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Encyclopedia > Monasticism

Monasticism (from Greek: monachos — a solitary person) is the religious practice in which one renounces worldly pursuits in order to fully devote one's life to spiritual work. Various Religious symbols, including (first row) Christian, Jewish, Hindu, Bahai, (second row) Islamic, tribal, Taoist, Shinto (third row) Buddhist, Sikh, Hindu, Jain, (fourth row) Ayyavazhi, Triple Goddess, Maltese cross, pre-Christian Slavonic Religion is the adherence to codified beliefs and rituals that generally involve a faith in a spiritual... World is a key concept in theology. ...


Many religions have monastic elements, including Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, and Jainism, though the expressions differ considerably. Those pursuing a monastic life are usually called monks or brothers (male), and nuns or sisters (female). Both monks and nuns may also be called monastics. A silhouette of a Buddha statue at Ayutthaya, Thailand. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages[1]) is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Jain and Jaina redirect here. ... St. ... For other uses, see Nun (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Buddhist monasticism

Main article: Buddhist monasticism

The order of Buddhist monks and original nuns was founded by Gautama Buddha during his lifetime over 2500 years ago. The Buddhist monastic lifestyle grew out of the lifestyle of earlier sects of wandering ascetics, some of whom the Buddha had studied under, and was initially fairly eremetic in nature. Monks and nuns were expected to live with a minimum of possessions, which were to be voluntarily provided by the lay community. Lay followers also provided the daily food that monks required, and provided shelter for monks when they were needed.[citation needed] Monasticism is one of the most fundamental institutions of Buddhism. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... Standing Buddha sculpture, ancient region of Gandhara, northern Pakistan, 1st century CE, Musée Guimet. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A hermit, also known as an anchorite or anchoress, is a person living in voluntary seclusion, often for religious reasons. ...


After the death of the Buddha, the Buddhist monastic order developed into a primarily cenobitic movement. The practice of living communally during the rainy vassa season, prescribed by the Buddha, gradually grew to encompass a settled monastic life centered on life in a community of practitioners. Most of the modern disciplinary rules followed by monks and nuns – the Patimokkha – relate to such an existence, prescribing in great detail proper methods for living and relating in a community of monks or nuns. The number of rules observed varies with the order; Theravada monks follow around 227 rules. There are a larger number of rules specified for bhikkhunis (nuns). The cenobitic tradition is a monastic tradition that stresses community life. ... Vassa (Thai พรรษา, pansa or phansaa), also called Rains Retreat, is the traditional retreat during the rainy season lasting for three lunar months from July to October. ... In Buddhism, the Patimokkha is the basic Theravada code of monastic discipline, consisting of 227 rules for fully ordained monks (bhikkhus) and 311 for nuns (bhikkhunis). ...


Buddhist monasticism with its tradition of councils, missions, and being a source of knowledge and literacy spread from India to the Middle East and eventually west, with Christian monasticism following in its footsteps in the areas where Emperor Ashoka sent missions. // Main article: First Buddhist council Ananda reciting the Sutta Pitaka According to the scriptures of all Buddhist schools, the first Buddhist Council was held soon after the nirvana of the Buddha under the patronage of king Ajatasatru, and presided by the monk Mahakasyapa, at Rajagaha (todays Rajgir). ... Allegiance: Magadhan Empire Rank: Emperor Succeeded by: Dasaratha Maurya Reign: 273 BC-232 BC Place of birth: Pataliputra, India Battles/Wars Kalinga War Emperor Ashoka the Great (Devanagari: अशोक(:); IAST transliteration: , pronunciation: ) (304 BC–232 BC) (Imperial Title:Devanampiya Piyadassi ie He who is the beloved of the Gods who, in...


The Buddhist, the male bhikkhu assembly, and the female bhikkhuni assembly. Initially consisting only of males, the Buddhist monastic order grew to include females after the Buddha's step-mother, Mahaprajapati, asked for and received permission to live as an ordained practitioner. A Buddhist Monk in Sri Lanka In Pāli, a bhikkhu (male) or bhikkhuni (female) is a fully ordained Buddhist monk. ... High-ranking Chinese bhikkunis in an alms round. ... Mahapajapati Gotami (in Pali; Mahaprajapati Gautami in Sanskrit) was the first woman to request ordination from the Buddha and to join the Sangha. ...


