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Encyclopedia > Moldovan language

Eastern Romance languages Map of Balkans with regions inhabited by Romanians/Vlachs highlighted The Eastern Romance languages are a group of Romance languages that developed in Southeastern Europe from the local eastern variant of Vulgar Latin. ...

Vulgar Latin language
Substratum

Daco-Romanian (Romanian, Moldovan, Vlach)
Grammar | Nouns | Verbs
Numbers | Phonology | Lexis
Regulating bodies

Aromanian

Megleno-Romanian

Istro-Romanian

Moldovan (also Moldavian) is the official name for the Romanian language in the Republic of Moldova and in its breakaway territory of Transnistria.[1][2][3] The Constitution of Moldova (Title I, Article 13) states that the Moldovan language is the official language of the country.[4] In Moldova's Declaration of Independence the same language is called Romanian[5]. Linguists consider standard Moldovan to be identical to standard Romanian, and many Moldovan officials and official bodies do or have done so as well.[6] Vulgar Latin, as in this political graffito at Pompeii, was the speech of ordinary people of the Roman Empire — different from the classical Latin used by the Roman elite. ... The Eastern Romance languages contain around 300 words considered by many linguists to be of substratum origin [1]. Including place-names and river-names, and most of the forms labelled as being of unknown etymology, the number of the substratum elements in Eastern Romance may surpass 500 basic roots. ... Daco-Romanian (Romanian: limba dacoromânÇŽ, Latin: lingua Daco-Romana) is the term used to identify the Romanian language in contexts where distinction needs to be made between the various Eastern Romance languages or dialects (Daco-Romanian, Aromanian, Istro-Romanian, and Megleno-Romanian). ... Romanian (limba română, IPA: ) is a Romance language spoken by around 24 to 28 million people[1], primarily in Romania and Moldova. ... Romanian (technically called Daco-Romanian) shares practically the same grammar and most of the vocabulary and phonological processes with the other three surviving Eastern Romance languages: Aromanian, Megleno-Romanian, and Istro-Romanian. ... This article is actively undergoing a major edit. ... This article is actively undergoing a major edit for a short while. ... The Romanian numbers are the system of number names used in Romanian to express counts, quantities, ranks in ordered sets, fractions, multiplication, and other information related to numbers. ... The Romanian language has seven vowels and twenty-two consonants, including two semivowels, and . ... The lexis of the Romanian language (or Daco-Romanian), a Romance language, has changed over the centuries as the language evolved from Vulgar Latin, to Proto-Romanian, to medieval, modern and contemporary Romanian. ... The Romanian Academy (Romanian: Academia Română) is a cultural forum founded in Romania in 1866. ... Academy of Sciences of Moldova (romanian Academia de ÅžtiinÅ£e a Moldovei) is the main scientific centre of the Republic of Moldova, which coordinates research in all areas of science and technology. ... Aromanian (also known as Macedo-Romanian, Arumanian or Vlach in most other countries; in Aromanian: limba armãneascã, armãneshce or armãneashti) is an Eastern Romance language spoken in Southeastern Europe. ... Megleno-Romanian (known as VlăheÅŸte by speakers and Moglenitic, Meglenitic or Megleno-Romanian by linguists) is a Romance language, similar to Aromanian, and Romanian spoken in the Moglená region of Greece, in a few villages in the Republic of Macedonia and also in a few villages in Romania. ... Istro-Romanian is a Romance language - more specifically, an Eastern Romannce language - that is today still spoken in a few villages in the peninsula of Istria, on the northern part of the Adriatic Sea, in what is now Croatia, but which was spoken in a substantially broader part of the... Romanian (limba română, IPA: ) is a Romance language spoken by around 24 to 28 million people[1], primarily in Romania and Moldova. ... For the region during the Second World War, see Transnistria (World War II). ...


"Moldovan" (graiul moldovenesc, in older sources limba moldovenească) can also refer to a northern variety of colloquial Romanian approximately within the territory of the former Principality of Moldavia (now split between Moldova and Romania). There is no particular linguistic break at the Prut River, which divides Moldova from Romania. Moldavian variety is considered one of the five major spoken varieties of Romanian, all five being written identically, but only about half of the speakers of this variety live in Moldova, while the other half live in the neighboring regions of Romania. It has been suggested that Moldavia (historical region) be merged into this article or section. ... Length 953  km Elevation of the source -  m Average discharge -  m³/s Area watershed 27,500  km² Origin  Ukraine Mouth  Danube Basin countries Ukraine, Romania, Moldova The Prut, or Pruth river (Ukrainian: Прут) is 953 km long, originating in the Carpathian Mountains in Ukraine and flowing southeast to join the Danube...


