FACTOID # 26: Delaware is the latchkey kid capital of America, with 71.8% of households having both parents in the labor force.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Mongol invasion of Rus
History of Russia
East Slavs
Rus' Khaganate
Khazars
Kievan Rus'
Vladimir-Suzdal
Novgorod Republic
Volga Bulgaria
Mongol invasion
Golden Horde
Muscovy
Khanate of Kazan
Tsardom of Russia
Russian Empire
  • 1682-1796
  • 1796-1855
  • 1855-1892
  • 1892-1920
Russian Revolution
Civil War
Soviet Union
Russian Federation
History of Ukraine
Early East Slavs
Kievan Rus'
Mongol invasion
Halych-Volynia
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
Cossack era
Imperial Russia
Austrian Galicia
Ukraine after the Russian Revolution
Ukrainian SSR
Independent Ukraine

The Mongol Invasion of Rus' was heralded by the Battle of the Kalka River (1223) between Subutai's reconnaissance unit and the combined force of several princes of Rus'. After fifteen years of peace, it was followed by Batu Khan's full-scale invasion in 1237-40. The invasion, facilitated by the breakup of Kievan Rus' in the 12th century, had incalculable ramifications for the history of Eastern Europe, including the division of the East Slavic people into three separate nations[1] and the rise of the Principality of Moscow. The history of Russia begins with that of the East Slavs, the ethnic group that eventually split into the Russians, Ukrainians, and Belarusians. ... Countries inhabited by Slavs (dark green - East Slavs) Distribution of Slavic peoples by language The East Slavs are a Slavic ethnic group, the speakers of East Slavic that evolved into the Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusian peoples. ... The Rus Khaganate is a poorly-documented period in the history of East Slavs (roughly the late eighth and early to mid ninth centuries CE). ... The Khazars (Hebrew Kuzari כוזרי Kuzarim כוזרים; Turkish Hazar Hazarlar; Russian Хазары; Tatar sing Xäzär Xäzärlär; Crimean Tatar: ; Greek Χαζάροι/Χάζαροι; Arabic خزر; Persianخزر ; Latin Gazari or Cosri) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people from Central Asia, many of whom converted to Judaism. ... Kievan Rus′ was the early, mostly East Slavic [1] state dominated by the city of Kiev from about 880 to the middle of the 12th century. ... Vladimir-Suzdal Principality, Vladimir-Suzdal Rus (Владимирско-Суздальская Русь), or Vladimir-Suzdal Grand Duchy (Влади́миро-Су&#769... Medieval walls of Novgorod City The Novgorod Feudal Republic (Новгородская феодальная республика or Novgorodskaya feodalnaya respublika in Russian) was a powerful medieval state which stretched from the Baltic Sea to the Ural Mountains between the 12th and 15th century. ... Volga Bulgaria or Volga-Kama Bolghar, is a historic state that existed between the 7th and 13th centuries around the confluence of the Volga and Kama rivers in what is now the Russian Federation. ... The Golden Horde (Turkish: Altın Ordu) was a Turkic state established in parts of present-day Russia, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan after the break up of the Mongol Empire in the 1240s. ... Muscovy (Moscow principality (княжество Московское) to Grand Duchy of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское) to Russian Tsardom (Царство Русское) is a traditional Western name for the Russian state that existed from the 14th century to the late 17th century. ... Map of Kazan Khanate, early 1500s The Kazan Khanate (Tatar: Qazan xanlığı; Russian: Казанское ханство) (1438-1552) was a Tatar state on the territory of former Volga Bulgaria with its capital in Kazan. ... The Tsardom of Russia (Russian: Московское царство or Царство Русское) was the official name for the Russian state between Ivan IVs assumption of the title of Tsar in 1547 and Peter the Greats foundation of the Russian Empire in 1721. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... // Note on naming The territory ruled by the Romanov dynasty was often called Muscovy in Western Europe until well into the eighteenth century. ... // Catherine II died in 1796, and her son Paul (r. ... // Economic development The late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries were times of crisis for Russia. ... // Radical revolutionary parties During the 1890s, Russias industrial development led to a significant increase in the size of the urban bourgeoisie and the working class, setting the stage for a more dynamic political atmosphere and the development of radical parties. ... