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Encyclopedia > Molotov cocktail
An ignited Molotov cocktail

The Molotov cocktail, also known as the petrol bomb, gasoline bomb, or Molotov bomb, is a generic name used for a variety of improvised incendiary weapons. Simple to make, they are frequently used by rioters. hey hey you no i rock at soccer cuz no i made the school team!! yay me aka katelyn ♥ Incendiary devices or incendiary bombs are bombs designed to start fires or destroy sensitive equipment using materials such as napalm, thermite, chlorine trifluoride, or white phosphorus. ... Teamsters, armed with pipes, riot in a clash with riot police in the Minneapolis Teamsters Strike of 1934. ...


The bombs were derisively named after Soviet Foreign Minister, Viacheslav Molotov, by the Finnish people during the Winter War. Soviet redirects here. ... A minister for foreign affairs, or foreign minister, is a governmental cabinet minister who helps form the foreign policy of a sovereign nation. ... Vyacheslav Molotov Vyacheslav Mikhaylovich Molotov (Russian: Вячесла́в Миха́йлович Мо́лотов) (vyah-cheh-SLAHF mih-KHY-lo-vihch MOL-uh-tawf) (February 25, 1890 (O.S.) (March 9, 1890 (N.S.))–November 8, 1986) was a Soviet politician and diplomat. ... Language(s) Finnish, Swedish Languages related to Finnish include Estonian, Karelian, Vepsian, Võro and to a lesser extent, all Finno-Ugric Languages. ... Combatants Finland Soviet Union Commanders Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim Kliment Voroshilov Semyon Timoshenko Strength 250,000 men 30 tanks 130 aircraft[1][2] 1,000,000 men 6,541 tanks [3] 3,800 aircraft[4][5] Casualties 26,662 dead 39,886 wounded 1,000 captured[6] 126,875 dead...

Contents

Mechanism

In its simplest form, a Molotov cocktail is a glass bottle containing petrol fuel usually with a source of ignition such as a burning, fuel soaked, rag wick held in place by the bottle's stopper. This article is about the material. ... Composite body, painted, and glazed bottle. ... Gasoline, as it is known in North America, or petrol, in many Commonwealth countries (sometimes also called motor spirit) is a petroleum-derived liquid mixture consisting primarily of hydrocarbons, used as fuel in internal combustion engines. ... WICK-AM is the Fox Sports Radio affiliate for the Scranton/Wilkes-Barre market. ...


In action the fuse is lit and the bottle hurled at a target such as a vehicle or fortification. When the bottle smashes on impact, the ensuing cloud of petrol droplets and vapor is ignited causing an immediate fireball followed by a raging fire as the remainder of the fuel is consumed. The Trikke is a Human Powered Vehicle (HPV) Automobiles are among the most commonly used engine powered vehicles. ... Water dropping from a faucet A drop is a small volume of liquid, bounded completely or almost completely by free surfaces. ... This article is about the chemical use. ... Explode redirects here. ...


Other flammable liquids such as wood alcohol and turpentine have been used in place of petrol. Thickening agents such as tar and motor oil have been added to the fuel, analogously to the use of napalm, to help the burning liquid adhere to the target and create clouds of thick choking smoke. A symbol for inflammable chemicals Inflammability is the ease with which a substance will ignite, causing fire or combustion. ... Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, carbinol, wood alcohol, wood naphtha or wood spirits, is a chemical compound with chemical formula CH3OH (often abbreviated MeOH). ... For the band, see Turpentine (band). ... Tar can be produced from corn stalks by heating in a microwave. ... A typical container of motor oil, with some in a glass. ... A simulated Napalm explosion during MCAS Air Show in 2003. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Development and use in war

The original design of Molotov cocktail produced by the Finnish alcohol monopoly ALKO during the Winter War of 1939-40. The bottle has storm matches instead of a rag for a fuse.
The original design of Molotov cocktail produced by the Finnish alcohol monopoly ALKO during the Winter War of 1939-40. The bottle has storm matches instead of a rag for a fuse.

