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Encyclopedia > Molise Croatian dialect

Molise Croatian dialect (also: Molise Slavic, Slavisano, na-našo) is spoken in the Campobasso Province in the Molise Region of Italy, in three villages — Montemitro (Mundimitar), Aquaviva Collercroce (Živavoda Kruč) and San Felice del Molise (Štifilić). These have approximately 3,000 speakers. The dialect has been preserved since a group of Croats emigrated from Dalmatia abreast of advancing Turks. The residents of these villages claim a western Shtokavian dialect. The name Molise Croats is attested in literature, and justified by the modern convention of classifying all Catholics (the Bunjevci and Janjevci among them) on the territory of the Croatian and Serbian diasystem as Croats. (In reference works at the beginning of the century, the names Dalmatian, Slavonian, and Croat designated three different nationalities, each under the suzerainty of a different nation). Some speakers call themselves Zlavi and call their language simply na-našo (our language). Molise is a region of central Italy, the second smallest of the regions. ... A village is a human residential settlement commonly found in rural areas. ... Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a south Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ... Map of Croatia with Dalmatia highlighted Dalmatia is a region on the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea, in modern Croatia, spreading between the island of Rab in the northwest and the Gulf of Kotor (Boka Kotorska) in the southeast. ... Shtokavian (Štokavian, štokavski) is the primary dialect of the Central South Slavic languages system, Serbian, Bosnian and Croatian. ... Molise Croats are Croatian subgroup, found in the Molise region of Italy. ... Bunjevci (Serbian and Croatian: Bunjevci/Буњевци, singular Bunjevac/Буњевац, pronounced as Bunyevtzi and Bunyevatz, also in Hungarian: Bunjevácok) are a South Slav ethnic group originally from the Dinaric Alps region, now mostly living in the Bačka region (northern Serbia or Vojvodina) and southern Hungary (particularly in the Baja... Janjevci (Janjevs) are inhabitants of the Kosovo town of Janjevo and surrounding villages, located near Pristina as well as villages centered on Letnica near Vitina (Papare, Vrmez, Vrnavo Kolo). ...

The inhabitants of these villages would say that their ancestors came Z onu banu mora/From other side of the sea, and inhabited villages in Molise and Abruzzo, abandoned because of the plague. Originally the area inhabited by Slavs was much wider than today. Because these people have migrated away from the rest of their kinsmen so long ago, their diaspora language is rather distinct from the standard languages at the other side of the Adriatic. An ancestor is a parent or (recursively) the parent of an ancestor. ... Abruzzo is a region of central Italy bordering Marche to the north, Lazio to the west and south-west, Molise to the south-east and the Adriatic Sea to the east. ... A diaspora language is an evolution of the language originally used by a diaspora of a group of people or peoples. ...

The language was preserved until today only in the aforementioned three villages, although several villages in Molise and Abruzzo region are aware of their Slavic ancestry. The existence of this Slavic colony was unknown outside Italy until 1855 when Medo Pucić, a linguist from Dubrovnik, during one of his journeys in Italy overheard a tailor in Naples speaking with his wife in a language very similar to Pucić's own. The tailor then told him that he came from the village of Kruč, then part of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. Subsequently the Gajica, the modern Croatian alphabet, was adopted to the language. Croatian linguist Milan Rešetar published a comprehensive monography about Molise Slavic under title "Serbo-croatian Colony in Southern Italy" ("Die Serbokroatischen Kolonien Süditaliens") Vienna 1911, Italian translation: "Le colonie serbocroate nell'Italia Meridionale", Campobasso 1997. The Slavic peoples are defined by their usage of the Slavic languages. ... Kinship and descent is one of the major concepts of cultural anthropology. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Colonialism. ... 1855 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... County Dubrovnik–Neretva Area 14 335 km² Location Population 43,770 Mayor Dubravka Å uica Official website www. ... Naples (Italian Napoli, Neapolitan Nàpule, from Greek Νέα Πόλις - Néa Pólis - meaning New City; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is the largest city in southern Italy and capital of Campania Region and the Province of Naples. ... The Two Sicilies The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies was the new name that the Bourbon king Ferdinand IV of Naples gave to his domain (including Southern Italy and Sicily) after the end of the Napoleonic Era and the full restoration of his power in 1816. ... The Croatian literary language is based on the Latin alphabet. ... Milan ReÅ¡etar (February 1, 1860, Dubrovnik – January 14, 1942, Florence) was а Serbian slavist, linguist and historian. ...