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political events in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the system of autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal Provisional Government (Duma), resulting in the establishment of the Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... Combatants Red Army (Bolsheviks) White Army (Monarchists, SRs, Anti-Communists) Green Army (Peasants and Nationalists) Black Army (Anarchists) Commanders Leon Trotsky Mikhail Tukhachevsky Semyon Budyonny Lavr Kornilov, Alexander Kolchak, Anton Denikin, Pyotr Wrangel Alexander Antonov, Nikifor Grigoriev Nestor Makhno Strength 5,427,273 (peak) +1,000,000 Casualties 939,755... History of Ukraine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Countries inhabited by Slavs (dark green - East Slavs) Distribution of Slavic peoples by language The East Slavs are a Slavic ethnic group, the speakers of East Slavic that evolved into the Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusian peoples. ... Kievan Rus′ was the early, mostly East Slavic [1] state dominated by the city of Kiev from about 880 to the middle of the 12th century. ... Halych-Volhynia, or Halych-Volodymyr, was a large state in Ruthenia (Rus ) which existed in the 13th and 14th centuries. ... The presumable banner of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania with the coat of arms, called Пагоня in Belarusian, Vytis in Lithuanian and PogoÅ„ in Polish Another version of the Lithuanian banner The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lithuanian: Lietuvos Didžioji KunigaikÅ¡tystÄ—, Belarusian: Вялі́кае Кня́ства Літо́ўскае (ВКЛ), Ukrainian: Велике Князівство Литовське (ВКЛ), Polish: Wielkie KsiÄ™stwo Litewskie) was an... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan Mehmed IV of Turkey. ... Chmielnicki Uprising or Chmielnicki Rebellion is the name of a civil war in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the years 1648–1654. ... The Ruin (Ukrainian: ) is a period of Ukrainian history from the death of hetman Bohdan Khmelnitsky in 1657 and until ascension of hetman Ivan Mazepa in 1687. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... Coat-of-arms of Galicia or Galicja Galicia (Ukrainian: , Polish: , German: , Hungarian: , Czech: , Turkish: ) is an historical region in East Central Europe, currently divided between Poland and Ukraine. ... Ukrainian territory was fought over by various factions after the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the First World War, which added the collapse of Austria-Hungary to that of the Imperial Russia. ... Ukrainian Peoples Republic (Ukrainian: ), also sometimes translated as Ukrainian National Republic, abbreviated UNR (УНР), was a republic in part of the territory of modern Ukraine after the Russian Revolution, eventually headed by Symon Petliura. ... The West Ukrainian National Republic (Ukrainian: or ЗУНР, ZUNR; also translated West Ukrainian Peoples Republic) was a short-lived republic that existed in late 1918 and early 1919 in eastern Galicia, Bukovina and Transcarpathia and included the cities of Lviv, Kolomyya, and Stanislav. ... State motto: Пролетарі всіх країн, єднайтеся! Official language None. ... Anthem: Ukrainian: Transliteration: Shche ne vmerla Ukrajiny Ukraines glory has not perished Capital Kiev (Kyiv) Largest city Kiev Ukrainian Government Parliamentary democracy  - President Viktor Yushchenko  - Prime Minister Viktor Yanukovych Independence from the Soviet Union   - Declared August 24, 1991   - Referendum December 1, 1991   - Finalized December 25, 1991  Area  - Total 603... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... Combatants Mongols Kiev Commanders Subutai Mstislav the Bold Strength estimated between 18,000-20,000 80,000 Casualties minimal Unknown {{{notes}}} Battle of the Kalka River (May 31, 1223) was the first military engagement between the Mongol armies of Genghis Khan and the East Slavic warriors. ... It has been suggested that Sübe’etei be merged into this article or section. ... Kievan Rus′ was the early, mostly East Slavic [1] state dominated by the city of Kiev from about 880 to the middle of the 12th century. ... Batu Khan (Russian: , Ukrainian: ) (c. ... Regions of Europe as delineated by the United Nations (UN definition of Eastern Europe marked salmon):  Northern Europe  Western Europe  Eastern Europe  Southern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium... The East Slavs are the ethnic group that evolved into the Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusian peoples. ... Muscovy (Moscow principality (княжество Московское) to Grand Duchy of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское) to Russian Tsardom (Царство Русское)) is a traditional Western name for the Russian state that existed from the 14th century to the late 17th century. ...

