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Encyclopedia > Mongol Empire
Expansion of the Mongol Empire
Mongol dominions, ca. 1300. The gray area is the later Timurid empire.
Mongol dominions, ca. 1300. The gray area is the later Timurid empire.

The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Монголын Эзэнт Гүрэн , Mongolyn Ezent Güren or Их Mонгол улс, Ikh Mongol Uls; 1206–1405[citation needed]) was the largest contiguous empire in world history. It emerged from the unification of Mongol and Turkic tribes in modern day Mongolia, and grew through invasions, after Genghis Khan had been proclaimed ruler of all Mongols in 1206. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1683x1129, 411 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1683x1129, 411 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For the similar-sounding word Timor, see Timor (disambiguation). ... This article provides a list of the largest empires in world history. ... This article is about the political and historical term. ... HIStory – Past, Present and Future, Book I is a double album by American singer Michael Jackson released in June 1995 and remains Jacksons most conflicting and controversial release. ... For other uses, see Mongols (disambiguation). ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... Mongol invasions can refer to: 1205–1209 invasion of Western China 1211–1234 invasion of Northern China 1218–1220 invasion of Central Asia 1220-1223, 1235-1330 invasions of Georgia and the Caucasus 1220–1224 of the Cumans 1223–36 invasion of Volga Bulgaria 1231–1259 invasion of Korea 1237... This article is about the person. ...


By 1279, the Mongol Empire covered over 33,000,000 km² (12,741,000 sq mi),[1] 22% of the Earth's total land area. It held sway over a population of over 100 million people. However, by that time the empire had already partly fragmented, with the Golden Horde and the Chagatai Khanate being de facto independent and refusing to accept Kublai Khan as Khagan.[2][3] By the time of Kublai Khan's death, with no accepted Khagan in existence, the Mongol Empire became divided into four separate khanates. This article is about Earth as a planet. ... The Golden Horde (Mongolian: Altan Ordyn Uls; Tatar: ; Russian: ) is a Russian designation for the Mongol[1][2][3] — later Turkicized[4] — khanate established in the western part of the Mongol Empire after the Mongol invasion of Rus in the 1240s: present-day Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and the Caucasus. ... The four successor Khanates of the Mongol Empire: Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde, Il-Khanate and Chagatai Khanate Chagatai Khan (alternative spellings Chagata, Chugta, Chagta, Djagatai, Jagatai), a son of Genghis Khan (1206–1227), controlled the part of the Mongol Empire which extended from the Ili... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... For other uses, see Kublai Khan (disambiguation). ... Khagan or Great Khan (Old Turkic ; Mongolian: ; Chinese: ; pinyin: ; alternatively spelled Chagan, Khaghan, Kagan, KaÄŸan, Qagan, Qaghan), is a title of imperial rank in the Turkic and Mongolian languages equal to the status of emperor and someone who rules a Khaganate (empire, greater than an ordinary Khan, but often...

Contents

Formation

History of Mongolia
Before Genghis Khan
Mongol Empire
Khanates
- Chagatai Khanate
- Golden Horde
- Ilkhanate
- Yuan Dynasty
Timurid Empire
Mughal Empire
Crimean Khanate
Khanate of Sibir
Dzungar
Qing Dynasty (Outer Mongolia, Mongolia during Qing)
Mongolian People's Republic
Modern Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
Buryat Mongolia
Kalmyk Mongolia
Hazara Mongols
Aimak Mongols
Timeline
edit box

Genghis Khan through political manipulation and military might, united the nomadic, previously ever-rivaling Mongol-Turkic tribes under his rule by 1206. He quickly came into conflict with the Jin Dynasty empire of the Jurchens and the Western Xia of the Tanguts in northern China. Under the provocation of the Muslim Khwarezmid Empire, he moved into Central Asia as well, devastating Transoxiana and eastern Persia, then raiding into Kievan Rus' (a predecessor state of Russia, Belarus and Ukraine) and the Caucasus. Before dying, Genghis Khan divided his empire among his sons and immediate family, but as custom made clear, it remained the joint property of the entire imperial family who, along with the Mongol aristocracy, constituted the ruling class. Although people have inhabited Mongolia since the Stone Age, Mongolia only became politically important after iron weapons entered the area in the 3rd century B.C. In general, Mongolia at this point had a similar history to the rest of the nomadic steppe that lies between Siberia Northern Russia to... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1683x1129, 411 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... // Archaeological evidence places early Stone Age human habitation in the southern Gobi between 100,000 and 200,000 years ago. ... The four successor Khanates of the Mongol Empire: Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde, Il-Khanate and Chagatai Khanate Chagatai Khan (alternative spellings Chagata, Chugta, Chagta, Djagatai, Jagatai), a son of Genghis Khan (1206–1227), controlled the part of the Mongol Empire which extended from the Ili... The Golden Horde (Mongolian: Altan Ordyn Uls; Tatar: ; Russian: ) is a Russian designation for the Mongol[1][2][3] — later Turkicized[4] — khanate established in the western part of the Mongol Empire after the Mongol invasion of Rus in the 1240s: present-day Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and the Caucasus. ... Khanates of Mongolian Empire: Il-Khanate, Chagatai Khanate, Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. ... Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 (Cont. ... Flag of the Timurid Empire according to the Catalan Atlas c. ... Mughal Empire at its greatest extent in 1700 Capital Lahore, Delhi, Agra , Kabul, Lucknow and Bhopal Language(s) Persian (initially also Chagatai; later also Urdu) Government Absolute Monarchy , Unitary Government with a federal structure Emperor  - 1526-1530 Babur  - 1530–1539 and after restoration 1555–1556 Humayun  - 1556–1605 Akbar  - 1605... Flag Crimean Khanate in 1600 Capital Bakhchisaray Government Monarchy History  - Established 1441  - Annexed to Russia 1783 The Crimean Khanate or the Khanate of Crimea (Crimean Tatar: ; Russian: - Krymskoye khanstvo; Ukrainian: - Krymske khanstvo; Turkish: ) was a Crimean Tatar state from 1441 to 1783. ... In the 1440s, the Golden Horde was racked by civil war. ... Jüün Ghar was a tribe of the Oyirad Mongols. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... Outer Mongolia makes up Mongolia (presently a sovereign state) and Tannu Uriankhai (the majority of which is the modern-day Tuva Republic, a federal subject of the Russian Federation), while Inner Mongolia (内蒙古; Nèi MÄ›nggÇ”) is an autonomous region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Mongolia (Mongolian Proper, including modern Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, Tannu Urianhai, Höh Nuur - Qinghai, Ili Tarbagatai - Northern Xinjiang and excluding Buryatia) was subject to Qing dynasty between the end of the 17-th and beginning of the 20-th centuries. ... The Peoples Repubic of Mongolia was a communist state in central Asia which existed between 1924 and 1990. ... Following the collapse of the Peoples Republic of Mongolia, Mongolias first free, multi-party elections for a bicameral Peoples Khural were held on July 29, 1990. ... Inner Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠨᠺᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠺᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ r Mongghul-un bertegen Jasaqu Orun; Chinese: 内蒙古自治区; Hanyu Pinyin: N i Měnggǔ Z qū) is an Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Buryat Republic (Russian: Респу́блика Буря́тия; Buryat: Буряад Республика) is a Russian Federation (a republic). ... The Republic of Kalmykia (Russian: ; Kalmyk: Хальмг Таңһч) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... Language(s) Hazaragi/Dari (Hazaragi and Dari dialects) Religion(s) Shia, some Sunni Related ethnic groups Mongol, Turkic, Iranian The Hazara are an ethnic group who reside mainly in the central region of Afghanistan, called Hazarajat or Hazaristan. ... The Aimak (or Eimak, Aimaq) are Persian-speaking nomadic or semi-nomadic tribes of mixed Iranian and Mongolian stock inhabiting the north and north-west Afghan highlands immediately to the north of Herat. ... 1911: Mongolia declares independence under Bogd haan. ... This article is about the person. ... Communities of nomadic people move from place to place, rather than settling down in one location. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... The Jin Dynasty (金 pinyin: JÄ«n 1115-1234; Anchu in Jurchen), also known as the Jurchen dynasty, was founded by the Wanyan (完顏 Wányán) clan of the Jurchen, the ancestors of the Manchus who established the Qing Dynasty some 500 years later. ... The Jurchens (Chinese: 女真, pinyin: nǚzhēn) were a Tungusic people who inhabited parts of Manchuria and northern Korea until the seventeenth century, when they became the Manchus. ... Location of Western Xia in 1142 Capital Xingqing Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1038-1048 Emperor Jingzong  - 1226-1227 Emperor Modi History  - Established 1038  - Surrendered to the Mongol Empire 1227 Population  - peak est. ... The Tangut were a Tibetan people, who moved to the highlands of western Sichuan sometime before the 10th century AD. Language Their script was derived from, though not identical, to Chinese characters. ... The Khwarezmid Empire (also known as the Khwarezmian Empire) was a Muslim Iranian state in the 11th century in Khwarezmia that lasted until the Mongol invasion in 1220. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east, and from southern Russia in the north to... Map showing modern Transoxiana. ... Persia redirects here. ... Trydent of Yaroslav I Map of the Kievan Rus′, 11th century Capital Kiev Religion Orthodox Christianity Government Monarchy Historical era Middle Ages  - Established 9th century  - Disestablished 12th century Currency Hryvnia Kievan Rus′ was the early, predominantly East Slavic[1] medieval state of Rurikid dynasty dominated by the city of Kiev... A predecessor state is an established state in international law that is succeeded by a new state or states. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ...


Major events in the Early Mongol Empire

Eurasia on the eve of the Mongol invasions, c. 1200.
Eurasia on the eve of the Mongol invasions, c. 1200.
Mongol Empire in 1227 at Genghis' death
Mongol Empire in 1227 at Genghis' death
  • 1206: Upon domination of Mongolia, Temüjin from the Orkhon Valley received the title Genghis Khan, thought to mean Universal Ruler or, Oceanic Ruler or Firm, Resolute Ruler
  • 1207: The Mongols operations against the Western Xia, which comprised much of northwestern China and parts of Tibet. This campaign lasted until 1210 with the Western Xia ruler submitting to Genghis Khan. During this period, the Uyghur Turks also submitted peacefully to the Mongols and became valued administrators throughout the empire. The creation of classic mongolian script.
  • 1211: Genghis Khan led his armies across the Gobi desert against the Jin Dynasty of northern China.
  • 1218: The Mongols captured Zhetysu and the Tarim Basin, occupying Kashgar.
  • 1218: The execution of Mongol envoys by the Khwarezmian Shah Muhammad set in motion the first Mongol westward thrust.
  • 1219: The Mongols crossed the Jaxartes (Syr Darya) and begin their invasion of Transoxiana.
  • 1219–1221: While the campaign in northern China was still in progress, the Mongols waged a war in central Asia and destroyed the Khwarezmid Empire. One notable feature was that the campaign was launched from several directions at once. In addition, it was notable for special units assigned by Genghis Khan personally to find and kill Ala al-Din Muhammad II, the Khwarazm shah who fled from them, and ultimately ended up hiding on an island in the Caspian Sea.
  • 1223: The Mongols gained a decisive victory at the Battle of the Kalka River, the first engagement between the Mongols and the East Slavic warriors.
  • 1227: Genghis Khan's death; Mongol leaders returned to Mongolia for kuriltai. The empire at this point covered nearly 26 million km², about four times the size of the Roman or Macedonian Empires.
  • 1229: Ogedei elected as Great Khan.
  • 1232: The siege of Kaifeng. Missile-rockets were used by Jurcheds for the first time in world history.
  • 1234: Mongols conquered Jurched Jin dynasty.
  • 1236: Mongols invaded Korea and fully conquered northeren regions of Koguryo. The beginning of Mongol invasion of Europe.
  • 1236-1237: Mongol-Song war began.
  • 1237: Under the leadership of Batu Khan, the Mongols returned to the West and began their campaign to subjugate Kievan Rus'
  • 1236-1239: Mongol invasion of Georgia and Armenia under Chormaqan.
  • 1240: Mongols sacked Kiev.
  • 1241: Mongols defeated Hungarians and Croatians at the Battle of Sajo and Poles, Templars and Teutonic Knights at the Battle of Legnica.
  • 1241: Ogodei khan's death.
  • 1241 and 1242 Mongols under Batu and Khadan invaded Bulgaria and forced them to pay annual tribute as vassal.
  • 1243: Western army made and Seljuks of Anatolia a part of Mongol empire.
  • 1246: Guyuk elected as Great khan.
  • 1247: The first registration of the population of the empire.
  • 1248: Great khan Guyuk passed away.
  • 1251: Mongke, the elder son of Tolui, elected as Great khan.
  • 1252: Mongol control over Yunnan.
  • 1253: The first Mongol invasion of Annam Vietnam. Mongols sacked Hanoi.
  • 1256: Hulagu exterminated the order of Hashshashins, whose leader known as Old man of the mountain. The foundation of Ilkhanate.
  • 1258: Mongols occupied Baghdad. The fate of Abbasid caliphate.
  • 1259: Mongol invasion of Syria. The death of Mongke.
  • 1260: The battle of Ain Jalut. Mongol defeat to Mamluks.