During World War II, when Finland refused to surrender some strategic ports to the Soviet Union, the Soviets invaded in November 1939, after the Shelling of Mainila. The Finnish Army, facing Red Army tanks in what came to be known as the Winter War, borrowed an improvised incendiary device design from the 1936–39 Spanish Civil War. In that conflict, General Francisco Franco ordered Spanish Nationalists to use the weapon against Soviet T-26 tanks supporting the Spanish Republicans in a failed 1936 Soviet assault near Toledo, 30 km from Madrid.[1] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (762x1293, 532 KB) Summary Photo by Ohto Kokko Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Molotov cocktail ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (762x1293, 532 KB) Summary Photo by Ohto Kokko Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Molotov cocktail ... Alko is the national alcoholic beverage retailing monopoly in Finland. ... Combatants Finland Soviet Union Commanders Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim Kliment Voroshilov Semyon Timoshenko Strength 250,000 men 30 tanks 130 aircraft[1][2] 1,000,000 men 6,541 tanks [3] 3,800 aircraft[4][5] Casualties 26,662 dead 39,886 wounded 1,000 captured[6] 126,875 dead... For other uses, see Match (disambiguation). ... In an explosive, pyrotechnic device or military munition, a fuse (or fuze) is the part of the device that initiates function. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... An invasion is a military action consisting of armed forces of one geopolitical entity entering territory controlled by another such entity, generally with the objective of conquering territory, or altering the established government. ... Location of Mainila on the Karelian Isthmus (according to the borders prior to the signing of the Moscow peace treaty). ... The Finnish Army (Finnish: Maavoimat) is one of the branches of the Finnish Defence Forces. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... Combatants Finland Soviet Union Commanders Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim Kliment Voroshilov Semyon Timoshenko Strength 250,000 men 30 tanks 130 aircraft[1][2] 1,000,000 men 6,541 tanks [3] 3,800 aircraft[4][5] Casualties 26,662 dead 39,886 wounded 1,000 captured[6] 126,875 dead... Not to be confused with the Spanish Civil War of 1820-1823. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco y Bahamonde (December 4, 1892 - November 20, 1975), commonly known as Francisco Franco (pronounced ) or Francisco Franco y Bahamonde was leader of Spain from October 1936, as regent of Kingdom of Spain from 1947 until his death in 1975. ... General characteristics Length: 4. ... Anthem El Himno de Riego Capital Madrid Language(s) Spanish Government Republic President  - 1931–1936 Niceto Alcalá-Zamora  - 1936–1939 Manuel Azaña Legislature Congress of Deputies Historical era Interwar period  - Monarchy abolished April 14, 1931  - Spanish Civil War 1936–1939  - Republic in exile dissolved July 15, 1977 Currency Spanish... For other uses, see Toledo (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Spanish capital. ...