Contents

Background

As it was undergoing fragmentation, Kievan Rus' faced the unexpected eruption of an irresistible foreign foe coming from the mysterious regions of the Far East. "For our sins", says the Russian chronicler of the time, "unknown nations arrived. No one knew their origin or whence they came, or what religion they practiced. That is known only to God, and perhaps to wise men learned in books". The far east as a cultural block includes East Asia, Southeast Asia, Northeast Asia and South Asia. ...


The Russian princes first heard of them from the wild nomadic Polovtsians, who usually pillaged settlers on the frontier but who now preferred friendship and said: These terrible strangers have taken our country, and tomorrow they will take yours if you do not come and help us. In response to this call Mstislav the Bold and Mstislav Romanovich the Old formed a league and went out eastward to meet the foe, but they were utterly defeated in a great battle on the banks of the Kalka (1223), which has remained to this day in the memory of Russians and Ukrainians. Cumans, also called as Polovtsy, (Russian Половцы, from old Slavic for pale yellowish) was the European name for the Western Kipchaks, a nomadic West Turkic tribe living on the north of the Black Sea along the Volga. ... Mstislav Mstislavich the Bold (Russian: ) was one of the most popular and active princes of Kievan Rus in the decades preceding Mongol invasion of Rus. ... Mstislav Romanovich the Old (Мстислав Романович Старый in Russian) (? - 1223), Prince of Pskov (1179 - ?), Smolensk (1197 - ?), Bilhorod, presently Bilohorodka (1206), Halych (? - ?) and Grand prince of Kiev (1212-1223). ... Combatants Mongols Kiev Commanders Subutai Mstislav the Bold Strength estimated between 18,000-20,000 80,000 Casualties minimal Unknown {{{notes}}} Battle of the Kalka River (May 31, 1223) was the first military engagement between the Mongol armies of Genghis Khan and the East Slavic warriors. ...


Now the country was at the mercy of the invaders but, instead of advancing, they suddenly retreated and did not reappear for thirteen years, during which the princes went on quarrelling and fighting as before, until they were startled by a new invasion much more formidable than its predecessor.


Invasion of Batu Khan

The Mongol Invasions
Central AsiaGeorgia and ArmeniaKalka RiverVolga BulgariaRyazanVladimir-SuzdalSit River – Köse Dag – LegnicaMohiBaghdadAin JalutKoreaJapan (Bun'ei – Kōan) – XiangyangNgasaunggyanYamenPaganSyriaKulikovoVorsklaUgra River

