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Encyclopedia > Monastery
This article concerns the buildings occupied by monastics.
For the life inside monasteries and its historical roots see Monasticism.
For monastic communities see Religious orders.
For the hamlet in the South-west of England see The Friary.
For the school in the Lichfield, Staffordshire see The Friary School.
Monastery of St. Nilus on Stolbnyi Island in Lake Seliger near Ostashkov, ca. 1910.
Monastery of St. Nilus on Stolbnyi Island in Lake Seliger near Ostashkov, ca. 1910.
Abbey of Monte Cassino, originally built by Saint Benedict, shown here as rebuilt after World War II.
Abbey of Monte Cassino, originally built by Saint Benedict, shown here as rebuilt after World War II.
The groundplan of the Abbey of St. Gall in Switzerland, providing for all of the needs of the monks within the confines of the monastery walls.
The groundplan of the Abbey of St. Gall in Switzerland, providing for all of the needs of the monks within the confines of the monastery walls.

Monastery (plural: Monasteries), a term derived from the Greek word μοναστήριον (monastērion, from μόνος - monos "alone" ), denotes the building, or complex of buildings, that houses a room reserved for prayer (e.g. an oratory) as well as the domestic quarters and workplace(s) of monastics, whether monks or nuns, and whether living in community or alone (hermits). Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... For other uses, see Monk (disambiguation). ... Monasticism (from Greek: monachos — a solitary person) is the religious practice in which one renounces worldly pursuits in order to fully devote ones life to spiritual work. ... A Taoist monk playing an instrument. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 571 KB) Early color photograph from Russia, created by Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii as part of his work to document the Russian Empire from 1909 to 1915. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 571 KB) Early color photograph from Russia, created by Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii as part of his work to document the Russian Empire from 1909 to 1915. ... Nilov Monastery is situated on Stolbnyi Island in Lake Seliger. ... Seliger (Russian: Селигер) is a lake in Novgorod and Tver Oblasts of Russia, in the northwest of the Valdai Hills, a part of the Volga basin. ... Ostashkov (Russian: ) is a town in Tver Oblast, Russia, 199 km west of Tver. ... Download high resolution version (1280x960, 468 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1280x960, 468 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Bold textTHIS IS THE PAGE THAT A.S. REALLY NEEDS!! THIS IS NOW MARKED!!! ] ps i like A.O. This article is about an abbey as a Christian monastic community. ... The restored Abbey. ... This article is about Saint Benedict of Nursia, for other uses of the name Benedict see Benedict (disambiguation) Saint Benedict of Nursia (c. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 416 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (500 × 720 pixel, file size: 192 KB, MIME type: image/png) Ground plan, St. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 416 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (500 × 720 pixel, file size: 192 KB, MIME type: image/png) Ground plan, St. ... This cladogram shows the relationship among various insect groups. ... The Abbey of St. ... In the Roman Catholic Church, an oratory is a semi-public place of worship, other than a parish church, constructed for the benefit of a group of persons (Code of Canon law, canon 1223). ... For other uses, see Monk (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Monk (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nun (disambiguation). ... The cenobitic tradition is a monastic tradition that stresses community life. ... A hermit, also known as an anchorite or anchoress, is a person living in voluntary seclusion, often for religious reasons. ...


Many religions and philosophies have monastic traditions, in which individuals commit themselves to a religious life and live apart from secular society in a monastery. For other uses, see Monk (disambiguation). ... This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ...


The earliest extant use of the term monastērion is by the first century CE Jewish philosopher Philo (On The Contemplative Life, ch. III). Philo (20 BC - 50 AD), known also as Philo of Alexandria and as Philo Judaeus And as Yedidia, was a Hellenized Jewish philosopher born in Alexandria, Egypt. ... For other uses, see Monk (disambiguation). ...


Monasteries may vary greatly in size – a small dwelling accommodating only a hermit, or in the case of communities anything from a single building housing only a one senior and two or three junior monks or nuns, to vast complexes and estates housing tens or hundreds. For other uses, see Hermit (disambiguation). ... The cenobitic tradition is a monastic tradition that stresses community life. ... For other uses, see Monk (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nun (disambiguation). ...


In English usage, the term monastery is generally used to denote the buildings of a community of male monastics (monks), while convent tends to be used for the buildings accommodating female monastics (nuns). The term nunnery for the latter is outmoded. Various religions, however, use these terms, and a number of other terms as well, in rather technical and specific ways. Usage can vary extensively by language, as English speakers try to choose the most appropriate translation for foreign institutions and organizations. A Roman Catholic monk A monk is a person who practices monasticism, adopting a strict religious and ascetic lifestyle, usually in community with others following the same path. ... In general, a nun is a female ascetic who chooses to voluntarily leave the world and live her life in prayer and contemplation in a monastery or convent. ...


In most religions the life inside monasteries is governed by community rules that stipulates the gender of the inhabitants and requires them to remain celibate and own little or no personal property. The degree to which life inside a particular monastery is socially separate from the surrounding populace can also vary widely; some religious traditions mandate isolation for purposes of contemplation removed from the everyday world, in which case members of the monastic community may spend most of their time isolated even from each other. Others are focused on interacting with the local communities in order to provide some service, such as teaching, medical care, or evangelism. Some monastic communties are only occupied seasonally, depending both on the traditions involved and the local weather, and people may be part of a monastic community for periods ranging from a few days at a time to almost an entire lifetime. Look up evangelist in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The life within the walls of a monastery may be supported in several ways: by manufacturing and selling goods, often agricultural products such as cheese, wine, beer, liquor, and jellies; by donations or alms; by rental or investment incomes; and by funds from other organizations within the religion which in the past has formed the traditional support of Monasteries. However, today Christian Monastics have updated and adapted themselves to modern society by offering computer services, accounting services, management as well as modern hospital administration in addition to running schools, colleges and universities. Good. ... Farming, ploughing rice paddy, in food, feed, fiber and other desired products by cultivation of certain plants and the raising of domesticated animals (livestock). ... Cheese is a solid food made from the milk of cows, goats, sheep, and other mammals. ... For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Beer (disambiguation). ... Spirits redirects here. ... Jam from berries Fruit preserves refers to fruit, or vegetables, that have been prepared and canned for long term storage. ... Alms Bag taken from some Tapestry in Orleans, Fifteenth Century. ...


For a discussion of the history and development of the life inside monasteries see monasticism and abbey. Monasticism (from Greek: monachos — a solitary person) is the religious practice in which one renounces worldly pursuits in order to fully devote ones life to spiritual work. ... Bold textTHIS IS THE PAGE THAT A.S. REALLY NEEDS!! THIS IS NOW MARKED!!! ] ps i like A.O. This article is about an abbey as a Christian monastic community. ...