Monks and nuns are expected to fulfill a variety of roles in the Buddhist community. First and foremost, they are expected to preserve the doctrine and discipline now known as Buddhism. They are also expected to provide a living example for the laity, and to serve as a "field of merit" for lay followers – providing laymen and women with the opportunity to earn merit by giving gifts and support to the monks. In return for the support of the laity, monks and nuns are expected to live an austere life focused on the study of Buddhist doctrine, the practice of meditation, and the observance of good moral character.

Young Buddhist monks in Tibet
Young Buddhist monks in Tibet

A monk, known as a Bhikkhu in Pali or Bhikshu in Sanskrit, first ordains as a Samanera (novice) for a year or more. Novices often ordain at a very young age, but generally no younger than 8. Samaneras live according to the Ten Precepts, but are not responsible for living by the full set of monastic rules. Higher ordination, conferring the status of a full Bhikkhu, is usually given only to men who are aged 20 or older. Nuns follow a similar progression, but are required to live as Samaneras for a longer periods of time- typically five years. Young Buddhist monks in Tibet. ... Young Buddhist monks in Tibet. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... Pāli is a Middle Indo-Aryan dialect or prakrit. ... The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... The Ten Precepts (Pali: dasasila or samanerasikkha) are the precepts or training-rules for samaneras (male) and samaneris (female), also referred to as novice monks or nuns. ...


The disciplinary regulations for monks and nuns are intended to create a life that is simple and focused, rather than one of deprivation or severe asceticism. Celibacy is of primary importance in monastic discipline,


Christian monasticism

Main article: Christian monasticism

Monasticism in Christianity is a family of similar traditions that began to develop early in the history of the Christian Church, modeled upon Scriptural examples and ideals, but not mandated as an institution by the Scriptures. The Order of Friars Minor is a major mendicant movement founded by Saint Francis of Assisi. ...


The focus of Christian monasticism is on an ideal called the religious life, also called the counsels of perfection. The words of Jesus which are the cornerstone for this ideal are "be ye holy like your heavenly Father is holy." Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Consecrated Life in... The evangelical counsels or counsels of perfection are poverty, chastity, and obedience. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ...


Christian cenobitic monasticism as it is mainly known in the West started in Egypt, which had warm temperatures ideal for living away from society. Originally, all Christian monks were hermits; and especially in the Middle East this continued to be very common until the decline of Syrian Christianity in the late Middle Ages. Saint Anthony the Great is cited by Athanasius as one of these early 'eremitic monks.' The cenobitic tradition is a monastic tradition that stresses community life. ... St. ... For other uses, see Hermit (disambiguation). ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... For the 13th century saint, see Saint Anthony of Padua. ... “Athanasius” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Hermit (disambiguation). ...


But not everybody is fit for solitary life, and numerous cases of hermits becoming mentally unstable are reported. The need for some form of organized spiritual guidance was obvious; and around 318 Saint Pachomius started to organize his many followers in what was to become the first Christian monastery. Soon, similar institutions were establish throughout the Egyptian desert as well as the rest of the eastern half of the Roman Empire. Notable monasteries of the East include: Events Gregory the Illuminator appoints his son Aristax as successor in the Patriarchate of Armenia. ... Coptic icon of St Pachomius Saint Pachomius (ca. ... St. ...

In the West, the most significant development occurred when the rules for monastic communities were set by Saint Benedict of Nursia and St. Augustine. St. Benedict created the Rule of Saint Benedict at his monastery in Monte Cassino, Italy (529), which was the seed of Roman Catholic monasticism in general, and of the Order of Saint Benedict in particular. The Rule of Saint Benedict would become the most common rule throughout the Middle Ages, spawning many other Religious Orders, and it is still in use today. The Rule of St. Augustine, due to its brevity, has been adopted by various communities, most chiefly the Canons Regular. The Monastery of Saint Anthony is a Coptic Orthodox monastery located at an oasis spring in the Eastern Desert, hidden deep in the Red Sea mountains. ... Mar Awgin (late 3rd century - about 379) founded the first cenobitic monastery of Asia. ... The newly excavated Church of Saint Jacob in Nisibis. ... For other uses, see Mesopotamia (disambiguation). ... Events January 18 - Magnentius proclaimed Emperor by the army in Autun. ... Sabbas the Sanctified (439-531/532) was a Palestinian Monastic. ... Central Bethlehem This article is about the city in the West Bank. ... Events March 13 - Pope Felix III succeeds Pope Simplicius The general Illus and Verina, mother-in-law of Byzantine emperor Zeno I, attempt to overthrow Zeno and place a general named Leontius on the throne. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Coptic Orthodox Pope · Roman Catholic Pope Archbishop of Canterbury · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Faith... St. ... (Latin: Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus, Greek: Ιουστινιανός;) commonly known as Justinian I, or (among Eastern Orthodox Christians) as Saint Justinian the Great; c. ... This article is about Saint Benedict of Nursia, for other uses of the name Benedict see Benedict (disambiguation) Saint Benedict of Nursia (c. ... The Rule of St Benedict by Benedict of Nursia (fl. ... The restored Abbey. ... For other uses, see number 529. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... St Benedict of Nursia (c. ... Catholic religious orders are organizations of laity and/orclergy in the Roman Catholic Church who live under a common rule. ...