The vast Mongol hordes of some 150,000 mounted archers, commanded by Batu Khan and Subutai, crossed the Volga River and invaded Volga Bulgaria in the autumn of 1236. It took them a year to extinguish the resistance of the Volga Bulgarians, Kypchaks, and Alani. Mongol invasions can refer to: 1205–1209 invasion of Western China 1211–1234 invasion of Northern China 1218–1220 invasion of Central Asia 1220-1223, 1235-1330 invasions of Georgia and the Caucasus 1220–1224 of the Cumans 1223–36 invasion of Volga Bulgaria 1231–1259 invasion of Korea 1237... Combatants Mongol Empire Khwarezmia Commanders Genghis Khan, Jochi, Chaghatai, Ogodei, Tolui Ala ad-Din Muhammad, Jalal Al-Din Strength 90,000 - 250,000 men 400,000 men Casualties Unknown At least 150,000 killed The Mongol invasion of Khwarezmia lasted from 1219 to 1221. ... The medieval kingdom of Georgia first clashed with the advancing Mongol armies in 1220. ... Combatants Mongols Kiev Commanders Subutai Mstislav the Bold Strength estimated between 18,000-20,000 80,000 Casualties minimal Unknown {{{notes}}} Battle of the Kalka River (May 31, 1223) was the first military engagement between the Mongol armies of Genghis Khan and the East Slavic warriors. ... The Mongol invasion of Volga Bulgaria lasted from 1223 to 1236. ... Ryazan was the first Russian city to be besieged by the Mongols of Batu Khan. ... The Battle of the Sit River was fought in the northern part of the present-day Yaroslavl Oblast of Russia on March 4, 1238 between the Mongol Hordes of Batu Khan and the Russians under Yuri II of Vladimir-Suzdal during the Mongol invasion of Russia. ... Combatants Mongols Sultanate of Rüm, Georgian and Trapezuntine auxiliaries Commanders Bayju Kay Khusrau II Strength Casualties {{{notes}}} The Battle of Köse Dag was fought between the Seljuk Turks of Rum and the Mongols on June 26, 1243 at the place Köse Dag on Sivas-Erzincan road (now... Combatants Mongol Empire Diversionary force Alliance Polish states Knights Templars Knights Hospitaller Teutonic Knights (disputed) Commanders Baidar and Kadan Henry II the Pious† Strength Estimated between 8,000-20,000 (max of two tumen)[1] Unknown, estimates have ranged from 2,000-40,000[1] Casualties Unknown, but supposedly heavier... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Combatants Mongols Abbasid Caliphate Commanders Hulagu Khan Guo Kan Caliph Al-Mustasim Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties Unknown, but believed minimal Military, 50,000(est. ... Combatants Egyptian Mamluks Mongols Commanders Saif ad-Din Qutuz Baibars Kitbuqa Strength About 20 000 About 20 000 in muslim history (40,000-50,000) The Battle of Ain Jalut (or Ayn Jalut, in Arabic: عين جالوت, the Eye of Goliath or the Spring of Goliath) took place on September 3, 1260... The Mongol invasions of Korea consisted of a series of campaigns by the Mongol Empire against Korea, then known as Koryo, from 1231 to 1259. ... Battle of Bunei Conflict Mongol Invasions of Japan Date November 20, 1274 Place Hakata Bay, near present-day Fukuoka, Kyushu Result Invasion fails. ... Combatants Kamakura shogunate Mongols Commanders Hōjō Tokimune Mongol-Chinese Joint Command Strength 100,000? 142,000 men in 4400 ships? Casualties Unknown 120,000+ The battle of Kōan ), also known as the Second Battle of Hakata Bay, was the second attempt by the Mongols to invade Japan. ... Combatants Song Dynasty Yuan Dynasty Commanders Lü Wenhuan Li Tingzhi Liu Zheng, Ashu, Shi Tianzhe, Guo Kan The Battle of Xiangyang (襄陽之戰) was a six-year battle consisting of skirmishes, ground assault, and the siege of the twin fortified cities of Fancheng and Xiangyang in modern-day Hubei, China, starting in... The Battle of Ngasaunggyan was fought in 1277 between Kublai Khans Mongol Yuan Dynasty of China, and their neighbors to the south, the Pagan Empire (in present-day Myanmar) led by Narathihapate. ... Combatants Song Dynasty Yuan Dynasty Commanders Zhang Shijie Zhang Hongfan Strength 200,000 1000+ warships 20,000 50+ warships Casualties unknown, though almost all perished unknown The Battle of Yamen (崖門戰役; or 崖山海戰, lit. ... Combatants Pagan Empire Mongol Empire Commanders Thihathu Temür Strength Unknown Unknown, but considerable Casualties Unknown Unknown Im really tired of people changing what i write i think that is almost as bad as vandalism. ... Single combat of Peresvet and Temir-murza. ... The Battle of the Vorskla River was one of the greatest and bloodiest in the medieval history of Eastern Europe. ... Miniature in Russian chronicle, XVI century The Great standing on the Ugra river (Великое cтояние на реке Угре in Russian, also Угорщина (Ugorschina in English, derived from Ugra) was a standoff between Akhmat Khan, Khan of the Great Horde, and Grand Duke Ivan III of Russia in 1480, which resulted in the retreat of the... A horse archer (or horsed archer, mounted archer) is a cavalryman armed with a bow. ... Batu Khan (Russian: , Ukrainian: ) (c. ... It has been suggested that Sübe’etei be merged into this article or section. ... The Volga, widely viewed as the national river of Russia, flows through the western part of the country. ... The Mongol invasion of Volga Bulgaria lasted from 1223 to 1236. ... Volga Bulgaria or Volga-Kama Bolghar, is a historic state that existed between the 7th and 13th centuries around the confluence of the Volga and Kama rivers in what is now the Russian Federation. ... Kypchaks (also Kipchaks, Qipchaqs) are an ancient Turkic people, first mentioned in historical chronicles of Central Asia in the 1st millennium BC. The western Kypchaks were also named Kuman, Kun and Polovtsian (pl. ... The Alans, Alani, Alauni or Halani were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people, warlike nomadic pastoralists of varied backgrounds, who spoke an Iranian language and to a large extent shared a common culture. ...