Contents

Etymology

The word monastery comes from the Greek μοναστήριον "monasterion", from the root "monos" = alone (originally all Christian monks were hermits), and the suffix "-terion" = place for doing something. For early usage, contemporary with the birth of the Christian Church, see Philo, On the Contemplative Life III.25. Philo (20 BC - 50 AD), known also as Philo of Alexandria and as Philo Judaeus And as Yedidia, was a Hellenized Jewish philosopher born in Alexandria, Egypt. ... For other uses, see Monk (disambiguation). ...


In England the word monastery was also applied to the habitation of a bishop and the cathedral clergy who lived apart from the lay community. Most cathedrals were not monasteries, and were served by canons secular, which were communal but not monastic. However some were run by monastic orders, such as York Minster. Westminster Abbey was for a short time a cathedral, and was a Benedictine monastery until the Reformation, and its Chapter preserves elements of the Benedictine tradition. See the entry cathedral. They are also to be distinguished from collegiate churches, such as St George's Chapel, Windsor. For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... For other uses, see Cathedral (disambiguation). ... Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given religion. ... Canons, Bruges A Canon of the Seminary, Sint Niklaas, Flanders. ... York Minster is the largest Gothic cathedral in northern Europe and is situated in the city of York in Northern England. ... The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ... For the college, see Benedictine College. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... This article incorporates text from the Catholic Encyclopedia, which is in the public domain. ... For other uses, see Cathedral (disambiguation). ... St. ...


Terms for monasteries

In most of this article, the term monastery is used generically to refer to any of a number of types of religious community. In the Roman Catholic religion and to some extent in certain other branches of Christianity, there is a somewhat more specific definition of the term and many related terms. The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ...


Buddhist monasteries are generally called vihara (Pali language). Viharas may be occupied by males or females, and in keeping with common English usage, a vihara populated by females may often be called a nunnery or a convent. However, vihara can also refer to a temple. In Tibetan Buddhism, monasteries are often called gompa. In Thailand, Laos and Cambodia, a monastery is called a wat. A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... Vihara at Kanheri Caves Wall carvings Vihara is an Indian Buddhist monastery. ... Pali (IAST: ) is a Middle Indo-Aryan dialect or prakrit. ... Temple of Hephaestus, an Doric Greek temple in Athens with the original entrance facing east, 449 BC (western face depicted) For other uses, see Temple (disambiguation). ... Gompas are Buddhist temples, located in Tibet, Ladakh (India), Nepal, and Bhutan. ... This article is about the Southeast Asian temple. ...


A monastery may be an abbey (i.e., under the rule of an abbot), or a priory (under the rule of a prior), or conceivably a hermitage (the dwelling of a hermit). It may be a community of men (monks) or of women (nuns). A charterhouse is any monastery belonging to the Carthusian order. In Eastern Christianity a very small monastic community can be called a skete, and a very large or important monastery can be given the dignity of a lavra. Bold textTHIS IS THE PAGE THAT A.S. REALLY NEEDS!! THIS IS NOW MARKED!!! ] ps i like A.O. This article is about an abbey as a Christian monastic community. ... For other uses, see Abbot (disambiguation). ... A priory is an ecclesiastical circumscription run by a prior. ... Prior is a title, derived from the Latin adjective for earlier, first, with several notable uses. ... Hermitage Our Lady the Garden Enclosed in Warfhuizen, the Netherlands. ... For other uses, see Hermit (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Monk (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nun (disambiguation). ... Charterhouse is a Carthusian monastery founded in 1371 by Walter de Manny, in Smithfield in the City of London. ... Coat of arms of the Carthusian order Monasterio de la Cartuja, a former Carthusian monastery in Seville The Carthusian Order, also called the Order of St. ... Eastern Christianity refers collectively to the Christian traditions and churches which developed in Greece, Russia, Armenia, the Balkans, Eastern Europe, Asia Minor, the Middle East, northeastern Africa and southern India over several centuries of religious antiquity. ... A skete is a group of hermits following a monastic rule, allowing them to worship in comparative solitude, although with a level of support present not available for a lone hermit. ... Alexander Nevsky Lavra In Orthodox Christianity Lavra or Laura (Greek: Λάυρα, Cyrillic: Лавра) originally meant a cluster of cells or caves for hermits, with a church and sometimes a refectory at the center. ...


The communal life of a Christian monastery is called cenobitic, as opposed to the anchoretic (or anchoritic) life of an anchorite and the eremitic life of a hermit. The cenobitic tradition is a monastic tradition that stresses community life. ... Anchorites cell in Skipton The church at Shere, Surrey, England had a cell for an anchoress St Anthony the Great, father of Christian Monasticism and early anchorite This article is about a form of ancient religious living and modern Consecrated life. For other uses, see Anchorite (disambiguation). ... Anchorites cell in Skipton The church at Shere, Surrey, England had a cell for an anchoress St Anthony the Great, father of Christian Monasticism and early anchorite This article is about a form of ancient religious living and modern Consecrated life. For other uses, see Anchorite (disambiguation). ... A hermit, also known as an anchorite or anchoress, is a person living in voluntary seclusion, often for religious reasons. ... For other uses, see Hermit (disambiguation). ...


In Hinduism monasteries are called matha, mandir, koil, or most commonly an ashram. Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... A maţha (also written math, matha or mutt) is a term for monastic and similar religious establishments of the Hindu and Jain traditions. ... The Gopuram of temples, in south India, are adorned with colourful icons depicting a particular story surrounding the temples deity. ... KOIL or KOVIL This is a Tamil word meaning temple. Etymologically, it is made up of two words, KO and IL. Ko means king and il means home. ... An Ashram (Pronounced aashram) in ancient India was a Hindu hermitage where sages (See Rishi) lived in peace and tranquility amidst nature. ...


Jains use the Buddhist term vihara. The hand with a wheel on the palm symbolizes the Jain Vow of Ahinsa, meaning non-injury and nonviolence. ... Vihara at Kanheri Caves Wall carvings Vihara is an Indian Buddhist monastery. ...


Buddhist monasteries

Main article: Buddhist monasticism
The Tikse Buddhist monastery in Ladakh, India.
The Tikse Buddhist monastery in Ladakh, India.

By the time Christian cenobites emerged in the 4th century AD, Buddhist monasteries had been in existence for seven hundred years or more, and had spread deep into the Persian empire. Thurman says "It is quite likely that (Buddhist monasticism) influenced West Asia, North Africa, and Europe through lending its institutional style to Manicheism and Aramaic and Egyptian Christianity." Monasticism is one of the most fundamental institutions of Buddhism. ... Tikse monastery in Ladakh; This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Tikse monastery in Ladakh; This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... , Ladakh (Tibetan script: ལ་དྭགས་; Wylie: la-dwags, Ladakhi IPA: , Hindi: लद्दाख़, Hindi IPA: , Urdu: لدّاخ; land of high passes) is a region in the state of Jammu and Kashmir in Northern India sandwiched between the Kuen Lun mountain range in the north and the main Great Himalayas to the south, inhabited by people...


