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Encyclopedia > Molecular biology

Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level. The field overlaps with other areas of biology and chemistry, particularly genetics and biochemistry. Molecular biology chiefly concerns itself with understanding the interactions between the various systems of a cell, including the interrelationship of DNA, RNA and protein biosynthesis and learning how these interactions are regulated. Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, knowledge), also referred to as the biological sciences, is the study of living organisms utilizing the scientific method. ... In science, a molecule is the smallest particle of a pure chemical substance that still retains its chemical composition and properties. ... Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, knowledge), also referred to as the biological sciences, is the study of living organisms utilizing the scientific method. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... This article is about the general scientific term. ... Biochemistry is the study of the chemical processes in living organisms. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... Ribonucleic acid or RNA is a nucleic acid polymer consisting of nucleotide monomers that plays several important roles in the processes that translate genetic information from deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) into protein products; RNA acts as a messenger between DNA and the protein synthesis complexes known as ribosomes, forms vital portions... An overview of protein synthesis. ...


Writing in Nature, William Astbury described molecular biology as: Nature is a prominent scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869. ... William Astbury (1898-1961) was an English biochemist who made X-ray diffraction studies of nucleic acid in 1937. ...

"... not so much a technique as an approach, an approach from the viewpoint of the so-called basic sciences with the leading idea of searching below the large-scale manifestations of classical biology for the corresponding molecular plan. It is concerned particularly with the forms of biological molecules and ..... is predominantly three-dimensional and structural - which does not mean, however, that it is merely a refinement of morphology - it must at the same time inquire into genesis and function." [1]

Contents

Relationship to other "molecular-scale" biological sciences

Schematic relationship between biochemistry, genetics and molecular biology
Schematic relationship between biochemistry, genetics and molecular biology

Researchers in molecular biology use specific techniques native to molecular biology (see Techniques section later in article), but increasingly combine these with techniques and ideas from genetics and biochemistry. There is not a hard-line between these disciplines as there once was. The following figure is a schematic that depicts one possible view of the relationship between the fields: Image File history File links Schematic_relationship_between_biochemistry,_genetics_and_molecular_biology. ... Image File history File links Schematic_relationship_between_biochemistry,_genetics_and_molecular_biology. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ... Biochemistry is the study of the chemical processes in living organisms. ...

  • Biochemistry is the study of the chemical substances and vital processes occurring in living organisms.
  • Genetics is the study of the effect of genetic differences on organisms. Often this can be inferred by the absence of a normal component (e.g. one gene). The study of "mutants" – organisms which lack one or more functional components with respect to the so-called "wild type" or normal phenotype. Genetic interactions such as epistasis can often confound simple interpretations of such "knock-out" studies.
  • Molecular biology is the study of molecular underpinnings of the process of replication, transcription and translation of the genetic material. The central dogma of molecular biology where genetic material is transcribed into RNA and then translated into protein, despite being an oversimplified picture of molecular biology, still provides a good starting point for understanding the field. This picture, however, is undergoing revision in light of emerging novel roles for RNA.