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Eurasia (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links from german wikipedia File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links from german wikipedia File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This article is about the cultural landscape. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... For the language spoken by this ethnic group, see Uyghur language. ... The term Mongolian alphabet may refer to any of three scripts used over the centuries to write the Mongolian language. ... This page contains special characters. ... Location of Jin Capital Huining (1122-1153) Zhongdu (1153-1214) Kaifeng (1214-1233) Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1115-1123 Emperor Taizu  - 1234 Emperor Modi History  - Established 1115  - Ended Liaos rule 1125  - Captured Bianliang January 9, 1127  - Fall of Caizhou February 9, 1234 The JÄ«n Dynasty (Jurchen: Anchu; Manchu: Aisin... Semirechye (Russian: , also written Semiryechye, Semireche, Semirechiye, Semirechie, Semireche) is a historical name of a part of Russian Turkestan, which corresponds to the South-Eastern part of modern Kazakhstan, known as Zhetysu (Jetysu, Jity-su, Жетысу, Джетысу). It owes its name (Jity-su, Semirechie, i. ... Taklamakan Desert in the Tarim Basin. ... Cascar redirects here. ... Syr Darya (also known as Syrdarya or Sirdaryo) is a river in Central Asia. ... Syr Darya (also known as Syrdarya or Sirdaryo) is a river in Central Asia. ... Map showing modern Transoxiana. ... The Khwarezmid Empire (also known as the Khwarezmian Empire) was a Muslim Iranian state in the 11th century in Khwarezmia that lasted until the Mongol invasion in 1220. ... The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the worlds largest lake or a full-fledged sea. ... // Combatants Mongols Kievan Rus, Cumans Commanders Subutai Mstislav the Bold Strength 40,000 Over 80,000 Casualties MInimal Heavy Battle of the Kalka River (May 31, 1223) was the first military engagement between the Mongol armies of Genghis Khan and the Rus warriors. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... Khuriltai was a emperial and tribal assemblies convened to determine, strategize and analyze military campaigns and assign individuals to leadership positions and titles. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... This article is about the ancient kingdom in Greece. ... Ögedei, (also Ögädäi, Ögedäi, etc. ... KHAGAN, alternatively spelled Chagan, Qaqan etc, is a title of royal or imperial rank in Mongolian and Turkic languages. ... This article is about vehicles powered by rocket engines. ... Jin may refer to: Jin Dynasty (265-420) Jin Dynasty (1115-1234) (Jinn) Jin, a state in China during the Spring and Autumn Period Later Jin Dynasty, founded in 1616 by Nurhaci Jin, a ruler of the Xia dynasty The Jin state of late Bronze Age Korea Jin, Chinese American... This article is about the Korean civilization. ... The Mongol invasions of Europe were centered in their destruction of the Ruthenian states, especially Kiev, under the leadership of Subutai. ... For other uses, see Liu Song Dynasty. ... Batu Khan (Russian: , Ukrainian: , Chinese: ) (c. ... Trydent of Yaroslav I Map of the Kievan Rus′, 11th century Capital Kiev Religion Orthodox Christianity Government Monarchy Historical era Middle Ages  - Established 9th century  - Disestablished 12th century Currency Hryvnia Kievan Rus′ was the early, predominantly East Slavic[1] medieval state of Rurikid dynasty dominated by the city of Kiev... Chormaqan was one of the most famous generals of the Mongol Empire under Genghis Khan and Ogedey Khan. ... Croatian is: Croatian language adjective for that which belongs to Croatia ethnic Croat (deprecated) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Combatants Kingdom of Hungary Mongol Empire Commanders King Béla IV Batu Khan, Subutai Strength 15,000-30,000+ Unknown (mostly cavalry) Casualties 10,000-30,000+ unknown The Battle of Mohi, or Battle of the Sajó River, (on April 11, 1241) was the main battle between the Mongols and... The Seal of the Knights — the two riders have been interpreted as a sign of poverty or the duality of monk/soldier. ... For the state, see Monastic state of the Teutonic Knights. ... Combatants Mongol Empire Alliance Polish states Teutonic Knights[3][4] Commanders Baidar, Kadan, Orda Khan Henry II the Pious † Strength Estimated between 8,000-20,000 (max of two tumen) diversionary force [5] Unknown, estimates have ranged from 2,000-25,000[5] Casualties Unknown, but supposedly heavier than expected... Batu may refer to: Batu Khan, a 13th century Mongol ruler, and the founder of the Blue Horde empire Batu, a city in Indonesia This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... The Seljuk Turks (Turkish: Selçuk; Arabic: سلجوق Saljūq, السلاجقة al-Salājiqa; Persian: سلجوقيان Saljūqiyān; also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that occupied parts of Central Asia and the Middle East from the 11th to 14th centuries. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... Güyük (c. ... Möngke Khan (1208-1259, also transliterated as Mongke, Mongka, Möngka, Mangu) was the fourth khan of the Mongol Empire. ... For the tea from this region, see Yunnan tea. ... Annam, literally meaning Pacified South, is a region of central Vietnam that fell under Chinese rule in 111 BC as Annan (安南). Known locally as Trung Bá»™, meaning Central Boundary, it was formerly a kingdom the size of Sweden with its capital at Huế. It had been seized by the French... For the puzzle, see Tower of Hanoi. ... Hulagu Khan (also known as Hülegü, and Hulegu) (1217–8 February 1265) was a Mongol ruler who conquered much of Southwest Asia. ... Hashshashin fortress of Alamut. ... Khanates of Mongolian Empire: Il-Khanate, Chagatai Khanate, Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Abbasid provinces during the caliphate of Harun al-Rashid Abbasid was the dynastic name generally given to the caliphs of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Muslim empire, that overthrew the Umayyid caliphs. ... Combatants Egyptian Mamluks Mongols Commanders Saif ad-Din Qutuz, Baibars C * Kitbuqa + Strength About 20,000-30,000 About 10,000-20,000 The Battle of Ain Jalut (or Ayn Jalut, in Arabic: عين جالوت, the Eye of Goliath or the Spring of Goliath) took place on September 3, 1260 between the...

Major events in the Late Mongol Empire

  • 1260: Kublai Khan made Wonjong the king of Goryeo and helped stabilized his control over Korean peninsula.
  • 1261: Two Great Khans in Mongol Empire: Kublai Khan and Ariq Boke. The civil war of the empire had begun.
  • 1262: Berke-Hulagu war
  • 1264: Kublai won the supporters of Ariq Boke.
  • 1269: The School of Mongolian language studies was established by Kublai khan's decree. Square script was introduced by Phagspa lama.
  • 1271: The establishment of Yuan Dynasty and the National Academy of the empire.
  • 1274: The first Mongol invasion of Japan.
  • 1276: The fall of Song Dynasty.
  • 1279: Mongols of Yuan Dynasty became supreme lords of all China.
  • 1281: The second Mongol invasion of Japan.
  • 1284: Failed second Mongol invasion of Vietnam.
  • 1287: Pagan Kingdom falls to Mongols of Yuan dynasty who install a puppet king.
  • 1288: Failed third Mongol invasion of Vietnam (Battle of Bach Dang (1288)), which made Annam and Champa tributary vassals of Yuan Dynasty.
  • 1294: Mongol raid on Java. Kublai Khan had passed away.
  • 1304: Peace negotitation between Mongol khanates.
  • 1307: Chapar, the son of Qaidu, submitted to the emperor of Yuan Dynasty. End of civil war.
  • 1335: Last effective Ilkhan Abu Said passed away.
  • 1368: Yuan Dynasty overthrown by Ming Dynasty.

Wonjong of Goryeo (1214-1274, r. ... Taegeuk is a traditional symbol of Korea Capital Gaegyeong Language(s) Korean Religion Buddhism Government Monarchy Wang  - 918 - 946 Taejo  - 949 - 975 Gwangjong  - 1259 - 1274 Wonjong  - 1351 - 1374 Gongmin Historical era 918 - 1392  - Later Three Kingdoms rise 892  - Coronation of Taejo June 15, 918  - Korea-Khitan Wars 993 - 1019  - Mongolian... This article is about the Korean Peninsula. ... For other uses, see Kublai Khan (disambiguation). ... Ariq Boke or Arigh Bukha (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; died 1266), the youngest son of Tolui, was a grandson of Genghis Khan and a claimant to the Mongol Empire. ... The Berke-Hulagu war was a war between Berke, khan of the Golden Horde, and Hulagu, khan of the Ilkhanate, that was fought in the Caucasus mountains area in the 1260s after the destruction of Baghdad in 1258. ... Students in Rome, Italy. ... The Mongolian language (, mongol khel) is the best-known member of the Mongolic language family and the primary language of most of the residents of Mongolia, where it is officially written with the Cyrillic alphabet. ... The word Wiki in Phagspa characters The Phagspa script (also square script) was an Abugida designed by the Lama Phagspa for the emperor Kublai Khan during the Yuan Dynasty in China, as a unified script for all languages within the Mongolian Empire. ... Drogön Chögyal Phagpa (Tibetan: འགྲོ་མགོན་ཆོས་རྒྱལ་འཕགས་པ་; Wylie: Gro mgon Chos rgyal Phags pa; also written Dongon Choegyal Phakpa, Dromtön Chögyal Pagpa, etc. ... For other uses, see Academy (disambiguation). ... To the north another group of people, the Burmese began infiltrating the area as well. ... Combatants Dai Viet Yuan Mongol Army Yuan Mongol Navy Commanders Tran Hung Dao Tran Khanh Du General Omar Strength 200 000 500 000 Casualties unknown unknown The Battle of Bach Dang took place near Halong Bay in present-day Vietnam, it was part of the Third Yuan Mongol Invasion (1287... Annam, literally meaning Pacified South, is a region of central Vietnam that fell under Chinese rule in 111 BC as Annan (安南). Known locally as Trung Bá»™, meaning Central Boundary, it was formerly a kingdom the size of Sweden with its capital at Huế. It had been seized by the French... South East Asia circa 1100 C.E. Champa territory in green. ... Abu Said (1316 - 1335; also Abusaid Bahador Khan, Abu Sayed Behauder), was the ninth ruler of the Ilkhanate state in Iran. ... Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 (Cont. ... For other uses, see Ming. ...

Organization

Military setup

The Mongol military organization was simple, but effective. It was based on an old tradition of the steppe, which was a decimal system known in Iranian cultures since Achaemenid Persia, and later: the army was built up from squads of ten men each, called an arbat; ten arbats constituted a company of a hundred, called a zuut; ten zuuts made a regiment of a thousand called myanghan and ten myanghans would then constitute a regiment of ten thousand (tumen), which is the equivalent of a modern division. The Mongol military machine was largely the creation of one man- Genghis Khan. ... This article is about the ecological zone type. ... For other uses, see Decimal (disambiguation). ... Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly emcompassing some parts of todays Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon...


Unlike other mobile-only warriors, such as the Xiongnu or the Huns, the Mongols were very comfortable in the art of the siege. They were very careful to recruit artisans and military talents from the cities they conquered, and along with a group of experienced Chinese engineers and bombardier corps, they were experts in building the trebuchet, Xuanfeng catapults and other machines with which they could lay siege to fortified positions. These were effectively used in the successful European campaigns under General Subutai. These weapons may be built on the spot using immediate local resources such as nearby trees. For other uses, see Warrior (disambiguation). ... A Xiongnu belt buckle. ... For other uses, see Hun (disambiguation). ... A siege is a military blockade of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition, often accompanied by an assault. ... For the typeface, see Trebuchet MS. Trebuchet at Château des Baux, France A trebuchet is a siege engine employed in the Middle Ages either to smash masonry walls or to throw projectiles over them. ... Subutai (Mongolian: , Sübeedei; Classic Mongolian: Sübügätäi or Sübüätäi; 1176 to 1248) was the primary strategist and general of Genghis Khan and Ögedei Khan. ...


Within a battle Mongol forces used extensive coordination of combined arms forces. Though they were famous for their horse archers, their lance forces were equally skilled and just as essential to their success. Mongol forces also used their engineers in battle. They used siege engines and rockets to disrupt enemy formations, confused enemy forces with smoke, and used smoke to isolate portions of an enemy force while destroying that force to prevent their allies from sending aid.


The army's discipline distinguished Mongol soldiers from their peers. The forces under the command of the Mongol Empire were generally trained, organized, and equipped for mobility and speed. To maximize mobility, Mongol soldiers were relatively lightly armored compared to many of the armies they faced. In addition, soldiers of the Mongol army functioned independently of supply lines, considerably speeding up army movement. Skillful use of couriers enabled these armies to maintain contact with each other and with their higher leaders. Discipline was inculcated in nerge (traditional hunts), as reported by Juvayni. These hunts were distinct from hunts in other cultures which were the equivalent to small unit actions. Mongol forces would spread out on line, surrounding an entire region and drive all of the game within that area together. The goal was to let none of the animals escape and to slaughter them all. Alaiddin Ata-ul-Mulk Juvayni (1226 - 1283) was a Persian historian who wrote the famous Tarikh-i-Jehan Ghusha (finished in 1259CE). ...


All military campaigns were preceded by careful planning, reconnaissance and gathering of sensitive information relating to the enemy territories and forces. The success, organization and mobility of the Mongol armies permitted them to fight on several fronts at once. All males aged from 15 to 60 and capable of undergoing rigorous training were eligible for conscription into the army, the source of honor in the tribal warrior tradition.


Another advantage of the Mongols was their ability to traverse large distances even in debilitatingly cold winters; in particular, frozen rivers led them like highways to large urban conurbations on their banks. In addition to siege engineering, the Mongols were also adept at river-work, crossing the river Sajó in spring flood conditions with thirty thousand cavalry in a single night during the battle of Mohi (April, 1241), defeating the Hungarian king Bela IV. Similarly, in the attack against the Muslim Khwarezmshah, a flotilla of barges was used to prevent escape on the river. sajo This is an indian name ,used expecially in Kerala state of India,for the people who are more successful ,Brave ,joy and Having Grace of God---- ~The Sajó (-Hungarian; Slovak: Slaná) is a river in Slovakia and Hungary. ... Combatants Kingdom of Hungary Mongol Empire Commanders King Béla IV Batu Khan, Subutai Strength 15,000-30,000+ Unknown (mostly cavalry) Casualties 10,000-30,000+ unknown The Battle of Mohi, or Battle of the Sajó River, (on April 11, 1241) was the main battle between the Mongols and... B la IV (1206-1270) was the king of Hungary between 1235 and 1270. ... Ala ad-Din Muhammad II (علاءالدين محمد Ê¿Alā al-DÄ«n Muḥammad) was the ruler of the Khwarezmid Empire from 1200 to 1220. ...


Law and governance

See also: Organization of state under Genghis Khan.

The Mongol Empire was governed by a code of law devised by Genghis, called Yassa, meaning "order" or "decree". A particular canon of this code was that the nobility shared much of the same hardship as the common man. It also imposed severe penalties – e.g., the death penalty was decreed if the mounted soldier following another did not pick up something dropped from the mount in front. On the whole, the tight discipline made the Mongol Empire extremely safe and well-run; European travelers were amazed by the organization and strict discipline of the people within the Mongol Empire. // Main article: Pax Mongolica In the face of the ethnic, religious and tribal diversity of the civilians and soldiers of the Mongol Empire, which eventually included modern day Persians, Chinese and many Turkic peoples, Genghis Khan insisted on focusing all loyalty on himself as Great Khan and no others. ... Yassa, alternatively Yasa or Yasaq, is a written code of laws created by Genghis Khan. ...