Buddhist monasteries, known as vihara, emerged sometime around the fourth century BC, from the practice of vassa, the retreat undertaken by Buddhist monks and nuns during the South Asian rainy season. In order to prevent wandering monks from disturbing new plant growth or becoming stranded in inclement weather, Buddhist monks and nuns were instructed to remain in a fixed location for the roughly three month period typically beginning in mid-July. Outside of the vassa period, monks and nuns both lived a migratory existence, wandering from town to town begging for food. These early fixed vassa retreats were held in pavilions and parks that had been donated to the sangha by wealthy supporters. Over the years, the custom of staying on property held in common by the sangha as a whole during the vassa retreat evolved into a more cenobitic lifestyle, in which monks and nuns resided year round in monasteries. Vihara (विहार) is Sanskrit or Pali for (Buddhist) monastery. ... Vassa (Thai พรรษา, pansa or phansaa), also called Rains Retreat, is the traditional retreat during the rainy season lasting for three lunar months from July to October. ... Sangha (संघ saṃgha) is a word in Pali or Sanskrit that can be translated roughly as association or assembly or community. It is commonly used in several senses to refer to Buddhist or Jain groups. ... Cenobite may mean: Cenobitic, a follower of a Cenobitic monastic tradition Cenobite (Hellraiser), a demon in Clive Barkers Hellraiser This is a disambiguation page—a list of articles associated with the same title. ...


In India, Buddhist monasteries gradually developed into centers of learning where philosophical principles were developed and debated; this tradition is currently preserved by monastic universities of Vajrayana Buddhists, as well as religious schools and universities founded by religious orders across the Buddhist world. In modern times, living a settled life in a monastery setting has become the most common lifestyle for Buddhist monks and nuns across the globe. Vajrayāna Buddhism (Also known as Tantric Buddhism, Tantrayana, Mantrayana, Mantranaya, Esoteric Buddhism, Diamond Vehicle, or 金剛乘 Jingangcheng in Chinese; however, these terms are not always regarded as equivalent: one scholar[1] speaks of the tantra divisions of some editions of the Kangyur as including Sravakayana, Mahayana and Vajrayana texts) is...

Whereas early monasteries are considered to have been held in common by the entire sangha, in later years this tradition diverged in a number of countries. Despite vinaya prohibitions on possessing wealth, many monasteries became large land owners, much like monasteries in medieval Christian Europe. In China, peasant families worked monastic-owned land in exchange for paying a portion of their yearly crop to the resident monks in the monastery, just as they would to a feudal landlord. In Sri Lanka and Tibet, the ownership of a monastery often became vested in a single monk, who would often keep the property within the family by passing it on to a nephew who ordained as a monk. In Japan, where civil authorities required Buddhist monks to marry, being the head of a temple or monastery sometimes became a hereditary position, passed from father to son over many generations. Image File history File links Tengboche_monastery. ... Image File history File links Tengboche_monastery. ... Tengboche (or Thyangboche) is a village in the Khumbu region of eastern Nepal. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... The Vinaya (a word in Pali as well as in Sanskrit, with literal meaning discipline) is the textual framework for the Buddhist monastic community, or sangha. ... Feudalism comes from the Late Latin word feudum, itself borrowed from a Germanic root *fehu, a commonly used term in the Middle Ages which means fief, or land held under certain obligations by feodati. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ...


Forest monasteries – most commonly found in the Theravada traditions of Southeast Asia and Sri Lanka – are monasteries dedicated primarily to the study of Buddhist meditation, rather than scholarship or ceremonial duties. Forest monasteries often function like early Christian monasteries, with small groups of monks living an essentially hermit-like life gathered loosely around a respected elder teacher. While the wandering lifestyle practiced by the Buddha and his disciples continues to be the ideal model for forest tradition monks in Thailand and elsewhere, practical concerns- including shrinking wilderness areas, lack of access to lay supporters, dangerous wildlife, and dangerous border conflicts- dictate that more and more 'meditation' monks live in monasteries, rather than wandering. Theravada (Pāli: theravāda (cf Sanskrit: स्थविरवाद sthaviravāda); literally, the Teaching of the Elders, or the Ancient Teaching) is the oldest surviving Buddhist school, and for many centuries has been the predominant religion of Sri Lanka (about 70% of the population[1]) and most of continental Southeast Asia (Cambodia... For other senses of this word, see Meditation (disambiguation). ...


Tibetan Buddhist monasteries are sometimes known as lamaseries and the monks are sometimes (mistakenly) known as lamas. Tibetan Buddhism is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet, the Himalayan region (including northern Nepal, Bhutan, Sikkim and Ladakh), Mongolia, Buryatia, Tuva and Kalmykia (Russia), and northeastern China (Manchuria: Heilongjiang, Jilin). ... Not to be confused with Llama. ...


Some famous Buddhist monasteries include:

A further list of Buddhist monasteries is available at the list of Buddhist temples Jetavana was one of the most famous of the Buddhist monasteries in India. ... SrāvastÄ« or SāvatthÄ« (Chinese: 舍衛), a city of ancient India, was one of the largest cities during Gautama Buddha’s lifetime. ... This article is about the ancient town and university. ... , Main gate of the Shaolin Monastery in Henan, China. ... Donglin (East Wood) Temple (东林寺, in Pinyin dong1 lin2 si4) is a Buddhist monastery approximately 20km away from Jiujiang, Jiangxi, Peoples Republic of China. ... Tengboche (or Thyangboche) is a village in the Khumbu region of eastern Nepal. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... Mahabodhi Temple Complex at Bodh Gaya Buddhist temples, monasteries, stupas, and pagodas sorted by location. ...


Christian monasteries

Main article: Christian monasticism

Traditionally, it is often said Christian monasticism started in Egypt. However, St. John the Baptist may be said to have been the first Christian monk, albeit he was Jewish in a time when Christianity and Hebrewism were one and the same. After St. Anthony founded his group the practice later continued on into Abyssinia (Ethiopia). According to tradition, in the 3rd century St. Anthony was the first Christian to adopt this lifestyle. After a short while others followed. Originally, all Christian monks were hermits seldom encountering other people. But because of the extreme difficulty of the solitary life, many monks failed, either returning to their previous lives, or becoming spiritually deluded. The Order of Friars Minor is a major mendicant movement founded by Saint Francis of Assisi. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... John the Baptist (also called John the Baptizer or John the Dipper) is regarded as a prophet by at least three religions: Christianity, Islam, and Mandaeanism. ... For other uses, see Monk (disambiguation). ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... Saint Anthony may be: Saints Anthony the Great (251-356) Anthony of Padua (also of Lisbon) (1195-1231) Place names United Kingdom: St. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Saint Anthony the Great (c. ... For other uses, see Hermit (disambiguation). ...


A transitional form of monasticism was later created by Saint Amun in which “solitary” monks lived close enough to one another to offer mutual support as well as gathering together on Sundays for common services. Ammon or Amun (c. ...