In November 1237, Batu Khan sent his envoys to the court of Yuri II of Vladimir and demanded his submission. A month later, the hordes besieged Ryazan. After six days of the bloodiest battle, this capital was totally annihilated, never to be restored. Alarmed by the news, Yuri II sent his sons to detain the invaders, but they were soundly defeated. Having burnt down Kolomna and Moscow, the horde laid siege to Vladimir on February 4, 1238. Three days later, the capital of Vladimir-Suzdal was taken and burnt to the ground. The royal family perished in the fire, while the grand prince hastily retreated northward. Crossing the Volga, he mustered a new army, which was totally exterminated by the Mongols in the Battle of the Sit River on March 4. // Events Thomas II of Savoy becomes count of Flanders. ... Yuriy II (Юрий II), also known as Georgy II of Vladimir or Georgy II Vsevolodovich (1189 - 1238), was the 4th Grand Prince of Vladimir (1212-16, 1218-38) who presided over Vladimir-Suzdal at the time of the Mongol invasion of Russia. ... Population 315,954 (2002) Time zone Moscow (MSK/MSD), UTC +0300 (MSK)/+0400 (MSD) Latitude/Longitude 56°09´N 40°25´E Vladimir (Russian: ) is a city in Russia, an administrative center of Vladimir Oblast. ... Ryazan (Ряза́нь) is a city in Central Russia federal district, the administrative center of the Ryazan Oblast. ... Kolomna (Russian: Коломна) is an ancient Russian city, founded in 1177 on the Moskva River and Oka River. ... Location Position of Moscow in Europe Government Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2005)    - Density 10,415,400   8537. ... February 4 is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events In the Iberian peninsula, James I of Aragon captures the city of Valencia September 28 from the Moors; the Moors retreat to Granada. ... Vladimir-Suzdal Principality, Vladimir-Suzdal Rus (Владимирско-Суздальская Русь), or Vladimir-Suzdal Grand Duchy (Влади́миро-Су&#769... The Battle of the Sit River was fought in the northern part of the present-day Yaroslavl Oblast of Russia on March 4, 1238 between the Mongol Hordes of Batu Khan and the Russians under Yuri II of Vladimir-Suzdal during the Mongol invasion of Russia. ... March 4 is the 63rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (64th in leap years). ...