Under Yassa, chiefs and generals were selected based on merit, religious tolerance was guaranteed, and thievery and vandalizing of civilian property was strictly forbidden. According to legend, a woman carrying a sack of gold could travel safely from one end of the Empire to another. Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Meritocracy is a system of a government or another organization wherein appointments are made *who* makes the appointments - ultimately, it is the people (all members of the group). ... The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen guarantees freedom of religion, as long as religious activities do not infringe on public order in ways detrimental to society. ... // Thievery Thievery is a modification for Unreal Tournament. ...


The empire was governed by a non-democratic parliamentary-style central assembly, called Kurultai, in which the Mongol chiefs met with the Great Khan to discuss domestic and foreign policies. The House of Representatives Chamber of the Parliament of Australia in Canberra. ... Kurultai (Tatar: Qorıltay, Azerbaijani: Qurultay; Kurulmak meaning to assemble in Turkish, also Khural meaning meeting in Mongolian) is a political and military council of ancient Mongol and Turkic chiefs and khans. ...


Genghis also demonstrated a rather liberal and tolerant attitude to the beliefs of others, and never persecuted people on religious grounds. This proved to be good military strategy, as when he was at war with Sultan Muhammad of Khwarezm, other Islamic leaders did not join the fight against Genghis — it was instead seen as a non-holy war between two individuals.


Throughout the empire, trade routes and an extensive postal system (yam) were created. Many merchants, messengers and travelers from China, the Middle East and Europe used the system. Genghis Khan also created a national seal, encouraged the use of a written alphabet in Mongolia, and exempted teachers, lawyers, and artists from taxes, although taxes were heavy on all other subjects of the empire. A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Taxes redirects here. ...


At the same time, any resistance to Mongol rule was met with massive collective punishment. Cities were destroyed and their inhabitants slaughtered if they defied Mongol orders.


Religions

Mongols were highly tolerant of most religions, and typically sponsored several at the same time. At the time of Genghis Khan, virtually every religion had found converts, from Buddhism to Christianity and Manichaeanism to Islam. To avoid strife, Genghis Khan set up an institution that ensured complete religious freedom, though he himself was a shamanist. Under his administration, all religious leaders were exempt from taxation, and from public service.[4] Buddhism, a Dharmic faith, is usually considered one of the worlds major religions, with between 230 to 500 million followers. ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Manichaeism was one of the major ancient religions. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Shamanism is a range of traditional beliefs and practices that involve the ability to diagnose, cure, and sometimes cause human suffering by traversing the axis mundi and forming a special relationship with, or gaining control over, spirits. ...


Initially there were few formal places of worship, because of the nomadic lifestyle. However, under Ögedei, several building projects were undertaken in Karakorum. Along with palaces, Ogodei built houses of worship for the Buddhist, Muslim, Christian, and Taoist followers. The dominant religion at that time was Shamanism, Tengriism and Buddhism, although Ogodei's wife was a Christian.[5] Ögedei, (also Ögädäi, Ögedäi, etc. ... Harhorin (Хархорин), or Khara Khorum in Classical Mongolian, is a town in Övörhangay aymag, Mongolia. ... For other uses of the words tao and dao, see Dao (disambiguation). ... This article is about the practice of shamanism; for other uses, see Shaman (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Tengri be merged into this article or section. ... Buddhism, a Dharmic faith, is usually considered one of the worlds major religions, with between 230 to 500 million followers. ...


Buddhism

Main article: History of Tibet

Ogedei's son and Guyuk's younger brother, Khoten (Хүдэн, Kötön), became the governor of Ningxia and Gansu. He launched a military campaign into Tibet under the command of Generals Lichi and Dhordha. The marauding Mongols burned down Tibetan monuments such as the Reting monastery and the Gyal temple in 1240. Prince Kötön was convinced that no power in the world exceeded the might of the Mongols. However, he believed that religion was necessary in the interests of the next life. Thus he invited Sakya Pandita to Mongolia. Prince Kötön was impressed by Sakya Pandita's teachings. Then he became the first known buddhist prince of Mongol empire. Tibetan plateau Tibet is situated between the two ancient civilizations of China and India, but the tangled mountain ranges of the Tibetan Plateau and the towering Himalayas serve to distance it from both. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by...


Khatun Chabi influenced Kublai to be converted to Buddhism. She received the Hévajra tantra initiations from Phagspa and was very impressed. Khubilai offered Phagpa rule over the thirteen trikhors of Tibet. On the completion of the second stage, Khubilai offered Phagpa a white dharma conch shell and rule over all the three provinces of Tibet. The third stage of the initiation was followed by Khubilai taking a vow to renounce the yearly mass sacrifices of his Chinese subjects. The sacrifices involved an annual ritual of throwing a large number of Chinese subjects into Lake Miyou to check the growth of the Chinese population in his empire[6]. Khatun (Persian: - KhātÅ«n) is a female title of nobility, prominently used in the First Turkish Empire and in the subsequent Mongol Empire. ... The Mongolian language historically has four writing systems that have been used over the centuries. ...


Scientists says Hulagu and Abaqa were buddhists. And their religion flourished in Persia until Ghazan's reign. Tokhta of Golden Horde also encouraged lamas to settle in Russia[7]. Hulagu Khan (also known as Hülegü, and Hulegu) (1217–8 February 1265) was a Mongol ruler who conquered much of Southwest Asia. ... Abaqa Khan reigned from 1265-1282, the son of Hulegu and Oroqina Khatun, a Mongol Christian, was the second Il_Khan emperor in Persia. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Tokhta or Toqta (? - c. ... The Golden Horde (Mongolian: Altan Ordyn Uls; Tatar: ; Russian: ) is a Russian designation for the Mongol[1][2][3] — later Turkicized[4] — khanate established in the western part of the Mongol Empire after the Mongol invasion of Rus in the 1240s: present-day Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and the Caucasus. ... Not to be confused with Llama. ...


Christianity

Main article: Christianity among the Mongols
Nestorian tombstone found in Issyk Kul, dated 1312.
Nestorian tombstone found in Issyk Kul, dated 1312.

Some Mongols had been proselytized by Christian Nestorians since about the 7th century, and a few Mongols were converted to Catholicism, esp. by John of Montecorvino.[8] The Mongols had been proselytized by Christian Nestorians since about the 7th century and many of them were Christians. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 448 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,154 × 1,545 pixels, file size: 405 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 448 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,154 × 1,545 pixels, file size: 405 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Issyk Kul (also Ysyk Köl) is an endorheic lake in the northern Tien Shan mountains in northwestern Kyrgyzstan. ... For other uses, see Mongols (disambiguation). ... Nestorianism is the doctrine that Jesus exists as two persons, the man Jesus and the divine Son of God, or Logos, rather than as a unified person. ... As a Christian ecclesiastical term, Catholic—from the Greek adjective , meaning general or universal[1]—is described in the Oxford English Dictionary as follows: ~Church, (originally) whole body of Christians; ~, belonging to or in accord with (a) this, (b) the church before separation into Greek or Eastern and Latin or... John of Montecorvino, or Giovanni Da/di Montecorvino in Italian, also spelled Monte Corvino (1246, Montecorvino, Southern Italy - 1328, Peking), was a Franciscan missionary, traveller and statesman, founder of the earliest Roman Catholic missions in India and China, and archbishop of Peking. ...


Some of the major Christian figures among the Mongols were: Sorghaghtani Beki, daughter in law of Genghis Khan, and mother of the Great Khans Möngke, Kublai, Hulagu and Ariq Boke; Sartaq, khan of Golden Horde; Doquz Khatun, the mother of the ruler Abaqa; Kitbuqa, general of Mongol forces in the Levant, who fought in alliance with Christians. Marital alliances with Western powers also occurred, as in the 1265 marriage of Maria Despina Palaiologina, daughter of Emperor Michael VIII Palaeologus, with Abaqa. Sorghaghtani Beki (died 1252) was the mother of four of the great figures in Mongol history, especially Möngke Khan, Kublai Khan, and Hulagu Khan. ... This article is about the person. ... KHAGAN, alternatively spelled Chagan, Qaqan etc, is a title of royal or imperial rank in Mongolian and Turkic languages. ... Möngke Khan (Мөнх хаан), also transliterated as Mongke, Mongka, Möngka, Mangu or Mangku (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; c. ... For other uses, see Kublai Khan (disambiguation). ... Hulagu Khan, also known as Hulagu, Hülegü or Hulegu (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Chaghatay/Persian: ; Arabic:هولاكو; c. ... Ariq Boke or Arigh Bukha (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; died 1266), the youngest son of Tolui, was a grandson of Genghis Khan and a claimant to the Mongol Empire. ... Sartaq Khan (also spelt as Sartak or Sartach, died 1256) was the son of Batu Khan and Empress Dowager Khanum Boraqcin of Hwarizim Sahi (Khanate of Kipchak). ... Abaqa Khan (1234-1282), the son of Hulagu and Oroqina Khatun, a Mongol Christian. ... Kitbuqa Noyen was the Christian lieutenant and confidant of Hulagu Khan, assisting him in his conquests in Persia and the Middle East. ... The Levant The Levant (IPA: ) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... Maria Despina Palaiologina ultimately became the Ktetorissa of the Monastery of the Theotokos Panaghiotissa, later known after her as Panaghia Mouchliotissa (Our Lady of All Saints of the Mongols). Maria Despina Palaiologina was an illegitimate daughter of the Byzantine Emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos (ruled 1258-1282). ... The Byzantine Empire in 1265 (William R. Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1911) Michael VIII (1225 – December 11, 1282) was the founder of the Palaeologos dynasty that would rule the Byzantine Empire to the Fall of Constantinople in 1453. ... Abaqa Khan reigned from 1265-1282, the son of Hulegu and Oroqina Khatun, a Mongol Christian, was the second Il_Khan emperor in Persia. ...


The 13th century saw attempts at a Franco-Mongol alliance with exchange of ambassadors and even military collaboration with European Christians in the Holy Land. The Nestorian Mongol Rabban Bar Sauma visited some European courts in 1287-1288. Among the Christian states in the Levant (in yellow) Little Armenia and the northern Frank kingdom of Antioch were the most regular allies of the Mongols. ... For other uses, see Holy Land (disambiguation). ... Rabban Bar Sauma (fl. ...


Islam

Although Berke was the first Muslim leader of Mongol khanates, full adoption of the religion was quite later. Mongols had to use talent wherever they could find it because they were so few. Muslims became a favored class of officials. Muslims were well educated and knew Turkish and Mongolian. The establishment of the Yuan Dynasty in China had dramatically benefited Islam in China in contrast to previous dynasties. ... Berke was the ruler of the Golden Horde from 1257 to 1266, in the aftermath of the reign of his brother Batu Khan. ...


Ghazan was the first Muslim khan to adopt Islam as national religion of Ilkhanate. After then, Uzbek forced his subjects to accept the religion. But Moghulistan was another case. There, Mongols enjoyed a nomadic life style and Buddhism and shamanism flourished as well as Christianity until 1350's. However, mongol khanates converted to Islam, mongol men did not prohibit women's political influence. Ghazan Khan was ruler of the Ilkhanate from 1295 to 1305. ...


Though the Yuan Dynasty was the only Khanate not to convert to Islam, there had been many Muslim foreigners since the khans were tolerant of other religions. Contact between Yuan emperors in China and Papal states and other Muslim states lasted until the mid-14th century. According to Jack Weatherford, there were more than one million Muslims in Yuan Dynasty. Coat of arms Map of the Papal States; the reddish area was annexed to the Kingdom of Italy in 1860, the rest (grey) in 1870. ... |200px| ]] Born: Occupation: professor, ethnographer, anthropologist Nationality: American Jack Weatherford is a professor of Anthropology at Macalester College, specializing in Mongolia. ...


Trade networks

Mongols prized their commercial and trade relationships with neighboring economies and this policy they continued during the process of their conquests and during the expansion of their empire. All merchants and ambassadors, having proper documentation and authorization, traveling through their realms were protected. This greatly increased overland trade.


During the thirteenth and early fourteenth centuries, European merchants, numbering hundreds, perhaps thousands, made their way from Europe to the distant land of China — Marco Polo is only one of the best known of these. Well-traveled and relatively well-maintained roads linked lands from the Mediterranean basin to China. The Mongol Empire had negligible influence on seaborne trade. Marco Polo (September 15, 1254[1] – January 9, 1324 at earliest but no later than June 1325[2]) was a Venetian trader and explorer who gained fame for his worldwide travels, recorded in the book Il Milione (The Million or The Travels of Marco Polo). ... The Mediterranean Basin refers to the lands around and surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea. ...


Mail system

Letter of Oljeitu to Philippe le Bel, 1305. The huge roll measures 302x50 cm.
Letter of Oljeitu to Philippe le Bel, 1305. The huge roll measures 302x50 cm.

The Mongol Empire had an ingenious and efficient mail system for the time, often referred to by scholars as the Yam, which had lavishly furnished and well guarded relay posts known as örtöö set up all over the Mongol Empire. The yam system would be replicated later in the U.S. in form of the Pony Express.[9] A messenger would typically travel 25 miles (40 km) from one ordu to the next, and he would either receive a fresh, rested horse or relay the mail to the next rider to ensure the speediest possible delivery. The Mongol riders regularly covered 125 miles per day, which is faster than the fastest record set by the Pony Express some 600 years later. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 705 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,785 × 1,519 pixels, file size: 375 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 705 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,785 × 1,519 pixels, file size: 375 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Öljeitü, Muslim name Mohammad Khudabanda (1280 - December 16, 1316, in Soltaniyeh, near Kazvin), was the eighth Ilkhanate ruler in Iran, reigned from 1304 to 1316. ... Philip IV the Fair (French: Philippe IV le Bel) (1268 – November 29, 1314) was King of France from 1285 until his death in 1314. ... Yam is a supply point route messenger system developed by Genghis Khan. ... For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). ... Frank E. Webner, pony express rider c. ...


