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Honorary A guard is either a person or an organisation. It may be a person who looks after the safety of people or property, and/or make sure prisoners do not escape. It may also be a part of the military. It can also be an object, a fireguard for example... guard of For the region of the same name, see Mongolia (region) Mongolia (Khalkha Mongolian: Монгол Улс) is a landlocked nation in central Asia, bordered by Russia to the north and the Peoples Republic of China to the south. It was the center of... Mongolia.

The Mongols are an This article or section should be merged with ethnicity An ethnic group is a group of people who identify with one another, or are so identified by others, on the basis of a boundary that distinguishes them from other groups. This boundary may take any of a number of forms... ethnic group that originated in what is now For the region of the same name, see Mongolia (region) Mongolia (Khalkha Mongolian: Монгол Улс) is a landlocked nation in central Asia, bordered by Russia to the north and the Peoples Republic of China to the south. It was the center of... Mongolia, The Russian Federation ( Russian (русский язык) Spoken in: The Russian Federation ( Russian (русский язык) Spoken in: Russia and many other countries Region: Eastern Europe and Asia Total speakers: 280 million Ranking: 4... Russia, and This article is on the geographic and cultural entity. For other meanings, see Country China, a country in East Asia One of the two states that have China in their official title and claim sovereignty over all of China: Peoples Republic of China (governing Mainland China, Hong Kong, and Macau... China, particularly 内蒙古自治区 i Měnggǔ Z qū ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠨᠺᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠺᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ r Mongghul-un bertegen Jasaqu... Inner Mongolia. They currently number about 8.5 million and speak the The Mongolic languages are a group of languages spoken in Central Asia. Some linguists propose the grouping of Mongolian languages with Turkic (of which Turkish is a member) and Tungusic as Altaic languages, but this is not universally agreed upon. The best-known member of this language family, Mongolian, is... Mongol language. They form one of the The Peoples Republic of China officially describes itself as a multinational unitary state and as such officially recognizes 56 nationalities or Mínzú (民族), within China: the Han being the majority (>92%), and the remaining 55 nationalities being the national minorities. In addition to the 56 official... 56 nationalities officially recognized by the PRC redirects here. For other uses, see PRC (disambiguation). The Peoples Republic of China (PRC) comprises most of the cultural, historic, and geographic area known as This article is on the geographic and cultural entity. For other meanings, see Country China, a country in East Asia One of the... People's Republic of China. There are approximately 2.3 million Mongols in For the region of the same name, see Mongolia (region) Mongolia (Khalkha Mongolian: Монгол Улс) is a landlocked nation in central Asia, bordered by Russia to the north and the Peoples Republic of China to the south. It was the center of... Mongolia, 4 million Mongols living in 内蒙古自治区 i Měnggǔ Z qū ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠨᠺᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠺᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ r Mongghul-un bertegen Jasaqu... Inner Mongolia, and 2 million Mongols living in neighboring provinces. In addition, there are a number of ethnic groups in North China and Russia related to the Mongols: the The Daur people are an ethnic group. They form one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of China. Chinese ethnic groups (classification by PRC government) Achang - Bai - Blang - Bonan - Buyi - Dai - Daur - Deang - Dong - Dongxiang - Drung - Evenks - Gaoshan - Gelao - Gin - Han - Hani - Hezhen... Daur, The Buryats, numbering approximately 350,000, are the largest ethnic minority group in Mongolian descent and share many customs with their Mongolian cousins, including nomadic herding and erecting yurts for shelter. Today, the majority of Buryats live in and around Ulan Ude, the capital of the republic, although many live... Buryat, The Evenks (obsolete: Tungus) are a nomadic indigenous people, one of the Northern Indigenous Peoples (pop. 30,000 est.) of Siberia, Russia. The Evenki form one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of China. Evenks of Russia The Evenks were formerly known as tungus... Evenk, Dorbod, Tuvans (or Tuvinians) is a group of Turkic people, make up about two thirds of the population of Tuva. The Tuvan language belongs to the Northern or Siberian branch of the Turkic language family. The traditional religion of Tuvans is animism (shamanism), which is still widely practiced alongside Buddhism. A... Tuvans and The Republic of Kalmykia (Russian: Респу́блика Калмы́кия; Kalmyk: Хальм Тангч) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). The direct transliteration of... Kalmyk.

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History

Though few in number (approximately 200,000 people at the height of their empire), Mongols were important in world history. Under the leadership of Genghis Khan Birth name: Temüjin (Mongolian: Тэмүүжин) Family name: Borjigin (Mongolian: Боржигин) Title: Great Khan of Mongol Empire Dates of reign: 1206 - August 18, 1227 Succeeded by: Ogedei Khan Marriage: Börte Children: Borjigin Chagatai... Genghis Khan, the Mongols created the second largest History of Mongolia series Before Chinggis Khan Mongol Empire Chagatai Khanate Golden Horde Ilkhanate Yuan Dynasty Northern Yuan Oyirad Jüün Ghar Empire Qing Dynasty Independent Mongolia Inner Mongolia Buryat Republic Kalmykia Timeline The Mongol Empire was founded by Genghis Khan in 1206. At its height, it was arguably the... empire in world history, ruling 35 million km² (13.8 million miles²) and more than 100 million people, nearly equal to the Download high resolution version (1116x849, 158 KB)The World in 1897. The British Possesions are coloured Red This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. This applies worldwide. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the... British Empire in land area. At its height, the History of Mongolia series Before Chinggis Khan Mongol Empire Chagatai Khanate Golden Horde Ilkhanate Yuan Dynasty Northern Yuan Oyirad Jüün Ghar Empire Qing Dynasty Independent Mongolia Inner Mongolia Buryat Republic Kalmykia Timeline The Mongol Empire was founded by Genghis Khan in 1206. At its height, it was arguably the... Mongol Empire spanned from Korea Korea is a formerly unified country, situated on the Korean Peninsula The Korean Peninsula is a peninsula in East Asia. It extends southwards for about 1,100 kilometres from the continental Asian mainland into the Pacific Ocean and is surrounded by the East Sea/Sea of Japan on the... Korea to The Republic of Hungary (Magyar Köztársaság) or Hungary (Magyarország) is a A landlocked country is one that has no coastline. There are 42 landlocked countries in the world. A landlocked sea is a sea that is not connected to the oceans: the... Hungary, and included most of the lands in between, such as Afghanistan (Pashtu/Dari-Persian: Afğānistān افغانستان) is a country in Central Asia. It is bordered by Iran in the west, Pakistan in the south and east, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan in the north, and China in the... Afghanistan, Georgia ( Georgian (ქართული) Spoken in: Georgia, Iran, Azerbaijan, Turkey, Russia Region: Europe, Asia Total speakers: 6.6 million Ranking: Not in top 100 Genetic classification: Caucasian  South Caucasian   Georgian Official status Official language of: Georgia Regulated by: - Language codes ISO 639... Georgia, The text or formatting below is generated by a template which has been proposed for deletion. Please see its entry on Wikipedia:Templates for deletion for comments and voting. For other places with the same name, see Armenia is: the country Armenia the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, sometimes called Lesser... Armenia, The Russian Federation ( Russian (русский язык) Spoken in: The Russian Federation ( Russian (русский язык) Spoken in: Russia and many other countries Region: Eastern Europe and Asia Total speakers: 280 million Ranking: 4... Russia, Persian art is conscious of a great past, and monumental in many respects. Richard Frye. (http://www.iran-heritage.org/interestgroups/frye.htm) Example of a modern Persian Miniature (http://www.iranchamber.com/art/articles/history_iranian_miniature.php) by a contemporary artist. Persia is the historical and alternative name... Persia, This article is on the geographic and cultural entity. For other meanings, see Country China, a country in East Asia One of the two states that have China in their official title and claim sovereignty over all of China: Peoples Republic of China (governing Mainland China, Hong Kong, and Macau... China, and much of the A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. The Middle East is a... Middle East.