When Soviet People’s Commissar for Foreign Affairs Vyacheslav Molotov claimed in radio broadcasts that the Soviet Union was not dropping bombs but rather delivering food to the starving Finns, the Finns started to call the air bombs Molotov bread baskets.[2] Soon they responded by attacking advancing tanks with “Molotov cocktails.” At first the term was used to describe only the burning mixture itself, but in practical use the term was soon applied to the combination of both the bottle and its contents. This Finnish use of the hand- or sling-thrown explosive against Soviet tanks was repeated in the subsequent Continuation War. Molotov cocktails were eventually mass-produced by the Alko corporation at its Rajamäki distillery, bundled with matches to light them. Production totalled 450,000 during the Winter War. The original design of Molotov cocktail was a mixture of ethanol, tar, and gasoline in a 750 ml bottle. The bottle had two long pyrotechnic storm matches attached to either side. Before use one or both of the matches was lit; when the bottle broke on impact, the mixture ignited. The storm matches were found to be safer to use than a burning rag on the mouth of the bottle. CCCP redirects here. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with: :Sovnarkom. ... A minister for foreign affairs, or foreign minister, is a governmental cabinet minister who helps form the foreign policy of a sovereign nation. ... For other uses, see Molotov (disambiguation). ... Note: broadcasting is also the old term for hand sowing. ... For other uses, see Bomb (disambiguation). ... This article is about extreme malnutrition. ... The Molotov bread basket from where the bombs spreaded Molotov bread basket is the Finnish name for a Soviet bomb that combined a large high explosive charge with a cluster of incendiary bombs. ... Home-made sling. ... Belligerents Finland Germany Italy1 Soviet Union  United Kingdom2 Commanders C.G.E. Mannerheim Kirill Meretskov Leonid Govorov Strength 530,000 Finns[1] 220,000 Germans 900,000–1,500,000 Soviets[2] Casualties and losses 58,715 dead or missing 158,000 wounded 1,500 civilian deaths[3] 3401 captured... Alko is the national alcoholic beverage retailing monopoly in Finland. ... For other uses, see Match (disambiguation). ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ... The liter (spelled liter in American English and litre in Commonwealth English) is a unit of volume. ... The word pyrotechnic (literally meaning fire technology) refers to any chemical explosive device, but especially fireworks. ... For other uses, see Match (disambiguation). ...

A display of improvised munitions, including a Molotov cocktail, from the Warsaw Uprising, 1944.
A display of improvised munitions, including a Molotov cocktail, from the Warsaw Uprising, 1944.

They also saw use during the Nomonhan Incident, a border conflict ostensibly between Mongolia and Manchukuo that saw heavy fighting between Japanese and Soviet forces. Short of anti-tank equipment, Japanese infantry attacked Soviet tanks with gasoline-filled bottles. Japanese infantrymen claimed that several hundred Soviet tanks had been destroyed through the use of Molotov cocktails, though Soviet loss records do not support this assessment.[3] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (600x800, 421 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Molotov cocktail Satchel charge Sidolówka Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (600x800, 421 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Molotov cocktail Satchel charge Sidolówka Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera... For other uses, see Warsaw Uprising (disambiguation). ... The Battle of Halhin Gol, sometimes spelled Khalkhin Gol and alternately known as the Nomonhan Incident in Japan, was the decisive engagement of the undeclared Soviet-Japanese Border War (1939), or Japanese-Soviet War. ... Flag Anthem National Anthem of Manchukuo Map of Manchukuo Capital Hsinking Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1932 - 1934 Datong (Chief Executive) (Aisingioro Puyi)  - 1934 - 1945 Kangde-Emperor (Aisingioro Puyi) Prime Minister  - 1932 - 1935 Zheng Xiaoxu  - 1935 - 1945 Zhang Jinghui Historical era World War II  - Established 1932  - Disestablished 1945 Manchukuo (, State of... This article is about the armed forces of the Soviet Union. ...


The Polish home army developed a version[4] which ignited on impact thus avoiding the need to light the fuse before throwing. Ignition was caused by a reaction between concentrated sulfuric acid mixed with the fuel and a mixture of potassium chlorate and sugar which was crystalized from solution onto a rag attached to the bottle. Armia Krajowa (the Home Army), abbreviated AK, was the dominant Polish resistance movement in World War II German-occupied Poland. ... Sulfuric acid, (also known as sulphuric acid) H2SO4, is a strong mineral acid. ... Potassium chlorate is a compound containing potassium, chlorine and oxygen, with the chemical formula KClO3. ... This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely-traded commodity. ... Frost crystallization on a shrub. ...