Military conquests

Central Asia

Mongol invasion of Central Asia initially was composed of Genghis Khan's victory over and unification of the Mongol and Turkic central Asian confederations such as Merkits, Tartars, Mongols, Uighurs that eventually created the Mongol Empire. It then continued with invasion of Khwarezmid Empire in Persia. Combatants Mongol Empire Khwarezmia Commanders Genghis Khan, Jochi, Chaghatai, Ögodei, Tolui, Subutai, Jebe, Jelme, Mukali, Khubilai, Kasar, Boorchu, Sorkin-shara Ala ad-Din Muhammad, Jalal Al-Din, Inalchuq† (executed) Strength 100,000-200,000 mounted archers, with powerful siege engines 400,000 men, however not organized into armies, only city... This article is about the person. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... This article needs cleanup. ... The Merkit, Merged, or Mergid (Merged means wise ones, adept ones, skillful ones, (skillful) archers, or hunters in Mongolian) were a Mongol tribe with a fierce reputation that inhabited southeastern Siberia during the Middle Ages. ... For other uses, see Mongols (disambiguation). ... Uyghurs (also called Uighurs, Uygurs, or Uigurs) (Chinese: 維吾爾 or 维吾尔 in pinyin: wéiwúěr) are a Turkic ethnic group of people living in northwestern China (mainly in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, where they are the dominant ethnic group together with Han people), Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan. ... The Khwarezmid Empire (also known as the Khwarezmian Empire) was a Muslim Iranian state in the 11th century in Khwarezmia that lasted until the Mongol invasion in 1220. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ...


Middle East

Main article: Mongol invasion of Middle East

The Mongol invasion of the Middle East consists of the conquest, by force or voluntary submission, of the areas today known as Iran, Iraq, Syria, and parts of Turkey, with further Mongol raids reaching southwards as far as Gaza into the Palestine region in 1260 and 1300. The major battles were the Battle of Baghdad (1258), when the Mongols sacked the city which for 500 years had been the center of Islamic power; and the Battle of Ain Jalut in 1260, when the Muslim Egyptian Mamluks, with some unusual provisioning assistance from the Christian European Crusaders, were for the first time able to stop the Mongol advance at Ain Jalut, in the northern part of what is today known as the West Bank. Mongol invasion of the Middle East consists of the destruction, invasion and/or conquest of Iraq, Iran, parts of Kuwait and eventually reaching into Palestine regions during the Mongol Empire period. ... Not to be confused with the Spanish name Garza or the Egyptian town of Giza. ... A 2003 satellite image of the region. ... Combatants Mongols Abbasid Caliphate Commanders Hulagu Khan Guo Kan Caliph Al-Mustasim Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties Unknown, but believed minimal Military, 50,000(est. ... Combatants Egyptian Mamluks Mongols Commanders Saif ad-Din Qutuz, Baibars C * Kitbuqa + Strength About 20,000-30,000 About 10,000-20,000 The Battle of Ain Jalut (or Ayn Jalut, in Arabic: عين جالوت, the Eye of Goliath or the Spring of Goliath) took place on September 3, 1260 between the... Mamluk Flag Eastern Mediterranean 1450 Capital Cairo Language(s) Arabic, Kipchak Turkic[1] Religion Islam Government Monarchy History  - As-Salih Ayyubs death 1250  - Battle of Ridanieh 1517 Today part of Egypt Saudi Arabia Syria Palestine Israel Lebanon Jordan Turkey Libya A Mamluk cavalryman, drawn in 1810 A mamluk (Arabic... This article is about the medieval crusades. ...


Due to a combination of political and geographic factors, such as lack of sufficient grazing room for their horses, the Mongol invasion of the Middle East turned out to be the farthest that the Mongols would ever reach, towards the Mediterranean and Africa.


East Asia

Main article: Mongol invasion of East Asia

Mongol invasion of East Asia refers to the Mongols 13th and 14th century conquests under Genghis Khan and his descendants of Mongol invasion of China, the invasion of Korea which forced Korea to become a vassal, and attempted Mongol invasion of Japan, and it also can include Mongols attempted invasion of Vietnam. The biggest conquest was the total invasion of China in the end. Mongol invasion of East Asia refers to the Mongols 13th and 14th century conquests under Genghis Khan and his descendants of Mongol invasion of China, Korea, and attempted Mongol invasion of Japan, and it also can include Mongols attempted invasion of Vietnam. ... For other uses, see Mongols (disambiguation). ... This article is about the person. ... Mongol invasion of China lasted over 6 decades and particularly involved the defeat of Jin Dynasty, Western Xia, and the Southern Song, which finally fell in the year 1279; the year that the Mongols had claimed the total conquest of China. ... The Mongol invasions of Korea consisted of a series of campaigns by the Mongol Empire against Korea, then known as Goryeo, from 1231 to 1259. ... The Samurai Suenaga facing Mongol arrows and bombs. ... The term Mongol invasions of Vietnam may refer to: Battle of Bach Dang (1288) Trần Hưng Đạo, the Vietnamese general who repelled multiple Mongol invasions History of Vietnam#Mongol invasions Categories: | | | | | | | ...


Europe

Mongol invasion of Europe largely constitute of their invasion and conquest of Kievan Rus, much of Russia, invasion of Poland and Hungary among others. The Mongol Invasion of Rus was heralded by the Battle of the Kalka River (1223) between Subutais reconnaissance unit and the combined force of several princes of Rus. After fifteen years of peace, it was followed by Batu Khans full-scale invasion in 1237-40. ... The Mongol invasions of Europe were centered in their destruction of the Ruthenian states, especially Kiev, under the leadership of Subutai. ... Kievan Rus′ (Ки́евская Ру́сь, Kievskaya Rus in Russian; Київська Русь, Kyivs’ka Rus’ in Ukrainian) was the early, mostly East Slavic¹ state dominated by the city of Kiev (ru: Ки́ев, Kiev; uk: Ки́їв, Kyiv), from about 880 to the middle of the 12th century. ...


Pope’s envoy to Mongol Khan Giovanni de Plano Carpini, who passed through Kiev in February 1246, wrote: Giovanni da Pian del Carpine, or John of Plano Carpini or Joannes de Plano (c. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ...

"They [the Mongols] attacked Russia, where they made great havoc, destroying cities and fortresses and slaughtering men; and they laid siege to Kiev, the capital of Russia; after they had besieged the city for a long time, they took it and put the inhabitants to death. When we were journeying through that land we came across countless skulls and bones of dead men lying about on the ground. Kiev had been a very large and thickly populated town, but now it has been reduced almost to nothing, for there are at the present time scarce two hundred houses there and the inhabitants are kept in complete slavery."[10]

After Genghis Khan

Ögedei Khan, Genghis Khan's son and successor
Ögedei Khan, Genghis Khan's son and successor
Kublai Khan, Genghis Khan's grandson and founder of the Yuan Dynasty
Kublai Khan, Genghis Khan's grandson and founder of the Yuan Dynasty
Hulagu, Genghis Khan's grandson and founder of the il-Khan
Hulagu, Genghis Khan's grandson and founder of the il-Khan

At first, the Mongol Empire was ruled by Ögedei Khan, Genghis Khan's third son and designated heir, but after his death in 1241, the fractures which would ultimately crack the Empire began to show. Enmity between the grandchildren of Genghis Khan resulted in a five year regency by Ögedei's widow until she finally got her son Guyuk Khan confirmed as Great Khan. But he only ruled two years, and following his death -- he was on his way to confront his cousin Batu Khan, who had never accepted his authority -- another regency followed, until finally a period of stability came with the reign of Mongke Khan, from 1251-1259. The last universally accepted Great Khan was his brother Arigboh (aka. Arigbuga, or Arigbuha), his elder brother Kublai Khan dethroned him with his own supporters after some extensive battles. Kublai Khan ruled from 1260-1294. Despite his recognition as Great Khan, he was unable to keep his brother Hulagu and their cousin Berke from open warfare in 1263, and after Kublai's death there was not an accepted Great Khan, so the Mongol Empire was fragmented for good. Image File history File links Ogadai_Khan. ... Image File history File links Ogadai_Khan. ... Ögedei Khan, (Mongolian: , Ögöödei; also Ogotai or Oktay; c. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... For other uses, see Kublai Khan (disambiguation). ... Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 (Cont. ... Image File history File links The il-Khan Hulagu rests. ... Image File history File links The il-Khan Hulagu rests. ... Hulagu Khan (also known as Hülegü, and Hulegu) (1217–8 February 1265) was a Mongol ruler who conquered much of Southwest Asia. ... The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. ... Ögedei Khan, (Mongolian: , Ögöödei; also Ogotai or Oktay; c. ... Güyük (c. ... Möngke Khan (1208-1259, also transliterated as Mongke, Mongka, Möngka, Mangu) was the fourth khan of the Mongol Empire. ... For other uses, see Kublai Khan (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Kublai Khan (disambiguation). ... Hulagu Khan (also known as Hülegü, and Hulegu) (1217–8 February 1265) was a Mongol ruler who conquered much of Southwest Asia. ... Berke was the ruler of the Golden Horde from 1257 to 1266, in the aftermath of the reign of his brother Batu Khan. ...


Genghis Khan divided his realm into four Khanates, subdivisions of a single empire under the Great Khan (Khan of Khans). The following Khanates emerged after the regency following Ögedei Khan's death, and became formally independent after Kublai Khan's death: For the Star Trek character see Khan Noonien Singh. ... KHAGAN, alternatively spelled Chagan, Qaqan etc, is a title of royal or imperial rank in Mongolian and Turkic languages. ... This article is about the title. ... For the Star Trek character see Khan Noonien Singh. ... For other uses, see Kublai Khan (disambiguation). ...

The Mongol Empire and its successor khanates
The Mongol Empire and its successor khanates

The empire's expansion continued for a generation or more after Genghis's death in 1227. Under Genghis's successor Ögedei Khan, the speed of expansion reached its peak. Mongol armies pushed into Persia, finished off the Xia and the remnants of the Khwarezmids, and came into conflict with the Song Dynasty of China, starting a war that concluded in 1279 with the conquest of populous China, which then constituted the majority of the world's economic production. Blue Horde was one of descendat states which formed around 1227 as the Mongol Empire desintegrated. ... Batu Khan (Russian: , Ukrainian: , Chinese: ) (c. ... The White Horde was a the name of a Mongolian state of the 14th century. ... Orda was a Mongol khan, the eldest grandson of Genghis Khan, son of Jöchi and the founder of White Horde. ... The Golden Horde (Mongolian: Altan Ordyn Uls; Tatar: ; Russian: ) is a Russian designation for the Mongol[1][2][3] — later Turkicized[4] — khanate established in the western part of the Mongol Empire after the Mongol invasion of Rus in the 1240s: present-day Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and the Caucasus. ... The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. ... Hulagu Khan (also known as Hülegü, and Hulegu) (1217–8 February 1265) was a Mongol ruler who conquered much of Southwest Asia. ... For other uses, see Kublai Khan (disambiguation). ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... Harhorin (Хархорин), or Khara Khorum in Classical Mongolian, is a town in Övörhangay aymag, Mongolia. ... Tolui,also rendered Toluy or Tolui Khan (Mongolian: ; Chinese: ; pinyin: ; 1190–1232), was the youngest son of Genghis Khan by Börte. ... The four successor Khanates of the Mongol Empire: Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde, Il-Khanate and Chagatai Khanate Chagatai Khan (alternative spellings Chagata, Chugta, Chagta, Djagatai, Jagatai), a son of Genghis Khan (1206–1227), controlled the part of the Mongol Empire which extended from the Ili... Chagatai Khan (alternative spellings ÇaÄŸatay in Turkic Chagata, Chugta, Chagta, Djagatai, Chaghtai) was the second son of Genghis Khan. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1226x830, 335 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mongol Empire Nomadic Empires ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1226x830, 335 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mongol Empire Nomadic Empires ... For the Star Trek character see Khan Noonien Singh. ... Ögedei Khan, (Mongolian: , Ögöödei; also Ogotai or Oktay; c. ... For other uses, see Liu Song Dynasty. ...


In the late 1230s, the Mongols under Batu Khan invaded Russia and Volga Bulgaria, reducing most of its principalities to vassalage, and pressed on into Eastern Europe. In 1241 the Mongols may have been ready to invade Western Europe as well, having defeated the last Polish-German and Hungarian armies at the Battle of Legnica and the Battle of Mohi. Batu Khan and Subutai were preparing to start with a winter campaign against Austria and Germany, and finish with Italy. However news of Ögedei's death spared Western Europe as Batu had to turn his attentions to the election of the next Great Khan. It is often speculated that this was one of the great turning points in history and that Europe may well have fallen to the Mongols had the invasion gone ahead. During the 1250s, Genghis's grandson Hulegu Khan, operating from the Mongol base in Persia, destroyed the Abbasid Caliphate in Baghdad and destroyed the cult of the Assassins, moving into Palestine towards Egypt. The Great Khan Möngke having died, however, he hastened to return for the election, and the force that remained in Palestine was destroyed by the Mamluks under Saif ad-Din Qutuz in 1261 at Ayn Jalut. Batu Khan (Russian: , Ukrainian: , Chinese: ) (c. ... The Mongol Invasion of Russia was an invasion of the medieval state of Kievan Rus by a large army of nomadic Mongols, starting in 1223. ... The Mongol invasion of Volga Bulgaria lasted from 1223 to 1236. ... Combatants Mongol Empire Alliance Polish states Teutonic Knights[3][4] Commanders Baidar, Kadan, Orda Khan Henry II the Pious † Strength Estimated between 8,000-20,000 (max of two tumen) diversionary force [5] Unknown, estimates have ranged from 2,000-25,000[5] Casualties Unknown, but supposedly heavier than expected... Combatants Kingdom of Hungary Mongol Empire Commanders King Béla IV Batu Khan, Subutai Strength 15,000-30,000+ Unknown (mostly cavalry) Casualties 10,000-30,000+ unknown The Battle of Mohi, or Battle of the Sajó River, (on April 11, 1241) was the main battle between the Mongols and... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Hulagu Khan (also known as Hülegü, and Hulegu) (1217–8 February 1265) was a Mongol ruler who conquered much of Southwest Asia. ... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Hashshashin fortress of Alamut. ... Möngke Khan (Мөнх хаан), also transliterated as Mongke, Mongka, Möngka, Mangu or Mangku (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; c. ... An Ottoman Mamluk, from 1810 Mamluks (or Mameluks) (the Arabic word usually translates as owned, singular: مملوك plural: مماليك) comprised slave soldiers used by the Muslim Caliphs and the Ottoman Empire, and who on more than one occasion seized power for themselves. ... Saif ad-Din Qutuz (died October 24, 1260) was the Mamluk sultan of Egypt from 1259 until his death. ... Combatants Egyptian Mamluks Mongols Commanders Saif ad-Din Qutuz, Baibars C * Kitbuqa + Strength About 20,000-30,000 About 10,000-20,000 The Battle of Ain Jalut (or Ayn Jalut, in Arabic: عين جالوت, the Eye of Goliath or the Spring of Goliath) took place on September 3, 1260 between the...