The standard alphabet of the language is the Latin alphabet (currently official in the Republic of Moldova). Between 1940 and 1989, Soviet authorities have imposed the usage of the Cyrillic alphabet. The latter remains currently in use only in breakaway region of Transnistria. Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... The Moldovan alphabet is a Cyrillic alphabet derived from the Russian alphabet and developed for the Romanian / Moldovan language in the Soviet Union in the 1930s. ... For the region during the Second World War, see Transnistria (World War II). ...


Moldavian was assigned code mo in ISO 639-1 and code mol in ISO 639-2 and ISO/DIS 639-3.[7] ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes. ...

Contents

History and politics

See main article: History of the Moldovan language

The history of the Moldovan (Romanian) language in Moldova is closely tied to the region's political status, with long periods of occupation by Russia and the Soviet Union influencing the language's name and (when Cyrillic script was in use) orthography. Major recent developments include the return to a Latin script from Cyrillic in 1989 and several changes in the statutory name of the language used in Moldova, from Moldavian to Romanian and by some individuals back. At one point of particular confusion about identity in the 1990s, all references to geography in the name of the language was dropped, and it was officially known simply as limbul de stat - "The State Language". The history of the Moldovan language refers to the history of the Romanian language in the historical and political regions of Moldova and Transnistria, where due to political reasons its officially called Moldovan. ... The orthography of a language specifies the correct way of writing in that language. ...


Controversy

Major varieties of the Romanian language
Major varieties of the Romanian language

The matter of whether or not Moldovan is a separate language is a contested political issue within and beyond the Republic of Moldova. Image File history File links Romania_Graiuri. ... Image File history File links Romania_Graiuri. ...


The 1989 law on language of the Moldavian SSR, which is still effective in Moldova according to the Constitution,[8] asserts the real existence of "linguistic Moldo-Romanian identity".[9] Title I, Article 13 of the Moldovan Constitution, names it "the national language of the country" (the original Moldovan/Romanian uses the term limba de stat, which literally means the language of the state, or official language, thus avoiding the term national, whose sense is that of ethnicity). In the breakaway region of Transnistria, it is co-official with Ukrainian and Russian. Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... State motto: Пролетарь дин тоате цэриле, униць-вэ! Official language None. ... A national language is a language (or language variant, i. ... In English usage, nationality is the legal relationship between a person and a country. ... For the region during the Second World War, see Transnistria (World War II). ...


Despite the official nomenclature, standard Moldovan is widely considered to be identical to standard Romanian[10]. Writing about "essential differences", Vasile Stati, supporter of Moldovenism, is obliged to concentrate almost exclusively on lexical rather than grammatical differences. Whatever language distinctions may once have existed, these have been decreasing rather than increasing: "... in the main, Moldovan in its standard form was more Romanian by the 1980s than at any point in its history".[11] A standard language (also standard dialect or standardized dialect) is a particular variety of a language that has been given either legal or quasi-legal status. ... Vasile Stati is a Moldovan politician and linguist. ... Moldovenism is the official political ideology in Republic of Moldova claiming a distinct identity for the Moldovans from the Romanians. ...


In 2002, the Moldovan Minister of Justice, Ion Morei, said that Romanian and Moldovan are the same language and that the Constitution of Moldova should be amended, not necessarily by changing the word Moldovan into Romanian, but by adding that "Romanian and Moldovan are the same language".[12] Education Minister Valentin Beniuc said, "I have stated more than once that the notion of a Moldovan language and a Romanian language reflects the same linguistic phenomenon in essence."[13] The President of Moldova, Vladimir Voronin, acknowledged that the two languages are identical, but said that Moldovans should have the right to call their language "Moldovan".[14] Ion Morei was the Minister of Justice of Moldova between April 19, 2001 and February 12, 2003 in the first cabinet (2001-2005) of Prime Minister Vasile Tarlev. ... Vladimir Nicolae Voronin (born May 25, 1941) is the current President of the Republic of Moldova. ...


The official language of Moldova is regulated by the Academy of Sciences of Moldova, which calls it Romanian. The name Romanian is also used in all schools and universities in Moldova. Academy of Sciences of Moldova (romanian Academia de Ştiinţe a Moldovei) is the main scientific centre of the Republic of Moldova, which coordinates research in all areas of science and technology. ...


In the 2004 census, out of the 3,383,332 people living in Moldova, 16.5% (558,508) chose Romanian as their mother tongue, whereas 60% chose Moldovan. While 40% of all urban Romanian/Moldovan speakers chose Romanian as their mother tongue, in the countryside barely one in seven Romanian/Moldovan speakers indicated Romanian as his mother tongue.[15] The 2004 Republic of Moldova Census was carried October 5–October 12, 2004. ... Cities with at least a million inhabitants in 2006 An urban area is an area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ...


