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Encyclopedia > Monarchism

Monarchism is the advocacy of the establishment, preservation, or restoration of a monarchy as a form of government in a nation. Places where monarchies maintain rule appear in blue. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...

Contents


Background

In 1688, the British Glorious Revolution and the overthrow of king James II had instaured the principles of constitutional monarchy, which would later be worked out by Montesquieu and other thinkers. However, absolute monarchy, theorized by Hobbes in the Leviathan (1651), remained a dominant principle. In the 18th century, Voltaire and others encouraged "enlightened absolutism", which was embraced by the Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II and Catherine II of Russia. The term Glorious Revolution refers to the Whig-popular overthrow of James II of England in 1688 by a conspiracy between some Parliamentarians and the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau. ... James II of England and VII of Scotland (14 October 1633–16 September 1701) became King of England, King of Scots, and King of Ireland on 6 February 1685. ... Constitutional monarchies with representative parliamentary systems are shown in red A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchical government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state. ... Montesquieu can refer to: Charles de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu Several communes of France: Montesquieu, in the Hérault département Montesquieu, in the Lot-et-Garonne département Montesquieu, in the Tarn-et-Garonne département This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... This article is about the philosopher Thomas Hobbes. ... Frontispiece of Leviathan Leviathan was a book written in 1651 by Thomas Hobbes, is one of the most famous and influential books of political philosophy. ... The last of Voltaires statues by Jean-Antoine Houdon (1781). ... Enlightened absolutism (also known as benevolent despotism or enlightened despotism) is a term used to describe the actions of absolute rulers who were influenced by the Enlightenment, a historical period of the 18th and early 19th centuries. ... Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II Joseph II (March 13, 1741 – February 20, 1790) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 to 1790. ... Catherine II of Russia Catherine II the Great (Russian: Екатерина II Великая or Yekaterina II Velikaya, 2 May 1729 — 6 November [O.S. 17 November] 1796), born Sophie Augusta Fredericka of Anhalt-Zerbst) — sometimes referred to as an epitome of the enlightened despot — reigned as Empress of Russia for more than three...