Much of the work in molecular biology is quantitative, and recently much work has been done at the interface of molecular biology and computer science in bioinformatics and computational biology. As of the early 2000s, the study of gene structure and function, molecular genetics, has been amongst the most prominent sub-field of molecular biology. “Life on Earth” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Gene (disambiguation). ... This article is about biological mutants. ... In biology, a wild type is one of the major genotypes of a species that occur in nature, in contrast to induced mutations or artificial cross-breeding. ... Individuals in the mollusk species Donax variabilis show diverse coloration and patterning in their phenotypes. ... Genetic interactions, in genetics, are interactions that occur between two or more mutations that results in a new phenotype. ... Epistasis takes place when the action of one gene is modified by one or more others that assort somewhat independently. ... It has been suggested that DNA replicate, Replisome, Replication fork, Lagging strand, Leading strand be merged into this article or section. ... A micrograph of ongoing gene transcription of ribosomal RNA illustrating the growing primary transcripts. ... Translation is the second process of protein biosynthesis (part of the overall process of gene expression). ... Genetic material is used to store the genetic information of an organic life form. ... Information flow in biological systems The central dogma of molecular biology was first enunciated by Francis Crick in 1958[1] and re-stated in a Nature paper published in 1970:[2] POSTLEWAITE IS A TOOL The central dogma of molecular biology deals with the detailed residue-by-residue transfer of... Ribonucleic acid or RNA is a nucleic acid polymer consisting of nucleotide monomers that plays several important roles in the processes that translate genetic information from deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) into protein products; RNA acts as a messenger between DNA and the protein synthesis complexes known as ribosomes, forms vital portions... Map of the human X chromosome (from the NCBI website). ... Computational biology is an interdisciplinary field that applies the techniques of computer science and applied mathematics to problems inspired by biology. ... Molecular genetics is the field of biology which studies the structure and function of genes at a molecular level. ...


Increasingly many other fields of biology focus on molecules, either directly studying their interactions in their own right such as in cell biology and developmental biology, or indirectly, where the techniques of molecular biology are used to infer historical attributes of populations or species, as in fields in evolutionary biology such as population genetics and phylogenetics. There is also a long tradition of studying biomolecules "from the ground up" in biophysics. Cell biology (also called cellular biology or formerly cytology, from the Greek kytos, container) is an academic discipline that studies cells. ... Views of a Foetus in the Womb, Leonardo da Vinci, ca. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... Population genetics is the study of the distribution of and change in allele frequencies under the influence of the four evolutionary forces: natural selection, genetic drift, mutation, and migration. ... Phylogenetic groups, or taxa, can be monophyletic, paraphyletic, or polyphyletic. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Biophysics (also biological physics) is an interdisciplinary science that applies the theories and methods of physics, to questions of biology. ...


Techniques of molecular biology

Since the late 1950s and early 1960s, molecular biologists have learned to characterize, isolate, and manipulate the molecular components of cells and organisms. These components include DNA, the repository of genetic information; RNA, a close relative of DNA whose functions range from serving as a temporary working copy of DNA to actual structural and enzymatic functions as well as a functional and structural part of the translational apparatus; and proteins, the major structural and enzymatic type of molecule in cells. The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... Ribonucleic acid or RNA is a nucleic acid polymer consisting of nucleotide monomers that plays several important roles in the processes that translate genetic information from deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) into protein products; RNA acts as a messenger between DNA and the protein synthesis complexes known as ribosomes, forms vital portions... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... 3D (left and center) and 2D (right) representations of the terpenoid molecule atisane. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the...


Expression cloning

Main article: Expression cloning

One of the most basic techniques of molecular biology to study protein function is expression cloning. In this technique, DNA coding for a protein of interest is cloned (using PCR and/or restriction enzymes) into a plasmid (known as an expression vector). This plasmid may have special promoter elements to drive production of the protein of interest, and may also have antibiotic resistance markers to help follow the plasmid. There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Molecular cloning refers to the procedure of isolating a defined DNA sequence and obtaining multiple copies of it in vivo. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... A restriction enzyme (or restriction endonuclease) is an enzyme that cuts double-stranded DNA. The enzyme makes two incisions, one through each of the sugar-phosphate backbones (i. ... Figure 1: Illustration of a bacterium with plasmids enclosed showing chromosomal DNA and plasmids. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A promoter is a regulatory region of DNA located upstream (towards the 5 region) of a gene, providing a control point for regulated gene transcription. ... Antibiotic resistance is the ability of a micro-organism to withstand the effects of an antibiotic. ... A selectable marker is a gene introduced into a cell, especially a bacterium or to cells in culture, that confers a trait suitable for artificial selection. ...