The Mongols were a Communities of nomadic people move from place to place, rather than settling down in one location. Many cultures have been traditionally nomadic, but nomadic behaviour is increasingly rare in industrialised countries. Typically there are two kinds of nomad, pastoral nomads and peripatetic nomads. Pastoralists raise herds and move with them... nomadic people who in the (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. In the history of European culture, this period is considered part of the High Middle Ages. Contents // 1 Events 2 Significant... 13th century found themselves encompassed by large, city-dwelling agrarian civilizations. However, none of these civilizations, with the possible exception of the Islamic An Anglicized/Latinized version of the Arabic word خليفة or Khalīfah, Caliph ( This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons. Please see its description page there. To play the audio file do not click on the -image. Look for a Listen-link near this... Caliphate located in Baghdad, were part of a strong central state. For other uses, see Asia may have the following meanings: Asia is one of the continents. Asia is a beach district in Peru. Asia was in Greek mythology one of the female Titans. Asia is a band. Asia was a province of the Roman Empire, in modern-day western Turkey... Asia, The Russian Federation ( Russian (русский язык) Spoken in: The Russian Federation ( Russian (русский язык) Spoken in: Russia and many other countries Region: Eastern Europe and Asia Total speakers: 280 million Ranking: 4... Russia, and the A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. The Middle East is a... Middle East were either declining kingdoms, or divided city states. Taking the strategic initiative, the Mongols exploited this power vacuum and linked all of these areas into a mutually supporting trade network.


The Mongols were largely dependent on trade with the city-dwelling peoples, but resorted to raiding villages when times were particularly hard. As nomads, they could not accumulate a surplus against bad times, or support artisans. When trade was reduced by the northern Chinese kingdoms in the Centuries: 12th century - 13th century - 14th century Decades: 1150s 1160s 1170s 1180s 1190s - 1200s - 1210s 1220s 1230s 1240s 1250s Years: 1200 1201 1202 1203 1204 1205 1206 1207 1208 1209 Events and Trends 1200 University of Paris receives charter from Philip II of France 1202-1204 Fourth Crusade - diverted to... 1200s, shortly after Genghis Khan Birth name: Temüjin (Mongolian: Тэмүүжин) Family name: Borjigin (Mongolian: Боржигин) Title: Great Khan of Mongol Empire Dates of reign: 1206 - August 18, 1227 Succeeded by: Ogedei Khan Marriage: Börte Children: Borjigin Chagatai... Genghis Khan became For the Star Trek character see Khan Noonien Singh. For a list of people named Khan, see List of people by name: Kh#Khan-Khay. Khan (sometimes spelled as xan, han) is a title meaning ruler in Mongolian and Turkish. A khan controls a khanate. Whenever appropriate, it is also... Khan of the Mongol tribes, the Mongols repeated their tradition of getting their goods by looting Northern China.


Conquest, in the Khan's initial viewpoint, did not consist of subordination of competing cultures to the nomadic way of life. Rather, it took the form of looting and destruction, if there was resistance. If there was no resistance, Mongols usually left the town unharmed and demanded that the townspeople pay them tribute. As a nomad, Genghis Khan is supposed to not have understood or cared of the supposed benefits in the city dwellers' way of life. This contrasts with their dependence on trade with the cities. However, theories on the economics of these relationships still lay seven centuries in the future.


The Khan's initial plan of conquest if people resisted was sacking all that was valuable, and then razing the city and killing the resistance, leaving only artists and human shields (for future campaigns) to survive. Genghis Khan Birth name: Temüjin (Mongolian: Тэмүүжин) Family name: Borjigin (Mongolian: Боржигин) Title: Great Khan of Mongol Empire Dates of reign: 1206 - August 18, 1227 Succeeded by: Ogedei Khan Marriage: Börte Children: Borjigin Chagatai... Genghis Khan himself was extremely supportive to people that were loyal to him and even to his enemies. Different theories exist as to why the Mongols initially behaved in such an extreme manner. From a military perspective, the Mongols were often far from home territory and greatly out-numbered, and wouldn't want to leave enemies in their rear. Terror also served as a useful weapon in reducing an opponent's ability to rally support against Mongol invasion. Economically, destroying population centers gave the Mongols more room to graze their herds.


One such example is the capture of 北京市 Běijīng Shì Abbreviation: 京 (pinyin: Jīng) The Forbidden City Origin of Name 北 běi _ north 京 jīng _ capital northern capital Administration Type Municipality CPC Beijing Committee Secretary Liu Qi Mayor Wang Qishan Area 16,808... Beijing in Years: 1212 1213 1214 - 1215 - 1216 1217 1218 Decades: 1180s 1190s 1200s - 1210s - 1220s 1230s 1240s Centuries: 12th century - 13th century - 14th century Contents // 1 Events 2 Births 3 Deaths 4 Monarchs/Presidents Events June 15 - King John of England forced to put his seal to Magna Carta, outlining the... 1215. Rather than adding the city to the Mongol Kingdom, it was instead thoroughly sacked for silk and other valuables.


As the Mongols grew more powerful, advisers convinced Genghis Khan to start building a A vassal, in European medieval feudalism terminology, is one who through a commendation ceremony (composed of homage and fealty) enters into mutual obligations with a lord, usually military conscription and mutual protection, in exchange for a fief. A bondman; one who holds land of a superior, and who vows fidelity... vassal empire. If the city-dwelling peoples were allowed to continue their way of life, they could produce a surplus of food and goods, a portion of which could be paid to the Khan as taxes. Given the Khan's extraordinary success in his aggressive foreign policy, this wealth could be equally extraordinary. The Khan agreed, taking his tribute in tax, and saving countless lives and cultures in the process. Until Years: 1222 1223 1224 - 1225 - 1226 1227 1228 Decades: 1190s 1200s 1210s - 1220s - 1230s 1240s 1250s Centuries: 12th century - 13th century - 14th century Contents // 1 Events 2 Births 3 Deaths 4 Monarchs/Presidents Events Births Thomas Aquinas, Christian philosopher and theologian. Deaths Monarchs/Presidents Aragon - James I King of Aragon... 1225 they continued these invasions through Western Asia, into Persian art is conscious of a great past, and monumental in many respects. Richard Frye. (http://www.iran-heritage.org/interestgroups/frye.htm) Example of a modern Persian Miniature (http://www.iranchamber.com/art/articles/history_iranian_miniature.php) by a contemporary artist. Persia is the historical and alternative name... Persia and The Russian Federation ( Russian (русский язык) Spoken in: The Russian Federation ( Russian (русский язык) Spoken in: Russia and many other countries Region: Eastern Europe and Asia Total speakers: 280 million Ranking: 4... Russia.


In Years: 1224 1225 1226 - 1227 - 1228 1229 1230 Decades: 1190s 1200s 1210s - 1220s - 1230s 1240s 1250s Centuries: 12th century - 13th century - 14th century Contents // 1 Events 2 Births 3 Deaths 4 Monarchs/Presidents Events Henry III of England declares himself of age and assumes power Births September 30 - Pope Nicholas... 1227, Genghis Khan died; his third son Ögedei Khan Ögedei, (also Ögädäi, Ögedäi, etc.), was the third son of Genghis Khan. He succeeded his father to rule as the second khan of the Mongol Empire. He continued the expansion the empire that his father had begun. Like all of Genghis primary sons, he participated... Ogedei Khan was elected by the tribes to succeed him. Ogedei Khan continued the expansion into North-Eastern Asia, conquering Korea Korea is a formerly unified country, situated on the Korean Peninsula The Korean Peninsula is a peninsula in East Asia. It extends southwards for about 1,100 kilometres from the continental Asian mainland into the Pacific Ocean and is surrounded by the East Sea/Sea of Japan on the... Korea and Northern China in the process. The armies of the Mongols had reached For other uses, see Poland is a country in Central Europe. Poland is also the name of some places in the United States of America: Poland, Maine Poland, New York Poland, Ohio This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the... Poland and For other uses, see Egypt (disambiguation). The Arab Republic of Egypt, commonly known as Egypt, (in Arabic: مصر, romanized Mişr or Maşr, in Egyptian dialect) is a republic mostly located in northeastern Africa. Covering an area of about 1,020,000 km², it includes... Egypt by Years: 1238 1239 1240 - 1241 - 1242 1243 1244 Decades: 1210s 1220s 1230s - 1240s - 1250s 1260s 1270s Centuries: 12th century - 13th century - 14th century Contents // 1 Events 2 Births 3 Deaths 4 Monarchs/presidents Events April 5 - Mongols of Golden Horde under the command of Subotai defeat feudal polish nobility, including... 1241, and were poised to continue. When Ogedei Khan suddenly died, Mongol law required all descendants of Genghis to return and elect a new Khan. The leader of the European expedition rushed back to press his claim. Nearly a decade later, Möngke Khan (1208-1259, also transliterated as Mongke, Mongka, Möngka, Mangu) was the fourth khan of the Mongol Empire. He was the son of Tolui, brother of Hulegu, and a grandson of Genghis Khan. He was the khan of the Mongol Empire from 1251 to 1259. Möngke... Mongka Khan, grandson of Genghis and nephew of Ogedei, took the throne, through the assistance of his mother Sorghaghtani Beki. By this time, the Western expansion had lost its momentum. These events are credited in several counterfactual historical scenarios with saving nascent European civilization from a second "Dark Age" precipitated by Mongol conquest. Such scenarios must be taken with knowledge of its origin in mind though.