Around the 12th century, the Franciscan, Carmelite, Dominican, and Augustinian mendicant orders chose to live in city convents among the people instead of secluded in monasteries. The Order of Friars Minor and other Franciscan movements are disciples of Saint Francis of Assisi. ... Origin and early history Carmelites (in Latin Ordo fratrum Beatæ Virginis Mariæ de monte Carmelo) is the name of a Roman Catholic order founded in the 12th century by a certain Berthold (d. ... The Augustinians, named after Saint Augustine of Hippo (died AD 430), are several Roman Catholic monastic orders and congregations of both men and women living according to a guide to religious life known as the Rule of Saint Augustine. ... The Mendicant (or Begging) Orders are religious orders which depend directly on the riches of the people for their livelihood. ... This article is about an abbey as a religious building. ...


Today new expressions of Christian monasticism, many of which ecumenical, are developing in places such as the Bose Monastic Community in Italy, the Fraternités de Jerusalem throughout Europe, and the Taizé Community in France, in addition to the Evangelical Protestant New Monasticism movement. The word ecumenical comes from a Greek word that means pertaining to the whole world. ... The ecumenical Monastic Community of Bose ( Monastero di Bose ) was established by Catholic layman Enzo Bianchi in 1965. ... Brother Roger of Taizé, 2003 The Taizé Community is an ecumenical Christian mens monastic order in Taizé, Saône-et-Loire, Burgundy, France initiated by Brother Roger (Roger Louis Schutz-Marsauche) in 1940. ... New Monasticism, or Neomonasticism, is a modern day iteration of a long tradition of Christian monasticism which has recently developed within certain communities associated with Protestant Evangelicalism. ...


Hindu monasticism

In their quest to attain the spiritual goal of life, some Hindus choose the path of monasticism (sanyāsa). Monastics commit themselves to a life of simplicity, celibacy, detachment from worldly pursuits, and the contemplation of God.[1] A Hindu monk is called a sanyāsī, sādhu, or swāmi.[2] A nun is called a sanyāsini, sadhavi, or swāmini. Such renunciates are accorded high respect in Hindu society, because their outward renunciation of selfishness and worldliness serves as an inspiration to householders who strive for mental renunciation. Some monastics live in monasteries, while others wander from place to place, trusting in God alone to provide for their physical needs.[3] It is considered a highly meritorious act for a lay devotee to provide sadhus with food or other necessaries. Sādhus are expected to treat all with respect and compassion, whether a person may be poor or rich, good or wicked. They are also expected to be indifferent to praise, blame, pleasure, and pain.[4] A sādhu can typically be recognized by his ochre-colored clothing. Generally, Vaisnava monks shave their heads except for a small patch of hair on the back of the head, while Saivite monks let their hair and beard grow uncut. Vaishnavism is the branch of Hinduism in which Vishnu or one of his avatars (i. ... Shaivism, also Saivism, is a branch of Hinduism that worships Siva as the Supreme God. ...


A Sadhu's vow of renunciation typically forbids him from:

  • owning personal property apart from a bowl, a cup, two sets of clothing and medical aides such as eyeglasses;
  • having any contact with, looking at, thinking of or even being in the presence of women;
  • eating for pleasure;
  • possessing or even touching money or valuables in any way, shape or form;
  • maintaining personal relationships.[citation needed]
See also: Dashanami Sampradaya

Dasanami Sampradaya (IAST ), literally Tradition of Ten Names, is a Hindu monastic tradition established by Adi Shankara in the 8th century CE in India. ...

Islamic monasticism

While many Muslims do not believe in monasticism (emphasizing the Qur'anic injunction (57:27), in which Allah rebukes monasticism as a man-made practice that is not divinely prescribed), various Sufi orders, or 'tariqas' encourage practices which resemble those of monastic brotherhoods in other faiths. Allah is the Arabic language word for God. ...