During the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, it was alleged that members of the Israeli Kibbutz Degania managed to stop a Syrian tank assault by using Molotov cocktails. Later studies revealed that it was a shell fired from a PIAT.[citation needed] Combatants  Israel Haganah Irgun Lehi Palmach Foreign Volunteers Egypt, Syria, Transjordan,  Lebanon, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Yemen[2], Holy War Army, Arab Liberation Army Commanders Yaakov Dori, Yigael Yadin John Bagot Glubb, Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni, Hasan Salama, Fawzi Al-Qawuqji, Ahmed Ali al-Mwawi Strength  Israel: 29,677 initially... Kibbutz Merom Golan as seen from Bental mountain A Kibbutz (Hebrew: Translit. ... Degania, the mother of kvutzot (small kibbutzim) in the 1930s. ... The Projector, Infantry, Anti Tank, was one of the earlier anti-tank weapons using a high explosive anti-tank projectile. ...


It should be noted while Molotov Cocktails may be a psychologically effective method of disabling tanks and armored vehicles by forcing the crew out or damaging external components, most modern tanks cannot be physically destroyed by Molotov Cocktails, only disabled. Tanks and IFVs have specially designed Nuclear, Biological and Chemical protective systems that make them internally air-tight and sealed; well protected from vapors, gases, and liquids. Modern tanks possess very thick Composite Armour consisting of layers of steel, ceramics, plastics and Kevlar, which would make them extremely difficult to destroy by Molotov Cocktails alone, as these materials have melting points well above the burning temperature of gasoline. Damaging external components such as optical systems, antennas, or externally-mounted weapons systems is however possible and can make a tank virtually "blind", forcing the crew to abandon it.[citation needed] A Warrior vehicle with UN markings, on the making of the eponymous film. ... An NBC suit is a type of protective suit giving protection inclusively against particle radiation, biological and chemical agents, though depending on the design may or may not give protection against radiation. ... Composite armour is a type of vehicle armour consisting of layers of different material such as metals, plastics, ceramics or air. ... Kevlars molecular structure; BOLD: monomer unit; DASHED: hydrogen bonds. ...


Use by civilian

A video-still taken from the peak of the Oldham riots, showing a rioter throwing a Molotov cocktail towards lines of police.
A video-still taken from the peak of the Oldham riots, showing a rioter throwing a Molotov cocktail towards lines of police.
A mural in Londonderry, Northern Ireland of a young boy in a gas mask holding a petrol bomb during the Battle of the Bogside, August 1969.
A mural in Londonderry, Northern Ireland of a young boy in a gas mask holding a petrol bomb during the Battle of the Bogside, August 1969.
  • Taiwanese rebels employed an early version of the Molotov cocktail, fueled by kerosene, against Japanese police forces during the anti-colonial Ta-pa-ni Incident in 1915.[5]
  • Molotov cocktails played a big role in the Hungarian revolution. It was almost the only anti-tank weapon available and could disable the Soviet T-34 tanks.
Prague, 1968
Prague, 1968
  • Molotov cocktails were used in Prague to express disapproval of the invading soviet troops in Czechoslovakia in 1968 (see Prague Spring for details).
  • As of 2007 petrol bombs are still used against the Police Service of Northern Ireland (PSNI, formerly the RUC) and army.[6] They are frequently used in sectarian attacks on homes and businesses by both communities. Fireworks and homemade grenades, known as blast bombs now commonly accompany petrol bomb attacks on the security forces.
  • In 1980s, South Korean protesters used Molotov cocktails as a tool to fight against the government of Chun Doo-hwan.
  • Molotov cocktails were also employed against the police during the recent Copenhagen March-riots and during the Cigarbox riot in Copenhagen, Denmark
  • Molotov cocktails are being used by the different Lebanese political parties' in the current street conflicts in Beirut.