The name Mongol during 12th and 13th century Mongol reign presumably included soldiers and generals in Middle East, China, Eastern and central Europe that all fought under the identity of being Mongols although not being exclusively ones that had a heritage in modern Mongolia. The name probably was a very symbolic and powerful concept to the ones that pledged allegiance to the Mongol Empire, Genghis Khan, his successor Great Khans and to themselves. This is probably the genius of Genghis Khan to unify all these different people under one identity and a single and powerful fighting force with superb military strategy, dedication and mobility. The word Mongol should not be interpreted literally in historical perspective to many who identified themselves as being Mongols.


Various members of the Mongol Court, including Sorghaghtani Beki, were The term Nestorianism is An eponym is a person (real or fictitious) whose name has become identified with a particular object or activity. One of the first cases was in second millennium BC, when the Assyrians named each year after a high official (limmu). Also, the eponym archon was the... Nestorian Christians. While the court was nominally Statues of Buddha such as this, the Tian Tan Buddha statue in Hong Kong, remind followers to practice right living. Buddhism is a religion and philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama (Sanskrit; in Pāli, Siddhattha Gotama), who lived between approximately 563 and... Buddhist and maintained a policy of being open to all religions, it was known as particularly sympathetic to This article is about the religious people known as Christians. For other uses, see This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. If an article link referred you here, you might want to go back and fix it... Christians (which may have helped contribute to the legend of Prester John (also Presbyter John) was a legendary Christian ruler in Asia (some say his kingdom was in Northern Africa), combining the roles of patriarch and king. A kernel of the myth may have been in Eusebius quotes from Papias, whose apostolic tradition had been imparted by a prespyter John... Prester John). In Years: 1250 1251 1252 - 1253 - 1254 1255 1256 Decades: 1220s 1230s 1240s - 1250s - 1260s 1270s 1280s Centuries: 12th century - 13th century - 14th century Contents // 1 Events 2 Births 3 Deaths 4 Monarchs/Presidents Events July 6, Mindaugas crowned as King of Lithuania. Liepāja, Latvian city, founded by fishermen... 1253 the court followed the suggestion from Crusade Series First Crusade Peoples Crusade German Crusade, 1096 Crusade of 1101 Second Crusade Third Crusade Fourth Crusade Albigensian Crusade Childrens Crusade Fifth Crusade Sixth Crusade Seventh Crusade Shepherds Crusade Eighth Crusade Ninth Crusade Northern Crusades This article is about historical Crusades . For other uses, see Crusade (disambiguation... Crusader Kingdoms in The Syrian Arab Republic is a country in the Middle East, bordering (from south to north) on Lebanon, Israel, Jordan, Iraq and Turkey. The borders with Israel and Turkey are subject to dispute, pending the resolution of outstanding conflicts over possession of the Golan Heights and the region of Iskenderun... Syria to attack the Muslim capitals of A street map of Baghdad Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq and the Baghdad Province. It is the second largest city in Southwest Asia after Tehran, with the 2003 population estimated at 5,772,000. Situated on the Tigris River at 33°20 north and... Baghdad and For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). View of the modern citys skyline. Cairo incorporates an entire medieval section, which is now a popular neighborhood and contains important buildings of islamic architecture. Cairo (Arabic: القاهرة; romanized: al-Qāhirah) is the capital city... Cairo. Baghdad was conquered and sacked in Years: 1255 1256 1257 - 1258 - 1259 1260 1261 Decades: 1220s 1230s 1240s - 1250s - 1260s 1270s 1280s Centuries: 12th century - 13th century - 14th century 1258 state leaders Contents // 1 Events= 1.1 Births 1.2 Deaths 1.3 Monarchs/Presidents Events= February 10 - Mongols overrun Baghdad, burning it to the ground... 1258, with the city's Christians spared, and the ( The copyright status of this work is difficult or impossible to determine. The individual who uploaded this work and first used it in an article, and subsequent persons who place it into articles, assert that if this image is not copyrighted, then it is in the public domain, and that... Abbasid An Anglicized/Latinized version of the Arabic word خليفة or Khalīfah, Caliph ( This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons. Please see its description page there. To play the audio file do not click on the -image. Look for a Listen-link near this... caliph killed. However, with the troops on the road to Cairo, Mongka Khan died in Years: 1256 1257 1258 - 1259 - 1260 1261 1262 Decades: 1220s 1230s 1240s - 1250s - 1260s 1270s 1280s Centuries: 12th century - 13th century - 14th century 1259 state leaders Events The chronicle of Matthew Paris ends due to his death. The Empire of Nicaea defeats the Principality of Achaea at the Battle of... 1259. Much of the force returned home for the selection of the new leader, and Egyptian troops repelled the attack in Years: 1257 1258 1259 - 1260 - 1261 1262 1263 Decades: 1230s 1240s 1250s - 1260s - 1270s 1280s 1290s Centuries: 12th century - 13th century - 14th century 1260 state leaders Contents // 1 Events 2 Births 3 Deaths 4 Monarchs/Presidents Events End of the reign of Emperor Go-Fukakusa of Japan Emperor Kameyama ascends... 1260. This marked the farthest West the Mongol Empire would progress.


Khubilai Khan Birth and death: Sept. 23, 1215–Feb. 18, 1294 Clan name (obogh): Borjigin¹ (Боржигин) Beierzhijin² (孛兒只斤) or Boerjijite³ (博爾濟吉特) Sublineage name4 : (yasun) Khiyad5 (Хиад) Qiwowen6 (奇渥溫... Kublai Khan quickly succeeded Mongka Khan, moved the court to 北京市 Běijīng Shì Abbreviation: 京 (pinyin: Jīng) The Forbidden City Origin of Name 北 běi _ north 京 jīng _ capital northern capital Administration Type Municipality CPC Beijing Committee Secretary Liu Qi Mayor Wang Qishan Area 16,808... Beijing, formed the History of China series The Three August Ones and the Five Emperors Xia Dynasty Shang Dynasty Zhou Dynasty Spring and Autumn Period Warring States Period Qin Dynasty Western Han Dynasty Xin Dynasty Eastern Han Dynasty Three Kingdoms Jin Dynasty Sixteen Kingdoms Southern and Northern Dynasties Sui Dynasty Tang Dynasty Zhou... Yuan dynasty, and re-started the invasion of China, in the first war with This article is about firearms and similar devices. For the rock band see Gun_(band). A gun is an aimable weapon that fires projectiles at high velocity, or a device that resembles such a weapon used for other purposes (e.g., glue gun) in common usage. The term is also... guns on both sides. After 18 years, Kublai Khan conquered both Northern and Southern China, forming the largest empire in history (famously described by Marco Polo (September 15, 1254 - January 8, 1324) was a Venetian trader and explorer who, together with his father and uncle, was one of the first Westerners to travel the Silk Road to China (which he called Cathay) and visited Great Khan of Mongol Empire, Kubilai Khan (grandson of Genghis... Marco Polo).