The language is highly Italianized. As has been mentioned above, the literati generally borrow forgotten words from modern (ijekavian - the dialect is ikavian) Croatian, but the obligatory Italian translations are seen to follow these words in print. It also retains many archaic features. As the colony was established before the discovery of America, all the names of animals and plants introduced from the Americas are borrowed from Italian or created from whole cloth. An intellectual is a person who uses his or her intellect to study, reflect, and speculate on a variety of different ideas. ... Shtokavian (Štokavian, štokavski/штокавски) is the primary dialect of the Central South Slavic languages system, Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian language. ... Adjective archaic (more archaic, most archaic) From an earlier period and no longer in common use; of or characterized by antiquity or archaism, antiquated. ... World map showing the Americas The Americas commonly refers to the lands of the Western hemisphere, consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ...

The language is taught in primary schools and the signs in villages are bilingual. Primary or elementary education is the first years of formal, structured education that occurs during childhood. ... The term bilingualism (from bi meaning two and lingua meaning language) can refer to rather different phenomena. ...


An outline of features

  • The analytic do + genitive replaces the synthetic independent genitive.
  • do superseded od.
  • Slavic verb aspect is preserved, except in the past tense imperfective verbs are attested only in the Slavic imperfect tense (bihu, they were), and perfective verbs only in the perfect tense (je izaša, he came out). There is no colloquial imperfect in the modern West South Slavic languages.
  • Slavic conjunctions superseded by Italian or local ones: ke (Cr. što, what, also ke - Cr. da, that); e, (Cr i, and); ma (Cr. ali, no, but); si (Cr. ako, if).
  • An indefinite article is in regular use: na, often written 'na.
  • Structural changes in genders. Notably, njevog does not agree with the possessor's gender (Cr. njegov or njen, his or her).
  • The perfective enclitic is tightly bound to the verb and always stands before it: je izaša (Cr. facul. je izašao or izašao je).

In linguistics, grammatical aspect is a property of a verb that defines the nature of temporal flow (or lack thereof) in the described event or state. ... The imperfect tense, in the classical grammar of several Indo-European languages, denotes a past tense with an imperfective aspect. ... The perfect tenses are verb tenses showing actions completed at or before a specific time. ...


A sentence from Matteo Ferrante's "Dva Kumovlja": "'Na dan je se usta e, umjesto za se nabučit' kako druge istre e poći van za kopat' trsje, je se vrga 'nu bilu košulju,..."

  • Croatian umjesto, instead of;
  • Literary Croatian bijel, white.

An anonymous poem (reprinted in Hrvatske Novine: Tajednik Gradišćanskih Hrvatov, winner of a competition in Molise):

Mo prosič solite saki dan
ma što činiš, ne govoreš maj
je funia dan, je počela noča,
maneštra se mrzli za te čeka.
Letu vlase e tvoja mat
gleda vane za te vit.
Boli život za sta zgoro,
ma samo mat te hoče dobro.
Sin moj!
Nimam već suze za još plaka
nimam već riče za govorat.
Srce se guli za te misli
što ti prodava, oni ke sve te išće!
Palako govoru, čelkadi saki dan,
ke je dola droga na vi grad.
Sin moj!
Tvoje oč, bihu toko lipe,
sada jesu mrtve,
Boga ja molim, da ti živiš
droga ja hočem da ti zabiš,
doma te čekam, ke se vrniš,
Solite ke mi prosiš,
kupiš paradis, ma smrtu platiš.

See also

Molise Croats are Croatian subgroup, found in the Molise region of Italy. ...

External links



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