Thereupon Batu Khan divided his army into smaller units, which ransacked fourteen cities of modern-day Russia: Rostov, Uglich, Yaroslavl, Kostroma, Kashin, Ksnyatin, Gorodets, Galich, Pereslavl-Zalessky, Yuriev-Polsky, Dmitrov, Volokolamsk, Tver, and Torzhok. The most difficult to take was the small town of Kozelsk, whose boy-prince Titus and inhabitants resisted the Mongols for seven weeks. As the story goes, at the news of the Mongol approach, the whole town of Kitezh with all its inhabitants was submerged into a lake, where, as legend has it, it may be seen to this day. The only major cities to escape destruction were Novgorod and Pskov. Refugees from southern Rus' gravitated mostly to the northeast, in the forest region with poor soils between the northern Volga and Oka Rivers. Rostov (Russian: Росто́в; Old Norse: Rostofa) is one of the oldest towns in Russia and an important tourist centre of the so called Golden ring. ... Transfiguration cathedral in the kremlin Uglich (Russian: У́глич, pronounced ooglitch) is a historic town in Yaroslavl Oblast, Russia, on the Volga River. ... A public building in Yaroslavl Yaroslavl (Russian: ) is a city in Russia, the administrative center of Yaroslavl Oblast, located 250 km north-east of Moscow at . ... Fire-observation watchtower in Kostroma (1825-28). ... A church in the center of Kashin. ... Sknyatino is a former village in the Tver Oblast of Russia, situated at the confluence of the Nerl River and the Volga, about halfway between Uglich and Tver. ... Gorodets (Городец in Russian) is a town in the Nizhny Novgorod Oblast of Central Russia. ... The name may refer to Halych, of Galicia (Central Europe) Galich, Russia Alexander Galich, a Russian dissident bard This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Pereslavls most famous ruler, Alexander Nevsky, was baptized at the Saviour Cathedral (1152-57). ... Yuriev-Polsky (Yuriev Polskoy) (Юрьев-Польский or Юрьев Польской in Russian) is a town in the Vladimir Oblast in Russia, located in the upper reaches of the Koloksha... Dmitrov (Russian: ) is a town in Moscow Oblast of Russia, 65 km to the north of Moscow. ... Volokolamsk (Волокола́мск in Russian) is an administrative center of the Volokolamsky District of the Moscow Oblast in Russia. ... Tvers coat of arms depicts grand ducal crown placed on a throne. ... General view of the town in the 1910s. ... Kozelsks Coat of Arms Kozelsk (Козельск in Russian, also spelt Kozielsk in English) is a town in the Kaluga Oblast in Russia, located on the Zhizdra River (Okas tributary) 72 km southwest of Kaluga. ... The Invisible Town of Kitezh (1913) by Konstantin Gorbatov Kitezh (Китеж in Russian) was a legendary town in what is today the Voskresensky District of the Nizhny Novgorod Oblast in Russia. ... Velikiy Novgorod (Russian: ) is the foremost historic city of North-Western Russia, situated on the M10(E95) federal highway connecting Moscow and St. ... The Trinity Cathedral (1682-99) is a symbol of Pskovs former might and independence. ... For other meanings of the word Volga see Volga (disambiguation) Волга Length 3,690 km Elevation of the source 225 m Average discharge  ? m³/s Area watershed 1. ... Oka (Russian: Ока́) is a great river in Russia, the biggest right confluent of the Volga. ...


In the summer of 1238, Batu Khan devastated the Crimea and pacified Mordovia. In the winter of 1239, he sacked Chernigov and Pereyaslav. After many days of siege, the horde stormed Kiev in December 1239. Despite fierce resistance of Danylo of Halych, Batu Khan managed to take two of his principal cities, Halych and Volodymyr-Volynskyi. The Mongols then resolved to "reach the ultimate sea", where they could proceed no further, and invaded Hungary and Poland. Motto: Процветание в единстве - Prosperity in unity Anthem: Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина - Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Capital Simferopol Largest cities Simferopol, Eupatoria, Kerch, Theodosia, Yalta Official language Ukrainian. ... The Republic of Mordovia (Russian: ; Moksha: Мордовскяй Республикась; Erzya: Мордовской Республикась) or Mordvinia is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ... Location Map of Ukraine with Chernihiv highlighted. ... Pereiaslav-Khmelnytskyi or Pereyaslav-Khmelnytskyy (Ukrainian: , Pereiaslav-Khmel′nyts′kyi) is a town by the Trubezh River in Ukraines Kiev Oblast, south of Kiev. ... Location Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted. ... Monument to King Danylo in Lviv. ... Jackdaw on the coat-of-arms of Galicia alludes to the name of Halych Halych (Russian and Ukrainian: ) is a historic town in Western Ukraine on the Dniester River. ... Volodymyr-Volynsky (Володимир-Волинський; Polish: Włodzimierz Wołyński, Russian: Vladimir Volynski) is a city in Volyn region, northwestern Ukraine, with a population of 38,000 (2004). ...


The age of Tatar yoke

See also: List of Turkic punitive expeditions to Russia.