However, by the early (13th century - 14th century - 15th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 14th century was that century which lasted from 1301 to 1400. Contents // 1 Events 2 Significant people 3 Inventions, discoveries, introductions 4 Decades and years Events The transition from the Medieval Warm... 14th century, the prominence of trade and a possible cooling of the world's climates led to worldwide outbreaks of Plague redirects here. If you are looking for plagues in general, see disease, infectious disease, pandemic or epidemic. This article concerns the disease itself. For information on the specific outbreak that is estimated to have killed one-third of the European population in the mid-1300s, see Black Death. Bubonic... plague, which encouraged revolt and invasion. Early History of China series The Three August Ones and the Five Emperors Xia Dynasty Shang Dynasty Zhou Dynasty Spring and Autumn Period Warring States Period Qin Dynasty Western Han Dynasty Xin Dynasty Eastern Han Dynasty Three Kingdoms Jin Dynasty Sixteen Kingdoms Southern and Northern Dynasties Sui Dynasty Tang Dynasty Zhou... Ming Emperors led campaigns into For the region of the same name, see Mongolia (region) Mongolia (Khalkha Mongolian: Монгол Улс) is a landlocked nation in central Asia, bordered by Russia to the north and the Peoples Republic of China to the south. It was the center of... Mongolia and destroyed Harhorin (Хархорин), or Khara Khorum in Classical Mongolian, is a town in Övörhangay aymag, Mongolia. It was the capital of the Mongol Empire for 30 years. The town on the Orhon River was constructed by Ögedei Khan in 1235. Persian merchants and... Harhorin and Khar Khot, but later Ming Emperors resorted to more defensive policies. Meanwhile, various Mongolian tribes fought against each other, usually Western Mongols ( History of Mongolia series Before Chinggis Khan Mongol Empire Chagatai Khanate Golden Horde Ilkhanate Yuan Dynasty Northern Yuan Oyirad Jüün Ghar Empire Qing Dynasty Independent Mongolia Inner Mongolia Buryat Republic Kalmykia Timeline The Oyirad (also spelled Oirat) is an alliance of the western Mongols. Also called Eleuth or Olood... Oirat) against Eastern Mongols ( Chakhar is a group of the Mongols. Chakhar was originally one of estates of Khubilai located around Jingzhao (now Xian). The Chakhar people moved from Mongolia in the 15th century. Chakhar became a tümen under Dayan Khan and was led by his successors. Oppressed by Altan Khan, Chakhar, led... Chahar, Tumed, Ordos can refer to: the Ordos Desert in Inner Mongolia House Ordos, a fictional organisation appearing in Dune spin-offs This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. If an article link referred you here, you might want... Ordos or The Khalkha, or Halh (Халх) in modern Khalkha Mongolian, is a subgroup of the Mongols. They comprise the majority of the population of the independent state of Mongolia. The standard language of that country is based on their dialect. Under Dayan Khan, the Khalkha was organized as... Khalkha), and continued to threaten China's borders. Their frequent raids finally led to the construction of the The Great Wall of China (TC: 長城; SC: 长城, Pinyin: Chángchéng), also known in China as the Great Wall of 10,000 Li¹ (SC: 万里长城, Pinyin: Wànlĭ Chángchéng), is an ancient Chinese fortification built from the end of the... Great Wall of China.


The internal struggle gave the emerging The Manchu (manju in Manchu; 滿族 (pinyin: mǎnzú) in Chinese, often shortened to 滿 (pinyin: mǎn) are an ethnic group who originated in northeastern Manchuria. During the Manchu conquest, they conquered the Ming Dynasty in the 17th century and founded the Qing Dynasty, which ruled... Manchu the possibility to incorporate the Mongol tribes bit by bit. In 1636, the Chakhar is a group of the Mongols. Chakhar was originally one of estates of Khubilai located around Jingzhao (now Xian). The Chakhar people moved from Mongolia in the 15th century. Chakhar became a tümen under Dayan Khan and was led by his successors. Oppressed by Altan Khan, Chakhar, led... Chahar of 内蒙古自治区 i Měnggǔ Z qū ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠨᠺᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠺᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ r Mongghul-un bertegen Jasaqu... Inner Mongolia were conquered, in 1691, the The Khalkha, or Halh (Халх) in modern Khalkha Mongolian, is a subgroup of the Mongols. They comprise the majority of the population of the independent state of Mongolia. The standard language of that country is based on their dialect. Under Dayan Khan, the Khalkha was organized as... Khalkha of Outer Mongolia submitted to the Kangxi Emperor Clan name: Aixin-Jueluo (愛新覺羅) Aisin-Gioro Given name: Xuanye (玄燁) Hiowan Yei Dates of reign: Feb. 7, 1661–Dec. 20, 1722 Era name: Kangxi (康熙; Kang-hsi) Elhe Taifin Era dates: Feb. 18, 1662–Feb. 4, 1723 Temple name... Kangxi Emperor in order to escape from the threat of being conquered by the History of Mongolia series Before Chinggis Khan Mongol Empire Chagatai Khanate Golden Horde Ilkhanate Yuan Dynasty Northern Yuan Oyirad Jüün Ghar Empire Qing Dynasty Independent Mongolia Inner Mongolia Buryat Republic Kalmykia Timeline The Oyirad (also spelled Oirat) is an alliance of the western Mongols. Also called Eleuth or Olood... Oirat, and in the 1750s, the Qianlong Emperor Clan name: Aixin-Jueluo (愛新覺羅) Aisin-Gioro Given name: Hongli (弘曆) (Manchu name to be added) Dates of reign: Oct. 18, 1735–Feb. 8, 1796¹ Era name: Qianlong (乾隆 ; Chien-lung) Abkai Wehiyehe Era dates: Feb. 12, 1736–Feb... Qianlong Emperor completely destroyed the History of Mongolia series Before Chinggis Khan Mongol Empire Chagatai Khanate Golden Horde Ilkhanate Yuan Dynasty Northern Yuan Oyirad Jüün Ghar Empire Qing Dynasty Independent Mongolia Inner Mongolia Buryat Republic Kalmykia Timeline The Oyirad (also spelled Oirat) is an alliance of the western Mongols. Also called Eleuth or Olood... Oirat History of Mongolia series Before Chinggis Khan Mongol Empire Chagatai Khanate Golden Horde Ilkhanate Yuan Dynasty Northern Yuan Oyirad Jüün Ghar Empire Qing Dynasty Independent Mongolia Inner Mongolia Buryat Republic Kalmykia Timeline Jüün Ghar was a tribe of the Oyirad Mongols. They maintained the last nomadic empire around... Jungar Empire in today's شىنجاڭ ٸۇيغۇر ٸاپتونوم رايون Shinjang Uyghur Aptonom Rayon 新疆维吾尔自治区 Xīnjiāng Wéiwúěr Zìzhìqū... Xinjiang.


Military innovation

The western expansion was halted in Years: 1238 1239 1240 - 1241 - 1242 1243 1244 Decades: 1210s 1220s 1230s - 1240s - 1250s 1260s 1270s Centuries: 12th century - 13th century - 14th century Contents // 1 Events 2 Births 3 Deaths 4 Monarchs/presidents Events April 5 - Mongols of Golden Horde under the command of Subotai defeat feudal polish nobility, including... 1241 (see Legnickie Pole (German Wahlstatt) is a small village near Legnica in Lower Silesia, Poland. Site of a decisive battle between the Mongols of the Golden Horde and a Polish-German force led by Duke Henry II the Pious (Piast dynasty) on April 9, 1241, which marked the westernmost expansion of... Wahlstatt) when high-ranking Mongol generals returned back to Honorary A guard is either a person or an organisation. It may be a person who looks after the safety of people or property, and/or make sure prisoners do not escape. It may also be a part of the military. It can also be an object, a fireguard for... Mongol capital to participate in the selection of new Great For the Star Trek character see Khan Noonien Singh. For a list of people named Khan, see List of people by name: Kh#Khan-Khay. Khan (sometimes spelled as xan, han) is a title meaning ruler in Mongolian and Turkish. A khan controls a khanate. Whenever appropriate, it is also... Khan. As they encountered the peoples of This article is about the continent. For alternative meanings, see: Europe (disambiguation) World map showing location of Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is Geology (from Greek γη- (ge-, the earth) and λογος (logos, word, reason)) is the science and study of the... Europe, the Mongols with their advanced way of warfare were unstoppable. One of key to successes was the strategy used by Genghis Khan Birth name: Temüjin (Mongolian: Тэмүүжин) Family name: Borjigin (Mongolian: Боржигин) Title: Great Khan of Mongol Empire Dates of reign: 1206 - August 18, 1227 Succeeded by: Ogedei Khan Marriage: Börte Children: Borjigin Chagatai... Genghis Khan to chase the enemy leader until he was killed, so that he couldn't be a rallying point for his armies. Genghis Khan Birth name: Temüjin (Mongolian: Тэмүүжин) Family name: Borjigin (Mongolian: Боржигин) Title: Great Khan of Mongol Empire Dates of reign: 1206 - August 18, 1227 Succeeded by: Ogedei Khan Marriage: Börte Children: Borjigin Chagatai... Genghis Khan didn't place high importance on tracking down the enemy leaders before, and it haunted him later. The Mongols used, and introduced, several revolutionary military ideas to European combatants.

