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Encyclopedia > Mongke Khan

Möngke Khan (1208-1259, also transliterated as Mongke, Mongka, Möngka, Mangu) was the fourth khan of the Mongol Empire. He was the son of Tolui and Sorghaghtani Beki, brother of Hulegu, and a grandson of Genghis Khan. He was the khan of the Mongol Empire from 1251 to 1259. Events Philip of Swabia King of Germany and rival Holy Roman Emperor to Otto IV, assassinated June 21 in Bamberg by German Count Otto of Wittelsbach because Philip had refused to give him his daughter in marriage. ... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ... Khan (sometimes spelled as xan, han) is a title meaning ruler in Mongolian and Turkish. ... The Mongol Empire (1206–1368) was the largest contiguous empire in world history. ... Tolui (also rendered Toluy, 1190–1232) was the youngest son of Genghis Khan by Börte. ... Sorghaghtani Beki (died 1252) was the mother of four of the great figures in Mongol history, especially Möngke Khan, Kublai Khan, and Hulagu Khan. ... Hulagu Khan (also known as Hülegü, and Hulegu) (1217–8 February 1265) was a Mongol ruler who conquered much of Southwest Asia. ... For the German pop band, see Dschinghis Khan Genghis Khan (1155/1162/1167–August 18, 1227) (Cyrillic: Чингис Хаан), (also spelled as Chingis Khan, Jenghis Khan, etc. ... The Mongol Empire (1206–1368) was the largest contiguous empire in world history. ... Events First Shepherds Crusade Births Deaths Monarchs/Presidents Aragon - James I King of Aragon and count of Barcelona (reigned from 1213 to 1276) Castile - Ferdinand III, the Saint King of Castile and Leon (reigned from 1217 to 1252) Categories: 1251 ... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ...


Möngke is noted as participating in the European campaign of 1236-1242, participating in the campaign against the steppe peoples to the southeast of the Russian principalities, the destruction of Kiev, and the assault of Hungary. In the summer of 1241, before the premature end of the campaign, Möngke returned home. Events May 6 - Roger of Wendover, Benedictine monk and chronicler of St Albanss Abbey dies. ... Events April 5 - During a battle on the ice of Russian forces rebuff an invasion attempt by the Teutonic Knights. ...


After the death of the third khan, Güyük, Möngke found himself the champion of the factions of Genghis' descendants who aimed to supplant the branch of Ögedei. Batu, the senior male of the family, had almost come to open warfare with Güyük in 1248, the khan's early death precluding this. Batu joined forces with Tolui's widow to outmaneuver the regent, Ögedei's widow Oghul Ghaimish. Batu called a kuriltai in Siberia in 1250, which was protested as not being in Mongolia proper. However, Batu ignored the opposition, had his brother Berke call a kuriltai within Mongolia, and elected Möngke khan in 1251. Güyük (c. ... Ögedei, (also Ögädäi, Ögedäi, etc. ... Batu Khan (c. ... Events Louis IX of France departs on the Seventh Crusade for Egypt Kingdom of Castile captures city of Seville from Muslims Cologne cathedral: old cathedral burns down April 30; foundation stone to current cathedral laid August 15 Births Deaths January 4 - King Sancho II of Portugal, in exile in Toledo... Khuriltai was a emperial and tribal assemblies convened to determine, strategize and analyze military campaigns and assign individuals to leadership positions and titles. ... Events December 13 - Death of Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor Louis IX of France is captured by Muslims and has to ransom himself Mabinogion appears Albertus Magnus isolates the element arsenic Vincent of Beauvais writes proto-encyclopedic The Greater Mirror City of Stockholm founded Alphonso III of Portugal takes Algarve... Berke was the ruler of the Golden Horde from 1257 to 1266, in the aftermath of the reign of his brother Batu. ...


Realizing they had been outmaneuvered, the Ögedeiid faction attempted to overthrow Möngke under the pretext of paying him homage, but their conspiracy was clumsy and easily avoided. Oghul Ghaimish was sewn up into a sack and drowned.


Möngke, as khan, seemed to take much more seriously the legacy of world conquest he had inherited than did Güyük. He concerned himself more with the war in China, outflanking the Song Dynasty through the conquest of Yunnan in 1254 and an invasion of Indochina, which allowed the Mongols to invade from north, west, and south. Taking command personally late in the decade, he captured many of the fortified cities along the northern front. These actions ultimately rendered the conquest a matter of time. He dispatched his brother Hülegü to the southwest, an act which was to expand the Mongol Empire to the gates of Egypt. European conquest was neglected due to the primacy of the other two theaters, but Möngke's friendliness with Batu ensured the unity of empire. The Song Dynasty (Chinese: 宋朝) was a ruling dynasty in China from 960-1279. ... Dali (Chinese: 大理; pinyin: ) is a city in Yunnan province in the south of the Peoples Republic of China, located on a fertile plateau between the Cangshan mountains to the west and Erhai lake to the east. ... Events December 2 - Manfred of Sicily defeats army of Pope Innocent IV at Foggia. ... Indochina, or the Indochinese Peninsula, is a large peninsula in Southeast Asia. ...


However, while conducting the war in China at Diaoyucheng in Sichuan, Möngke fell ill of dysentery and died (in 1259), which aborted Hülegü's campaign, staved off defeat for the Song, and caused a civil war that destroyed the unity, and invincibility, of the Mongol Empire. Sichuan (Chinese: 四川; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ssu-ch`uan; obsolete romanizations include Szechwan and Szechuan) is a province in central-western China with its capital at Chengdu. ... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ...


In some texts Möngke is said to be killed by a rock falling onto his head while attacking Diaoyucheng.


  Results from FactBites:
 
ooBdoo (568 words)
It was based, originally, on Genghis Khan's campaigns in the Khwarezmid Empire in 1219-1224, and the continual expansion of Mongol presence under the commands of Chormagan, Baiju, and Eljigidei.
The founder of the Ilkhanate dynasty was Hulegu Khan, grandson of Genghis Khan and brother of Mongke khan.
The term il-Khan means "subordinate khan" and refers to their initial deference to Mongke as grand khan and ultimate sovereign of the entire empire.
Genghis Khan and the Mongols (4171 words)
Returning with Genghis Khan and his Mongols were engineers who had become a permanent part of their army, and there were captive musicians, translators, doctors and scribes, camels and wagonloads of goods.
The husband of Genghis Khan's daughter was killed, and, it is said, she asked that everyone in the city be put to death, and, according to the story, they were.
There, in 1259, Mongke died in battle, and he was to be the last of the great khans ruling from Karakorum and the last to exercise authority over the entire Mongol empire.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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