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Encyclopedia > Money creation

Money creation is the process by which money is produced or issued. There are two different ways to create money: For other uses, see Money (disambiguation). ...

  • physically manufacturing a new monetary unit, such as paper currency or metal coins
  • loaning out a physical monetary unit multiple times through fractional-reserve lending

Coins are produced by manufacturing metal in a factory called a mint. Fractional-reserve banking refers to a financial system in which some fraction of the deposits can be used to finance profitable but illiquid investments. ... This article is about monetary coins. ... A mint is a facility which manufactures coins for currency. ...


Banknotes and bank account balances are financial securities issued by a bank. A £20 Ulster Bank banknote. ... Securities are tradeable interests representing financial value. ... For other uses, see Bank (disambiguation). ...


Similarly, money destruction, i.e., the reverse of money creation, can occur in two different ways, depending on how the money was created. The destruction of physically created money occurs when coins are scrapped to recover their precious metal content, or when the issuer redeems the securities. The destruction of money created through loans occurs as the loans are paid back[citation needed].


The practices and regulation of production, issue and redemption of money is of central concern to monetary economics (e.g. monetarism), and affect the operation of financial markets and the purchasing power of money. Monetarism is a set of views concerning the determination of national income and monetary economics. ...


In modern economies such as that of the United States relatively little of the national GDP is in currency (coins, banknotes, accounts backed by central bank), so that most is created thru lending. GDP is an acronym which can stand for more than one thing: (in economics) an abbreviation for Gross Domestic Product. ... Fractional-reserve banking refers to a financial system in which some fraction of the deposits can be used to finance profitable but illiquid investments. ...

Contents

Money creation by mints

Under competitive minting

Competitive minting means that the business of manufacturing coins is open to many competing manufacturers. The mints buy bullion on the bullion market, and manufacture it into coins that they use to pay for the bullion and their other production costs, and to provide a profit. A precious metal is a rare metallic element of high, durable economic value. ...


Analysis of supply and demand cannot proceed in the normal way because by definition, the money price of money is fixed at unity. Instead, metal producers need money to pay their expenses and to realise their profits in money, and so their demand for money is expressed by their willingness to produce and sell uncoined metal at a discount to its value as coin. This discount is the gross profit margin of manufacturing metal into coin, and the greater this is, the more metal the mints will find economical to manufacture into coin.


Under nationalized minting with a right to exchange

Nationalized minting means that the government has monopolised the business of minting coins, and the government operates mints that produce a national system of coinage. Under a metallic or bimetallic standard with a national mint, individuals normally have a right to bring precious metal to the national mint and to have it coined at a fixed discount. This discount is called seigniorage. Seigniorage, also spelled seignorage or seigneurage, is the net revenue derived from the issuing of currency. ...


Basic economic analysis of this arrangement is that it makes the supply of coin elastic at the fixed price, however this fixed price is effectively a price control, and price control theory implies that the supply of coin would be more elastic (responsive) under competitive supply and no price controls. In economics, incomes policies are wage and price controls used to fight inflation. ...


Under nationalized minting with no right to exchange

Where there is no legal right to take metal to the national mint and to have it coined into a particular coin, the supply of the coin depends on government or mint policy. This can result in arbitrary debasement of coinage, where the government mint re-manufactures coin with a lower metallic value as a way to raise revenue. However it also enables some more complex coinage arrangements such as the composite legal tender system where gold coin was unlimited legal tender (produced under a right of exchange arrangement as above) and where silver coins are limited legal tender, and have a substantially reduced metallic value below their legal value, but are effectively redeemable at the mint for their legal value in gold coins. This makes the silver coins 'token' coins, and a form of financial asset (and a financial liability to the mint). central bank does not transact business with private individual they are the banker's bank, they act as agent of the government. 1. they issue currency to the public 2. they are establish by parliament 3. their main aim of establishment is not profit making 4. they do give advice to the government 5. they don't accept deposits from individuals 6. they don't transact business with private individuals


Money creation through the fractional reserve system

Further information: Money supply

Fractional-reserve banking creates money whenever a new loan is created. In short, there are two types of money in a fractional-reserve banking system[1][2]: Fractional-reserve banking refers to a financial system in which some fraction of the deposits can be used to finance profitable but illiquid investments. ... In macroeconomics, money supply (monetary aggregates, money stock) is the quantity of currency and money in bank accounts in the hands of the non-bank public available within the economy to purchase goods, services, and securities. ...