This plasmid can be inserted into either bacterial or animal cells. Introducing DNA into bacterial cells is called transformation, and can be completed with several methods, including electroporation, microinjection, passive uptake and conjugation. Introducing DNA into eukaryotic cells, such as animal cells, is called transfection. Several different transfection techniques are available, including calcium phosphate transfection, liposome transfection, and proprietary transfection reagents such as Fugene. DNA can also be introduced into cells using viruses or pathenogenic bacteria as carriers. In such cases, the technique is called viral/bacterial transduction, and the cells are said to be transduced. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Transfection. ... Electroporation, or electropermeabilization, is a significant increase in the electrical conductivity and permeability of the cell plasma membrane caused by externally applied electrical field. ... Microinjection refers to the process of using a micro needle to insert substances at a microscopic or borderline macroscopic level into a single living cell. ... Bacterial conjugation is the transfer of genetic material between bacteria through cell-to-cell contact. ... Kingdoms Animalia - Animals Fungi Plantae - Plants Chromalveolata Protista Alternative phylogeny Unikonta Opisthokonta Metazoa Choanozoa Eumycota Amoebozoa Bikonta Apusozoa Cabozoa Rhizaria Excavata Corticata Archaeplastida Chromalveolata Animals, plants, fungi, and protists are eukaryotes (IPA: ), organisms whose cells are organized into complex structures by internal membranes and a cytoskeleton. ... Liposome transfection is a technique used to inject genetic material into a cell by means of liposomes which are vesicles that can easily merge with the cell membrane since they are both made of a phospholipid bilayer. ... Species Agrobacterium tumefaciens Agrobacterium rhizogenes áAgrobacterium is a genus of bacteria that causes tumors in plants. ... Transduction is the process by which bacterial DNA is moved from one bacterium to another by a virus. ...


In either case, DNA coding for a protein of interest is now inside a cell, and the protein can now be expressed. A variety of systems, such as inducible promoters and specific cell-signaling factors, are available to help express the protein of interest at high levels. Large quantities of a protein can then be extracted from the bacterial or eukaryotic cell. The protein can be tested for enzymatic activity under a variety of situations, the protein may be crystallized so its tertiary structure can be studied, or, in the pharmaceutical industry, the activity of new drugs against the protein can be studied. In biochemistry, the tertiary structure of a protein is its overall shape. ...


Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

The polymerase chain reaction is an extremely versatile technique for copying DNA. In brief, PCR allows a single DNA sequence to be copied (millions of times), or altered in predetermined ways. For example, PCR can be used to introduce restriction enzyme sites, or to mutate (change) particular bases of DNA. PCR can also be used to determine whether a particular DNA fragment is found in a cDNA library. PCR has many variations, like reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) for amplification of RNA, and, more recently, real-time PCR (qPCR) which allow for quantitative measurement of DNA or RNA molecules. “PCR” redirects here. ... “PCR” redirects here. ... In genetics, complementary DNA (cDNA) is single-stranded DNA synthesized from a mature mRNA template. ... In molecular biology, a library is a collection of molecules in a stable form that represents some aspect of an organism. ... RT-PCR (Reverse Transcription-PCR) is a modification of PCR in which an RNA strand is first reverse transcribed into its DNA complement or cDNA, followed by amplification of the resulting DNA using PCR. This can either be a 1 or 2 step process. ... Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) is a modification of polymerase chain reaction used to rapidly measure the quantity of a product of polymerase chain reaction. ...


Gel electrophoresis

Main article: Gel electrophoresis

Gel electrophoresis is one of the principal tools of molecular biology. The basic principle is that DNA, RNA, and proteins can all be separated using an electric field. In agarose gel electrophoresis, DNA and RNA can be separated based on size by running the DNA through an agarose gel. Proteins can be separated based on size using an SDS-PAGE gel, or by size and their electric charge, using what is known as a 2d gel. Gel electrophoresis is a technique used for the separation of deoxyribonucleic acid, ribonucleic acid, or protein molecules through an electric charge. ... Digital image of 3 plasmid restriction digests run on a 1% w/v agarose gel, 3 Volts/cm, stained with ethidium bromide. ... Electric charge is a fundamental conserved property of some subatomic particles, which determines their electromagnetic interaction. ... Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, commonly abbreviated as 2-DE or 2-D electrophoresis, is a form of gel electrophoresis commonly used to analyze proteins. ...