Image File history File links OldhamRioter1. ... Image File history File links OldhamRioter1. ... A video-still taken from the peak of the riots, showing a rioter throwing a petrol bomb towards lines of police. ... Image:Mural - Battle of the bogside 2004 SMC.jpg - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Image:Mural - Battle of the bogside 2004 SMC.jpg - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Salle des illustres, ceiling painting, by Jean André Rixens. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... A mural by the Bogside Artists in Derry of a young boy in a gas mask holding a petrol bomb during the Battle of the Bogside, August 1969. ... There have been a number of Hungarian Revolutions: 1848 Hungarian Revolution 1919 Hungarian Revolution 1956 Hungarian Revolution This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... The T-34 is a Soviet medium tank first produced in 1940. ... People in a café watch Soviet tanks roll past The Prague Spring (Czech: Pražské jaro, Slovak: Pražská jar, Russian: пражская весна) was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia starting January 5, 1968 when Alexander Dubček came to power, and running until August 20 of that year when the... For other uses, see Troubles (disambiguation) and Trouble. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... The Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) was name of the police force in Northern Ireland from 1922 to 2001. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... The Police Service of Northern Ireland (Irish: Seirbhís Póilíneachta Thuaisceart na hÉireann) is the police service that covers Northern Ireland. ... Sectarianism is an adherence to a particular sect or party or denomination, it also usually involves a rejection of those not a member of ones sect. ... Blast bomb is a term used in Northern Ireland for a type of improvised explosive device. ... This is a Korean name; the family name is Chun Chun Doo Hwan (born 18 January 1931) was former ROK Army general and the President of South Korea from 1980 to 1988. ... A video-still taken from the peak of the riots, showing a rioter throwing a petrol bomb towards lines of police. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... For the larger local government district, see Metropolitan Borough of Oldham. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Riot control are the measures to control a riot or to break up an unwanted demonstration (usually of protestors). ... The Columbine High School massacre occurred on Tuesday, April 20, 1999, at Columbine High School in unincorporated Jefferson County, Colorado (the CDP of Columbine) near Denver and Littleton. ... Eric Harris (left) and Dylan Klebold (right) Eric David Harris (April 9, 1981 – April 20, 1999) and Dylan Bennet Klebold (September 11, 1981 – April 20, 1999) were the high school seniors who committed the Columbine High School massacre. ... The Palestinian flag, adopted in 1948, is a widely recognized modern symbol of the Palestinian people. ... The Israel Defense Forces (IDF) (Hebrew: צבא ההגנה לישראל Tsva Ha-Haganah Le-Yisrael ([Army] Force [for] the Defense of Israel), often abbreviated צהל Tsahal, alternative English spelling Tzahal, is the name of Israels armed forces (army, air force and navy). ...

In counter-cultural publications

Molotov cocktail recipe from The Freedom Fighter's Manual, 1980s.
Molotov cocktail recipe from The Freedom Fighter's Manual, 1980s.

In Steal This Book, Abbie Hoffman recommends the reader to make a Molotov cocktail "just to wipe the fear out of your mind and know that it works". His suggestions for thickeners are polystyrene foam, soap flakes, rubber cement, or Sterno Canned Heat. His suggestions for fuses include tampons, or if creating a delayed action incendiary device, to use a firecracker or cherry bomb held to the bottle with epoxy glue and fused with a cigarette, or a commercial dynamite fuse. He ridicules the classic rioter's technique of "stuffing a rag in the neck of a bottle, lighting and tossing" on safety grounds and recommends wiping the bottle with rubbing alcohol for the same reason, as well as to remove fingerprints.[1] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Published by the United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in the 1980s, the Freedom Fighters Manual was a fifteen-page booklet airdropped over Nicaragua. ... Cover of Steal this Book Steal This Book is a book written by Abbie Hoffman in 1970 and published in 1971. ... Abbott Howard Abbie Hoffman (November 30, 1936 – April 12, 1989) was a social and political activist in the United States who co-founded the Youth International Party (Yippies). Later he became a fugitive from the law, who lived under an alias following a conviction for dealing cocaine. ... For other uses, see Polystyrene (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Soap (disambiguation). ... ShoeGoo® brand rubber cement. ... Sterno® Canned Heat™ is a chafing fuel made from denatured and jellied alcohol. ... A tampon with an applicator. ... hey hey you no i rock at soccer cuz no i made the school team!! yay me aka katelyn ♥ Incendiary devices or incendiary bombs are bombs designed to start fires or destroy sensitive equipment using materials such as napalm, thermite, chlorine trifluoride, or white phosphorus. ... For other uses, see Firecracker (disambiguation). ... Cherry bomb fireworks are exploding fireworks, usually round, approximately one inch (2. ... In chemistry, epoxy or polyepoxide is a thermosetting epoxide polymer that cures (polymerizes and crosslinks) when mixed with a catalyzing agent or hardener. Most common epoxy resins are produced from a reaction between epichlorohydrin and bisphenol-A. The first commercial attempts to prepare resins from epichlorohydrin occurred in 1927 in... Look up glue in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Unlit filtered cigarettes. ... This article is about a high explosive. ... A bottle of isopropyl rubbing alcohol Rubbing alcohol, U.S.P. / B.P. (also known as Isopropyl alcohol) is a liquid prepared for topical application prepared from isopropyl alcohol (or denatured alcohol) and containing 68. ... Fingerprints can refer to: Human fingerprints Fingerprints, a Leonard Cohen song. ...