It was St. Pachomios who developed the idea of having monks live together and worship together under the same roof (Coenobitic Monasticism). Soon the Egyptian desert blossomed with monasteries, especially around Nitria, which was called the "Holy City”. Estimates are the upwards of 50,000 monks lived in this area at any one time. For the genus of jumping spider, see Pachomius (spider). ...


Hermitism never died out though, but was reserved only for those advanced monks who had worked out their problems within a cenobitic monastery. The idea caught on, and other places followed:

Mar Awgin (late 3rd century - about 379) founded the first cenobitic monastery of Asia. ... The newly excavated Church of Saint Jacob in Nisibis. ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Mar Saba seen from the view point Mar Saba seen from the bottom of the gorge Mar Saba in the 19th century Mar Saba is a Greek Orthodox monastery located near Bethlehem, Israel (Palestine), and overlooks the Kidron River. ... Desert hills in southern Judea, looking east from the town of Arad Judea or Judaea (יהודה Praise, Standard Hebrew Yəhuda, Tiberian Hebrew Yəhûḏāh) is a term used for the mountainous southern part of historic Palestine, an area now divided between Israel, Jordan and the West Bank. ... Arabic بيت لحم Name Meaning House of Lambs Government City (from 1995) Also Spelled Beit Lahm (officially) Bayt Lahm (unofficially) Governorate Bethlehem Population 29,930 (2006) Jurisdiction 29,799 dunams (29. ... Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ... Saint Benedict redirects here. ... The restored Abbey. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Grande Chartreuse Grande Chartreuse is placed in a remote mountain valley. ... Coat of arms of the Carthusian order Monasterio de la Cartuja, a former Carthusian monastery in Seville The Carthusian Order, also called the Order of St. ... Saint Bruno (Cologne, c. ... A hermit (from the Greek erÄ“mos, signifying desert, uninhabited, hence desert-dweller) is a person who lives to some greater or lesser degree in seclusion and/or isolation from society. ... The film Into Great Silence (Die Große Stille) directed by Philip Groening, is an intimate portrayal of the everyday lives of Carthusian monks of the Grande Chartreuse, high in a remote corner of the French Alps (Chartreuse Mountains). ... A Taoist monk playing an instrument. ... General view of complex Kecharis (Armenian: ) is a 13th-century monastery, located 60 km from Yerevan, in the ski resort town of Tsakhkadzor in Armenia. ... Location of Yerevan in Armenia Coordinates: , Country Established 782 BC Government  - Mayor Yervand Zakharyan Area  - City 227 km²  (87. ...

Monastic life in Western Medieval Europe

At the monastery gate (Am Klostertor) by Ferdinand Georg Waldmüller.
At the monastery gate (Am Klostertor) by Ferdinand Georg Waldmüller.

The life of prayer and communal living was one of rigorous schedules and self sacrifice. Prayer was their work, and the Office prayers took up much of a monk's waking hours - Matins, Lauds, Prime, Terce, daily Mass, Sext, None, Vespers, Compline. In between prayers, monks were allowed to sit in the cloister and work on their projects of writing, copying, or decorating books. These would have been assigned based on a monk's abilities and interests. The non-scholastic types were assigned to physical labor of varying degrees. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2536x2073, 370 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Monastery Evangelical counsels ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2536x2073, 370 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Monastery Evangelical counsels ... Ferdinand Georg Waldmüller: The expected, 1860 Ferdinand Georg Waldmüller (January 15th 1793 in Vienna, † August 23rd 1865 in Hinterbrühl, Austria) was an Austrian painter and writer. ... For the Anglican service of Mattins see Morning Prayer Matins is the early morning prayer service in the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox liturgies of the canonical hours. ... Lauds is one of the two major hours in the Roman Catholic Liturgy of the Hours. ... Prime is a fixed time of prayer of the traditional Divine Office, said at 6 a. ... Terce is a fixed time of prayer of the Divine Office of the almost all the Christian liturgies. ... Sext is a fixed time of prayer of the Divine Office of almost all the traditional Christian liturgies. ... Vespers is the evening prayer service in the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox liturgies of the canonical hours. ... Compline or Complin is the final church service (or office) of the day in the Christian tradition of canonical hours. ...


The main meal of the day took place around noon, often taken at a refectory table, and consisted of the most simple and bland foods i.e. poached fish, boiled oats. Anything tastier, which appeared on occasion, was criticised. While they ate, scripture would be read from a pulpit above them. Since no other words were allowed to be spoken, monks developed communicative gestures. Abbotts and notable guests were honored with a seat at the high table, while everyone else sat perpendicular to that in the order of seniority. This practice remained when monasteries became universities after the first millennium, and can still be seen at Oxford University and Cambridge University. A refectory table is a highly elongated table[1] used originally for dining in monasteries in Medieval times. ... The University of Oxford, located in the city of Oxford in England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... The University of Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world, with one of the most selective sets of entry requirements in the United Kingdom. ...


Monasteries were important contributors to the surrounding community. They were centers of intellectual progression and education. They welcomed aspiring priests to come study and learn, allowing them even to challenge doctrine in dialogue with superiors. The earliest forms of musical notation are attributed to a monk named Notker of St Gall, and was spread to musicians throughout Europe by way of the interconnected monasteries. Since monasteries offered respite for weary pilgrim travelers, monks were obligated also to care for their injuries or emotional needs. Over time, lay people started to make pilgrimages to monasteries instead of just using them as a stop over. By this time, they had sizable libraries which were sort of a tourist attraction. Families would also donate a son in return for blessings. During the plagues, monks helped to till the fields and provide food for the sick. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Notker of St. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Monument to pilgrims in Burgos, Spain This article is on religious pilgrims. ... This article is about the religious or spiritual journey. ...


A Warming House is a common part of a medieval monastery, where monks went to warm themselves. It was often the only room in the monastery where a fire was lit. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ...


Orthodox Christian monasteries

Main articles: Eastern Christian Monasticism and Degrees of Eastern Orthodox monasticism

In the Eastern Orthodox Church, both monks and nuns follow a similar ascetic discipline, and even their religious habit is the same (though nuns wear an extra veil, called the apostolnik). Unlike Roman Catholic monasticism, the Orthodox do not have separate religious orders, but there is one form of monasticism throughout the Orthodox Church. Monastics, male or female, live lives away from the world, in order to pray for the world. They do not normally run hospitals and orphanages, they do not consider teaching or caring for the sick a part of their vocation, though they are obligated by Christian charity to provide help when needed. St. ... Orthodox icon of Pentecost. ... The word ascetic derives from the ancient Greek term askesis (practice, training or exercise). ... St. ... Eastern Orthodox Nuns. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ...