Southern blotting

Main article: Southern blot

Named after its inventor, biologist Edwin Southern, the Southern blot is a method for probing for the presence of a specific DNA sequence within a DNA sample. DNA samples before or after restriction enzyme digestion are separated by gel electrophoresis and then transferred to a membrane by blotting via capillary action. The membrane can then be probed using a DNA probe labeled using a complement of the sequence of interest. Most original protocols used radioactive labels, however now non-radioactive alternatives are available. Southern blotting is less commonly used in laboratory science due to the capacity of using PCR to detect specific DNA sequences from DNA samples. However, these blots are still used for some applications, such as measuring transgene copy number in transgenic mice, or in the engineering of gene knockout embryonic stem cell lines. A Southern blot is a method routinely used in molecular biology to check for the presence of a DNA sequence in a DNA sample. ... Sir Edwin Southern (born 1938) is a 2005 Lasker Award-winning molecular biologist. ... A Southern blot is a method routinely used in molecular biology to check for the presence of a DNA sequence in a DNA sample. ... A restriction enzyme (or restriction endonuclease) is an enzyme that cuts double-stranded DNA. The enzyme makes two incisions, one through each of the sugar-phosphate backbones (i. ... Capillary action, capillarity, or capillary motion is the ability of a substance (the standard reference is to a tube in plants but can be seen readily with porous paper) to draw a substance up against gravity. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... A transgene is a gene or genetic material which has been transferred by any of a number of genetic engineering techniques from one organism to another. ... GloFish: the first genetically modified animal to be sold as a pet. ... A gene knockout is a genetically engineered organism that carries one or more genes in its chromosomes that has been made inoperative. ... A stem cell line is a family of constantly-dividing cells, the product of a single parent group of stem cells. ...


Northern blotting

Main article: Northern blot

The Northern blot is used to study the expression patterns a specific type of RNA molecule as relative comparison among of a set of different samples of RNA. It is essentially a combination of denaturing RNA gel electrophoresis, and a blot. In this process RNA is separated based on size and is then transferred to a membrane that is then probed with a labeled complement of a sequence of interest. The results may be visualized through a variety of ways depending on the label used, however, most result in the revelation of bands representing the sizes of the RNA detected in sample. The intensity of these bands is related to the amount of the target RNA in the samples analyzed. The procedure is commonly used to study when and how much gene expression is occurring by measuring how much of that RNA is present in different samples. It is one of the most basic tools for determining at what time, and under what conditions, certain genes are expressed in living tissues. The northern blot is a technique used in molecular biology research to study gene expression. ... The northern blot is a technique used in molecular biology research to study gene expression. ... A denaturing gel is a type of electrophoresis in which the native structure of macromolecules that are run within the gel is not maintained. ... In molecular biology and genetics, a blot is a method of transferring proteins, DNA or RNA, onto a carrier (for example, a nitrocellulose PVDF or nylon membrane). ... On the left: nucleotides that forms the DNA and their complementary. ...


Western blotting

Main article: western blot

Antibodies to most proteins can be created by injecting small amounts of the protein into an animal such as a mouse, rabbit, sheep, or donkey (polyclonal antibodies)or produced in cell culture (monoclonal antibodies). These antibodies can be used for a variety of analytical and preparative techniques. A Western blot. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Polyclonal antibodies are antibodies that are derived from different B-cell lines. ... Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) are antibodies that are identical because they were produced by one type of immune cell, all clones of a single parent cell. ...


