proceed no further, and invaded Hungary and Poland. Events In the Iberian peninsula, James I of Aragon captures the city of Valencia September 28 from the Moors; the Moors retreat to Granada. ... The Crimea (officially Autonomous Republic of Crimea, Russian transliteration: Avtonomnaya Respublika Krym, Russian: Автономная Республика Крым, Ukrainian: Автономна Республіка Крим, , pronounced cry-MEE-ah in English) is a peninsula and an autonomous republic of Ukraine on the northern coast of the Black Sea. ... The Republic of Mordovia (Russian: Респу́блика Мордо́вия, Moksha: Мордовскяй Республикась, Erzya: Мордовской Республикась ) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ... Events Births June 17 Edward I of England known as Edward Longshanks or Hammer of the Scots Deaths Emperor Go-Toba of Japan Monarchs/Presidents Aragon - James I King of Aragon and count of Barcelona (reigned from 1213 to 1276) Castile - Ferdinand III, the Saint King of Castile and Leon... Chernihiv (Чернігів in Ukrainian) is an ancient city in northern Ukraine, the central city of Chernihivska oblast. Some common historical spellings of the name are Polish: Czernichów, and Russian: Чернигов, Chernigov. ... Pereyaslav is the former name of towns in Ukraine and Russia: Pereiaslav-Khmelnytskyi in Ukraine. ... A monument to Archangel Michael, the protector of Kiev, with todays city center in the background. ... Monument to King Danylo in Lviv. ... Halych (Галич in Ukrainian or Russian [pronounced Halych and Galich]; Halicz in Polish; העליטש [Helitsh or Heylitsh] in Yiddish) is a town in Ukraine. ... Volodymyr-Volynsky (Володимир-Волинський; Polish: Włodzimierz Wołyński, Russian: Vladimir Volynski) is a city in Volyn region, northwestern Ukraine, with a population of 38,000 (2004). ...


The age of Tatar yoke

This time the invaders came to stay, and they built for themselves a capital, called Sarai, on the lower Volga. Here the commander of the Golden Horde, as the western section of the Mongol empire was called, fixed his golden headquarters and represented the majesty of his sovereign the grand khan who lived with the Great Horde in the Orkhon Valley of the Amur. Here they had their headquarters and held Russia in subjection for nearly three centuries. Sarai Batu (Old Sarai, Sarai-al-Maqrus) was a capital city of the Golden Horde. ... For other meanings of the word Volga see Volga (disambiguation) Волга Length 3,690 km Elevation of the source 225 m Average discharge  ? m³/s Area watershed 1. ... This article refers to the Mongol state in what is now Russia. ... Orkhon Valley Cultural Landscape sprawls along the banks of the Orhon River in Central Mongolia, some 360 km west from the capital Ulaanbaatar. ... The Amur (Russian: Амур; Simplified Chinese: 黑龙江, Traditional Chinese: 黑龍江, HÄ“ilóng Jiāng, or Black Dragon River; Mongolian: Хара-Мурэн, Khara-Muren or Black River; Manchu: Sahaliyan Ula, literal meaning Black River) is one of the world’s ten longest rivers, located between the Russian Far East and Manchuria of China. ...


The term by which this subjection is commonly designated, the Mongol or Tatar yoke, suggests ideas of terrible oppression, but in reality these nomadic invaders from Mongolia were not such cruel, oppressive taskmasters as it is generally supposed. In the first place, they never settled in the country, and they had not much direct dealings with the inhabitants. In accordance with the admonitions of Genghis to his children and grandchildren, they retained their pastoral mode of life, so that the subject races, agriculturists and dwellers in towns, were not disturbed in their ordinary avocations.


In religious matters they were extremely tolerant. When they first appeared in Europe they were idolaters or Shamanists, and as such they had naturally no religious fanaticism; but even when they adopted Islam they remained as tolerant as before, and the khan of the Golden Horde who first became a Muslim allowed the Russians to found a Christian bishopric in his capital. Nogai Khan, half a century later, married a daughter of the Byzantine emperor, and gave his own daughter in marriage to a Russian prince, Theodor the Black. Some modern Russian historians even postulate there was no invasion at all. According to them, the Russian princes concluded a defensive alliance with the Horde in order to repel attacks of the fanatical Teutonic Knights, which posed a much greater threat to Russian religion and culture. Islam   listen? (Arabic: al-islām) the submission to God is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions, and the worlds second largest religion. ... Krutitsy is a former ecclesiastical estate and monastery, situated on the steep left bank of the Moskva River, in the south-east of present-day Moscow. ... Nogai Khan aka Kara Nogay (died 1299) was a Khan of the Golden Horde and a great-grandson of Genghis Khan. ... Teutonic Knights, charging into battle. ...