Monasteries can be very large or very small. There are three types of monastic houses in the Orthodox Church:

  • When monks live together, work together, and pray together, following the directions of an abbot and the elder monks, this is called a cenobium. The concept of the cenobitic life is that when many men (or women) live together in a monastic context, like rocks with sharp edges, their “sharpness” becomes worn away and they become smooth and polished. The largest monasteries can hold many thousands of monks and are called lavras. In the cenobium the daily office, work and meals are all done in common.
  • Sketes are small monastic establishments which usually consist of one elder and 2 or 3 disciples. In the skete most prayer and work are done in private, coming together on Sundays and feast days. Thus, skete life has elements of both solitude and community, and for this reason is called the "middle way".
  • The highest level of asceticism is practiced by monks who do not live in monastic communities, but in solitude, as hermits.
Sanaxar monastery (Russia).
Sanaxar monastery (Russia).

One of the great centers of Orthodox monasticism is the Holy Mountain (also called Mt. Athos) in Greece, an isolated, self-governing peninsula approximately 20 miles (32 km) long and 5 miles (8.0 km) wide (similar to the Vatican, being a separate government), administered by the heads of the 20 major monasteries, and dotted with hundreds of smaller monasteries, sketes, and hesicaterons. Even today the population of the Holy Mountain numbers in the tens of thousands of monastics (men only) and cannot be visited except by men with special permission granted by both the Greek government and the government of the Holy Mountain itself. The cenobitic tradition is a monastic tradition that stresses community life. ... Alexander Nevsky Lavra In Orthodox Christianity Lavra or Laura (Greek: Λάυρα, Cyrillic: Лавра) originally meant a cluster of cells or caves for hermits, with a church and sometimes a refectory at the center. ... The Liturgy of the Hours is usually recited in full in monastic communities. ... A skete is a group of hermits following a monastic rule, allowing them to worship in comparative solitude, although with a level of support present not available for a lone hermit. ... The calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organising a liturgical year on the level of days by associating each day with a saint, and referring to the day as the saints day of that saint. ... For other uses, see Hermit (disambiguation). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1599x936, 560 KB) Summary Sanaksarski monastery (Russia) Licensing Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1599x936, 560 KB) Summary Sanaksarski monastery (Russia) Licensing Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Capital Karyes Official languages Koine Greek, Church Slavonic, Modern Greek, Russian, Serbian, Georgian, Bulgarian, Romanian (both liturgical and civil use), Modern Greek (civil use) Government  -  Head of State2 Dora Bakoyannis  -  Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew I Area  -  Total 390 km²  150 sq mi  Population  -   estimate 2,250  Demonyms: Athonite, Hagiorite (English); Αθωνίτης, Αγιορίτης (Greek). ...


The leading monasteries of the Holy Mountain are:

Statue of the Theotokos "Hegumenia" (the "Abbess") at the Svyato-Uspensky Svyatogorsky Monastery, one of the main Orthodox houses in eastern Ukraine. (sculptor Nicolai Shmatko).
The Svirsky monasteries are an example of twin monasteries that face each other.
The Svirsky monasteries are an example of twin monasteries that face each other.

Other famous Orthodox monasteries include: The Monastery of Great Lavra was built by the monk Athanasius of Trebizond with funds from Byzantine Emperor Nicephorus II Phocas who intended to abdicate his throne and become a monk when he was assassinated in 969. ... The holy monastery of Vatopedi was built during the second half of the 10th century, by three monks, Athanasius, Nicholas and Antonius from Adrinople, who were the pupils of St. ... Iviron monastery, as seen from the path that connects Iviron to Stavronikita monastery Iviron monastery (Greek: Μονή Ιβήρων) is an orthodox christian monastery at the monastic state of Mount Athos in Greece. ... The Georgian Orthodox and Apostolic Church is one of the worlds most ancient Christian Churches, founded in the 1st century by the Apostle Andrew. ... Dionysiou monastery, codex 90, a 13th century manuscript containing selections from Herodotus, Plutarch and (shown here) Diogenes Laertius Dionysiou monastery (Greek: Μονή Διονυσίου) is an Eastern Orthodox monastery at the monastic state of Mount Athos in Greece. ... Koutloumousiou monastery (Greek: Μονή Κουτλουμουσίου) is an orthodox christian monastery at the monastic state of Mount Athos in Greece. ... Xiropotamou monastery (Greek: Μονή Ξηροποτάμου) is an Eastern Orthodox monastery at the monastic state of Mount Athos in Greece. ... The St George the Zograf or Zograf Monastery (Bulgarian: Зографски манастир, Zografski manastir; Greek: Μονή Ζωγράφου) is a Bulgarian Orthodox monastery on Mount Athos in Greece. ... Dochiariou monastery (Greek: Μονή Δοχειαρείου) is an orthodox christian monastery at the monastic state of Mount Athos in Greece. ... Simonopetra, southern view. ... Stavronikita monastery, South-East view Stavronikita monastery (Greek: Μονή Σταυρονικήτα) is an orthodox christian monastery at the monastic state of Mount Athos in Greece, dedicated to St. ... Ksenofondos monastery as seen from the sea Ksenofondos monastery (Greek: Μονή Ξενοφώντος) is an orthodox christian monastery at the monastic state of Mount Athos in Greece. ... Osiou Grigoriou monastery (Greek: Μονή Οσίου Γρηγορίου) is an Orthodox Christian monastery in the monastic state of Mount Athos in Greece. ... View of the Rossikon. ... Esphigmenou monastery (Greek: Μονή Εσφιγμένου) is an Eastern Orthodox monastery at the monastic state of Mount Athos in Greece, dedicated to the Ascension of Christ. ... Filotheou monastery (Greek: Μονή Φιλοθέου) is an Eastern Orthodox monastery at the monastic state of Mount Athos in Greece. ... Konstamonitou monastery (Greek: Μονή Κοσταμονίτου) is an orthodox christian monastery at the monastic state of Mount Athos in Greece. ... Theotokos of Kazan Theotokos (Greek: , translit. ... Hegumen, hegumenos, or ihumen (Greek: ἡγούμενος , Russian: игумен) is the title for the head of a monastery of the Eastern Orthodox Church, similar to the one of abbot. ... Image File history File links Svirsky. ... Image File history File links Svirsky. ... 19th-century view of both Svirsky monasteries. ...