In The Freedom Fighter's Manual, the CIA taught Nicaraguan civilians how to make Molotov cocktails. Published by the United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in the 1980s, the Freedom Fighters Manual was a fifteen-page booklet airdropped over Nicaragua. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ...


Legality

As incendiary devices, Molotov cocktails are illegal to manufacture or possess in many regions. Their use against people is typically covered under a variety of charges, including battery, actual or grievous bodily harm, manslaughter, attempted murder, and murder, depending upon their effect and upon local laws. Their use against property is usually covered under arson charges. In the United States, Molotov cocktails are considered "destructive devices" and regulated by the ATF. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Grievous bodily harm or GBH is a phrase used in English criminal law which was introduced in ss18 and 20 Offences Against The Person Act 1861. ... The medical idea of (grievous) bodily harm is more specific than legal ideas of assault or violence in general, and distinct from property damage. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The Skyline Parkway Motel in Afton, Virginia after an arson fire on July 9, 2004. ... A destructive device is a firearm or explosive device that, in the United States, is regulated by the National Firearms Act of 1934. ... The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (BATF) is a law enforcement agency within the United States Department of Justice. ...


See also

No 76, Special Incendiary Phosphorus Nationality United Kingdom Date of design Service duration Type Incendiary Filling phosphorus, Detonation Impact Weight g Filling weight g Length mm Diameter mm Variants Number built 6,000,000[1] The No. ... According to popular rumours at the time, the pétroleuses were female supporters of the Paris Commune, accused of burning down much of Paris during the last days of the Commune in May 1871. ... Published by the United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in the 1980s, the Freedom Fighters Manual was a fifteen-page booklet airdropped over Nicaragua. ...

References

  1. ^ José Luis Infiesta. La Unidad Italiana de Carros-Artillería, los T-26 Soviéticos y la Batalla de Seseña. Retrieved on December 12, 2005.
  2. ^ *Langdon-Davies, John (June 1940). The Lessons of Finland. Picture Post. 
  3. ^ Coox, Alvin, 1990, Nomonhan: Japan Against Russia, 1939
  4. ^ Rafal E. Stolarski. The Production of Arms and Explosive Materials by the Polish Home Army in the Years 1939-1945. Retrieved on June 30, 2007.
  5. ^ Katz, Paul R., 2005, When Valleys Turned Blood Red: The Ta-pa-ni Incident in Colonial Taiwan, p.158.
  6. ^ BBC News, Tuesday, 10 April 2007, 'Petrol bomb is thrown at officers'. BBC News, Wednesday, 28 June 2006, Petrol bomb 'landed outside home'. BBC News, Monday, 21 November 2005, 'Petrol bomb attack during alert'

Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Picture Post dated 21 September 1940. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...

Further reading

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