In late 1992 (September 14, Monday) the British pound began a steep decline that made it "leave" the "Exchange Rate Mechanism" on the Wednesday of that week. At the same time the Swedish currency began to decline, the first reaction from the central bank was to try and keep the current fixed exchange rates in place, and they set a target for their equivalent to the federal funds rate ("marginal rate") at 500%. The bank began to sell short term government securities in large amounts but soon realized that market forces were strong, so they lowered their target rate, and let everyone sell what they wanted to sell, and the country saw a large selling of SEK, and SEK denominated papers. Between September 1992 and February 1993 the Swedish currency "TCW" index went from 100 to 125 (20% fall), while the British currency XBP index fell from 200 to 142 (29% fall).
In these countries, monetarypolicy could be described as the management of short-term interest rates by central banks in pursuit of the domestic policy objectives, usually defined in terms of inflation and economic growth.
Monetary targeting was abandoned in Australia, and in most other countries, because it was found that the monetary aggregates were becoming increasingly unstable and unrelated to the variables of ultimate concern.
Monetarypolicy decisions always have to be made on the basis of imperfect information about economic prospects, and the money and credit aggregates represent part of the information (along with an array of other economic indicators) that can potentially help in making these assessments.
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