In western blotting, proteins are first separated by size, in a thin gel sandwiched between two glass plates in a technique known as SDS-PAGE (sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis). The proteins in the gel are then transferred to a PVDF, nitrocellulose, nylon or other support membrane. This membrane can then be probed with solutions of antibodies. Antibodies that specifically bind to the protein of interest can then be visualized by a variety of techniques, including coloured products, chemiluminescence, or autoradiography. A Western blot. ... Picture of an SDS-PAGE. The molecular marker is in the left lane SDS-PAGE stands for Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis. ... Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS or NaDS) (CH3(CH2)11OSO3Na) (FW 288. ... A chemoluminescent reaction carried out in an erlenmeyer flask producing a large amount of light. ... An autoradiograph is an image produced on a photographic film by the radiation from a radioactive substance. ...


Analogous methods to western blotting can also be used to directly stain specific proteins in cells and tissue sections. However, these immunostaining methods are typically more associated with cell biology than molecular biology. Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... Biological tissue is a collection of interconnected cells that perform a similar function within an organism. ... Immunostaining is a general term in biochemistry that applies to any use of an antibody-based method to detect a specific protein in a sample. ... Cell biology (also called cellular biology or formerly cytology, from the Greek kytos, container) is an academic discipline that studies cells. ...


The terms "western" and "northern" are jokes: The first blots were with DNA, and since they were done by Ed Southern, they came to be known as Southerns. Patricia Thomas, inventor of the RNA blot, which became known as a "northern", actually didn't use the term. [2]. To carry the joke further, one can find reference in the literature [1] to "southwesterns" (Protein-DNA interactions) and "farwesterns" (Protein-Protein interactions).


Arrays

Main article: DNA microarray

A DNA array is a collection of spots attached to a solid support such as a microscope slide; each spot contains one or more DNA oligonucleotides. Arrays make it possible to put down a large number of very small (100 micrometre diameter) spots on a single slide; if each spot has a DNA molecule that is complementary to a single gene (similar to Southern blotting), one can analyze the expression of every gene in an organism in a single experiment. For instance, the common baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, contains about 7000 genes; with a microarray, one can measure quantitatively, how each gene is expressed, and how that expression changes, for example, with a change in temperature. There are many different ways to fabricate microarrays; the most common are silicon chips, microscope slides with spots of ~ 100 micrometre diameter, custom arrays, and arrays with larger spots on porous membranes (macroarrays). It has been suggested that Gene chip technology be merged into this article or section. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... Wikibooks Transwiki has more about this subject: Microscope slide Microscope slides and cover slips. ... Oligonucleotides are short sequences of nucleotides (RNA or DNA), typically with twenty or fewer bases. ... For other uses, see Gene (disambiguation). ... Gene expression, or simply expression, is the process by which the inheritable information which comprises a gene, such as the DNA sequence, is made manifest as a physical and biologically functional gene product, such as protein or RNA. Several steps in the gene expression process may be modulated, including the... Typical divisions Ascomycota (sac fungi) Saccharomycotina (true yeasts) Taphrinomycotina Schizosaccharomycetes (fission yeasts) Basidiomycota (club fungi) Urediniomycetes Sporidiales Yeasts are a growth form of eukaryotic microorganisms classified in the kingdom Fungi, with approximately 1,500 species described. ... Binomial name Meyen ex E.C. Hansen Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a species of budding yeast. ...


Arrays can also be made with molecules other than DNA. For example, an antibody array can be used to determine what proteins or bacteria are present in a blood sample. Each antibody binds to a specific antigen; an interaction similar to a lock and key. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ...


Abandoned technology

As new procedures and technology become available, the older technology is rapidly abandoned. A good example is methods for determining the size of DNA molecules. Prior to gel electrophoresis (agarose or polyacrylamide) DNA was sized with rate sedimentation in sucrose gradients, a slow and labor intensive technology requiring expensive instrumentation; prior to sucrose gradients, viscometry was used. Gel electrophoresis is a technique used for the separation of deoxyribonucleic acid, ribonucleic acid, or protein molecules through an electric charge. ... Digital image of 3 plasmid restriction digests run on a 1% w/v agarose gel, 3 Volts/cm, stained with ethidium bromide. ... Picture of an SDS-PAGE. The molecular marker is in the left lane SDS-PAGE stands for Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis. ... Sedimentation describes the motion of particles in solutions or suspensions in response to an external force such as gravity, centrifugal force or electric force. ... Sucrose gradient centrifugation is a type of centrifugation often used to purify enveloped viruses (with densities 1. ... The basis for determination of molecular weight according to the Staudinger method (since replaced by the more general Mark-Houwink equation) is the fact that relative viscosity of suspensions depends on volumetric proportion of solid particles. ...