Absolutism continued to be the dominant political principle of sovereignty until the 1789 French Revolution and the regicide against Louis XIV, which instaured the popular sovereignty concept upholded by Jean-Jacques Rousseau. Monarchy became to be contested by the Republican principe. Counterrevolutionaries, such as Joseph de Maistre or Louis de Bonald, began to seek the restoration of the Ancien Régime, divided in the three estates of the realm, and the divine right of kings. Following the ousting of Napoleon I in 1814, the Coalition restored the Bourbon Dynasty in pushing Louis XVIII to the French throne. The ensuing period, called the Restauration, was characterized by a sharp conservative reaction and the re-establishment of the Roman Catholic Church, supported by the ultramontanism movement, as a power in French politics. After the 1830 July Revolution and the overthrow of Charles X, the legitimist branch was defeated and the Orleanists, gathered behind Louis-Philippe, accepted the principle of constitutional monarchy. Sovereignty is the exclusive right to exercise supreme political (e. ... Liberty Leading the People, a painting by Delacroix commemorating the July Revolution of 1830 but which has come to be generally accepted as symbolic of French popular uprisings against the monarchy in general and the French Revolution in particular. ... The broad definition of regicide is the deliberate killing of a king, or the person responsible for it. ... Louis XIV King of France and Navarre By Hyacinthe Rigaud (1701) Louis XIV (Louis-Dieudonné) (September 5, 1638–September 1, 1715) reigned as King of France and King of Navarre from May 14, 1643 until his death. ... Popular sovereignty is the doctrine that the state is created by and subject to the will of the people, who are the source of all political power. ... Jean-Jacques Rousseau (June 28, 1712 – July 2, 1778) was a Franco-Swiss philosopher of the Enlightenment whose political ideas influenced the French Revolution, the development of socialist theory, and the growth of nationalism. ... Republicanism is the idea of a nation being governed as a republic. ... A counterrevolutionary is anyone who opposes a revolution, particularly those who act after a revolution to try to overturn or reverse it, in full or in part. ... Joseph de Maistre (portrait by Karl Vogel von Vogelstein, 1810) Joseph-Marie, Comte de Maistre (April 1, 1753- February 26, 1821) was a French-speaking Savoyard lawyer, diplomat, writer, and philosopher. ... Louis Gabriel Ambroise, vicomte de Bonald (October 2, 1754 - November 23, 1840), French philosopher and politician, was born at Le Monna, near Millau in Aveyron. ... Restoration can be one of several things, depending on context: In criminal justice, restoration is another term for restorative justice. ... Ancien Régime means Old Rule or Old Order in French; in English, the term refers primarily to the social and political system established in France under the Valois and Bourbon dynasties. ... In several different regions of medieval Europe, and continuing in some countries down to the present day, the Estates of the realm were broad divisions of society, usually distinguishing nobility, clergy, and commoners; this last group was, in some regions, further divided into burghers (also known as bourgeoisie) and peasants. ... The Divine Right of Kings is a European political and religious doctrine of political absolutism. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... Following the ouster of Napoleon Bonaparte in 1814, the Allies restored the Bourbon Dynasty to the French throne. ... Louis XVIII (November 17, 1755 - September 16, 1824) was King of France from 1814 (although he declared that he considered his reign to have begun in 1795) until his death in 1824. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Catholicism. ... Ultramontanism literally alludes to a policy supporting those dwelling beyond the mountains (ultra montes), that is, beyond the Alps—generally referring to the Pope in Rome. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution The French Revolution of 1830, also known as the July Revolution, was a revolt by the middle class against Bourbon King Charles X which forced him out of office and replaced him with the Orleanist King Louis-Philippe... Charles X, King of France and of Navarre (October 9, 1757 – November 6, 1836) was born at the Palace of Versailles. ... Legitimists are those Royalists in France who believe that the King of France and Navarre must be chosen according to the simple application of the Salic Law. ... Orleanists comprised a French political faction or party which arose out of the Revolution, and ceased to have a separate existence shortly after the establishment of the Third Republic in 1872. ... Louis-Philippe of France (October 6, 1773–August 26, 1850) reigned as the Orléanist king of the French from 1830 to 1848. ... Constitutional monarchies with representative parliamentary systems are shown in red A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchical government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state. ...


The Spring of Nations in 1848 then set the signal for a new wave of revolutions against the European monarchies. In Russia, the 1917 February revolution resulted in the abdication of tsar Nicholas II. It has been suggested that The Gathering Storm: Before the Revolutions of 1848 be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that Revolutionary be merged into this article or section. ... The February Revolution of 1917 in Russia was the first stage of the Russian Revolution of 1917. ... Look up abdication in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Tsar in Wiktionary, the free dictionary For the US community of Czar, see Czar, West Virginia. ... Nicholas II of Russia (18 May 1868 - 17 July 1918) (Russian: (Nikolai II)) was the last Emperor of Russia, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Finland. ...