Dervishes — initiates of Sufi orders — believe that love is a projection of the essence of God to the universe. Many of the dervishes are mendicant ascetics who have taken the vow of poverty. Though some of them are beggars by choice, others work in common professions; many Egyptian Qadirites, for example, are fishermen. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... For other uses, see Universe (disambiguation). ... The word ascetic derives from the ancient Greek term askesis (practice, training or exercise). ...


All genuine dervish brotherhoods trace their origins from two of the close companions of the Prophet Muhammad, Ali and Abu Bakr. They differ from spiritual brotherhoods of Christianity in that they usually do not live together in a 'monastery' setting; in this sense they do not go 'around' the world. Rather, they go 'through' it; it is actually a stipulation that they have families, and earn an ethical living. Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Ali ibn Abu Talib (Arabic: علي بن أبي طالب translit: ‘AlÄ« ibn Abu Ṭālib Persian: علی پسر ابو طالب) ‎ (599 – 661) is an early Islamic leader. ... Abu Bakr As Siddiq (Arabic ابو بكر الصديق, alternative spellings, Abubakar, Abi Bakr, Abu Bakar) (c. ...


Whirling dance, which is the practice of the Mevlevi order in Turkey, is just one of the physical methods to try to reach religious ecstasy (majdhb) and connection with Allah. Rif'ai, in their mystical states, apparently skewer themselves without engendering any harm. Other groups include the Shadhili, a gnosis based order who practice the 'hadra' or 'presence', a dance-like breathing exercise involving the repetition of divine names. All genuine brotherhoods and subgroups chant verses of Qur'an, and must follow the sharia, or Islamic sacred law. Whirling Dervishes perform near the Mevlevi Museum in Konya, Turkey. ... The Tariqa ash Shadhiliya is the Sufi order founded by Abu-l-Hassan ash-Shadhili. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: ;, literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Alcoran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Sharia (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the dynamic body of Islamic religious law. ...


Traditionally monks in Islam have been known as fakirs. This term has also been applied to Hindu monks. Fakir is a derragatory term used in languages derived from india to describe lowersocial status people,such as very poor people and people condemed from their society e. ...


Jain monasticism

Jainism has two branches, and each has a slightly different take on monasticism. Digambara monks do not wear clothing; however, they do not consider themselves to be nude — they are wearing the environment. Digambaras believe that practice represents a refusal to give in to the body's demands for comfort and private property — only Digambara ascetics are required to forsake clothing. Digambara ascetics have only two possessions: a peacock feather broom and a water gourd. They also believe that women are unable to obtain moksha. As a result, of the around 6000 Jain nuns, barely 100 are Digambaras. The Shvetambaras are the other main Jainist sect. Svetambaras, unlike Digambaras, neither believe that ascetics must practice nudity, nor do they believe that women are unable to obtain moksha. Shvetambaras are commonly seen wearing face masks so that they do not accidentally breathe in and kill small creatures. The Digambara (Sky-Clad) are a Jainist sect, these are the followers of Bhadrabahu. ... Clothing protects the vulnerable nude human body from the extremes of weather, other features of our environment, and for safety reasons. ... “Clothes free” redirects here. ... This page deals with property as ownership rights. ... Peacock re-directs here; for alternate uses see Peacock (disambiguation). ... Two feathers Feathers are one of the epidermal growths that form the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on birds. ... broom A broom is a cleaning tool consisting of stiff fibres attached to, and roughly parallel to, a cylindrical handle, the broomstick. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Moksha - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The Shvetambara (White-Clad) are a Jainism sect. ...


Monasticism in other religions

Judaism Judaism does not support the monastic ideal of celibacy and poverty, but two thousand years ago taking Nazirite vows was a common feature of the religion. Nazirite Jews abstained from grape products, haircuts, and contact with the dead. However, they did not withdraw from general society, and they were permitted to marry and own property. In Modern Hebrew, the term Nazir is most often used to refer to non-Jewish monastics. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A nazirite or nazarite, (in Hebrew: נזיר, nazir), refers to a Jew who took an ascetic vow described in Numbers 6:1-21. ... -1...


Sikhism specifically forbids the practice of monasticism. Hence there are no Sikh monk conclaves or brotherhoods. Sikhism (IPA: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is a religion that began in fifteenth century Northern India with the teachings of Nanak and nine successive human gurus. ...