Aside from their historical interest, it is worth knowing about older technology as it may be useful to solve a particular problem.


History

Molecular biology was established in the 1930s, the term was first coined by Warren Weaver in 1938 however. Warren was director of Natural Sciences for the Rockefeller Foundation at the time and believed that biology was about to undergo a period of significant change given recent advances in fields such as X-ray crystallography. He therefore channeled significant amounts of (Rockefeller Institute) money into biological fields. The history of molecular biology begins in the 1930s with the convergence of various, previously distinct biological disciplines: biochemistry, genetics, microbiology, and virology. ... Warren Weaver is an author of the well-known work on communication, The Mathematical Theory of Communication (together with Claude Shannon). ... The Rockefeller Foundation (RF) is a prominent philanthropic organization based at 420 Fifth Avenue, New York City. ... X-ray crystallography, also known as single-crystal X-ray diffraction, is the oldest and most common crystallographic method for determining the structure of molecules. ...


See also

Cell biology (also called cellular biology or formerly cytology, from the Greek kytos, container) is an academic discipline that studies cells. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... Figure 1: A representation of a condensed eukaryotic chromosome, as seen during cell division. ... An overview of protein synthesis. ... Ribonucleic acid or RNA is a nucleic acid polymer consisting of nucleotide monomers that plays several important roles in the processes that translate genetic information from deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) into protein products; RNA acts as a messenger between DNA and the protein synthesis complexes known as ribosomes, forms vital portions... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This is a list of topics in molecular biology. ... The term proteome was coined by Mark Wilkins in 1995 (1) and is used to describe the entire complement of proteins in a given biological organism or system at a given time, i. ... The Molecular Biology Core Facilities (MBCF) was created to allow Investigators at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (DFCI) access to cutting edge molecular biology tools which would be tested and developed in a shared setting. ... Inborn errors of metabolism are a large group of rare but often serious metabolic disorders that generally arise from deficiency or malfunction of enzymes that regulate conversion of various substances into others. ...