There are, however, few regional differences between the colloquial spoken languages of Moldova and Romania, as might be found within any linguistic territory, and the common speech of areas such as Chişinău or Transnistria can be distinguished from the speech of Iaşi, a Romanian city that is also part of the former Principality of Moldavia, while the difference in the common speech between Iaşi and the capital of Romania Bucharest is even greater. In general, before 1988-89, the less educated, the greater the difference from standard Romanian, and the more words were borrowed ad hoc from Russian into the daily speech. Status Municipality Founded 1436 Area 635 km² Population (2004) 647,513 [1] - density 1,114 inh/km² - rank 1st Localities (total): 35 - cities 7 - communes 12 - unincorporated 16 Mayor Dorin Chirtoacă, since 2007 Council 51 members, since 2007 - Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova 16 - Liberal Party (Moldova... County Status Municipality Mayor Gheorghe Nichita, Social Democratic Party, since 2003 Area 93. ... Nickname: Motto: Patria si Dreptul Meu (My Country and My Right) Location of Bucharest within Romania (in red) Coordinates: , Country County Founded 1459 (first official mentioned) Government  - Mayor Adriean Videanu Area  - City 228 km²  (88 sq mi)  - Metro 238 km² (91. ...


The 1917 poem Limba noastră ("Our language") by Alexei Mateevici has been the national anthem of Moldova since 1994. It does not, however, make any claims relating to whether it is 'Romanian' or 'Moldovan' which is "our language." Limba Noastră has been since 1994 the national anthem of the Republic of Moldova. ... Alexei (or Alexe) Mateevici (March 27, 1888-August 24, 1917) was a Moldavian Romanian poet. ...


Orthography

Between 1940 and 1989, i.e. during the Soviet rule, Cyrillic replaced Latin as the official alphabet in Moldova (then Moldavian SSR). In 1989, Latin replaced Cyrillic in turn, adopting entirely the contemporary orthographic rules of Romanian. However, a short time after that, the Romanian Academy reformed the orthography in order to bring it closer to the standard of the pre-communist era: e.g., the Romanian phoneme previously exclusively transcribed as î (except the derivatives of "român") was to be written â or î, depending on its location in the word; also, the third person plural form of the verb "to be" was to be spelled "sunt" instead of "sînt". The â/î reform had no impact upon the pronunciation (unlike the "sunt/sînt" change). Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... The Moldovan alphabet is a Cyrillic alphabet derived from the Russian alphabet and developed for the Romanian / Moldovan language in the Soviet Union in the 1930s. ... State motto: Пролетарь дин тоате цэриле, униць-вэ! Official language None. ... The Romanian Academy (Romanian: Academia Română) is a cultural forum founded in Romania in 1866. ...


Eventually, with the publication of the "Dicţionarului ortografic al limbii române (ortopepic, morfologic, cu norme de punctuaţie)" by the Moldovan Academy of Sciences (the regulating body of Moldova) in 2000, the recomandation became mandatory in Moldova also.[16] Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ...


The result of this reform is some ambiguity in the orthographic practices of both countries. While in Romania, some popular publications (such as Academia Caţavencu, Cotidianul, Ziarul de Iasi) refused to apply the new rules based on linguistic arguments, in the Republic of Moldova the issue is seen as mirroring a political attitude. In fact, almost all Moldovan newspapers in Romanian opposing the national ideology of the ruling communist party consistently follow the official orthography used in Romania (e.g., Timpul, Jurnal de Chişinău, Ziarul de Gardă, Flux, etc.), while the papers voicing pro-governmental positions (e.g., Moldova Suverană and rarely Comunistul) use a mixed orthography from article to article. December 2004 first page of the Academia CaÅ£avencu Academia CaÅ£avencu (CaÅ£avencu Academy) is a Romanian satirical magazine founded in 1991, famous for its investigations. ... Cotidianul is a Romanian newspaper, published Monday to Saturday in Berliner format. ... The Conservative Party (Partidul Conservator) was between 1880 and 1918 one of Romanias two most important parties, the other one being the Liberal Party. ... flux in science and mathematics. ...