  • Use of articulation. Mongols used a system of horns and flags, blown or raised-and-lowered by the field commander. This allowed them to move their troops to preplanned positions on the field of battle, or modes of attack or retreat (such as charge, withdraw, or flank). In addition, their subcommanders were allowed to make decisions on the spot.
  • Mongols based their forces almost entirely on light cavalry. Light cavalry consisted primarily of Archers in Competition Archery is the practice of using a bow to shoot arrows. Archery has historically been used in hunting and combat, and has become a precision sport. Contents // 1 Modern competitive archery 1.1 Rules 1.2 Scoring 1.3 Other competition 2 Hunting 3 History 3.1... archers and light swordsman mounted on horseback. Mobile and light cavalry could choose its battles and retreat from forces it could not handle, such as heavy cavalry. Heavy cavalry lacked archers (who could kill at range) and was designed mainly to provide shock — using weight, speed, and fear of their massed movement to break enemy heavy infantry lines.
Thus, when light cavalry met heavy cavalry, the lighter, faster moving, bow using, well-articulated light cavalry usually defeated mounted knights — the cream of European military power.
  • The composite bow used by the Mongols was important to their success. Made from a composite of various woods, horn, and sinew, it was formed in a 'recurve' shape; while a simple bow made from one piece of wood curves in one arc, a recurve bow has a curve beginning towards each end that curve back. This design allowed the Mongols to harness great power while mounted. In comparison to a simple bow, a Mongol composite bow 3ft long exceeds the power and range of a 6ft English longbow, the latter being too large to use on horseback.
  • European knights used heavy iron armor made from chains linked together, sometimes in many layers. Though effective against sword strokes and arrows fired from European bows, the links were penetrated by arrows launched from the Mongol composite bow. Mongol warriors wore significantly lighter armor, usually in the form of light chain shirts (in the shape of a t-shirt) or leather lamellar. Underneath such armor they wore shirts made from wild silk, a custom borrowed from the Chinese.

If a Mongol soldier was struck with an arrow, it penetrated the skin and sank into the flesh. However, the silk was not cut but pushed into the wound. Mongol doctors could easily pull an arrow from the wound, because it was wrapped in silk cloth. This reduced the chance of infection and made cleaning and dressing the wound easier, returning the skilled warrior to combat more quickly.


This simple procedure saved many lives. In a prolonged conflict, the Mongols retained more battlefield veterans than their opponents. This usually resulted in a situation where an army of veteran Mongols faced a conscript peasant army, with disastrous results for the Mongols' opponents.


The Mongols still had heavy elements in their army. Heavy cavalry would wear iron lamellar armor, iron helmets, wielding lances for the charge, switching to maces and sabers for close combat. They would strike following a deadly barrage from the mounted archers.

  • Mongols used innovative doctrines. As nomads, Mongols carried all of their wealth and provisions with them on horseback. It was equivalent to placing an entire city on horseback. It was more mobile than many of their opponents' armed forces, who were tied to the towns for supplies.

The Mongols also brought with them siege technology from the East. European walls were designed to prevent scaling, not for enduring the high powered siege engines used in the East. Engineers and technology won from the Persians and Jin dynasty, including the gunpowder secrets of China gave the Mongols a decisive edge over the Europeans.


Gun powder used by the mongols burned more than exploded, used mostly for psychological warfare. An ingenious adaption of this technology was to use smoke screens to confuse enemy armies and split them, allowing the Mongols to concentrate their full force on isolated enemies. For a European knight to face an undefeated foe who could seemingly summon fire and smoke was to face the minions of hell themselves.


Since their way of warfare was superior (articulated veteran light cavalry and heavy cavalry to sweep up) they could not be bested in combat. The traditional solution to this problem is to attack the opponents' supply tail: food, fields, water, etc. However, their city-dwelling opponents were tied to a supply tail, not the Mongols.


These strategies and tactics assured them victory against foes throughout their history. The closest modern analogue is the modern aircraft carrier, with its ability to bring an entire city of warriors next door to an opponent on short notice, strike, and retreat, without pursuit.

  • Mongols' effective use of terror is often credited for the unprecedented speed with which Mongol armies spread across western For other uses, see Asia may have the following meanings: Asia is one of the continents. Asia is a beach district in Peru. Asia was in Greek mythology one of the female Titans. Asia is a band. Asia was a province of the Roman Empire, in modern-day western Turkey... Asia and eastern This article is about the continent. For alternative meanings, see: Europe (disambiguation) World map showing location of Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is Geology (from Greek γη- (ge-, the earth) and λογος (logos, word, reason)) is the science and study of the... Europe.

First, the Mongols would provide an opportunity to surrender, usually on terms favourable to the Mongols. These offers were typically dictated to the first major population center in a new territory.


If the offer was refused, the Mongols would sack the city, execute the entire population save a handful of skilled workers, and burn the city and the surrounding fields to the ground. They would often construct an edifice of cleaned skulls outside the walls of the destroyed city to serve as a reminder of their passage.


Finally, they would allow a few survivors to flee, to spread terror throughout the countryside. By first offering favourable or at least acceptable terms of surrender, and then invariably completely destroying any resistance, it is argued that Mongols forestalled most combat with invaded peoples. The Mongols quickly developed a reputation of being unstoppable, genocidal opponents. After the initial victories, and proof of the Mongols' good intentions towards submitting peoples, it became more difficult for rulers to convince their people to resist an invasion.


Timeline of conquest

The Mongols attempted two unsuccessful invasions of Japan. The first invasion fleet was utterly destroyed by a This article is about weather phenomena. For other uses, see Hurricane (disambiguation), Typhoon (disambiguation) and Tropical storm (disambiguation). Hurricane Ivan viewed from the International Space Station, September 2004. NASA photo by Edward Fincke. In meteorology, a tropical cyclone (or tropical storm, typhoon or hurricane, depending on strength and location) is... typhoon ( A Japanese Zero about to hit the USS Missouri. For other uses of the word Kamikaze, see Kamikaze (disambiguation). Kamikaze (神風 from kami meaning god and kaze meaning wind) is a Japanese word — usually translated as divine wind — which came into being as the name of a... kamikaze) in Years: 1278 1279 1280 - 1281 - 1282 1283 1284 Decades: 1250s 1260s 1270s - 1280s - 1290s 1300s 1310s Centuries: 12th century - 13th century - 14th century 1281 state leaders Events February 22 - Martin IV becomes Pope August 15 - Kamikaze storm wipes out invading Mongol army in the coast of Japan The Ottoman Empire... 1281. The second Mongolian fleet survived the typhoon, but their provisions were lost. Landed troops both starved because of the lack of supplies and were annihilated in battles with Japanese infantry and Japanese samurai in armour, 1860 photograph. Samurai (侍 or sometimes 士) is a common term for a warrior in pre-industrial Japan. A more appropriate term is bushi (武士) (lit. warrior or armsman) which came into use during the Edo period. However, the term samurai now usually refers to... samurai.


Mongol victories include their invasion of Java, and south East Asia (Modern day Vietnam). The tropical climate proved unsuitable to cavalry, and while Vietnam was made a vassal state, Java remained autonomous much to the fury of Kublai.