Legitimists and orleanists in France

Main articles: Legitimists and Orleanists

In France, Louis-Philippe abdicated on February 24, 1848, opening the way to the Second Republic (1848-52), which lasted until Napoleon III's December 2, 1851 coup d'état and the instauration of the Second Empire (1852-1870). The royalist movement only came back in force following the 1870 defeat against Prussia and the crushing of the 1871 Paris Commune by orleanist Adolphe Thiers. Legitimists and orleanists controlled the majority of the Assemblies, and supported Patrice MacMahon, the duc of Magenta, as president of the Ordre moral government. But the intransigeance of the comte de Chambord, who refused to abandon the white flag and its fleur-de-lys against the republican tricolore, and the May 16, 1877 crisis forced the legitimists to abandon the political arena, while some of the more liberals orleanists "rallied" throughout the years to the Third Republic (1870-1945). However, since the monarchy and Catholicism were long entangled ("the alliance of the Throne and the Altar"), republican ideas were often tinged with anti-clericalism, which led to some turmoil during Radical Emile Combes' cabinet in the beginning of the 20th century. Legitimists are Royalists in France who believe that the King of France and Navarre must be chosen according to the simple application of the Salic Law. ... Orleanists comprised a French political faction or party which arose out of the Revolution, and ceased to have a separate existence shortly after the establishment of the Third Republic in 1872. ... Louis-Philippe of France (October 6, 1773–August 26, 1850) reigned as the Orléanist king of the French from 1830 to 1848. ... February 24 is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1848 is a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The French Second Republic (often simply Second Republic) was the republican regime of France from February 25, 1848 to December 2, 1852. ... Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte (April 20, 1808 - January 9, 1873) was the son of King Louis Bonaparte and Queen Hortense de Beauharnais; both monarchs of the French puppet state, the Kingdom of Holland. ... The Coup dÉtat of 2 December 1851 was the coup détat staged by Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte, President of the French Republic, who was successful by this means in dissolving the French National Assembly without having the constitutional right to do so. ... The Second French Empire or Second Empire was the imperial Bonapartist regime of Napoleon III from 1852 to 1870, between the Second Republic and the Third Republic, in France. ... Combatants France Prussia allied with German states (later German Empire) Commanders Napoleon III Helmuth von Moltke Strength 500,000 550,000 Casualties 150,000 dead or wounded 284,000 captured 350,000 civilian [citation needed] 100,000 dead or wounded 200,000 civilian [citation needed] The Franco-Prussian War (July... Le Père Duchesne face to the statue of Napoleon I on top of the Vendome column: Eh ben ! bougre de canaille, on va donc te foutre en bas comme ta crapule de neveu !… (Here! savage rascal, we will put you down just as your crook of a nephew!… The... Louis Adolphe Thiers (April 16, 1797 - September 3, 1877) was a French statesman and historian. ... Legitimists are those Royalists in France who believe that the King of France and Navarre must be chosen according to the simple application of the Salic Law. ... Orleanists comprised a French political faction or party which arose out of the Revolution, and ceased to have a separate existence shortly after the establishment of the Third Republic in 1872. ... Patrice de Mac-Mahon, duc de Magenta President of France, 1873-1879 Marie Edme Patrice Maurice de Mac-Mahon, duc de Magenta, Marshal of France (July 13, 1808 - October 16, 1893) was a Frenchman of Irish descent. ... Henri, comte de Chambord Henri Charles Ferdinand Marie Dieudonné, comte de Chambord (September 29, 1820 - August 24, 1883) was the grandson of King Charles X of France. ... German troops after surrendering to the U.S. Third Army carry the white flag (WW2 photo). ... Fleur de Lys is a Canadian superheroine created in 1984 by Mark Shainblum and Gabriel Morrissette. ... Flag Ratio: 2:3 The national flag of France (known in French as le drapeau tricolore, le drapeau bleu-blanc-rouge, le drapeau de la France, rarely, le tricolore and, colloquially, les couleurs) is a tricolour featuring three vertical bands coloured blue (hoist side), white, and red. ... The May 16, 1877 crisis (French: Crise du Seize mai) is one of the main political crisis during the French Third Republic (1870-1940) with two defining traits: it concerned both the contested supremacy of counterrevolutionaries monarchists on the new Republic, and the role and power of the president. ... This article discusses liberalism as a major worldwide political ideology, its development, and its many modern-day variations. ... A map of France under the Third Republic, featuring colonies. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Roman Catholic Church. ... Anti-clericalism is a historical movement that opposes religious (generally Catholic) institutional power and influence in all aspects of public and political life, and the encroachment of religion in the everyday life of the citizen. ... The Radical-Socialist Party (Parti Républicain, Radical et Radical-Socialiste, more commonly called Parti Radical-Socialiste - Republican, Radical and Radical-Socialist Party), was a major French political party of the early to mid 20th century, originally considered radical due to its anti-clericalism, a main trait of republicans during... Émile Combes, French politician Émile Combes (1835 - 1921) was a French statesman. ...