Vassals

The Mongol Empire included China, most of Russia, Siberia, parts of Burma, and all of Georgia, Armenia, Cilicia, Anatolia, Iraq, Persia, Central Asia, Ukraine and Belarus. This article is about Siberia as a whole. ... The Kingdom of Cilician Armenia, 1199-1375. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east, and from southern Russia in the north to...


European vassals

  • Kingdom of Lithuania, the nominal vassal. However, Mongols under Orda and Burundai successfully invaded southern regions of Lithuania in 1241 and in 1259 (Later Nogai), the grand duke Jogaila officially acknowledged Tokhtamysh as overlord in 1382. Mongols of Golden Horde always counted Lithuanians as a part of their subjects, but there is no evidence of a tributary relationship between them[11].
  • A number of Russian states, incl. the Republic of Novgorod, Pskov[12] Batu khan could not reach northern part of Russia due to the marshlands surrounding city-states such as Novgorod and Pskov in 1239. But combined effects of Alexander Nevsky's diplomacy, Mongol threats and Teutonic order invasion, forced Novgorod and later Pskov accepted the term of vassalage. According to book "Mongol-tatars in Asia & Europe" (Монгол-Татарууд Ази Европт) by Mongolian and Russian scientists, Bichigechi Berkhchir who was an envoy of Kublai khan had worked Novgorod for a while.
  • Kingdom of Serbia[14]. Around 1288 Milutin launched an invasion to pacify two Bulgarian nobles in today's north-east Serbia, in the Branicevo region, but those nobles were vassals of the Bulgarian prince of Vidin Shishman. Shishman attacked Milutin but was defeated and Milutin in return sacked his capital Vidin. But Shishman was a vassal of Nogai Khan, de facto ruler of the Golden Horde. Nogai Khan threatened to punish Milutin for his insolence, but changed his mind when the Serbian king sent him gifts and hostages. Among the hostages was his son Stefan Dečanski who managed to escape back to Serbia after Nogai Khan's death in 1299.

The Kingdom of Lithuania was the Lithuanian Monarchy, which existed in the 13th century, and was temporarily re-established in the 20th century. ... Orda was a Mongol khan, the eldest grandson of Genghis Khan, son of Jöchi and the founder of White Horde. ... Burundai was a notable Mongol general of the middle XIII century. ... The term Nogai can refer to more than one thing: Nogai Khan was a Khan of the Golden Horde. ... For other monarchs with similar names , see Ladislaus Jagiello or Ladislaus. ... Tokhtamysh (d. ... The Golden Horde (Mongolian: Altan Ordyn Uls; Tatar: ; Russian: ) is a Russian designation for the Mongol[1][2][3] — later Turkicized[4] — khanate established in the western part of the Mongol Empire after the Mongol invasion of Rus in the 1240s: present-day Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and the Caucasus. ... The Novgorod Republic was an early republic that existed in the North-West territory of modern day Russia, in Novgorod lands between 1136 and 1478. ... Pskov (Russian: , ancient Russian spelling Пльсковъ (Plescow)) is an ancient city, located in the north-west of Russia about 20 km east from the Estonian border, on the Velikaya River. ... For other uses, see Alexander Nevsky (disambiguation). ... Teutonic Knights, charging into battle. ... For other uses, see Kublai Khan (disambiguation). ... Imperial Emblem (under the Shisman Dynasty) Bulgarian Empire c. ... Anthem: Bože Pravde [[Image:|250px|center|Location of the Kingdom of Serbia]] Capital Belgrade Largest city Belgrade Serbian Government Monarchy  - King Milan (1882-1889)  - King Aleksandar (1889-1903)  - King Peter I (1903-1918) Proclamation March 6, 1882 Area  - Total  km² ([[List of countries and outlying territories by area|]])  sq... Stefan UroÅ¡ II Milutin (Serbian: Стефан Урош II Милутин), (born around 1253-died on October 29, 1321), was a king of Serbia (reigned 1282–1321), and member of Nemanjić dynasty. ... Michael Asen III (Bulgarian: Михаил Асен III, Mihail Asen III, commonly called Michael Shishman (Михаил Шишман, Mihail Å iÅ¡man) or Michael III Shishman), ruled as emperor (tsar) of Bulgaria from 1323 to 1330. ... Nogai Khan (died 1299), also called Kara Nogai (Black Nogai), was a Khan of the Golden Horde and a great-grandson of Genghis Khan. ... The Golden Horde (Mongolian: Altan Ordyn Uls; Tatar: ; Russian: ) is a Russian designation for the Mongol[1][2][3] — later Turkicized[4] — khanate established in the western part of the Mongol Empire after the Mongol invasion of Rus in the 1240s: present-day Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and the Caucasus. ... Stefan UroÅ¡ III Dečanski Stefan UroÅ¡ III Dečanski (Serbian: Стефан Урош III Дечански), (c. ... Anthem:  Serbia() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, Rusyn 1 Albanian 2 Demonym Serbian Government Parliamentary Democracy  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica    -  First state 7th century   -  Serbian Kingdom3 1217   -  Serbian Empire 1345   -  Independence lost...

East and Southeast Asian vassals

Annam, literally meaning Pacified South, is a region of central Vietnam that fell under Chinese rule in 111 BC as Annan (安南). Known locally as Trung Bá»™, meaning Central Boundary, it was formerly a kingdom the size of Sweden with its capital at Huế. It had been seized by the French... South East Asia circa 1100 C.E. Champa territory in green. ... Taegeuk is a traditional symbol of Korea Capital Gaegyeong Language(s) Korean Religion Buddhism Government Monarchy Wang  - 918 - 946 Taejo  - 949 - 975 Gwangjong  - 1259 - 1274 Wonjong  - 1351 - 1374 Gongmin Historical era 918 - 1392  - Later Three Kingdoms rise 892  - Coronation of Taejo June 15, 918  - Korea-Khitan Wars 993 - 1019  - Mongolian... This article is about the Korean Peninsula. ... Map of Asia and Europe c. ... The Sukhothai kingdom was a kingdom in the north of Thailand around the city Sukhothai. ...

Middle East vassals

Main article: Franco-Mongol alliance

The small crusader state paid annual tributes for many years.The closest thing to actual Frankish cooperation with Mongol military actions was the overlord-subject relationship between the Mongols and the Franks of Antioch and others. Among the Christian states in the Levant (in yellow) Little Armenia and the northern Frank kingdom of Antioch were the most regular allies of the Mongols. ... The Principality of Antioch in the context of the other states of the Near East in 1135 AD. The Principality of Antioch, including parts of modern-day Turkey and Syria, was one of the crusader states created during the First Crusade. ...

The Seljuks and the military forces of Trebizond were defeated by the Mongols in 1243 . After that, Kaykhusraw II, the Sultan of Iconium was compelled to relieve himself by paying tribute and supplying annually horses, hunting dogs, and jewels. The emperor Manuel I of Trebizond, realizing the impossibility of fighting the Mongols, made a speedy peace with them and, on condition of paying an annual tribute, became a Mongol vassal. The empire reached its greatest prosperity and had opportunity to export the produce of its own rich hinterland during the era of Ilkhans. But with the decline of Mongol power in 1335, Trebizond suffered increasingly from Turkish attacks, civil wars, and domestic intrigues[20]. The Empire of Trebizond and other states carved from the Byzantine Empire, as they were in 1265 (William R. Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1911) The Empire of Trebizond (Greek: Βασίλειον τῆς Τραπεζούντας) was a Byzantine Greek successor state of the Byzantine Empire founded in 1204 as a result of the capture of Constantinople by... The Seljuk Turks (Turkish: Selçuk; Arabic: سلجوق Saljūq, السلاجقة al-Salājiqa; Persian: سلجوقيان Saljūqiyān; also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that occupied parts of Central Asia and the Middle East from the 11th to 14th centuries. ... Combatants Mongols Sultanate of Rüm, Georgian and Trapezuntine auxiliaries Commanders Bayju Kaykhusraw II The Battle of Köse DaÄŸ was fought between the Seljuk Turks of Rum and the Mongols on June 26, 1243 at the field of Köse DaÄŸ, a location near the cities of Sivas and... Kaykhusraw II (Arabic/Persian: , GhÄ«yāth al-DÄ«n Kaykhusraw bin Kayqubād; Turkish: ) was the sultan of the Seljuqs of Rum from 1237 until his death in 1246. ... Konya (also Koniah, Konieh, Konia, and Qunia; historically known as Iconium) is a city in Turkey, on the central plateau of Anatolia. ... Manuel I, (died 1263), emperor of Trebizond, surnamed the Great Captain, was the second son of Alexius I, first emperor of Trebizond, and ruled from 1228 to 1263. ... The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. ...


Tributary states

  • Small states of Malay
  • Byzantine empire[21]. In the winter of 1265 Nogai led a Mongol raid on Byzantine Thrace with his vassal Balkan bulgars. In the spring of 1265 he defeated the armies of Michael VIII Palaeologus. Instead of fighting, most of the Byzantines fled due to powerful Mongol army. Michael managed to escape with the assistance of Italian merchants. After this Thrace was plundered by Nogai's army, and the Byzantine emperor signed a treaty with Berke khan of Golden Horde, giving his daughter Euphrosyne in marriage to Nogai. And also Michael had sent much if valuable fabrics to Golden Horde as tributary since then.

Look up Malay in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... Nogai Khan (died 1299), also called Kara Nogai (Black Nogai), was a Khan of the Golden Horde and a great-grandson of Genghis Khan. ... Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... For other uses, see Bulgaria (disambiguation). ... The Byzantine Empire in 1265 (William R. Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1911) Michael VIII (1225 – December 11, 1282) was the founder of the Palaeologos dynasty that would rule the Byzantine Empire to the Fall of Constantinople in 1453. ... Berke was the ruler of the Golden Horde from 1257 to 1266, in the aftermath of the reign of his brother Batu Khan. ... The Golden Horde (Mongolian: Altan Ordyn Uls; Tatar: ; Russian: ) is a Russian designation for the Mongol[1][2][3] — later Turkicized[4] — khanate established in the western part of the Mongol Empire after the Mongol invasion of Rus in the 1240s: present-day Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and the Caucasus. ... In Greek mythology, Euphrosyne (you FROSS uh nee: mirth or joy) was one of the Charites, known in English also as the Three Graces. ... Fabric may mean: Cloth, a flexible artificial material made up of a network of natural or artificial fibres Fabric (club), a London dance club Fibre Channel fabric, a network of Fibre Channel devices enabled by a Fibre Channel switch using the FC-SW topology This is a disambiguation page, a...

Areas that avoided Mongol conquest

Essentially, only six areas accessible to the Mongols avoided conquest by them -- Indochina, South Asia, Japan, Western Europe and Arabia. Also, two important cities that evaded the Mongol Conquest were Vienna and Jerusalem. Both evaded the conquest because of the death of a Great Khan.


Western Europe

While the Mongolian Empire extended into Poland and threatening present day Austria, the Mongols were not able to push into Western Europe. The most popular explanation was the fact that on 11 December 1241, during pre-emptive operations by Mongol reconnaissance forces inside Austria for the invasion of Vienna, news came that Ogedei Khan died, and bound by Mongol tradition, all Mongol commanders and princes had to report back to the capital of Karakorum to elect a new Khan. It was believed that the Mongol abandonment of the European campaign was only temporary, but in fact, the Mongols had committed no further campaigns into Europe in earnest.[citations needed] Some western historians attribute European survival to Mongol unwillingness to fight in the more densely populated German principalities, where the wetter weather affected their bows.[citations needed] But the same weather did not stop them from devastating Russia or the campaigns against the Southern Song, and Europe was less densely populated than China.[9] An invasion is a military action consisting of armed forces of one geopolitical entity entering territory controlled by another such entity, generally with the objective of conquering territory, or altering the established government. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... Ögedei, (also Ögädäi, Ögedäi, etc. ... Harhorin (Хархорин), or Khara Khorum in Classical Mongolian, is a town in Övörhangay aymag, Mongolia. ...


The probable answer for the Mongol's stopping after the Mohi River, and the destruction of the Hungarian army, was that they never intended to advance further at that time.[22]


Batu Khan had made his Russian conquests safe for the next 10 generations, and when the Great Khan died, he rushed back to Mongolia to put in his claim for power. Upon his return, relations with his cousin Guyuk Khan had deteriorated to the point that open warfare between them came shortly after Guyuk's death. The point is that the Mongols were unable to bring a unified army to bear on either Europe, or Egypt, after 1260. Batu Khan was in fact planning invasion of Europe all the way to the "Great Sea" — the Atlantic Ocean, when he died in 1255.[22][9]


His son inherited the Khanate, but also died in a short time, and Batu's brother Berke became Khan of the Kipchak Khanate. He was far more interested in fighting with his cousin Hulagu than invading the remainder of Europe, which was no threat to him. Berke was the ruler of the Golden Horde from 1257 to 1266, in the aftermath of the reign of his brother Batu Khan. ... The Golden Horde (also known as Kipchak or Qipchaq Khanate) was a Tatar state established in present day Russia by unification of Blue Horde and White Horde around 1378. ...


Vietnam and Japan

Another area not conquered by Mongols was Vietnam under the Trần Dynasty, which repelled Mongol attacks in 1257/1258, 1284/1285 and 1287/1288. The term Mongol invasions of Vietnam may refer to: Battle of Bach Dang (1288) Trần HÆ°ng Đạo, the Vietnamese general who repelled multiple Mongol invasions History of Vietnam#Mongol invasions Categories: | | | | | | | ... The Samurai Suenaga facing Mongol arrows and bombs. ... The Trần Dynasty (陳朝 Trần Triều; or vernacularly Nhà Trần, meaning the Trần Family) was a Vietnamese dynasty that ruled Vietnam (at that time known as Đại Việt) from 1225 to 1400. ... The term Mongol invasions of Vietnam may refer to: Battle of Bach Dang (1288) Trần HÆ°ng Đạo, the Vietnamese general who repelled multiple Mongol invasions History of Vietnam#Mongol invasions Categories: | | | | | | | ...