  • Years: 1197 1198 1199 – 1200 – 1201 1202 1203 Decades: 1170s 1180s 1190s – 1200s – 1210s 1220s 1230s Centuries: 11th century – 12th century – 13th century Events University of Paris receives charter from Philip II of France Births Matthew Paris, English Benedictine monk and chronicler (approximate date... 1200, Northern China — unknown
  • Years: 1212 1213 1214 - 1215 - 1216 1217 1218 Decades: 1180s 1190s 1200s - 1210s - 1220s 1230s 1240s Centuries: 12th century - 13th century - 14th century Contents // 1 Events 2 Births 3 Deaths 4 Monarchs/Presidents Events June 15 - King John of England forced to put his seal to Magna Carta, outlining the... 1215, Yanjing China (today 北京市 Běijīng Shì Abbreviation: 京 (pinyin: Jīng) The Forbidden City Origin of Name 北 běi _ north 京 jīng _ capital northern capital Administration Type Municipality CPC Beijing Committee Secretary Liu Qi Mayor Wang Qishan Area 16,808... Beijing) — unknown
  • Centuries: 12th century - 13th century - 14th century Decades: 1170s 1180s 1190s 1200s 1210s - 1220s - 1230s 1240s 1250s 1260s 1270s Years: 1216 1217 1218 1219 1220 - 1221 - 1222 1223 1224 1225 1226 See also: 1221 state leaders Events End of the reign of Emperor Juntoku of Japan Emperor Chukyo briefly reigns... 1221, Tomb of Omar Khayyam, Neishabur Nishapur (or Neyshâbûr; نیشابور in Persian) is a town in the province of Khorasan in northeastern Iran, situated in a fertile plain at the foot of the Binalud Mountains, near the regional capital of Mashhad. The region... Nishapur, Persian art is conscious of a great past, and monumental in many respects. Richard Frye. (http://www.iran-heritage.org/interestgroups/frye.htm) Example of a modern Persian Miniature (http://www.iranchamber.com/art/articles/history_iranian_miniature.php) by a contemporary artist. Persia is the historical and alternative name... Persia — ~1.7 million killed in assault
  • 1221, Merv was a major oasis-city in Central Asia, on the Silk Road, located near todays Mary, Turkmenistan. Arabic name: مرو. Several cities existed on this site, which is significant for the interchange of culture and politics at a site of major strategic value. The site of... Merv, Persian art is conscious of a great past, and monumental in many respects. Richard Frye. (http://www.iran-heritage.org/interestgroups/frye.htm) Example of a modern Persian Miniature (http://www.iranchamber.com/art/articles/history_iranian_miniature.php) by a contemporary artist. Persia is the historical and alternative name... Persia — ~1.4 million killed in assault
  • 1221, Meru Chahjan, Persian art is conscious of a great past, and monumental in many respects. Richard Frye. (http://www.iran-heritage.org/interestgroups/frye.htm) Example of a modern Persian Miniature (http://www.iranchamber.com/art/articles/history_iranian_miniature.php) by a contemporary artist. Persia is the historical and alternative name... Persia — ~1.3 million killed in assault
  • 1221, Ray, also spelled Rayy or Rages (ری in Persian) is the most historic city in the province of Tehran, Iran. Most notably, it is the birthplace of Rhazes. The city is estimated to be more than two thousand years old, and was built during the Median Empire. After the... Rayy, Persian art is conscious of a great past, and monumental in many respects. Richard Frye. (http://www.iran-heritage.org/interestgroups/frye.htm) Example of a modern Persian Miniature (http://www.iranchamber.com/art/articles/history_iranian_miniature.php) by a contemporary artist. Persia is the historical and alternative name... Persia — ~1.6 million killed in assault
  • 1236, Bilär, Bulgars (also Bolgars or proto-Bulgarians) a people of Central Asia, probably originally Pamirian, whose branches became Slavicized and perhaps Turkic over time. The Turkic etymology most often given for their name is Bulgha meaning sable and is of totemistic origin. Contents // 1 Migration to Europe and establishment of Great... Bulgar cities, Volga Bulgaria or Volga-Kama Bolghar, is a historic state that existed between the ( (5th century — 6th century — 7th century — other centuries) Contents // 1 Events 2 Significant persons 3 Inventions, discoveries, introductions 4 Decades and years Events The first academy of the east the Academy of Gundeshapur... Volga Bulgaria — 150,000 or more, nearly half of population
  • 1237-1240, Kievan Rus′ (Ки́евская Ру́сь, Kievskaya Rus in Russian (русский язык) Spoken in: Russia and many other countries Region: Eastern Europe and Asia Total speakers: 280 million Ranking: 4... Kievan Rus' — half of population
  • 1241, Legnickie Pole (German Wahlstatt) is a small village near Legnica in Lower Silesia, Poland. Site of a decisive battle between the Mongols of the Golden Horde and a Polish-German force led by Duke Henry II the Pious (Piast dynasty) on April 9, 1241, which marked the westernmost expansion of... Wahlstatt — defeat of a combined Polish-German force in lower Silesia (Poland); the Mongols turn back to attend to the election of a new Grand Khan.
  • Years: 1255 1256 1257 - 1258 - 1259 1260 1261 Decades: 1220s 1230s 1240s - 1250s - 1260s 1270s 1280s Centuries: 12th century - 13th century - 14th century 1258 state leaders Contents // 1 Events= 1.1 Births 1.2 Deaths 1.3 Monarchs/Presidents Events= February 10 - Mongols overrun Baghdad, burning it to the ground... 1258, A street map of Baghdad Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq and the Baghdad Province. It is the second largest city in Southwest Asia after Tehran, with the 2003 population estimated at 5,772,000. Situated on the Tigris River at 33°20 north and... Baghdad — ~800,000 people. Results in destruction of Abbasid provinces during the caliphate of Harun al-Rashid Abbasid was the dynastic name generally given to the caliphs of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Muslim empire. The Abbasid empire was after the Umayyid Empire. The Abbasid caliphs officially based their claim to the... Abbasid dynasty

Modern history

In Years: Years: Years: 1912 1913 1914 - 1915 - 1916 1917 1918 Decades: 1880s 1890s 1900s - 1910s - 1920s 1930s 1940s Centuries: 19th century - 20th century - 21st century 1915 in topic: Arts Architecture - Art - Film - Literature - Music Science and technology Aviation - Rail transport - Science - Television Other topics Canada - Sport Lists of leaders: State... 1921, Outer Mongolia revolted with The Russian Federation ( Russian (русский язык) Spoken in: The Russian Federation ( Russian (русский язык) Spoken in: Russia and many other countries Region: Eastern Europe and Asia Total speakers: 280 million Ranking: 4... Russian support, forming modern For the region of the same name, see Mongolia (region) Mongolia (Khalkha Mongolian: Монгол Улс) is a landlocked nation in central Asia, bordered by Russia to the north and the Peoples Republic of China to the south. It was the center of... Mongolia. A This article is about communism as a form of A society is a group of people living or working together. There are various different uses of the term society. The casual meaning of society simply refers to a group of people living together in an ordered community.1 The social... Communist government was formed in Years: 1921 1922 1923 - 1924 - 1925 1926 1927 Decades: 1890s 1900s 1910s - 1920s - 1930s 1940s 1950s Centuries: 19th century - 20th century - 21st century 1924 in topic: Arts Architecture - Art - Film - Literature - Music Science and technology Aviation - Rail transport - Science - Television Other topics Canada - Sport Lists of leaders: State leaders - Religious... 1924. The Soviet redirects here. For other uses, see Soviet (disambiguation). The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) .( Russian (русский язык) Spoken in: The Russian Federation ( Russian (русский язык) Spoken in: Russia and many... USSR defended Mongolia from For other uses, see Japan can refer to one of the following topics: The East Asian island nation of Japan or Nippon (日本, Nihon); The British rock band. See Japan (band); Japanning, a lacquer technique japan, See Lacqerware This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists... Japanese invasion. However, the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party, for reasons both practical and philosophical, enacted an often brutal if not entirely effective sweeping of Mongolian tradition, working against the Statues of Buddha such as this, the Tian Tan Buddha statue in Hong Kong, remind followers to practice right living. Buddhism is a religion and philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama (Sanskrit; in Pāli, Siddhattha Gotama), who lived between approximately 563 and... Buddhist religions, clan-ism, and script, and for collectivism (as opposed to the traditional nomadic lifestyle). Mongolia aligned itself with Russia after the All people of the world unite, to overthrow American imperialism, to overthrow Soviet revisionism, to overthrow the reactionaries of all nations! (Chinese poster, 1969) The Sino-Soviet split was a conflict between the Soviet Union and the Peoples Republic of China, beginning in the late 1950s, reaching a peak... Sino-Soviet split of Years: Years: 1952 1953 1954 - 1955 - 1956 1957 1958 Decades: 1920s 1930s 1940s - 1950s - 1960s 1970s 1980s Centuries: 19th century - 20th century - 21st century 1955 in topic: Arts Architecture - Art - Film - Literature - Music Science and technology Aviation - Rail transport - Science - Television Other topics Canada - Sport Lists of leaders: State leaders... 1958. In 1990 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. Years: 1987 1988 1989 - 1990 - 1991 1992 1993 Decades: 1960s 1970s 1980s - 1990s - 2000s 2010s 2020s Centuries: 19th century - 20th century - 21st century 1990 in topic: Arts Architecture - Art - Film - Literature - Music Science and technology Aviation - Rail transport... 1990 the Communist government was overthrown, and by 1992 is a This is a calendar for any leap year starting on Wednesday (dominical letter ED) e.g. 1992. January February March Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa 1 2 3 4 1 1... 1992 Mongolia established a A parliamentarian is a specialist in parliamentary procedure. The adjective parliamentarian refers to any person or thing especially associated with a parliament (see parliamentary system). A Parliamentarian (as an upper-cased noun) often labels a Member of Parliament or MP, especially one who is particularly adept in the chamber. In... parliamentary government.