This time the invaders came to stay, and they built for themselves a capital, called Sarai, on the lower Volga. Here the commander of the Golden Horde, as the western section of the Mongol empire was called, fixed his golden headquarters and represented the majesty of his sovereign the grand khan who lived with the Great Horde in the Orkhon Valley of the Amur. Here they had their headquarters and held Russia in subjection for nearly three centuries. This is a list of the Mongol and Tatar military campaigns in Russia following the Mongol invasion of Rus: 1252: Horde of Nevruy devastated Pereslavl-Zalessky and Suzdal. ... Sarai Batu (Old Sarai, Sarai-al-Maqrus) was a capital city of the Golden Horde. ... The Golden Horde (Turkish: Altın Ordu) was a Turkic state established in parts of present-day Russia, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan after the break up of the Mongol Empire in the 1240s. ... Orkhon Valley Cultural Landscape sprawls along the banks of the Orhon River in Central Mongolia, some 360 km west from the capital Ulaanbaatar. ... The Amur River (Russian: Амур; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: , or Black Dragon River; Mayan; Mongolian: Хара-Мурэн, Khara-Muren or Black River; Manchu: Sahaliyan Ula, literal meaning Black River) is Earths eighth longest river, forming the border between the Russian Far East and Manchuria in China. ...


The term by which this subjection is commonly designated, the Mongol or Tatar yoke, suggests ideas of terrible oppression, but in reality these nomadic invaders from Mongolia were not such cruel, oppressive taskmasters as is generally supposed[citation needed]. In the first place, they never settled in the country, and they had little direct dealing with the inhabitants. In accordance with the admonitions of Genghis to his children and grandchildren, they retained their pastoral mode of life, so that the subject races, agriculturists, and dwellers in towns, were not disturbed in their ordinary avocations.


In religious matters they were extremely tolerant. When they first appeared in Europe, they were Shamanists, and as such they had naturally no religious fanaticism; but even when they adopted Islam they remained as tolerant as before[citation needed], and the khan of the Golden Horde, who first became a Muslim, allowed the Russians to found a Christian bishopric in his capital. Nogai Khan, half a century later, married a daughter of the Byzantine emperor, and gave his own daughter in marriage to a Russian prince, Theodor the Black. Some modern Russian historians (most notably, Lev Gumilev) even postulate there was no invasion at all. According to them, the Russian princes concluded a defensive alliance with the Horde in order to repel attacks of the fanatical Teutonic Knights, which posed a much greater threat to Russian religion and culture. A shaman doctor of Kyzyl. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... Krutitsy is a former ecclesiastical estate and monastery, situated on the steep left bank of the Moskva River, in the south-east of present-day Moscow. ... Nogai Khan (died 1299), also called Kara Nogai (Black Nogai), was a Khan of the Golden Horde and a great-grandson of Genghis Khan. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... Lev Gumilyov and Anna Akhmatova, 1960s Lev Nikolayevich Gumilyov (Russian: ) (October 1, 1912, St. ... Hermann von Salza (c. ...


These represent the bright side of Tatar rule. It had its dark side also. So long as a great horde of nomads was encamped on the frontier the country was liable to be invaded by an overwhelming force of ruthless marauders. Fortunately, these invasions were not frequent but when they occurred they caused an incalculable amount of devastation and suffering. In the intervals the people had to pay a fixed tribute. At first it was collected in a rough-and-ready fashion by a swarm of Tatar tax-gatherers, but about 1259 it was regulated by a census of the population, and finally its collection was entrusted to the native princes, so that the people were no longer brought into direct contact with the Tatar officials. Baskaks were local governors in the Golden Horde, responsible for levying tribute and extinguishing popular discontent. ...


Influence

The influence of the Mongol invasion on the territories of Kievan Rus' was uneven. Centers such as Kiev never recovered from the devastation of the initial attack. The Novgorod Republic continued to prosper, however, and new entities, the cities of Moscow and Tver, began to flourish under the Mongols. Although the Russian army defeated the Golden Horde at Kulikovo in 1380, Mongol domination of the Russian-inhabited territories, along with demands of tribute from the Muscovite rulers, continued until the Great standing on the Ugra river in 1480. Medieval walls of Novgorod City The Novgorod Feudal Republic (Новгородская феодальная республика or Novgorodskaya feodalnaya respublika in Russian) was a powerful medieval state which stretched from the Baltic Sea to the Ural Mountains between the 12th and 15th century. ... Single combat of Peresvet and Temir-murza. ... Miniature in russian chronicle, XVI century The Great standing on the Ugra river (Великое cтояние на реке Угре in Russian, also Угорщина (Ugorschina in...