These represent the bright side of Tatar rule. It had its dark side also. So long as a great horde of nomads was encamped on the frontier the country was liable to be invaded by an overwhelming force of ruthless marauders. These invasions were fortunately not frequent, but when they occurred they caused an incalculable amount of devastation and suffering. In the intervals the people had to pay a fixed tribute. At first it was collected in a rough-and-ready fashion by a swarm of Tatar tax-gatherers, but about 1259 it was regulated by a census of the population, and, finally, the collection of it was entrusted to the native princes, so that the people were no longer brought into direct contact with the Tatar officials. For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ...


Influence

The influence of the Mongol invasion on the territories of Kievan Rus' was uneven. Centers such as Kiev never recovered from the devastation of the initial attack. The Republic of Novgorod continued to prosper, however, and new entities, the cities of Moscow and Tver, began to flourish under the Mongols. Although a Russian army defeated the Golden Horde at Kulikovo in 1380, Mongol domination of the Russian-inhabited territories, along with demands of tribute from Russian princes, continued until the Great standing on the Ugra river in 1480. The Novgorod Republic was an early republic that existed in the North-West territory of modern day Russia, in Novgorod lands between 1136 and 1478. ... Saint Basils Cathedral and Spasskaya Tower of Moscow Kremlin at Red Square. ... Tvers coat of arms depicts grand ducal crown placed on a throne. ... Single combat of Peresvet and Temir-murza. ... Events September 8 - Battle of Kulikovo - Russian forces under Grand Prince Dmitrii Ivanovich defeat a mixed army of Tatars and Mongols (the Golden Horde), stopping their advance at Kulikovo. ... Miniature in russian chronicle, XVI century The Great standing on the Ugra river (Великое cтояние на реке Угре in Russian, also Угорщина (Ugorschina in English, derived from Ugra)) was a bloodless standoff between Akhmat Khan, Khan of the Golden Horde, and Grand Duke Ivan III of Russia in 1480, which... Events Great standing on the Ugra river - Muscovy becomes independent from the Golden Horde. ...


Historians have debated the long-term influence of Mongol rule on Russian society. The Mongols have been blamed for the destruction of Kievan Rus', the breakup of the ancient Russian nationality into three components, and the introduction of the concept of "oriental despotism" into Russia. But most historians agree that Kievan Rus' was not a homogeneous political, cultural, or ethnic entity and that the Mongols merely accelerated a fragmentation that had begun before the invasion. Historians also credit the Mongol regime with an important role in the development of Muscovy as a state. Under Mongol occupation, for example, Muscovy developed its postal road network, census, fiscal system, and military organization. Muscovy (Moscow principality (княжество Московское) to Grand Duchy of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское) to Russian Tsardom (Царство Русское) is a traditional Western name for the Russian state that existed from the 14th century to the late 17th century. ... A British pillar box The postal system is a system by which written documents typically enclosed in envelopes, and also small packages containing other matter, are delivered to destinations around the world. ... A census is the process of obtaining information about every member of a population (not necessarily a human population). ...


Certainly, it can (and is) argued that without the Mongol destruction of Kievan Rus' that Moscow, and subsequently Russia, would not have risen. Further, the Mongol rule over the remains of Kiev and the surviving principalities such as Novgorod, forced those entities to look westward for allies, and technology. Equally, trade routes with the East came through the Russias, making them a center for trade from both worlds. In short, the Mongol influence, while destruction in the extreme to their enemies, had a long term affect which was positive on the rise of modern Russia.


Related articles

The Mongol invasion of Volga Bulgaria lasted from 1223 to 1236. ... Tatar invasions of Europe from the east took place over the course of three centuries, from the middle ages to early modern period. ...

References


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Mongol invasion in Russia, the Mongol invasion of Russia, shogun Mongol invasion, total war Russian Mongol invasion on ... (390 words)
Mongol invasion in Russia, the Mongol invasion of Russia, shogun Mongol invasion, total war Russian Mongol invasion on RussiansAbroad.com
The impact of the Mongol invasion on the territories of Kievan Rus' was uneven.
The Mongols have been blamed for the destruction of Kievan Rus', the breakup of the "Russian" nationality into three components, and the introduction of the concept of "oriental despotism" into Russia.
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