The Action Française, founded in 1898 during the Dreyfus affair, remained an influent far right movement throughout the 1930s, taking part in the February 6, 1934 riots. Some royalists, such as Georges Valois who founded the Faisceau, became involved in fascism after the 1926 Papal condemnation of the Action Française by Pius XI. Royalists were then active under the Vichy regime, with the leader of the Action Française Charles Maurras qualifying as "divine surprise" the overthrow of the Republic and the arrival to power of Marshal Pétain. A few of them, such as Henri d'Astier de la Vigerie, took part in the Resistance out of patriotic concerns. The Action Française was then dissolved after the war, but Maurice Pujo found it again in 1947. Some legitimists had became involved in the traditionalist Catholic movement, which refused the 1962-65 Second Vatican Council and followed the 1970 foundation of the schismatic Society of St. Pius X by Marcel Lefebvre. Bertrand Renouvin made a breakaway movement from the Action Française in 1971, the Nouvelle Action Française which became the Nouvelle Action Royaliste, while some legitimists joined Jean-Marie Le Pen's Front National, founded in 1972. The Action Française is a French Monarchist movement and periodical founded by Maurice Pujo and Henri Vaugeois and whose principal ideologist was Charles Maurras. ... The Dreyfus Affair was a political scandal which divided France during the 1890s and early 1900s. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into far right. ... The February 6, 1934 crisis refers to an anti-parliamentarist demonstration organised in Paris by far-right leagues (antiparliamentarian militias), which finished by a riot on Place de la Concorde, which is located on the right bank of the Seine, in front of the Palais Bourbon, seat of the National... Georges Valois (real name Alfred-Georges Gressent), 1878 - 1945 was a French economist and politician. ... The Faisceau was a short-lived French Fascist party. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Pius XI (Latin: ), born Ambrogio Damiano Achille Ratti (May 31, 1857 – February 10, 1939), reigned as Pope from February 6, 1922 and sovereign of Vatican City from 1929 until his death on February 10, 1939. ... Presidential flag of Vichy France For other uses of Vichy, see Vichy (disambiguation). ... Charles Maurras (April 20, 1868 - November 16, 1952) was a French monarchist poet, critic and leader and principal thinker of the anti-Dreyfusard Action Française movement. ... Henri-Philippe Pétain Henri Philippe Benoni Omer Joseph Pétain (24 April 1856 – 23 July 1951), generally known as Philippe Pétain or Marshal Pétain, was a French general, later Head of State of Vichy France, from 1940 to 1944. ... Henri dAstier de la Vigerie (11 September 1897 - 10 October 1952) was a French soldier, resistance member, and politician. ... The French Resistance is the name used for resistance movements that fought military occupation of France by Nazi Germany and the Vichy France undemocratic regime during World War II after the government and the high command of France surrendered in 1940. ... Defense of the homeland is a commonplace of military patriotism: The statue in the École polytechnique, Paris, commemorating the students involvement in defending France against the 1814 invasion of the Coalition. ... Combatants Allies: Poland, British Commonwealth, France/Free France, Soviet Union, United States, China, and others Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, and others Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total dead: 50 million Military dead: 8 million Civilian dead: 4 million Total dead: 12 million World War II... Maurice Pujo (26 January 1872 - 6 September 1955) was a French journalist and co-founder, with Henri Vaugeois in 1898, of the Comité dAction Française which subsequently became the nationalist and monarchist Action Française movement. ... A Tridentine Mass being celebrated in Bohermeen, Ireland in the 1950s. ... The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, or Vatican II, (Vatican two) was an Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church opened under Pope John XXIII in 1962 and closed under Pope Paul VI in 1965. ... The word schism (IPA: or ), from the Greek σχισμα, schisma (from σχιζω, schizo, to split), means a division or a split, usually in an organization. ... His Excellency Archbishop Marcel Lefebvre, founder of the Society of Saint Pius X. The Society of St. ... Archbishop LefebvreFounder of the Society of St. ... Bertrand Renouvin is the founder and president of French political movement Nouvelle Action Royaliste, an orleanist group which aims at restoring constitutional monarchy in France. ... The Nouvelle Action Royaliste, also called the NAR, is a royalist movement marked by a will to found a constitutional monarchy in France. ... Portrait of Jean-Marie Le Pen. ... This article is about the French political party, not the WWII French resistance movement Front National. ...