内蒙古自治区 i Měnggǔ Z qū ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠨᠺᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠺᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ r Mongghul-un bertegen Jasaqu... Inner Mongolia forms an autonomous state within China. Han Chinese (Simplified: 汉; Traditional: 漢; Pinyin: hàn) is a term which refers to the majority ethnic group within China and the largest single human ethnic group in the world. Han Chinese constitute over 92 percent of the population of mainland China and about 19 percent of the global... Han Chinese have been massively re-settled there, and are the dominant ethnic group, and China places many of the same cultural restrictions on Mongols as did Soviet Mongolia. However, Mongols are exempt from the government's The one-child policy is the current birth control policy of the Peoples Republic of China. The name is based on a popular misconception that Chinese birth control required all Chinese couples to have no more than one child. Although one child was promoted as an ideal, and was... one-child policy, and the PRC redirects here. For other uses, see PRC (disambiguation). The Peoples Republic of China (PRC) comprises most of the cultural, historic, and geographic area known as This article is on the geographic and cultural entity. For other meanings, see Country China, a country in East Asia One of the... PRC officially promotes the The Mongolic languages are a group of languages spoken in Central Asia. Some linguists propose the grouping of Mongolian languages with Turkic (of which Turkish is a member) and Tungusic as Altaic languages, but this is not universally agreed upon. The best-known member of this language family, Mongolian, is... Mongol language.


The The Russian Federation (Russian: Росси́йская Федера́ция, transliteration: Rossiyskaya Federatsiya or Rossijskaja Federacija), or Russia (Russian: Росси́я, transliteration: Rossiya or Rossija), is a country that stretches... Russian Federation also has some autonomous regions for descendants of the Mongols, such as the The Buryats, numbering approximately 350,000, are the largest ethnic minority group in Mongolian descent and share many customs with their Mongolian cousins, including nomadic herding and erecting yurts for shelter. Today, the majority of Buryats live in and around Ulan Ude, the capital of the republic, although many live... Buryats:

  • The Republic of Kalmykia (Russian: Респу́блика Калмы́кия; Kalmyk: Хальм Тангч) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). The direct transliteration of... Kalmykia Autonomous Republic (Western Mongolians - Oirats)
  • Categories: Stub | Autonomous Districts of Russia ... Ust-Orda Buryats Autonomous District
  • Categories: Stub | Autonomous Districts of Russia ... Aga-Buryat Autonomous District
  • The Buryat Republic (Russian: Респу́блика Буря́тия; Buryat: Буряад Республика) is a Russian Federation (a republic). The direct transliteration of... Buryatia Autonomous Republic

Mongols in For the region of the same name, see Mongolia (region) Mongolia (Khalkha Mongolian: Монгол Улс) is a landlocked nation in central Asia, bordered by Russia to the north and the Peoples Republic of China to the south. It was the center of... Mongolia, especially those that are Communities of nomadic people move from place to place, rather than settling down in one location. Many cultures have been traditionally nomadic, but nomadic behaviour is increasingly rare in industrialised countries. Typically there are two kinds of nomad, pastoral nomads and peripatetic nomads. Pastoralists raise herds and move with them... nomads are regarded as one of the most kindest and warmest of people in the world by most Westerners that had the chance to see first-hand Mongolian nomadic people.