But around 1288, Annam and Champa started to pay tributary to the emperors of the Yuan Dynasty. That is why the two states of Vietnam are considered vassals of the Mongol Empire.


Japan also repelled massive Mongol invasions in 1274 and 1281. Japan's ruler Hojo Tokimune first sent back the emissaries time and time again without audience in Kamakura, and then after the first invasion was so bold as to behead Kubilai's emissaries, twice.[23] In both Japan and Vietnam, Kublai sent part of the Mongol armies, instead of concentrating on Vietnam first, and then Japan. Furthermore, the splitting of resources left the Mongols with a fleet that was not readily equipped for the storms that plagued the Sea of Japan. A great storm sank the primary invasion fleet and killed most of the Mongol army during the 1281 invasion. Combatants Mongol Empire Japan Commanders Kublai Khan Hōjō Tokimune Strength 35,000 Mongol & Chinese soldiers and 18,000 Korean warriors 10,000 Casualties 16,000 killed before landed minimal Defensive wall at Hakata. ... Hojo Tokimune (北条 時宗, 1251 - 1284) was the eighth shikken (regent) of the Kamakura shogunate (reigned 1268 - 84), best known for leading the Japanese forces against the invasion of the Mongols. ... Kamakura ) is a city located in Kanagawa, Japan, about 50 km south-south-west of Tokyo. ... The Sea of Japan is a marginal sea of the western Pacific Ocean, bordered by Japan, Korea and Russia. ... Kamikaze (神風 kamikaze) is a Japanese word, usually translated as divine wind, beleived to be a gift from the gods. ...


Indochina (Khmer Empire)

Many other kingdoms in Indochina could counter the Mongol invasion, such as the Maoluang Kingdom (or Kingdom of Mong Mao) in Northern Thailand, Shan and Kachin in today's Northern and Northeastern Myanmar as well as Assam in Eastern India and Southwestern China. Sa Khaan Pha (or Si Ke Fa), king of Maoluang Kingdom, was able to negotiate a treaty after he defeated the Mongols three times during the period of Kublai Khan. He received authority over the land south of the Sang city which is now Kunming in the Yunnan province of China. Mongol-led Yuan forces attacked Champa in Southern Vietnam with large scale of army once in 1287. Lanna and Sibsongpanna (in present Northern Thailand, Northern Laos and Southern China), Lan Xang (in present Laos), the Siamese kingdoms of Chiang Saen (or Chieng Saeng), Lavo, Haripunjai, Phyao and Sukhotai never invaded by the Mongols due to the rough terrain. However, the Burmese Pagan dynasty was destroyed in 1287 by Kublai Khan as well as the Northern Vietnamese empire of Viet. Sodu sent also 100 mongols to raid on Khmer empire while he was fighting with Champa. But Yuan later made most of Southeast Asian states tributary vassals somehow. , Assam  ) (Assamese: অসম Ôxôm [É”xÉ”m]) is a northeastern state of India with its capital at Dispur, a suburb of the city Guwahati. ... South East Asia circa 1100 C.E. Champa territory in green. ... Northern Vietnam and Southern Vietnam are two general regions within Vietnam. ... Map of Asia and Europe c. ... South East Asia circa 1100 C.E. Champa territory in green. ...


South Asia

Main article: Mongol invasions of India

South Asia was also able to withstand the advance of the Mongols. At this time, Northern India was under the rule of the Delhi sultanate. Though the Mongols raided into the Punjab and invaded Delhi itself (unsuccessfully), the Sultans--mostly notably Ghiyasuddin Balban--were able to keep them at bay and roll them back. Historian John Keay credited the successful combination of the Indian elephant phalanx and maneuverable central Asian cavalry operated by the rulers of Northern India. Ironically, 300 years later, Babar, a Timurid scion who claimed descent from Genghis Khan, would go on to conquer northern India and found the Mughal Empire. The difficult terrain, and other natural obstacles, such as those that plagued the Mongol empire in its attempt to conquer Japan also played a fair role in aiding the southern Asiatic kingdoms to repel the Mongols. Mongols of Mongol empire invaded India from 1221 to 1327. ... Ghiyas ud din Balban (1200 – 1286/1287) was a ruler of the Delhi Sultanate during the Slave Dynasty that ruled between 1206 and 1290. ...


Arabia and Egypt

The final area which would withstand the Mongols was the Levant. The Mamluks successfully defended the Holy Land with the aid of Berke Khan who allied himself with them after his cousin enraged him by sacking Baghdad, (Berke was a Muslim, and sent word to the Great Khan that he would "call him to account (Hulagu Khan), for he has murdered the Caliph in Baghdad, and killed all the faithful.")[24] This Mongol against Mongol fighting, after the Mamluks defeated the Mongols at Ain Jalut in 1260 ultimately brought down the Mongol Empire. Mamluks also repelled Mongol attacks in Syria in 1271, 1281, 1299/1300, 1303/1304 and 1312. An Ottoman Mamluk, from 1810 Mamluks (or Mameluks) (the Arabic word usually translates as owned, singular: مملوك plural: مماليك) comprised slave soldiers used by the Muslim Caliphs and the Ottoman Empire, and who on more than one occasion seized power for themselves. ... Combatants Mongols Abbasid Caliphate Commanders Hulagu Khan Guo Kan Caliph Al-Mustasim Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties Unknown, but believed minimal Military, 50,000(est. ... Hulagu Khan, also known as Hulagu, Hülegü or Hulegu (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Chaghatay/Persian: ; Arabic:هولاكو; c. ... The Battle of Ain Jalut (or Ayn Jalut, the Spring of Goliath) took place on September 3, 1260 between the Mameluks and the Mongols in Palestine. ...

See also: Franco-Mongol alliance

Among the Christian states in the Levant (in yellow) Little Armenia and the northern Frank kingdom of Antioch were the most regular allies of the Mongols. ...

Disintegration

When Genghis Khan died, a major potential weakness of the system he had set up manifested itself. It took many months to summon the kurultai, as many of its most important members were leading military campaigns thousands of miles from the Mongol heartland. And then it took months more for the kurultai to come to the decision that had been almost inevitable from the start — that Genghis's choice as successor, his third son Ögedei, should become Great Khan. Ögedei was a rather passive ruler and personally self-indulgent, but he was intelligent, charming and a good decision-maker whose authority was respected throughout his reign by apparently stronger-willed relatives and generals whom he had inherited from Genghis.


After the initial massive campaigns at the beginning of the conquest of Europe, where the Mongol war machine handily defeated the Hungarian and Polish armies, the Hospitallers, the Teutonic Knights, as well as the slaughtering of countless many civilians, Ögedei Khan suddenly died in 1241; just as the Mongol forces under General Subutai were preparing an all out assault on Vienna, Austria. This sudden vacuum of power is seen as the beginning of the events that led to the decline of the Mongol Empire. As customary to Mongol military tradition, all generals and princes, and thus the tumens, had to report back to the capital Karakorum thousands of miles away (the relocation of the capital to Dadu would add to this difficulty under Kublai Khan), for the election of a successor to the throne. Pending a kurultai to elect Ögedei's successor, his widow Toregene Khatun assumed power and proceeded to ensure the election of her son Guyuk by the kurultai. Batu, bitterly disappointed by the postponement of the European campaign, was unwilling to accept Guyuk as Great Khan, but lacked the influence in the kurultai to procure his own election. Therefore, while moving no further west, he simultaneously insisted that the situation in Europe was too precarious for him to come east and that he could not accept the result of any kurultai held in his absence. The resulting stalemate lasted four years. In 1246 Batu eventually agreed to send a representative to the kurultai but never acknowledged the resulting election of Guyuk as Great Khan. Toregene Khatun and Guyuk were also less in favor of the Mandarin officials installed by Genghis Khan himself, most notably Chancellor Yeh-Lu Ch'u-Ts'ai, who were so instrumental in the successful administration of Mongol conquests, choosing instead, to place Muslim administrators from the new domains to help run Mongol politics.[9] The Knights Hospitaller (the or Knights of Malta or Knights of Rhodes) is a tradition which began as a Benedictine nursing Order founded in the 11th century based in the Holy Land, but soon became a militant Christian Chivalric Order under its own charter, and was charged with the care... For the state, see Monastic state of the Teutonic Knights. ... Subutai (Mongolian: , Sübeedei; Classic Mongolian: Sübügätäi or Sübüätäi; 1176 to 1248) was the primary strategist and general of Genghis Khan and Ögedei Khan. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... A power vacuum is an expression for a political situation that can occur when a government has no identifiable central authority. ... Khanbaliq or Cambuluc (great residence of the khan) is the ancient Mongol name for Beijing, the current capital of China. ... Güyük (c. ... A Mandarin was a bureaucrat in imperial China. ... Yelü Chucai (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Yeh-lü Chu-tsai; Mongolian: Urtu Saqal, 吾图撒合里, long beard; also Yeh-Lu Chu-Tsai) was a Mandarin statesman of Khitan ethnicity with royal family lineage to the Liao Dynasty. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ...


Guyuk died in 1248, only two years after his election, on his way west, apparently to force Batu to acknowledge his authority, and his widow Oghul Ghaymish assumed the regency pending the meeting of the kurultai; unfortunately for her, she could not keep the power. Batu remained in the west but this time gave his support to his and Guyuk's cousin, Möngke, who was duly elected Great Khan in 1251. Möngke Khan (1208-1259, also transliterated as Mongke, Mongka, Möngka, Mangu) was the fourth khan of the Mongol Empire. ...


Möngke Khan assigned his brother Kublai, or Qubilai, to a province in North China, which would unwittingly provide Kublai with a chance to become Khan in 1260 shortly after Möngke's death in 1259. Kublai Khan or Khubilai Khan (1215 - 1294), Mongol military leader, was Khan (1260-1294) of the Mongol Empire and founder and first Emperor (1279-1294) of the Yuan Dynasty. ...


Kublai expanded the Mongol Empire and became a favorite of Möngke. Kublai's conquest of China is estimated by Holworth, based on census figures, to have killed over 18 million people. As pointed out by Rummel, these figures are probably highly exaggerated, although a large number of people died in the course of the conquest.[25]


Later, though, when Kublai began to adopt many Chinese laws and customs, his brother was persuaded by his advisors that Kublai was becoming too sinicized and would be considered treasonous. Möngke kept a closer watch on Kublai from then on but died campaigning against Southern Song China at the Fishing Town in Chongqing. After his older brother's death, Kublai placed himself in the running for a new khan against his younger brother, and, although his younger brother won the election, Kublai defeated him in battle, and Kublai became the last Great Khan. Note, among historians there is no consensus who was the last true Great Khan. Many scholars believe that Möngke was the last, because after his death, the great empire fell apart into 4 khanates. Chinese culture has roots going back over five thousand years. ... Sinicization, or less commonly Sinification, is to make things Chinese. ... Alternative meaning: Song Dynasty (420-479) The Song dynasty (Chinese: 宋朝) was a ruling dynasty in China from 960-1279. ... Fishing town or Fishing City(Simplified Chinese: 钓鱼城; Traditional Chinese: 釣鱼城;Pingyin: diaoyucheng), be called “oriental Mecca” also be called “the Place Breaking off the Gods Whip”, is one of the three ancient battlefields in China. ... Chongqing (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Postal map spelling: Chungking; Wade-Giles: Chung-ching) is the largest and most populous of the Peoples Republic of Chinas four provincial-level municipalities, and the only one in the less densely populated western half of China. ...


He proved to be a strong warrior, but his critics still accused him of being too closely tied to Chinese culture. When he moved his headquarters to Beijing, there was an uprising in the old capital that he barely staunched. He focused mostly on foreign alliances, and opened trade routes. He dined with a large court every day, and met with many ambassadors, foreign merchants, and even offered to convert to Christianity if this religion was proved to be correct by 100 priests. Chinese culture has roots going back over five thousand years. ... Peking redirects here. ...


By the reign of Kublai Khan, the empire was already in the process of splitting into a number of smaller khanates. After Kublai died in 1294, his heirs failed to maintain the Pax Mongolica effective. Inter-family rivalry compounded by the complicated politics of succession, which twice paralyzed military operations as far off as Hungary and the borders of Egypt (crippling their chances of success), and the tendencies of some of the khans to drink themselves to death fairly young (causing the aforementioned succession crises), hastened the disintegration of the empire. For other uses, see Kublai Khan (disambiguation). ... For the Star Trek character see Khan Noonien Singh. ... The Pax Mongolica or Mongol Peace is a phrase coined by Western scholars to describe the effect of the conquest of the Mongol Empire on the social, cultural and economic life of the inhabitants in the 13th and 14th centuries. ...


Another factor which contributed to the disintegration was the difficulty of the potential two-weeks extra transit time of officials and messengers and a general decline of morale when the capital was moved from Karakorum to Dadu, the Yuan name for the modern day city of Beijing by Kublai Khan; as Kublai Khan associated more closely to Chinese culture. Kublai concentrated on the war with the Song Dynasty, assuming the mantle of ruler of China, while the khanates to the west gradually drifted away. The Karakorum palace (also Ka-la-kun-lun, Khara-khorin, Kharakhorum, Khara Khorum in Classical Mongolian) was an ancient capital of the Mongol Empire in the 13th century, although for only about 30 years. ... Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 (Cont. ... Peking redirects here. ... For other uses, see Kublai Khan (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Kublai Khan (disambiguation). ... Chinese culture has roots going back over five thousand years. ... For other uses, see Liu Song Dynasty. ...