Meteora is also an album by the band Linkin Park. ... St. ... For the Biblical Mount Sinai, and a discussion of its possible locations, see Biblical Mount Sinai. ... View of the lavra in the 1890s. ... Roofs of the Holy Trinity Church Kievo-Pecherskaya Lavra, 1890s Kiev Pechersk Lavra (Ukrainian: ; Russian: ), also known as the Kiev Monastery of the Caves, is an ancient cave monastery in Kiev. ... Rila Monastery with the medieval tower The Rila Monastery (Bulgarian: Рилски манастир, Rilski manastir) is the largest and most famous Eastern Orthodox monastery in Bulgaria. ... Stephen the Great and Holys tomb at Putna Monastery The Putna monastery is one of the most important cultural, religious and artistic centers of Medieval Moldavia being among with many others monasteries the creation of Prince Stephen the Great ([[Stefan cel Mare]). It was founded on the lands perambulated... Solovetsky Monastery Solovetsky Monastery (Соловецкий монастырь in Russian), a monastery on the Solovetsky Islands in the White Sea. ... Kirillo-Belozersky Monastery, properly translated in English as The Assumption monastery of St Cyril, has always rivalled the Solovetsky Monastery as the strongest fortress and the richest landowner of the Russian North. ... View of the monastery in the early 19th century Alexander Nevsky Monastery was founded by Peter the Great in 1710 at the southern end of the Nevsky Prospect in St Petersburg to house the relics of Alexander Nevsky, patron saint of the newly-founded Russian capital. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... Novodevichy convent in summer Novodevichy Convent, also known as Bogoroditse-Smolensky Monastery (Новодевичий монастырь, Богородице-Смоленский монастырь in Russian) is probably the best-known cloister of Moscow. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Pochayiv Lavra of the Assumption of the Theotokos (Ukrainian: ; Russian: ) has for centuries been the foremost spiritual and ideological centre of various Orthodox denominations in Western Ukraine. ... Valaam in winter The Valaam Monastery, or Valamo Monastery is the Orthodox monastery in Karelia, which used to be a part of territory contended between Soviet Union and Finland. ... Studenica The Studenica Monastery is the largest and richest Serbian Orthodox monastery. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... The Sopoćani monastery (Serbian Cyrillic: Сопоћани), an endowment of King Stefan UroÅ¡ I of Serbia, was built in the second half of the 13th century, near the source of the river RaÅ¡ka in the region of Ras, the centre of the Serbian medieval state. ... Christ Carrying the Cross, a fresco from Dečani. ... Gračanica (Serbian: Грачаница) is a Serbian Orthodox monastery located near the village of Gračanica in municipality of Lipljan in Kosovo. ... Monastery of Ostrog The Monastery of Ostrog (Serbian Cyrillic: Манастир Острог; Tr. ... This article is about the country in Europe. ... kykkos Monastry ,Outside View with the adorable Orthodox icons hand painted on the walls. ... The Monastery of the Cross is a monastery dating back to the crusader era, situated in the Valley of the Cross (Emeq HaMatzlevah) in Jerusalem. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Mar Saba seen from the view point Mar Saba seen from the bottom of the gorge Mar Saba in the 19th century Mar Saba is a Greek Orthodox monastery located near Bethlehem, Israel (Palestine), and overlooks the Kidron River. ... The Kidron Valley (or Qidron Valley) is valley near Jerusalem which features significantly in the Bible. ... The Cathedral in 1880 The Cathedral of Curtea de ArgeÅŸ (early 16th century) is one of the most famous buildings in Romania, and stands in the grounds of a monastery, 1 1/2 m north of Curtea de ArgeÅŸ. It is dedicated to Saint Nicholas. ... VoroneÅ£ is a monastery in Romania, found near the town of Gura Humorului. ... The Monastery of Horezu was founded in 1690 by Prince Constantin Brâncoveanu in the town of Horezu, Wallachia, Romania. ... The NeamÅ£ Monastery (Mănăstirea NeamÅ£ in Romanian) is one of the oldest and most important religious settlements in Romania. ... The Monastery of Saint John the Theologian (also called Monastery of Saint John the Divine) is a Greek Orthodox monastery founded in 1088 in Chora on the island of Patmos. ... The Cave of the Apocalypse is about halfway up the mountain on the island of Patmos, Greece. ... Patmos is a small island in the Aegean Sea. ...

Eastern (Oriental Orthodox) monasteries

Noravank Monastery in Armenia.
Noravank Monastery in Armenia.

The Oriental Orthodox Churches, distinguished by their Myaphisite beliefs consist of the Armenian Apostolic Church, the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria (whose Patriarch, is considered first among equals for the following churches), as well as the Ethiopian Orthodox Church, the Eritrean Orthodox Church, the Indian Orthodox Church, and the Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch. The now extinct Caucasian Albanian Church also fell under this group. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (896x592, 64 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Armenia Monastery User:RaffiKojian Noravank Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (896x592, 64 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Armenia Monastery User:RaffiKojian Noravank Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... Noravank Monastery Complex and Canyon. ... The term Oriental Orthodoxy refers to the churches of Eastern Christian traditions that keeps the faith of only the first three ecumenical councils of the undivided Church - the councils of Nicea, Constantinople and Ephesus. ... Miaphysitism (sometimes called henophysitism) is the christology of the Oriental Orthodox Churches. ... Official standard of Karekin II Catholicos of Armenia The Armenian Apostolic Church (Armenian: Հայ Առաքելական Եկեղեցի, Hay Arakelagan Yegeghetzi), sometimes called the Armenian Orthodox Church or the Gregorian Church, is the worlds oldest national church[1] [2] and one of the most ancient Christian communities [3]. // Baptism of Tiridates III. The earliest... Christ - Coptic Art Coptic Orthodox Christianity is the indigenous form of Christianity that, according to tradition, the apostle Mark established in Egypt in the middle of the 1st century AD (approximately AD 60). ... The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahido Church is an Oriental Orthodox church in Ethiopia that was part of the Coptic Church until it was granted its own Patriarch by Cyril VI, the Coptic Pope, in 1959. ... The Eritrean Orthodox Tewahdo Church is one of the Oriental Orthodox churches. ... The Indian Orthodox Church (also known as the Malankara Orthodox Church, Orthodox Church of the East, Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church, Orthodox Syrian Church of the East) is a prominent member of the Oriental Orthodox Church family in Christianity, founded by St. ... The Syriac Orthodox Church is an autocephalous Oriental Orthodox church based in the Middle East with members spread throughout the world. ... Ancient countries of Caucasus: Armenia, Iberia, Colchis and Albania Caucasian Albania (or Aghbania) was an ancient kingdom that covered what is now southern Dagestan and most of present-day Azerbaijan. ...


St. Anthony's (Deir Mar Antonios) is the oldest monastery in the world and under the patronage of the Patriarch of the Coptic Orthodox Church.


Latin Catholic and Eastern Catholic monasticism

Santa María de El Paular Benedictine Monastery near Madrid (Spain).
Santa María de El Paular Benedictine Monastery near Madrid (Spain).

A number of distinct monastic orders developed within Roman Catholicism (Eastern Orthodoxy does not have a system of individual Orders, per se). Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (533x800, 437 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Monastery Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (533x800, 437 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Monastery Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... For the college, see Benedictine College. ... This article is about the Spanish capital. ... Monasticism (from Greek: monachos—a solitary person) is the religious practice of renouncing all worldly pursuits in order to fully devote ones life to spiritual work. ... ...