Notable molecular biologists

Francis Harry Compton Crick OM FRS (8 June 1916 – 28 July 2004) was an English molecular biologist, physicist, and neuroscientist, who is most noted for being one of the co-discoverers of the structure of the DNA molecule in 1953. ... James Dewey Watson (born April 6, 1928) is an American molecular biologist, best known as one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA. Watson, Francis Crick, and Maurice Wilkins were awarded the 1962 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic... Erwin Chargaff (August 11, 1905 – June 20, 2002) was an Austrian biochemist who emigrated to the United States during the Nazi era. ... Rosalind Elsie Franklin (25 July 1920 – -16 April 1958) was an English biophysicist and crystallographer who made important contributions to the understanding of the fine structures of DNA, viruses, coal and graphite. ... François Jacob (born June 17, 1920) is a French biologist, who together with Jacques Monod, originated the idea that control of enzyme levels in all cells happens through feedback on transcription. ... Dr. Matthew Stanley Meselson (born 1930) is an American geneticist and molecular biologist whose research was important in showing how DNA replicates, recombines and is repaired in cells. ... Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard (born October 20, 1942 in Magdeburg) is a German biologist who won the Albert Lasker Award for Basic Medical Research in 1991 and the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1995, together with Eric Wieschaus and Edward B. Lewis, for their research on the genetic... Linus Carl Pauling (February 28, 1901 – August 19, 1994) was an American quantum chemist and biochemist. ... Max Ferdinand Perutz, OM (May 19, 1914 – February 6, 2002) was an Austrian-British molecular biologist. ... Dr Frederick Sanger, OM, CH, CBE, FRS (born 13 August 1918) is an English biochemist and a two times Nobel laureate in chemistry. ... Dr. Franklin William Stahl (born October 8, 1929) is an American molecular biologist. ... Susumu Tonegawa (利根川 進 Tonegawa Susumu, born September 6, 1939) is a Japanese scientist who won the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1987 for his discovery of the genetic principle for generation of antibody diversity. ... James Dewey Watson (born April 6, 1928) is an American molecular biologist, best known as one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA. Watson, Francis Crick, and Maurice Wilkins were awarded the 1962 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic... Francis Harry Compton Crick OM FRS (8 June 1916 – 28 July 2004) was an English molecular biologist, physicist, and neuroscientist, who is most noted for being one of the co-discoverers of the structure of the DNA molecule in 1953. ... Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins CBE FRS (15 December 1916 – 5 October 2004) was a New Zealand-born British molecular biologist, and Nobel Laureate who contributed research in the fields of phosphorescence, radar, isotope separation, and X-ray diffraction. ... Alexander Rich, MD (American; born 1925) is a biologist and biophysicist. ... Reiji Okazaki (岡崎令治 Okazaki Reiji, 1930 – 1975) was a Japanese molecular biologist known for his research in the DNA replication and the discovery of Okazaki fragments. ... Elizabeth (Liz) H(elen) Blackburn (November 26, 1948 - ) is a professor of biology and leading researcher in the field of the telomere and the telomerase enzyme, and their relationships to aging and cancer. ...

Notes

  1. ^ W.T. Astbury, Nature 190, 1124 (1961)
  2. ^ Patricia S. Thomas, Hybridization of Denatured RNA and Small DNA Fragments Transferred to Nitrocellulose PNAS 1980; 77: 5201-5205

Nature is a prominent scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869. ... The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, usually referred to as PNAS, is the official journal of the United States National Academy of Sciences. ...

References

  • Cohen, S.N., Chang, A.C.Y., Boyer, H. & Heling, R.B. Construction of biologically functional bacterial plasmids in vitro. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 70, 3240 – 3244 (1973).
  • Rodgers, M. The Pandora's box congress. Rolling Stone 189, 37 – 77 (1975).

The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, usually referred to as PNAS, is the official journal of the United States National Academy of Sciences. ...

Further reading

  • Keith Roberts, Martin Raff, Bruce Alberts, Peter Walter, Julian Lewis and Alexander Johnson, Molecular Biology of the Cell
  • 4th Edition, Routledge, March, 2002, hardcover, 1616 pages, 7.6 pounds, ISBN 0-8153-3218-1
  • 3th Edition, Garland, 1994, ISBN 0-8153-1620-8
  • 2nd Edition, Garland, 1989, ISBN 0-8240-3695-6

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Molecular Biology (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) (13031 words)
Molecular biology's classical period began in 1953, with James Watson and Francis Crick's discovery of the double helical structure of DNA (Watson and Crick 1953a, 1953b).
Another usage of “molecular genetics” is to refer to any study of genetics at the molecular level, that is any study of the molecular biology of the gene, such as in the new genomic studies.
Judson, Horace Freeland (1980), “Reflections on the Historiography of Molecular Biology”, Minerva 18: 369-421.
The Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Molecular Biology (BMMB) -- University of Maine (221 words)
Molecular and cellular biology has evolved in recent years as a response to the increased ability to study organisms at the molecular level.
This discipline involves the systematic study of the molecular and structural basis for the organization, transmission and expression of genetic information, in addition to the general study of macromolecular systems involved in the structure of DNA and molecular genetics including gene cloning, sequencing, and mapping.
Requirements for the Bachelor of Science degree in Molecular and Cellular Biology at the University of Maine are satisfied with completion of at least 120 degree hours with a cumulative grade point average of at least 2.0 overall in courses of the major.
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