The four descendant empires were the Mongol-founded Yuan Dynasty in China, the Chagatai Khanate, the Golden Horde that controlled Central Asia and Russia, and the Ilkhanate that ruled Persia from 1256 to 1353. The conflict between Kublai Khan and the khanates in Central Asia led by Kaidu (Qaidu) had lasted for a few decades, until the beginning of the 14th century, when both of them had died. Of the Ilkhanate, their ruler Ilkhan Ghazan was converted to Islam in 1295 and renounced all allegiance to the Great Khan.[26] He actively supported the expansion of this religion in his empire. The Mongol Empire was never again under one rule, though the other three khanates negotiated peace with Temür Khan of Yuan Dynasty in 1304, in order to maintain trade and diplomatic relations. Most of the khanates began to fall during this century. Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 (Cont. ... The four successor Khanates of the Mongol Empire: Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde, Il-Khanate and Chagatai Khanate Chagatai Khan (alternative spellings Chagata, Chugta, Chagta, Djagatai, Jagatai), a son of Genghis Khan (1206–1227), controlled the part of the Mongol Empire which extended from the Ili... The Golden Horde (Mongolian: Altan Ordyn Uls; Tatar: ; Russian: ) is a Russian designation for the Mongol[1][2][3] — later Turkicized[4] — khanate established in the western part of the Mongol Empire after the Mongol invasion of Rus in the 1240s: present-day Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and the Caucasus. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east, and from southern Russia in the north to... Khanates of Mongolian Empire: Il-Khanate, Chagatai Khanate, Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. ... Kaidu (d. ... Ghazan Khan was ruler of the Ilkhanate from 1295 to 1305. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Emperor Chengzong of Yuan China (1265-February 10, 1307) was the second leader of the Yuan Dynasty to rule as Emperor of China and did so between 1294 and 1307. ... Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 (Cont. ...


Silk Road

Main article: Silk Road

The Mongol expansion throughout the Asian continent from around 1215 to 1360 helped bring political stability and re-establish the Silk Road vis-à-vis Karakorum. The 13th century saw a Franco-Mongol alliance with exchange of ambassadors and even military collaboration in the Holy Land. The Chinese Mongol Rabban Bar Sauma visited the courts of Europe in 1287-1288. With rare exceptions such as Marco Polo or Christian missionaries such as William of Rubruck, few Europeans traveled the entire length of the Silk Road. Instead traders moved products much like a bucket brigade, with luxury goods being traded from one middleman to another, from China to the West, and resulting in extravagant prices for the trade goods. For other uses, see Silk Road (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Silk Road (disambiguation). ... The Karakorum palace (also Ka-la-kun-lun, Khara-khorin, Kharakhorum, Khara Khorum in Classical Mongolian) was an ancient capital of the Mongol Empire in the 13th century, although for only about 30 years. ... Among the Christian states in the Levant (in yellow) Little Armenia and the northern Frank kingdom of Antioch were the most regular allies of the Mongols. ... For other uses, see Holy Land (disambiguation). ... Rabban Bar Sauma (fl. ... Marco Polo (September 15, 1254[1] – January 9, 1324 at earliest but no later than June 1325[2]) was a Venetian trader and explorer who gained fame for his worldwide travels, recorded in the book Il Milione (The Million or The Travels of Marco Polo). ... William of Rubruck (also William of Rubruk, Willem van Ruysbroeck, Guillaume de Rubrouck, Willielmus de Rubruquis, born c. ...


The disintegration of the Mongol Empire led to the collapse of the Silk Road's political unity. Also falling victim were the cultural and economic aspects of its unity. Turkic tribes seized the western end of the Silk Road from the decaying Byzantine Empire, and sowed the seeds of a Turkic culture that would later crystallize into the Ottoman Empire under the Sunni faith. Turkic-Mongol military bands in Iran, after some years of chaos were united under the Saffavid tribe, under whom the modern Iranian nation took shape under the Shiite faith. Meanwhile Mongol princes in Central Asia were content with Sunni orthodoxy with decentralized princedoms of the Chagatay, Timurid and Uzbek houses. In the Kypchak-Tatar zone, Mongol khanates all but crumbled under the assaults of the Black Death and the rising power of Muscovy. In the east end, the Chinese Ming Dynasty overthrew the Mongol yoke and pursued a policy of economic isolationism[citations needed]. Yet another force, the Kalmyk-Oyrats pushed out of the Baikal area in central Siberia, but failed to deliver much impact beyond Turkestan. Some Kalmyk tribes did manage to migrate into the Volga-North Caucasus region, but their impact was limited. For other uses, see Silk Road (disambiguation). ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... The Safavids were a long-lasting Turkic-speaking Iranian dynasty that ruled from 1501 to 1736 and first established Shiite Islam as Persias official religion. ... Shi‘as (the adjective in Arabic is شيعى shi‘i; English has traditionally used Shiite) which mean follower in Arabic make up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%-35% of all Muslim. ... Kypchaks (also Kipchaks, Qipchaqs) are an ancient Turkic people, first mentioned in historical chronicles of Central Asia in the 1st millennium BC. The western Kypchaks were also named Kuman, Kun and Polovtsian (pl. ... Historically, the term Tatar (or Tartar) has been ambiguously used by Europeans to refer to many different peoples of Inner Asia and Northern Asia. ... This article concerns the mid fourteenth century pandemic. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... For the town in southern Kazakhstan, see Hazrat-e Turkestan. ... The Republic of Kalmykia ( Russian: Респу́блика Калмы́кия; Kalmyk: Хальм Тангч) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ...


After the Mongol Empire, the great political powers along the Silk Road became economically and culturally separated. Accompanying the crystallization of regional states was the decline of nomad power, partly due to the devastation of the Black Death and partly due to the encroachment of sedentary civilizations equipped with gunpowder. This article concerns the mid fourteenth century pandemic. ... A modern black powder substitute for muzzleloading rifles in FFG size Gunpowder (also called black powder) is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture of sulfur, charcoal and potassium nitrate (also known as saltpetre or saltpeter) that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot solids and gases which can be used as...


Ironically, as a footnote, the effect of gunpowder and early modernity on Europe was the integration of territorial states and increasing mercantilism. Whereas along the Silk Road, it was quite the opposite: failure to maintain the level of integration of the Mongol Empire and decline in trade, partly due to European maritime trade. The Silk Road stopped serving as a shipping route for silk around 1400. Modernity is a term used to describe the condition of being related to modernism. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Silk Road (disambiguation). ...


Legacy

The Mongol Empire was the largest contiguous empire in human history. The 13th and 14th century, when the empire came to power, is often called the "Age of the Mongols". The Mongol armies during that time were extremely well organized. The death toll (by battle, massacre, flooding, and famine) of the Mongol wars of conquest is placed at about 40 million according to some sources. A death toll is the number of dead as a result of war, violence, accident, natural disaster, extreme weather, or disease. ...


Many ancient sources described Genghis Khan's conquests as wholesale destruction on an unprecedented scale in their certain geographical regions, and therefore probably causing great changes in the demographics of Asia. For example, over much of Central Asia speakers of Iranian languages were replaced by speakers of Turkic languages. The eastern part of the Islamic world experienced the terrifying holocaust of the Mongol invasion, which turned northern and eastern Iran into a desert. Between 1220 and 1260, the total population of Persia may have dropped from 2,500,000 to 250,000 as a result of mass extermination and famine.[27] For the span of recorded history starting roughly 5,000-5,500 years ago, see Ancient history. ... A source text is text (usually written but sometimes oral) from which information or ideas are derived. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east, and from southern Russia in the north to... The Iranian languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family. ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. ... The Islamic world is the world-wide community of those who identify with Islam, known as Muslims, and who number approximately one-and-a-half billion people. ... The Mongol Invasion of Russia was an invasion of the medieval state of Kievan Rus by a large army of nomadic Mongols, starting in 1223. ... This article is about fatal harm. ... <nowiki>Insert non-formatted text hereBold text</nowiki>A famine is a social and economic crisis that is commonly accompanied by widespread malnutrition, starvation, epidemic and increased mortality. ...


Non-military achievements of the Mongol Empire include the introduction of a writing system, based on the Uyghur script, that is still used in Inner Mongolia. The Empire unified all the tribes of Mongolia, which made possible the emergence of a Mongol nation and culture. Modern Mongolians are generally proud of the empire and the sense of identity that it gave to them. Uyghur (‎/Uyghurche//, or ‎/Uyghur tili//)[1] is a Turkic language spoken by the Uyghur people in Xinjiang (also called East Turkestan or Uyghurstan), formerly also “Sinkiang” and “Chinese Turkestan,” a Central Asian region administered by China. ... Inner Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠨᠺᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠺᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ r Mongghul-un bertegen Jasaqu Orun; Chinese: 内蒙古自治区; Hanyu Pinyin: N i Měnggǔ Z qū) is an Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


Some of the long-term consequences of the Mongol Empire include:

  • The Yuan Dynasty (the part of Mongol Empire in China) is traditionally given credit for reuniting China and expanding its frontiers.
  • The language Chagatai, widely spoken among a group of Turks, is named after a son of Genghis Khan. It was once widely spoken, and had a literature, but eventually became extinct in Russia.
  • Moscow rose to prominence during the Mongol-Tatar yoke, some time after Russian rulers were accorded the status of tax collectors for Mongols (which meant that the Mongols themselves would rarely visit the lands that they owned). The Russian ruler Ivan III overthrew the Mongols completely to form the Russian Tsardom, after the Great stand on the Ugra river proved the Mongols vulnerable, and led to the independence of the Grand Duke of Moscow.
  • Europe’s knowledge of the known world was immensely expanded by the information brought back by ambassadors and merchants. When Columbus sailed in 1492, his missions were to reach Cathay, the land of the Genghis Khan.
  • Some research studies indicate that the Black Death, which devastated Europe in the late 1340s, may have reached from China to Europe along the trade routes of the Mongol Empire. In 1347, the Genoese possession of Caffa, a great trade emporium on the Crimean peninsula, came under siege by an army of Mongol warriors under the command of Janibeg. After a protracted siege during which the Mongol army was reportedly withering from the disease, they decided to use the infected corpses as a biological weapon. The corpses were catapulted over the city walls, infecting the inhabitants.[28] The Genoese traders fled, transferring the plague via their ships into the south of Europe, whence it rapidly spread. The total number of deaths worldwide from the pandemic is estimated at 75 million people, there were an estimated 20 million deaths in Europe alone. It is estimated that between one-quarter and two-thirds of the of Europe's population died from the outbreak of the plague between 1348 and 1350.
  • Among the Western accounts, R. J. Rummel estimated that 30 million people were killed under the rule of the Mongol Empire. The population of China fell by half in fifty years of Mongol rule. Before the Mongol invasion, Chinese dynasties reportedly had approximately 120 million inhabitants; after the conquest was completed in 1279, the 1300 census reported roughly 60 million people.[29] David Nicole states in The Mongol Warlords, "terror and mass extermination of anyone opposing them was a well tested Mongol tactic."[30] About half of the Russian population died during the invasion.[31] Historians estimate that up to half of Hungary's two million population at that time were victims of the Mongol invasion.[32]
Genghis Khan, founder of the Mongol Empire and Mongol Nation.
Genghis Khan, founder of the Mongol Empire and Mongol Nation.

One of the more successful tactics employed by the Mongols was to wipe out urban populations that had refused to surrender. In the invasion of Kievan Rus', almost all major cities were destroyed. If they chose to submit, the people were spared and treated as slaves, which meant most of them would be driven to die quickly by hard work, with the exception that war prisoners became part of their army to aid in future conquests.[33] In addition to intimidation tactics, the rapid expansion of the Empire was facilitated by military hardiness (especially during bitterly cold winters), military skill, meritocracy, and discipline. Subutai, in particular among the Mongol Commanders, viewed winter as the best time for war — while less hardy people hid from the elements, the Mongols were able to use frozen lakes and rivers as highways for their horsemen, a strategy he used with great effect in Russia. The Chagatai language is an extinct Turkic language which was once widely spoken in Central Asia. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... This is a list of the Mongol and Tatar military campaigns in Russia following the Mongol invasion of Rus: 1252: Horde of Nevruy devastated Pereslavl-Zalessky and Suzdal. ... Albus rex Ivan III Ivan III Vasilevich (Иван III Васильевич) (January 22, 1440, Moscow – October 27, 1505, Moscow), also known as Ivan the Great, was a grand duke of Muscovy who first adopted a more pretentious title of the grand duke of all the Russias. Sometimes referred to as the gatherer of... Muscovy (Moscow principality (княжество Московское) to Grand Duchy of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское) to Russian Tsardom (Царство Русское)) is a traditional Western name for the Russian state that existed from the 14th century to the late 17th century. ... Miniature in Russian chronicle, XVI century The Great standing on the Ugra river (Великое cтояние на реке Угре in Russian, also Угорщина (Ugorschina in English, derived from Ugra) was a standoff between Akhmat Khan, Khan of the Great Horde, and Grand Duke Ivan III of Russia in 1480, which resulted in the retreat of the... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Christopher Columbus (1451 – May 20, 1506) was a navigator, colonizer, and explorer and one of the first Europeans to explore the Americas after the Vikings. ... Cathay is the Anglicized version of Catai, the name that was given to northern China by Marco Polo (he referred to southern China as Manji). ... This article concerns the mid fourteenth century pandemic. ... The Republic of Genoa, in full the Most Serene Republic of Genoa (known as the Ligurian Republic from 1798 to 1805) was an independent state in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast from ca. ... Theodosia (Russian: Феодосия; Ukrainian: Феодосія; Greek: Θεοδωσία; Crimean Tatar/Turkish: Kefe) is a port and resort city in southern Ukraine, located on the Black Sea coast of Crimea at coordinates 45. ... Motto: ÐŸÑ€Ð¾Ñ†Ð²ÐµÑ‚ание в единстве(Russian) Protsvetanie v edinstve(transliteration) Prosperity in unity Anthem: ÐÐ¸Ð²Ñ‹ и горы твои волшебны, Родина(Russian) Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina(transliteration) Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (light blue). ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... Little is known about Janibeg other than that he was a Mongol commander of a massive Crimean Tatar force that attacked the Crimean port city of Kaffa in 1343. ... Biological warfare, also known as germ warfare, is the use of any organism (bacteria, virus or other disease_causing organism) or toxin found in nature, as a weapon of war. ... Medieval demography is the study of human demography in Europe during the Middle Ages. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Mongol Invasion of Russia was an invasion of the medieval state of Kievan Rus by a large army of nomadic Mongols, starting in 1223. ... An invasion is a military action consisting of armed forces of one geopolitical entity entering territory controlled by another such entity, generally with the objective of conquering territory, or altering the established government. ... The Mongol invasions of Europe were centered in their destruction of the Ruthenian states, especially Kiev, under the leadership of Subutai. ... This image is in public domain File links The following pages link to this file: Genghis Khan ... This image is in public domain File links The following pages link to this file: Genghis Khan ... This article is about the person. ... Mongol Nation is a term sometimes widely used to refer to the unified administrative rule of Central Asian confederations by Genghis Khan who was the most successful. ... Military tactics (Greek: TaktikÄ“, the art of organizing an army) are the collective name for methods for engaging and defeating an enemy in battle. ... For other uses, see Mongols (disambiguation). ... Cities with at least a million inhabitants in 2006 An urban area is an area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ... The Mongol Invasion of Rus was heralded by the Battle of the Kalka River (1223) between Subutais reconnaissance unit and the combined force of several princes of Rus. After fifteen years of peace, it was followed by Batu Khans full-scale invasion in 1237-40. ... Trydent of Yaroslav I Map of the Kievan Rus′, 11th century Capital Kiev Religion Orthodox Christianity Government Monarchy Historical era Middle Ages  - Established 9th century  - Disestablished 12th century Currency Hryvnia Kievan Rus′ was the early, predominantly East Slavic[1] medieval state of Rurikid dynasty dominated by the city of Kiev... The Buxton Memorial Fountain, celebrating the emancipation of slaves in the British Empire in 1834, London. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Meritocracy is a system of a government or another organization wherein appointments are made *who* makes the appointments - ultimately, it is the people (all members of the group). ... Subutai (Mongolian: , Sübeedei; Classic Mongolian: Sübügätäi or Sübüätäi; 1176 to 1248) was the primary strategist and general of Genghis Khan and Ögedei Khan. ...