The Peoples Republic of China officially describes itself as a multinational unitary state and as such officially recognizes 56 nationalities or Mínzú (民族), within China: the Han being the majority (>92%), and the remaining 55 nationalities being the national minorities. In addition to the 56 official... Chinese ethnic groups (classification by PRC redirects here. For other uses, see PRC (disambiguation). The Peoples Republic of China (PRC) comprises most of the cultural, historic, and geographic area known as This article is on the geographic and cultural entity. For other meanings, see Country China, a country in East Asia One of the... PRC government)
The Achang (阿昌族), also known as the Ngacang or Maingtha, people are an ethnic group. They form one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of China. The Achang number 27,700, of whom 27,600 are from Yunnan province, especially Dehong... Achang - Bamileke languages (ISO 639 alpha-3, bai) Baccalaureus in Arte Ingeniaria Band Aid (band) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. If an article link referred you here, you might want to go back and fix it... Bai - The Blang people are an ethnic group. They form one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of China. Chinese ethnic groups (classification by PRC government) Achang - Bai - Blang - Bonan - Buyi - Dai - Daur - Deang _ Dong - Dongxiang _ Drung - Evenks - Gaoshan - Gelao - Gin - Han... Blang - The Bonan people (保安族; pinyin: bǎoān zú) are an ethnic group living in Gansu and Qinghai provinces in northwestern China. Numbering approximately 12,000, they are the 7th smallest of the Peoples Republic of China. The Bonan speak an Altaic language related to... Bonan - Buyei - The Korean people are one of the main east Asian ethnic groups of Mongoloid stock. Most Koreans live in Korea (the Korean peninsula) and speak the Korean language. Koreas population is one of the most ethnically and linguistically homogeneous in the world, with the only minorities being very small... Chosen - The Dai is the officially recognized name of an ethnic group living in southern Yunnan Province of China, and also in Laos, Vietnam, Thailand, and Myanmar. They are also known as the Lü, Lue, or Thai Lue and Tai Nüa. The Dai people form one of the 56 ethnic... Dai - The Daur people are an ethnic group. They form one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of China. Chinese ethnic groups (classification by PRC government) Achang - Bai - Blang - Bonan - Buyi - Dai - Daur - Deang - Dong - Dongxiang - Drung - Evenks - Gaoshan - Gelao - Gin - Han - Hani - Hezhen... Daur - De'ang - Derung - Categories: Ethnic groups of China | Ethnicity stubs ... Dong - The Dongxiang people (Chinese: 东乡族; pinyin: Dōngxiāngzú) are an ethnic group closely related to the Mongolians. They form one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of China. Most of the Dongxiang live in the Linxia Hui (临夏... Dongxiang - The Evenks (obsolete: Tungus) are a nomadic indigenous people, one of the Northern Indigenous Peoples (pop. 30,000 est.) of Siberia, Russia. The Evenki form one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of China. Evenks of Russia The Evenks were formerly known as tungus... Ewenki - A Rukai villege Chief visiting Department of Anthropology in Tokyo Imperial University during the Japanese rule. Taiwanese aborigines or aboriginal peoples (原住民, Tongyong Pinyin: yuánjhùmín, Hanyu Pinyin: yuánzhùmín, Wade-Giles: yüan2-chu4-min2, POJ: gôan-chū-bîn, literal... Gaoshan - The Gelao people (own name: Klau, Chinese: 仡佬族 Gēlǎozú) are an ethnic group. They form one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of China. They number approximately 438,200 and are mainly located in the western part of... Gelao - Gin, or Jing Nationality (京族) in Mandarin Chinese, is the name given to ethnic Vietnamese living in China. They form one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of China. They speak Vietnamese. Chinese ethnic groups (classification by PRC government) Achang - Bai - Blang - Bonan... Gin - Han Chinese (Simplified: 汉; Traditional: 漢; Pinyin: hàn) is a term which refers to the majority ethnic group within China and the largest single human ethnic group in the world. Han Chinese constitute over 92 percent of the population of mainland China and about 19 percent of the global... Han - Chinese ethnic groups (classification by PRC government) Achang - Bai - Blang - Bonan - Buyi - Dai - Daur - Deang - Dong - Dongxiang - Drung - Evenks - Gaoshan - Gelao - Gin - Han - Hani - Hezhen - Hui - Jingpo - Jino - Kazakh - Kirghiz - Koreans - Lahu - Lhoba - Li - Lisu - Manchu - Maonan - Monpa - Miao - Mongols - Mulam - Naxi - Nu - Oroqin - Pumi - Qiang - Russian - Salar - She... Hani - The Hezhen people (Chinese: 赫哲族: Hèzhé Zú; they call themselves Nanio, Kilən, and Xədʑən) are an ethnic group. They form one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of China. They live at the rivers... Hezhen - The Hui (回) ethnic group is unrelated to the Hui (徽) dialects. The Huí (回) are a Chinese ethnic group. They form one of the 56 nationalities officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of China. Most Hui are similar in culture and appearance to Han Chinese with the exception... Hui - Chinese ethnic groups (classification by PRC government) Achang - Bai - Blang - Bonan - Buyi - Dai - Daur - Deang - Dong - Dongxiang - Drung - Evenks - Gaoshan - Gelao - Gin - Han - Hani - Hezhen - Hui - Jingpo - Jino - Kazakh - Kirghiz - Koreans - Lahu - Lhoba - Li - Lisu - Manchu - Maonan - Monpa - Miao - Mongols - Mulam - Naxi - Nu - Oroqin - Pumi - Qiang - Russian - Salar - She... Jingpo - Chinese ethnic groups (classification by PRC government) Achang - Bai - Blang - Bonan - Buyi - Dai - Daur - Deang - Dong - Dongxiang - Drung - Evenks - Gaoshan - Gelao - Gin - Han - Hani - Hezhen - Hui - Jingpo - Jino - Kazakh - Kirghiz - Koreans - Lahu - Lhoba - Li - Lisu - Manchu - Maonan - Monpa - Miao - Mongols - Mulam - Naxi - Nu - Oroqin - Pumi - Qiang - Russian - Salar - She... Jino - A Kazakh and his camel The Kazakhs (Qazaq, Quazaq), (in Kazakh: Казак; in Russian: Казах; English term is the transliteration from Russian) are a Turkic people of the northern parts of Central Asia famous in the past for the fierce love of... Kazak - Kirghiz (also Kyrgyz) are a Turkic ethnic group found primarily in Kyrgyzstan. It is considered that there are 40 Kirghiz tribes. This is translated by the yellow sun in the center of the flag of Kyrgyzstan, which has 40 rays. Kirghizs in China The Kirghiz form one of the 56... Kirgiz - The Lahu people (Chinese: 拉祜族 Lāhùzú; own names: Ladhulsi or Kawzhawd) are an ethnic group. They form one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of China, where they live in Yunnan province. Their language is most closely related to... Lahu - Lhoba Total population: 10,300 Significant populations in: Arunachal Pradesh, India: 8,000 Tibet, China, 2,300 Language Lhoba, Tibetan Religion Animist, Lamaist Buddhist (more in Tibet) Alternative names: Bokaer, Bengni, Luoba, Lhopa, Yidu, Bengru, Idu Related ethnic groups  Monpa, Mishmi, Tibetan With a population of just 2,300... Lhoba - Li - The Lisu people are an ethnic group who inhabit Burma (Myanmar), China, Thailand, and India in the state of Arunachal Pradesh. They are believed to originate from Eastern Tibet. The Lisu form one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of China. 30,000 live... Lisu - The Manchu (manju in Manchu; 滿族 (pinyin: mǎnzú) in Chinese, often shortened to 滿 (pinyin: mǎn) are an ethnic group who originated in northeastern Manchuria. During the Manchu conquest, they conquered the Ming Dynasty in the 17th century and founded the Qing Dynasty, which ruled... Man - The Maonan people are an ethnic group. They number about 72,000 and are one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of China. Chinese ethnic groups (classification by PRC government) Achang - Bai - Blang - Bonan - Buyi - Dai - Daur - Deang - Dong - Dongxiang - Drung - Evenks - Gaoshan... Maonan - The Hmong, also known as Miao (Chinese: 苗: Miáo; Vietnamese: Mẹo or Hmông; Thai: ม้ง (mong) or แม้ว (maew)), are an Asian ethnic group whose homeland is in the mountainous regions of southern China (especially Guizhou) that cross into northern Southeast... Miao - Monpa ... Monba - Mongol - Mulao - Religion Of Tibetan origin, the Nakhi are traditionally followers of the Dongba religion. Owing to both Han Chinese and Tibetan cultural influences, they later adopted Tibetan Buddhism, and to a lesser extent, Taoism, in the 10th century. Dongba The Dongba religion was believed to be rooted in the beliefs of... Naxi - The Nu people (own names: Nusu, Anung, Zauzou; Chinese: 怒族; pinyin: nù zú) are one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of China. Their population of 27,000 are divided into the Northern, Central and Southern groups. They are also known as Nusu... Nu - Oroqen - Chinese ethnic groups (classification by PRC government) Achang - Bai - Blang - Bonan - Buyi - Dai - Daur - Deang - Dong - Dongxiang - Drung - Evenks - Gaoshan - Gelao - Gin - Han - Hani - Hezhen - Hui - Jingpo - Jino - Kazakh - Kirghiz - Koreans - Lahu - Lhoba - Li - Lisu - Manchu - Maonan - Monpa - Miao - Mongols - Mulam - Naxi - Nu - Oroqin - Pumi - Qiang - Russian - Salar - She... Pumi - Qiang Total population: 200,000 Significant populations in: India, Sichuan: 200,000 Language Qiang, Tibetan Religion Animist, Polytheist, Tibetan Buddhist, Taoism Alternative names: Chiang, Erma Related ethnic groups  Tibetan The Qiang (羌) people are an ethnic group. They form one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by... Qiang - Russians (Русские - Russkie) are an East Slavic This article or section should be merged with ethnicity An ethnic group is a group of people who identify with one another, or are so identified by others, on the basis of a boundary that distinguishes them... Russ - The Salar people are an ethnic group in eastern Qinghai and southwestern Gansu. They form one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of China. They are the Sǎlá (撒拉) in Chinese. They number in 87,000 as of late 20th century... Salar - She - History of China series The Three August Ones and the Five Emperors Xia Dynasty Shang Dynasty Zhou Dynasty Spring and Autumn Period Warring States Period Qin Dynasty Western Han Dynasty Xin Dynasty Eastern Han Dynasty Three Kingdoms Jin Dynasty Sixteen Kingdoms Southern and Northern Dynasties Sui Dynasty Tang Dynasty Zhou... Sui - Tajik (塔吉克族; pinyin: tǎjíkè zú) is one of the of the 56 nationalities officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of China. This group, located mainly in Chinas western Xinjiang region is actually a collection of over a dozen small East Iranian ethnic... Tajik - Tatars or Tartars is a collective name applied to the Turkic-speaking people of Europe and Asia. Most Tatars live in the central and southern parts of Russia, Ukraine, and in Bulgaria, China, Kazakhstan, Romania, Turkey, and Uzbekistan. They collectively numbered more than 8 million in the late 20th century... Tatar - Tu - The Tujia (土家族) are an ethnic group numbering about 8 million, living in the Wuling Mountains of Chinas Hunan and Hubei provinces. They form one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of China. History There are different accounts of their origins... Tujia - Uyghurs (also called Uighurs, Uygurs, or Uigurs) (Chinese: 維吾爾 or 维吾尔 in pinyin: wéiwúěr) are a Turkic ethnic group of people living in northwestern China (mainly in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, where they are the dominant ethnic group together with Han people... Uygur - Uzbeks are a Turkic ethnic group found primarily in Uzbekistan, but also in Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Xinjiang province of China and other countries in Central Asia. The Uzbeks predominatly follow Islam (mainly Sunni Islam) in a form that became weakened under the rule of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics... Uzbek - Va - The Xibe (Sibe; Chinese, 錫伯 Xíbó) are a Chinese ethnic group living mostly in northeast China and Xinjiang. They form one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of China. The Xibe originally lived on the Nonni River. They are known as one... Xibe - The Yao nationality (瑶族, pinyin: Yáo zú) are an ethnic group. They form one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of China, where they reside in the mountainous terrain of the southwest and south. The Yao are mostly Buddhists, Taoists or ancestor... Yao - See Yi royal family for the royal family of Korea. The Yi people(Chinese: 彝族 Yìzú, own name: Nosu) are a modern ethnic group in China. Numbering 6.6 million, they are the seventh largest of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of... Yi - The Yugur people are an ethnic group. They form one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of China. The Yugur speak 2 distantly related languages. West Yugur is a Turkic language while East Yugur is a Mongol language. They use Chinese for intercommunication. The... Yugur - A Tibetan pilgrim The Tibetans speak the Tibetan language natively and form one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of China (PRC), although in anthropological terms they include more than one ethnic group. According to an official census of 1959, the number of Tibetans... Zang - The Zhuang people (Traditional Chinese: 壯族, Simplified Chinese: 壮族, Hanyu Pinyin: Zhuàngzú; own name: Bouчcueŋь/Bouxcuengh) are an ethnic group of people who mostly live in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in southern China. They form one of the 56 ethnic groups officially... Zhuang

  Results from FactBites:
 
Mongols and Yuan China by Sanderson Beck (11119 words)
Mongol warriors were forbidden to speak of death, injury, or defeat.
Mongols and other foreigners (mostly from Persia) replaced most of the Confucian aristocrats in government, and the civil service exams were abolished.
As plays in the Mongol era had often been performed by prostitutes, the Ming dynasty considered actors and actresses as low as prostitutes; like them their sons were not allowed to take imperial examinations.
Mongols - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4479 words)
The Mongols were originally a confederation of tribes in competition with the Tatar Turks, Kerait, Merkit and Naiman confederations and therefore only one division of what is known today as the Mongol nation.
Mongols were originally shamans who pray to the supernatural God they believed existed beyond the sky and look down from the heavens.
The Mongols and Genghis Khan maintained a policy of being open to all religions, it was known as particularly sympathetic to Christians (which may have helped contribute to the legend of Prester John).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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