Manichaeism had two types of followers, the auditors, and the elect. The elect lived apart from the auditors to concentrate on reducing the material influences of the world. They did this through strict celibacy, poverty, teaching, and preaching. Therefore the elect were probably at least partially monastic. Manichean priests, writing at their desk, with panel inscription in Sogdian. ...


Scientology maintains a "fraternal order" called the Sea Organization or just Sea Org. They work only for the Church of Scientology and have signed billion year contracts. Sea Org members live communally with lodging, food, clothing, and medical care provided by the Church. Doctrine Practices Concepts People Public outreach Organization Controversy Scientology is a body of beliefs and related practices created by American pulp fiction author L. Ron Hubbard in 1952 as an outgrowth of his earlier self-help system, Dianetics. ... The Sea Org logo. ... Doctrine Practices Concepts People Public groups Organization Controversy The Sea Organization or Sea Org is an association of Scientologists established in 1968 by L. Ron Hubbard, the founder of Scientology. ... Scientology cross Symbol Doctrine Practices Concepts People Public outreach Organization Controversy The Church of Scientology is a religious organization, often controversial, that is devoted to the practice and the promotion of Scientology belief system. ...


Ananda Marga has both monks and nuns (i.e. celibate male and female acharyas or missionaries) as well as a smaller group of family acharyas. The monks and nuns are engaged in all kinds of direct services to society, so they have no scope for permanent retreat. They do have to follow strict celibacy, poverty and many other rules of conduct during as well as after they have completed their training. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... An acharya (आचार्य) is a prominent guru, teacher and scholar who teaches by his own example (from Sanskrit achara, behavior). ... Two Mormon missionaries A missionary is traditionally defined as a propagator of religion who works to convert those outside that community; someone who proselytizes. ...


Yungdrung Bön is believed to have a rich monastic history. Bön monasteries exist today, however, the monks there practice Bön-Buddhism. Bön[1] (Tibetan: བོན་; Wylie: bon; Lhasa dialect IPA: [) is the oldest spiritual tradition of Tibet. ...


See also

A religious order is an organization of people who live in some way set apart from society in accordance with religious devotion. ... Monastery of St. ... The Order of Friars Minor is a major mendicant movement founded by Saint Francis of Assisi. ... The film Into Great Silence (Die Große Stille) directed by Philip Groening, is an intimate portrayal of the everyday lives of Carthusian monks of the Grande Chartreuse, high in a remote corner of the French Alps (Chartreuse Mountains). ... New Monasticism, or Neomonasticism, is a modern day iteration of a long tradition of Christian monasticism which has recently developed within certain communities associated with Protestant Evangelicalism. ... St. ... The eremitic Rule of St. ... A maţha (also written math, matha or mutt) is a term for monastic and similar religious establishments of the Hindu and Jain traditions. ...

Further reading

  • Fracchia, Charles, "Living Together Alone: The new American monasticism ", Harper & Row, 1979. ISBN 0060630116.
  • Gruber, Mark. 2003. "Sacrifice In the Desert: A Study Of An Egyptian Minority Through The Lens of Coptic Monasticism." Lanham: University Press of America. ISBN 0-7618-2539-8
  • Johnston, William M. (ed.). 2000. Encyclopedia of Monasticism. 2 vols., Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers.
  • Lawrence, C. H. 2001. Medieval Monasticism: Forms of Religious Life in Western Europe in the Middle Ages (3rd Edition). New York: Longmans. ISBN 0-582-40427-4
  • Zarnecki, George. 1985. The Monastic World: The Contributions of The Orders. pp. 36-66, in Evans, Joan (ed.). 1985. The Flowering of the Middle Ages. London: Thames and Hudson Ltd.

External links

  • Links to Coptic Orthodox Monasteries of Egypt and the world
  • History of Monasticism
  • Monasticism Immaculate Heart of Mary's Hermitage
  • "Woman" – The correct perspective for the monastic – An eastern point of view
  • Korean Franciscan Brotherhood
  • Orthodox Monasticism Saint Anthony's Greek Orthodox Monastery

  Results from FactBites:
 
Monasticism Studies Area - Monachos.net (323 words)
Monasticism is not just a 'part' of the greater scope of Orthodox life; it is the very centre and heart of the Church, out of which all other aspects of her life are born and grow.
The monastics (both men and women) are those who choose to follow with singular devotion and obedience the call of Christ, who live the life of the Church in its fullest and most authentic sense.
It is said that monasticism is 'built in' to humanity, that a nature which has been torn from the intimate communion with its Creator for which it was created, naturally longs to return to that better state.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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