The Mongol Empire had a lasting impact, unifying large regions, some of which (such as eastern and western Russia and the western parts of China) remain unified today, albeit under different rulership. The Mongols themselves were assimilated into local populations after the fall of the empire, and many of these descendants adopted local religions — for example, the eastern Khanates largely adopted Buddhism, and the western Khanates adopted Islam, largely under Sufi influence. The last Khan who was the ruler of South Asia, Bahadur Shah Zafar was deposed by the British after the collapse of the 1857 uprising and exiled to Rangoon where he lies buried. His sons were killed by the British in Humayun's tomb, the burial place of their ancestor in Delhi. For the Star Trek character see Khan Noonien Singh. ... Buddhism, a Dharmic faith, is usually considered one of the worlds major religions, with between 230 to 500 million followers. ... For the Star Trek character see Khan Noonien Singh. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ... Bahadur Shah II (1775-1862) aka Bahadur Shah Zafar (Zafar was his nom de plume, or takhallus, as an Urdu poet) was the last of the Mughal emperors in India. ... Combatants Indian Patriots, Rebellious East India Company Sepoys, 7 Indian princely states, deposed rulers of Oudh and Jhansi, Indian civilians in some areas. ... Yangôn, formerly Rangoon, population 4,504,000 (2001), is the capital of Myanmar. ... Humayuns tomb is a complex of buildings of Mughal architecture located in Nizamuddin east, New Delhi. ... For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ...


The influence of the Mongol Empire may prove to be even more direct — Zerjal et al [2003][34] identify a Y-chromosomal lineage present in about 8% of the men in a large region of Asia (or about 0.5% of the men in the world). The paper suggests that the pattern of variation within the lineage is consistent with a hypothesis that it originated in Mongolia about 1,000 years ago. Such a spread would be too rapid to have occurred by diffusion, and must therefore be the result of selection. The authors propose that the lineage is carried by likely male line descendants of Genghis Khan, and that it has spread through social selection. This is a list of genetic results derived from historical figures. ... diffusion (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Selection (disambiguation). ...

Mongolia today
Mongolia today

In addition to the Khanates and other descendants, the Mughal royal family of South Asia are also descended from Genghis Khan: Babur's mother was a descendant — whereas his father was directly descended from Timur (Tamerlane). At the time of Genghis Khan's death in 1227, the empire was divided among his four sons, with his third son as the supreme Khan, and by the 1350s, the khanates were in a state of fracture and had lost the order brought to them by Genghis Khan. Eventually the separate khanates drifted away from each other, becoming the Il-Khans Dynasty based in Iran, the Chagatai Khanate in Central Asia, the Yuan Dynasty in China, and what would become the Golden Horde in present day Russia. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... For the Star Trek character see Khan Noonien Singh. ... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... Zāhir ud-DÄ«n Mohammad, commonly known as Bābur (February 14, 1483 – December 26, 1530) (Chaghatay/Persian: ; also spelled ), was a Muslim Emperor from Central Asia who founded the Mughal dynasty of India. ... For the similar-sounding word Timor, see Timor (disambiguation). ... Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 (Cont. ...


See also

// Archaeological evidence places early Stone Age human habitation in the southern Gobi between 100,000 and 200,000 years ago. ... This is the list of Mongol Khans and Khagans. ... The Mongol military machine was largely the creation of one man- Genghis Khan. ... // Food in the Mongolian Empire During the Mongolian Empire there were two different groups of food, “white foods” and “red foods”. “White foods” were usually dairy products and were the main food source during the summer. ...

Notes

  1. ^ http://www.hostkingdom.net/earthrul.html
  2. ^ The Islamic World to 1600: The Golden Horde
  3. ^ Michael Biran, Qaidu and the Rise of the Independent Mongol State in Central Asia. The Curzon Press, 1997, ISBN 0-7007-0631-3
  4. ^ Weatherford, p. 69
  5. ^ Weatherford, p. 135
  6. ^ Dharamsalaь Department of Information and International Relations Central Tibetan Administration - The Mongoals and Tibet
  7. ^ Л.Н.Гумилев - Древняя русь и великая степь
  8. ^ Foltz "Religions of the Silk Road"
  9. ^ a b c d Chambers, James, The Devil's Horsemen Atheneum, 1979, ISBN 0-689-10942-3
  10. ^ The Destruction of Kiev
  11. ^ Rene Grousset - The Empires of Steppes, Ж.Бор Еварзийн дипломат шашстир II боть
  12. ^ Л.Н.Гумилев - Древняя Русь и великая степь
  13. ^ Ринчен Хара Даван - Чингис хан гений
  14. ^ Ринчен Хара Даван - Чингис хан гений
  15. ^ Rene Grousset - Empires of Steppes, Ж.Бор Евразийн дипломат шашстир II боть
  16. ^ Rene Grousset - Empires of Steppes, Ж.Бор Евразийн дипломат шашстир II боть
  17. ^ Rene Grousset - Empires of Steppes, Ж.Бор Евразийн дипломат шашстир II боть
  18. ^ Rene Grousset - Empires of Steppes, Ж.Бор Евразийн дипломат шашстир II боть
  19. ^ Reuven Amitei Press Mamluk Ilkhanid war 1260-1280
  20. ^ A History of the Byzantine Empire by Al. Vasilief, © 2007
  21. ^ Ринчен Хара-Даван: Чингис хан гений, Ж.Бор: Евразийн дипломат шашстир II боть
  22. ^ a b Saunders, J. J. (1971). The History of the Mongol Conquests, Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd. ISBN 0-8122-1766-7
  23. ^ [1]
  24. ^ Nicolle, David, The Mongol Warlords Brockhampton Press, 1998, ISBN 978-1853141041.
  25. ^ hawaii.edu
  26. ^ [2]
  27. ^ Battuta's Travels: Part Three - Persia and Iraq
  28. ^ Svat Soucek. A History of Inner Asia. Cambridge University Press, 2000. ISBN 0-521-65704-0. P. 116.
  29. ^ Ping-ti Ho, "An Estimate of the Total Population of Sung-Chin China", in Études Song, Series 1, No 1, (1970) pp. 33-53.
  30. ^ Mongol Conquests
  31. ^ History of Russia, Early Slavs history, Kievan Rus, Mongol invasion
  32. ^ The Mongol invasion: the last Arpad kings
  33. ^ The Story of the Mongols Whom We Call the Tartars= Historia Mongalorum Quo s Nos Tartaros Appellamus: Friar Giovanni Di Plano Carpini's Account of His Embassy to the Court of the Mongol Khan by Da Pian Del Carpine Giovanni and Erik Hildinger (Branden BooksApril 1996 ISBN-13: 978-0828320177)
  34. ^ Zerjal, Xue, Bertolle, Wells, Bao, Zhu, Qamar, Ayub, Mohyuddin, Fu, Li, Yuldasheva, Ruzibakiev, Xu, Shu, Du, Yang, Hurles, Robinson, Gerelsaikhan, Dashnyam, Mehdi, Tyler-Smith (2003). "The Genetic Legacy of the Mongols". American Journal of Human Genetics (72): 717–721.

The headquarters of the Cambridge University Press, in Trumpington Street, Cambridge. ...

References

  • Brent, Peter. The Mongol Empire: Genghis Khan: His Triumph and his Legacy. Book Club Associates, London. 1976.
  • Buell, Paul D. (2003), Historical Dictionary of the Mongol World Empire, The Scarecrow Press, Inc., ISBN 0-8108-4571-7
  • Howorth, Henry H. History of the Mongols from the 9th to the 19th Century: Part I: The Mongols Proper and the Kalmuks. New York: Burt Frankin, 1965 (reprint of London edition, 1876).
  • Kradin, Nikolay, Tatiana Skrynnikova. "Genghis Khan Empire". Moscow: Vostochnaia literatura, 2006. 557 p. (ISBN 5-02-018521-3).
  • Kradin, Nikolay, Tatiana Skrynnikova. "Why do we call Chinggis Khan's Polity 'an Empire' ". Ab Imperio, Vol. 7, No 1(2006): 89-118. (ISBN 5-89423-110-8)
  • May, Timothy. "The Mongol Art of War." [3] Westholme Publishing, Yardley. 2007.
  • Weatherford, Jack (2004). Genghis Khan and the Making of the Modern World. Three Rivers Press. ISBN 0-609-80964-4.
  • (French) Dominique Farale, De Gengis Khan à Qoubilaï Khan : la grande chevauchée mongole, Economica, 2003 (ISBN 2-7178-4537-2)
  • (French) Dominique Farale, La Russie et les Turco-Mongols : 15 siècles de guerre, Economica, 2007 (ISBN 978-2-7178-5429-9)

Template:Histoire de l'Asie Genghis Khan (Mongolian: Чингис Хаан, Jenghis Khan, Jinghis Khan, Chinghiz Khan, Jinghiz Khan, Chinggis Khan, Changaiz Khan, original name Temüjin, Temuchin, Mongolian: Тэмүүжин) (c. ... Kublai Khan or Khubilai Khan (1215 - 1294), Mongol military leader, was Khan (1260-1294) of the Mongol Empire and founder and first Emperor (1279-1294) of the Yuan Dynasty. ... For other uses, see Mongols (disambiguation). ...


External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Khagans of Mongol Empire
Genghis Khan (1215–1227) | Tolui Khan (regent) (1227–1229) | Ögedei Khan (1229–1241) | Töregene Khatun (regent) (1241–1245) | Güyük Khan (1246–1248) | Möngke Khan (1251–1259) | Khublai Khan (1260–1294)

Khagan or Great Khan (Old Turkic ; Mongolian: ; Chinese: ; pinyin: ; alternatively spelled Chagan, Khaghan, Kagan, Kağan, Qagan, Qaghan), is a title of imperial rank in the Turkic and Mongolian languages equal to the status of emperor and someone who rules a Khaganate (empire, greater than an ordinary Khan, but often... This article is about the person. ... Tolui,also rendered Toluy or Tolui Khan (Mongolian: ; Chinese: ; pinyin: ; 1190–1232), was the youngest son of Genghis Khan by Börte. ... Ögedei Khan, (Mongolian: , Ögöödei; also Ogotai or Oktay; c. ... Töregene Khatun ruled as regent of the Mongol Empire from the death of her husband Ögedei Khan in 1241 until the election of her eldest son Güyük Khan in 1246. ... Güyük (c. ... Möngke Khan (Мөнх хаан), also transliterated as Mongke, Mongka, Möngka, Mangu or Mangku (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; c. ... For other uses, see Kublai Khan (disambiguation). ...

Yam is a supply point route messenger system developed by Genghis Khan. ... The Pax Mongolica or Mongol Peace is a phrase coined by Western scholars to describe the effect of the conquest of the Mongol Empire on the social, cultural and economic life of the inhabitants in the 13th and 14th centuries. ... Yassa, alternatively Yasa or Yasaq, is a written code of laws created by Genghis Khan. ... Kurultai (Tatar: Qorıltay, Azerbaijani: Qurultay; Kurulmak meaning to assemble in Turkish, also Khural meaning meeting in Mongolian) is a political and military council of ancient Mongol and Turkic chiefs and khans. ... A nerge is a Mongolian military tactic that originated as a hunting technique. ... A type of horse archer in Age of Kings available only to the Mongols. ... Tumen was the part of decimal system used by Turkic, Proto-Turkic (such as the Huns) and by Mongol peoples for their army. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Mongol Empire - Search View - MSN Encarta (4706 words)
Once an enemy’s initial resistance was broken, the Mongols would overrun the territory with a rapidity not to be duplicated until the tank warfare of the 20th century.
By 1279, when the empire reached its largest size, it was made up of four virtually independent khanates: the Yuan dynasty of China in the east, the Jagatai khanate in the center, the Golden Horde in the west, and the Il-Khanid dynasty in the southwest.
The Mongols, who were involved in their own internal quarrels, seemed almost indifferent to the loss of this vast region, and they offered no effective resistance to Zhu’s invasion of the north that year.
Mongol Empire - MSN Encarta (1000 words)
Introduction; Establishment of the Empire by Genghis Khan; Empire of Kublai Khan; Empire of Jagatai; Empire of Il-Khan; Empire of the Golden Horde; Strengths and Weaknesses of the Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire, area ruled by the great Mongol khans in the 13th and 14th centuries; uniting almost all of western and eastern Asia, it was one of the largest land empires in history.
The original homeland of the Mongols, situated in the eastern zone of the Asian steppe, was bounded by the Khingan Mountains on the east, the Altai and Tian mountains on the west, the Shilka River and the mountain ranges by Lake Baikal on the north, and the Great Wall of China on the south.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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