Historians have debated the long-term influence of Mongol rule on East Slavic society. The Mongols have been blamed for the destruction of Kievan Rus', the breakup of the ancient East Slavic nationality into three components, and the introduction of the concept of "oriental despotism" into Russia. But some historians agree that Kievan Rus' was not a homogeneous political, cultural, or ethnic entity and that the Mongols merely accelerated fragmentation that had begun before the invasion. Historians also credit the Mongol regime with an important role in the development of Muscovy as a state[citation needed]. Under Mongol occupation, for example, Muscovy developed its postal road network, census, fiscal system, and military organization. Oriental Despotism is the quality ascribed by Karl Marx to large cities of the Middle East and Asia, which would not have been truly independent, mainly due to their geographical location. ... A British pillar box. ... 1870 US Census for New York City A census is the process of obtaining information about every member of a population (not necessarily a human population). ...


Certainly, it can be (and is) argued that without the Mongol destruction of Kievan Rus' that Moscow, and subsequently the Russian Empire, would not have risen. Further, the Mongol rule over the remains of Kiev and the surviving principalities such as Novgorod, forced those entities to look westward for allies and technology. Equally, trade routes with the East came through the Russias, making them a center for trade from both worlds. In short, the Mongol influence, while destructive in the extreme to their enemies, had a significant long term effect on the rise of modern Russia.


Successors of the Golden Horde

The Golden Horde was succeeded by the Kazan, Astrakhan, Crimean, and Siberian khanates, as well as the Nogai Horde, which wreaked havoc in Muscovy in the course of the 15th and 16th centuries. Map of Kazan Khanate, early 1500s The Kazan Khanate (Tatar: Qazan xanlığı; Russian: Казанское ханство) (1438-1552) was a Tatar state on the territory of former Volga Bulgaria with its capital in Kazan. ... The Astrakhan Khanate was a predominantly Turkic ( Tatar) state which existed in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries in the area adjacent to the mouth of the Volga, where the contemporary city of Astrakhan is now located. ... The Crimean Khanate (Khanate of Crimea) was an independent Turkic state (khanate) founded in 1441 by Haci Giray Khan, a descendant of Genghis Khan. ... In the 1440s, the Golden Horde was racked by civil war. ... The Nogai Horde was the Tatar horde that controlled the Caucasus Mountain region after the Mongol invasion. ...


See also

The Mongol invasion of Volga Bulgaria lasted from 1223 to 1236. ... Tatar invasions of Europe from the east took place over the course of three centuries, from the middle ages to early modern period. ...

References

  1. ^ Boris Rybakov. Киевская Русь и русские княжества XII-XIII вв. (Kievan Rus' and Russian princedoms in XII-XIII centuries) Moscow: Nauka, 1993. ISBN 5-02-009795-0

Boris Alexandrovich Rybakov (1908-2001) was an orthodox Soviet historian who personified the anti-Normanist vision of Russian history. ... The Country Studies are works published by the Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress ( USA), freely available for use by researchers. ... The U.S. Constitution, adopted in 1789 by a constitutional convention, sets down the basic framework of American government in its seven articles. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the 11th edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

Source

Full Collection of Russian Annals, St. Petersburg, 1908 and Moscow, 2001, ISBN 5-94457-011-3.


  Results from FactBites:
 
Mongol invasion of Russia (420 words)
The Mongol invasion of Russia was an invasion of the then Russian state Kievan Rus' by a large army of nomadic Mongols, starting in 1223.
The invasion precipitated the breakup of Kievan Rus' and contributed to the development of its successor state, Muscovy.
The influence of the Mongol invasion on the territories of Kievan Rus' was uneven.
Mongol invasion of Rus - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1558 words)
1275: Mongol invasion of south-eastern Russia, pillage of Kursk.
1285: The Mongol warlord Eltoray, the son of Temir, pillaged Ryazan and Murom.
The influence of the Mongol invasion on the territories of Kievan Rus' was uneven.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m