Constitutional monarchies

Main article: Constitutional monarchy

Constitutional monarchies form the majority of the current monarchies. Since the middle of the 19th century, some monarchists have stopped defending monarchy on the basis of abstract, universal principles applicable to all nations, or even on the grounds that a monarchy would be the best or most practical government for the nation in question, but on local symbolic grounds that they would be a particular nation's link to the past. Constitutional monarchies with representative parliamentary systems are shown in red A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchical government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state. ...


The International Monarchist League, founded in 1943, which has been very influential in Canada and Australia, has always sought to promote monarchy on the grounds that it strengthens popular liberty, both in a democracy and in a dictatorship, because by definition the monarch is not beholden to politicians. However, two things should be noted: as monarchists usually come from a pragmatic or precedent-based tradition (like many conservatives), they often do not have abstract, universal principles in any event (so while such may indeed exist, they are not where most monarchists are likely to be coming from); and, for the same practical reasons, monarchists tend to bring out the argument in terms readily understood by their adversaries or by undecided elements as it would not be practical to "preach to the choir," calling on principles which while possibly true are not accepted as true by their hearers. See Monarchist League for similar organisations The International Monarchist League (or Monarchist League) is an organization dedicated to the preservation of the constitutional monarchy system of government and the principle of monarchy worldwide. ... Conservatism or political conservatism is any of several historically related political philosophies or political ideologies. ...


Hence, post-19th century debates on whether to preserve a monarchy or to adopt a republican form of government have often been debates over national identity, with the monarch generally serving as a symbol for other issues. Places where monarchies maintain rule appear in blue. ... Republicanism is the idea of a nation being governed as a republic. ... Look up monarch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


For example, in a countries like Belgium and The Netherlands anti-monarchist talk is often centered around the perceived symbolism of a monarch constrasting with those nation's political culture of egalitarianism. In Australia and Ireland, by constrast, debates over monarchy represent or represented debates whose driving force concerned each nation's relationship with the United Kingdom and the cultural heritage that that represents. In a nation like Saudi Arabia, finally, opposition to the monarchy may be synonmous with advocacy of democracy or Islamic fundamentalism. As monarchies take many different forms, so too do pro‐ and anti‐monarchy debates. The Netherlands (Dutch: Nederland) is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands (Dutch: Koninkrijk der Nederlanden). ... Egalitarianism is any moral or political theory that emphasizes the supposed equality of morally-significant beings. ... The term Islamic fundamentalism is primarily used in the United States, Europe, and Australia to describe Islamist groups. ...


Even a country such as the United States, which has been a republic from its foundation, has some monarchist adherents. The minority are restorationists, who advocate returning authority to Elizabeth II as the current legitimate heir of George III, presumably as a constitutional monarchy similar to her powers in those Commonwealth of Nations members that recognize her as Queen. However, the majority of American Monarchists believe that America would best be led by an independent dynasty. Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor) (born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen independent nations known as the Commonwealth Realms. ... George III (George William Frederick) (4 June 1738 – 29 January 1820) was King of Great Britain and King of Ireland from 25 October 1760 until 1 January 1801, and thereafter King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death. ... Constitutional monarchies with representative parliamentary systems are shown in red A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchical government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state. ... The Commonwealth of Nations, usually known as The Commonwealth, is an association of 53 independent sovereign states, almost all of which are former territories of the British Empire. ... Motto: E pluribus unum (1789 to 1956) (Latin: Out of Many, One) In God We Trust (1956 to present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at federal level; English de facto Government • President • Vice President Federal Republic George...


see also: republicanism Republicanism is the idea of a nation being governed as a republic. ...


Monarchist groups - past and present

Worldwide

See Monarchist League for similar organisations The International Monarchist League (or Monarchist League) is an organization dedicated to the preservation of the constitutional monarchy system of government and the principle of monarchy worldwide. ...