Famous Christian monasteries include: The Augustinians, named after Saint Augustine of Hippo (died AD 430), are several Roman Catholic monastic orders and congregations of both men and women living according to a guide to religious life known as the Rule of Saint Augustine. ... Canons, Bruges A Canon of the Seminary, Sint Niklaas, Flanders. ... Augustine is the name of two important Saints: Augustine of Hippo (354-430) -- philosopher and theologian, author of The City of God, Confessions Augustine of Canterbury (d. ... For the college, see Benedictine College. ... This article is about Saint Benedict of Nursia, for other uses of the name Benedict see Benedict (disambiguation) Saint Benedict of Nursia (c. ... Cluniac Reform was the time of the purification and scourging of the Roman Catholic Church during the 11th century. ... The Order of Cistercians (OCist) (Latin Cistercenses), otherwise Gimey or White Monks (from the colour of the habit, over which is worn a black scapular or apron) are a Catholic order of monks. ... Trappist can refer to: a religious order - see Trappists some of the products, made by the order - see Trappist beer This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Camaldolese Priory on Bielany in Kraków, Poland The Camaldolese are part of the Benedictine family of monastic communities which follow the way of life outlined in the Rule of St. ... The Bridgettine or Briggittine order. ... Coat of arms of the Carthusian order Monasterio de la Cartuja, a former Carthusian monastery in Seville The Carthusian Order, also called the Order of St. ... The Gilbertine Order was founded around 1130 by St. ... The Order of Poor Ladies, also known as the Poor Clares, the Poor Clare Nuns, the Clarisse, or the Minoresses is a Franciscan order founded by Saint Clare of Assisi. ... The Byzantine Discalced Carmelites [1] are a community of cloistered nuns of the Byzantine Ruthenian Catholic Church living committed to a life of prayer, according to the tradition and lifestyle of the Discalced Carmelites. ... The Norbertines, also known as the Premonstratensians (OPraem) and in England, as the White Canons (from the colour of their habit), are a Christian religious order of Augustinian canons founded at Prémontré near Laon in 1120 by Saint Norbert, afterwards archbishop of Magdeburg. ... Tironensian monks, of the Order of Tiron, also spelled Thiron - apparently from Latin thironium, a high hill (Guillemin, 1999)- so called after the location of the mother abbey (established in 1109) in the woods of Tiron, Perche (some 35 miles west of Chartres, France). ... The Valliscaulian Order was a religious order within the Roman Catholic Church. ...

Dissolved Communities and Famous Dissolved Monasteries: The restored Abbey. ... // El Escorial, the Royal Monastery of San Lorenzo El Real (also known as the Monasterio de El Escorial or simply El Escorial) is located about 45 kilometres (28 miles) northwest of the Spanish capital, Madrid. ... Stift Melk Courtyard of the Stift Melk Melk Abbey Melk Abbey or Stift Melk is an historic Austrian Benedictine abbey, and one of the worlds most famous monastic sites. ... Pannonhalma Archabbey It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Archabbey of Pannonhalma. ... Buckfast Abbey in Buckfastleigh, Devon is one of a small number of active monasteries in Britain today. ... Benedictine monastery in the town of Santo Domingo de Silos, a village in the Spanish province of Burgos. ... Prayer in the Church of Reconciliation at Taizé The Taizé Community is an ecumenical Christian mens monastic order in Taizé, Saône-et-Loire, Burgundy, France. ... For other uses of the term dissolution see Dissolution. ...

The last years of the 18th century marked in the Christian Church the beginnings of growth of monasticism among Protestant denominations. The centrus of the this movement was in the United States and Canada beginning with the Shaker Church, which was founded in England and then moved to the United States. In the 19th century many of these monastic societies were founded as Utopian communities based on the monastic model in many cases. Aside from the Shakers, there were the Amanna, the Anabaptists et al. Many did allow marriage but most had a policy of celibacy and communal life in which members shared all things communally and disavowed personal ownership. Fountains Abbey in North Yorkshire, England, is a ruined Cistercian monastery, founded in 1132. ... The abbey today The Abbey of Cluny (or Cluni, or Clugny) was founded on 2 September 909 by William I, Count of Auvergne, who installed Abbot Berno and placed the abbey under the immediate authority of Pope Sergius III. The Abbey and its constellation of dependencies soon came to exemplify... Map of the UK showing the location of Lindisfarne at 55. ... The ruins of Whitby Abbey Illustration of the ruins of Whitby Abbey Whitby Abbey from pond Whitby Abbey is a ruined Benedictine abbey sited on Whitbys East Cliff in North Yorkshire on the north-east coast of England. ... The ruins of the abbey church Rievaulx Abbey is a former Cistercian abbey located in the small village of Rievaulx (pronounced Ree-voh), near Helmsley in North Yorkshire. ... View from the former location of the North transept in East direction to the choir. ... The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ... St. ... Ancient church at Glendalough monastic site Glendalough is a village located at the site of an ancient monastery located in County Wicklow, Ireland. ... Cluny nowadays The town of Cluny or Clugny lies in the modern-day département of Saône-et-Loire in the région of France, near Mâcon. ... Celestines, a branch of the great Benedictine monastic order. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The Shakers are an offshoot of the Religious Society of Friends (or Quakers) that originated in Manchester, England in the early 18th century. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Anabaptists (Greek ανα (again) +βαπτιζω (baptize), thus re-baptizers[1]) are Christians of the Radical Reformation. ... Celibacy refers either to being unmarried or to sexual abstinence. ...


In the 19th century monasticism was revived in the Church of England, leading to the foundation of such institutions as the House of the Resurrection, Mirfield (Community of the Resurrection), Nashdom Abbey (Benedictine), Cleeve Priory (Community of the Glorious Ascension) and Ewell Monastery (Cistercian), Benedictine orders,Franciscan orders and the Orders of the Holy Cross, Order of St. Helena. Other Prostestant Christian denominations also engage in Monastacism. In the 1960s, expermental monastic groups were formed in which both men and women were members of the same house and also were permitted to be married and have children--these were operated on a communal form. The Jewish Kibutz is a form of monasticsm operating on a communal basis. The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[3] in England, the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the oldest among the communions thirty-eight independent national churches. ... Mirfield is a town in West Yorkshire, England, near Dewsbury. ... The Community of the Resurrection is an Anglican religious community for men. ... For the college, see Benedictine College. ... The Community of the Glorious Ascension is an Anglican monastic community in the United Kingdom, co-founded in 1960 by Brothers (later the Right Reverend) Michael Ball (clergyman) and Peter. ... The Order of Cistercians (OCist) (Latin Cistercenses), otherwise Gimey or White Monks (from the colour of the habit, over which is worn a black scapular or apron) are a Catholic order of monks. ... For the college, see Benedictine College. ... The Order of Friars Minor and other Franciscan movements are disciples of Saint Francis of Assisi. ... Kibbutz Dan, near Qiryat Shemona, in the Upper Galilee, 1990s A kibbutz (Hebrew: קיבוץ; plural: kibbutzim: קיבוצים, gathering or together) is an Israeli collective community. ...