  1. central bank money (physical currency)
  2. commercial bank money (money created through loans) - sometimes referred to as checkbook money[3]

When a loan is supplied with central bank money, new commercial bank money is created. As a loan is paid back, the commercial bank money disappears from existence. The table below displays how central bank money is used to produce commercial bank money.

Table:[4] Fractional-Reserve Lending Cycled 10 times with a 20 percent reserve rate (sources: The Principle of Multiple Deposit Creation[5], Federal Reserve Bank of New York[6], Bank for International Settlements[1])
individual bank amount deposited amount loaned out reserves
A 100 80 20
B 80 64 16
C 64 51.20 12.80
D 51.20 40.96 10.24
E 40.96 32.77 8.19
F 32.77 26.21 6.55
G 26.21 20.97 5.24
H 20.97 16.78 4.19
I 16.78 13.42 3.36
J 13.42 10.74 2.68
K 10.74




total reserves:



89.26

total amount deposited: total amount loaned out: total reserves + last amount deposited:

457.05 357.05 100





commercial bank money created + central bank money: commercial bank money created: central bank money:

457.05 357.05 100

Although no new money was physically created in addition to the initial $100 deposit, new commercial bank money is created through loans. The 2 boxes marked in red show the location of the original $100 deposit throughout the entire process. The total reserves plus the last deposit (or last loan, whichever is last) will always equal the original amount, which in this case is $100. As this process continues, more commercial bank money is created. For more information on how this system works, see Fractional-reserve banking. Fractional-reserve banking refers to a financial system in which some fraction of the deposits can be used to finance profitable but illiquid investments. ...


Money multiplier

The expansion of $100 through fractional-reserve lending at varying rates. Each curve approaches a limit. This limit is the value that the money multiplier calculates.
The expansion of $100 through fractional-reserve lending at varying rates. Each curve approaches a limit. This limit is the value that the money multiplier calculates.

The most common mechanism used to measure this increase in the money supply is typically called the money multiplier. It calculates the maximum amount of money that an initial deposit can be expanded to with a given reserve ratio.


Formula

The money multiplier, m, is the inverse of the reserve requirement, R[7]:

m=frac1R

Example


For example, with the reserve ratio of 20 percent, this reserve ratio, R, can also be expressed as a fraction:

R=tfrac15

So then the money multiplier, m, will be calculated as:

m=1/tfrac15=5

This number is multiplied by the initial deposit excess reserves to show the maximum amount of money it can be expanded to[8].


See also

Numismatics portal

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (910x910, 596 KB)Media:Example. ... Fractional-reserve banking refers to a financial system in which some fraction of the deposits can be used to finance profitable but illiquid investments. ... The Federal Reserve System is headquartered in the Eccles Building on Constitution Avenue in Washington, DC. The Federal Reserve System (also the Federal Reserve; informally The Fed) is the central banking system of the United States. ... Look up fiat in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Money (disambiguation). ... In macroeconomics, money supply (monetary aggregates, money stock) is the quantity of currency and money in bank accounts in the hands of the non-bank public available within the economy to purchase goods, services, and securities. ... The term national bank has several meanings: especially in developing countries, a bank owned by the state an ordinary private bank which operates nationally (as opposed to regionally or locally or even internationally) In the past, the term national bank has been used synonymously with central bank, but it is... Open market operations are the means of implementing monetary policy by which a central bank controls its national money supply by buying and selling government securities, or other instruments. ... The reserve requirement (or required reserve ratio) is a bank regulation that sets the minimum reserves each bank must hold to customer deposits and notes. ...