Europe

The Action Française is a French Monarchist movement and periodical founded by Maurice Pujo and Henri Vaugeois and whose principal ideologist was Charles Maurras. ... The Nouvelle Action Royaliste, also called the NAR, is a royalist movement marked by a will to found a constitutional monarchy in France. ... Legitimists are Royalists in France who believe that the King of France and Navarre must be chosen according to the simple application of the Salic Law. ... Orleanists comprised a French political faction or party which arose out of the Revolution, and ceased to have a separate existence shortly after the establishment of the Third Republic in 1872. ... Tradition und Leben e. ... The National Peasants Party (PNT, Partidul Naţional Ţărănesc) was a political party in Romania, formed in 1926 by the fusion of the National Romanian Party from Transylvania and the Peasants Party. ... The Orange Order is a Protestant fraternal organisation largely based in the province of Northern Ireland and in western Scotland but which has a worldwide membership. ... Koruna ÄŒeská is a Czech Monarchist group that wishes the restoration of the Czech kingdom. ...

North America

The Coat of Arms of the Monarchist League of Canada, granted with permission of Her Majesty in 2000 The badge of the Monarchist League of Canada. ... The Orange Order is a Protestant fraternal organisation largely based in the province of Northern Ireland and in western Scotland but which has a worldwide membership. ... The American Monarchist Party is a United States political party, comprised of two independent organizations; The American Monarchist Society, and the The Constantian Society. ... The Constantian Society is a political group in the United States devoted to promoting monarchy as a superior form of government. ...

Australia

Australians for Constitutional Monarchy (ACM) was founded in June 1992 to defend the Australian Constitution, the role of the Crown in it, and to preserve the role of the Queen of Australia, represented by the Governor-General, as Australias constitutional head of state. ... The Australian Monarchist League was founded in 1943 to support the role of the Crown in the Australias constitutional system. ...

Iran

Rastakhiz (Resurrection) is an Iranian monarchist party that was founded in the late 1960s under the government of Amir Abbas Hoveyda. ...

Others

Queen Elizabeth IIs personal flag for New Zealand The Monarchist League of New Zealand, Inc. ... Iranian Monarchists are group affiliated with the former Royal family of Iran, the Pahlavis. ... The Iraqi Constitutional Monarchy (ICM) is a monarchist Iraqi opposition group led by Sharif Ali Bin al-Hussein. ... Charles Edward Stuart, Bonnie Prince Charlie, wearing the Jacobite blue bonnet Jacobitism was (and, to a very limited extent, is) the political movement dedicated to the restoration of the Stuart kings to the thrones of England and Scotland (including after 1707,when the de facto government deemed those thrones to... The Orange Order is a Protestant fraternal organisation largely based in the province of Northern Ireland and in western Scotland but which has a worldwide membership. ...

External links

  • Things To Be Considered Blog by Connecticut youth arguing for Traditional Monarchy
  • Australians for Constitutional Monarchy
  • Australian Monarchist League
  • KaisertreueJugend.org Youth loyal to the emperor (German)
  • Monarchist Alliance (Italian)
  • Monarchiste.org (France)
  • Monarchisten.de (German)
  • Monarchisten.org Schwarz-Gelbe Allianz and Schwarzgelbes Forum (2 organizations of Monarchists in Austria: "Black-Yellow Forum" and "Black-Yellow Alliance"; black and yellow are the colours of the Habsburg-monarchy in Austria)
  • The Monarchist
  • The Monarchist League
  • The Society of United Royalists (Worldwide)
  • Theodore's Royalty and Monarchy Site
  • Monarchy Forum
  • Pro Monarchy – Tradition und Leben ("Tradition and Life", the German monarchists), website in German and English language
  • Yahoo Groups Monarchie der Zukunft "The Future of the Monarchy" (German), founded by Harold Schmautz
  • Altar and Throne Monarchy Site American Monarchist blog from a Catholic perspective
  • Unpopular Opinions Defending Theocratic Constitutional Monarchy

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