Hindu monasteries

In Hinduism, monks have existed for a long time, and with them, their respective monasteries, called mathas. Most famous among them are the chatur-amnaya mathas established by Adi Shankara, Ashta matha (Eight monasteries) of Udupi founded by Madhvacharya (Madhwa acharya) a dwaitha philosopher. A maţha (also written math, matha or mutt) is a term for monastic and similar religious establishments of the Hindu and Jain traditions. ... Adi Shankara (Malayalam: ആദി ശങ്കരന്‍, Devanāgarī: , , IPA: ); c. ... The Ashta-Mathas of Udupi are a group of eight mathas or monastaries established by Sri Madhvacharya the preceptor of the Dvaita school of Hindu thought. ... , For other uses, see Udupi (disambiguation). ... For Madhavacharya the Advaita saint, see Madhava Vidyaranya. ... Dvaita (Devanagari:द्बैत, Kannada:ದ್ವೈತ) (also known as Tattvavada and Bheda-vada), a school of Vedanta (the most widespread Hindu philosophy) founded by Madhvacharya, stresses a strict distinction between God (Vishnu) and the individual living beings (jivas). ...

The Krishnapura Matha belongs to the Madhwa sect of Vaishnavism. ...

Recent trends

In the second half of the twentieth century, Fr. Thomas Merton, a Trappist Monk from the Abbey of Gethsemani, in Trappist, Kentucky, tried to reform Catholic monasticism. Father Merton saw the monastic as little more than a slave of the Church and its orders, requiring Monastics to do back-breaking work with no pay other than the food they ate and the clothing on their back. Thomas Merton (January 31, 1915 – December 10, 1968) was one of the most influential Catholic authors of the 20th century. ... The Abbey of Gethsemani was founded in 1848 by monks from the Abbey of Melleray in Western France. ...


The number of dedicated monastics in any religion has waxed and waned due to many factors. There have been Christian monasteries such as "The Cappadocian Caves" that used to shelter upwards of 50,000 monks,[citation needed] or St Pantelaimon's on the "Holy Mountain" in Greece, which had 30,000 in its heyday.[citation needed] Today those numbers have dwindled considerably. Currently the monasteries containing the largest numbers are Buddhist: Drepung Monastery in Tibet housed around 15,000 monks prior to the Chinese invasion.[citation needed] Today its relocated monastery in India houses around 8,000 - nearly four times the current monastic population of the entire Holy Mountain. View of the Rossikon. ... Capital Karyes Official languages Koine Greek, Church Slavonic, Modern Greek, Russian, Serbian, Georgian, Bulgarian, Romanian (both liturgical and civil use), Modern Greek (civil use) Government  -  Head of State2 Dora Bakoyannis  -  Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew I Area  -  Total 390 km²  150 sq mi  Population  -   estimate 2,250  Demonyms: Athonite, Hagiorite (English); Αθωνίτης, Αγιορίτης (Greek). ... Drepung monastery Drepung Monastery (Tibetan: འབྲས་སྤུངས་; Wylie: Bras-spungs; ZWPY: Zhaibung) is one of the great three Gelukpa university monasteries of Tibet. ...


On the other hand, there are those among monastic leaders that are critical of monasteries that are too large. Such become institutions and lose that intensity of spiritual training that can better be handled when an elder has only 2 or 3 disciples.[citation needed] There are on the Holy Mountain areas such as the Skete of St Anne, which could be considered one entity but is in fact many small "Sketes" (monastic houses containing one elder and 2 or 3 disciples) who come together in one church for services.


Additionally, there is a growing Christian neo-monasticism, particularly among evangelical Christians.[citation needed] Established upon at least some of the customary monastic principles, they have attracted many who seek to live in relationship with other, or who seek to live in an intentionally-focused lifestyle, such as a focus upon simplicity or pacifism. Some include rites, novitiate-periods which a newly interested person can test out living, sharing of resources, while others are more pragmatic, providing a sense of family in addition to a place to live.[citation needed]


See also

Look up Monastery in
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Monasteries

Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... For other uses of the term dissolution see Dissolution. ... List of abbeys and priories is a link list for any abbey or priory. ... Mahabodhi Temple Complex at Bodh Gaya Buddhist temples, monasteries, stupas, and pagodas sorted by location. ... The Krishnapura Matha belongs to the Madhwa sect of Vaishnavism. ... Monasticism (from Greek: monachos — a solitary person) is the religious practice in which one renounces worldly pursuits in order to fully devote ones life to spiritual work. ... New Monasticism, or Neomonasticism, is a modern day iteration of a long tradition of Christian monasticism which has recently developed within certain communities associated with Protestant Evangelicalism. ... This article is about the religious or spiritual journey. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Taoism (or Daoism) is the English name referring to a variety of related Chinese philosophical traditions and concepts. ... Thomas Merton (January 31, 1915 – December 10, 1968) was one of the most influential Catholic authors of the 20th century. ... Vihara (विहार) is Sanskrit or Pali for (Buddhist) monastery. ... Cliffside Temple at Wudangshan The Wudang Mountains (武當山; pinyin: wǔ dāng shān, also known as Wu Tang Shan or simply Wudang), are a small mountain range in the Hubei province of China, just to the south of the manufacturing city of Shiyan. ...

External links

  • Photographs of Catholic Monasteries in Spain
  • Discalced Carmelite Monastery in Seremban, Malaysia
  • Monastery and Abbeys of Provence in France
  • Christian Monasteries and Abbeys
  • Zoon Blauw Monastery, Mojave Desert
  • Links to Coptic Orthodox Monasteries of Egypt and the world
  • Byzantine Ruthenian Discalced Carmelite Monastery
  • Public Domain photographs and texts, and information regarding medieval monasteries.

  Results from FactBites:
 
St. Tikhon of Zadonsk Orthodox Monastery - Home (159 words)
Throughout the history of Christ’s Church, monasteries have served as centers of spiritual enlightenment, strongholds of Orthodox truth and piety, havens for those seeking salvation through ascetic struggle, prayer, and humility, and places of pilgrimage for those desirous of inner renewal, reflection, and spiritual guidance.
With God’s help, the monastery has steadfastly sought to fulfill this holy purpose, and by doing so, has proven indispensable to the life and growth of the Orthodox Church on this continent.
It is our hope that this website will serve not only as an introduction to the monastery for those unfamiliar with its rich history and significant impact on the Church in America, but also as means for the further glorification of God and His Saints who have walked these hallowed grounds.
Monastery - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1938 words)
Saint Saba organized the monks of the Judean Desert in a monastery close to Betlehem (483), and this is considered the mother of all monasteries of the Eastern Orthodox churches.
Buddhist monasteries, known as vihara, emerged from the practice of vassa, the retreat undertaken by Buddhist monks and nuns during the South Asian rainy season.
Forest monasteries- most commonly found in the Theravada traditions of Southeast Asia and Sri Lanka- are monasteries dedicated primarily to the study of Buddhist meditation, rather than scholarship or ceremonial duties.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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