External links

References

  1. ^ a b Bank for International Settlements - The Role of Central Bank Money in Payment Systems. See page 9, titled, "The coexistence of central and commercial bank monies: multiple issuers, one currency": http://www.bis.org/publ/cpss55.pdf A quick quote in reference to the 2 different types of money is listed on page 3. It is the first sentence of the document:
    "Contemporary monetary systems are based on the mutually reinforcing roles of central bank money and commercial bank monies."
  2. ^ European Central Bank - Domestic payments in Euroland: commercial and central bank money: http://www.ecb.int/press/key/date/2000/html/sp001109_2.en.html One quote from the article referencing the two types of money:
    "At the beginning of the 20th almost the totality of retail payments were made in central bank money. Over time, this monopoly came to be shared with commercial banks, when deposits and their transfer via checks and giros became widely accepted. Banknotes and commercial bank money became fully interchangeable payment media that customers could use according to their needs. While transaction costs in commercial bank money were shrinking, cashless payment instruments became increasingly used, at the expense of banknotes"
  3. ^ Chicago Fed - Our Central Bank: http://www.chicagofed.org/consumer_information/the_fed_our_central_bank.cfm
    the reference is found in the "Money Manager" section:
    "the Fed works to control money at its source by affecting the ability of financial institutions to "create" checkbook money through loans or investments. The control lever that the Fed uses in this process is the "reserves" that banks and thrifts must hold."
  4. ^ Table created with the OpenOffice.org Calc spreadsheet program using data and information from the references listed.
  5. ^ Federal Reserve Education - How does the Fed Create Money? http://www.federalreserveeducation.org/fed101_html/policy/money_print.htm
    See the link to "The Principle of Multiple Deposit Creation" pdf document towards bottom of page.
  6. ^ An explanation of how it works from the New York Regional Reserve Bank of the US Federal Reserve system. Scroll down to the "Reserve Requirements and Money Creation" section. Here is what it says:
    "Reserve requirements affect the potential of the banking system to create transaction deposits. If the reserve requirement is 10%, for example, a bank that receives a $100 deposit may lend out $90 of that deposit. If the borrower then writes a check to someone who deposits the $90, the bank receiving that deposit can lend out $81. As the process continues, the banking system can expand the initial deposit of $100 into a maximum of $1,000 of money ($100+$90+81+$72.90+...=$1,000). In contrast, with a 20% reserve requirement, the banking system would be able to expand the initial $100 deposit into a maximum of $500 ($100+$80+$64+$51.20+...=$500). Thus, higher reserve requirements should result in reduced money creation and, in turn, in reduced economic activity."
    The link to this page is: http://www.newyorkfed.org/aboutthefed/fedpoint/fed45.html
  7. ^ http://www.mhhe.com/economics/mcconnell15e/graphics/mcconnell15eco/common/dothemath/moneymultiplier.html
  8. ^ Mankiw, N. Gregory (2001), Principles of Macroeconomics
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Headquarters Coordinates , , Established 1 January 1998 President Jean-Claude Trichet Central Bank of Austria, Belgium, France, Finland, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain Currency Euro ISO 4217 Code EUR Reserves €43bn directly, €338bn through the Eurosystem (including gold deposits). ... The Fed redirects here. ... The Reserve Bank of Australia came into being on 14 January 1960 to operate as Australias central bank and banknote issuing authority. ... The Reserve Bank of New Zealand is the central bank of New Zealand and is constituted under the Reserve Bank of New Zealand Act 1989. ... (Banka e Shqipërisë in Albanian) is the Central Bank of Albania. ... The Croatian National Bank (or HNB for Croatian Hrvatska Narodna Banka) is the central bank of the Republic of Croatia. ... Czech National Bank (official name in Czech language: Česká národní banka, abbreviated ČNB) is central bank of the Czech Republic. ... 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Expansionary monetary policy is monetary policy that seeks to increase the size of the money supply. ... Contractionary monetary policy is monetary policy that seeks to reduce the size of the money supply. ... The capital requirement is a bank regulation, which sets a framework on how banks and depository institutions must handle their capital. ... Open Market Operations are the means by which central banks control the liquidity of the national currency. ... This article lacks information on the importance of the subject matter. ... The discount window is an instrument of monetary policy (usually controlled by central banks) that allows eligible institutions to borrow money, usually on a short-term basis, to meet temporary shortages of liquidity caused by internal or external disruptions. ... An interest rate is the rental price of money. ... 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  Results from FactBites:
 
How Money is Created (6643 words)
Money is created when a trader makes a commitment, by buying goods or services from other traders, to place goods or services in the marketplace of equal value in the future.
While banks are generally credited with the creation of money, it is still the traders who go to the bank to borrow who are making the commitment to place goods or services on the market to repay their debt.
As such, a secondary function of money creation--and all borrowing under the present rules--is that of a private social security or welfare system, funded by the “tax” (interest) on traders who have a negative balance in their accounts, and paid to those who have positive balances and those who mediate the money creation process.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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