In the countryside, some elderly people might prefer writing in Cyrillic script, while knowing the Latin script nonetheless.[17]


Notes

  1. ^ Kogan Page 2004, p 242
  2. ^ (Romanian) "Concepţia politicii naţionale a Republicii Moldova" at the Moldovan Parliament website:
    "The conception has its starting point in the historical truth, confirmed by the common literary treasure: the Moldovan people and the Romanian people use a common literary form [Editor's note — of the language] (...). Having common origin, disposing of a common basic word hoard, the national Moldovan language and the national Romanian language each maintains its own language name as an identifier of the nation: Moldovan and Romanian."
    ("Concepţia porneşte de la adevărul statornicit istoriceşte şi confirmat de tezaurul literar comun: poporul moldovenesc şi poporul român folosesc o formă literară comună [...]. Avînd originea comună, dispunînd de un fond lexical de bază comun, limba naţională moldovenească şi limba naţională română îşi păstrează fiecare lingvonimul/glotonimul său ca însemn identificator al fiecărei naţiuni: moldovenească şi română.")
  3. ^ A Field Guide to the Main Languages of Europe - Spot that language and how to tell them apart, on the website of the European Comission
  4. ^ From 1989 until 1994 there was a tendency in the official circles to use more the term "Romanian", until the point that from 1992 the term "Moldovan" was no longer in official use. After 1994, "Moldovan" made a come back and was used in some instances. These grew after 2001, but fell back to the pre-2001 levels two years later. Very often officials prefer to use "official language" or "state language" to avoid making a public choice.
  5. ^ (Romanian)Declaraţia de independenţa a Republicii Moldova, Moldova Suverană
  6. ^ Omniglot http://www.omniglot.com/writing/moldovan.htm
  7. ^ SIL International: ISO 639 code sets: Documentation for ISO 639 identifier: mol
  8. ^ Constitution of the Republic of Moldova, Title 7, Article 7: "The law of 1 September 1989 regarding the usage of languages spoken on the territory of the Republic of Moldova remains valid, excepting the points where it contradicts this constitution."
  9. ^ Legea cu privire la funcţionarea limbilor vorbite pe teritoriul RSS Moldoveneşti Nr.3465-XI din 01.09.89 Vestile nr.9/217, 1989 (Law regarding the usage of languages spoken on the territory of the Republic of Moldova): "Moldavian SSR supports the desire of the Moldovans that live across the borders of the Republic, and considering the really existing linguistical Moldo-Romanian identity - of the Romanians that live on the territory of the USSR, of doing their studies and satisfying their cultural needs in their maternal language."
  10. ^ Kogan Page 2004, p 291 ; IHT, 16 June 2000, p. 2 ; Dyer 1999 , 2005
  11. ^ King 2000
  12. ^ Ion Morei: The Moldovan language is identical to the Romanian language, Moldova Azi, 10 September 2002
  13. ^ Din nou fără burse, Jurnal de Chişinău, 25 May 2004
  14. ^ Mediafax interview
  15. ^ National Bureau of Statistics of the Republic of Moldova: Census 2004
  16. ^ Introduction of „Dicţionarului ortografic al limbii române (ortopepic, morfologic, cu norme de punctuaţie)”, published by the Moldovan Academy of Sciences, following the decision of 15 November 2000
  17. ^ Language in Moldova - observations in streets and houses in the Republic of Moldova by Diana Nissler

Type Unicameral President Marian Lupu, PCRM since 2005 Members 101 Political groups (Fractions; Fracţiuni): PCRM, AMN, PPCD, PDM, Independent deputies Last elections 2005 Meeting place Parliament Building, Chişinău Web site www. ... Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ... Moldova Suverenă (ISSN 1104-7) is a Romanian language official newspaper of the Moldovan government which is published daily in Chişinău. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ...

References

  • Dyer, D. (1999). The Romanian Dialect of Moldova: A Study in Language and Politics. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press. (ISBN 0-7734-8037-4)
  • Dyer, Donald Leroy, ed. Studies in Moldovan. New York: Columbia University Press (East European Monographs), 1996. (ISBN 0-88033-351-0)
  • Stati, V.N. Dicţionar moldovenesc-românesc. [=Moldovan-Romanian dictionary.] Chişinău: Tipografia Centrală (Biblioteca Pro Moldova), 2003. (ISBN 9975-78-248-5)
  • Dumbrava, V. (2004). Sprachkonflikt und Sprachbewusstsein in der Republik Moldova: Eine empirische Studie in gemischtethnischen Familien (Sprache, Mehrsprachigkeit und sozialer Wandel). Bern: Peter Lang. (ISBN 3-631-50728-3)
  • Movileanu N. Din istoria Transnistriei (1924-1940), Revista de istorie a Moldovei, 1993, #2.
  • Negru E. Introducerea si interzicerea grafiei latine in R.A.S.S.M, 1999, Revista de istorie a Moldovei, #3-4.
  • (2004). Europe Review 2003/2004. Kogan Page.
  • King, C. The Moldovans: Romania, Russia and the Politics of Culture, Hoover Institution Press, 2000, ISBN 0-8179-9792-X.

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Moldovan language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1069 words)
Moldovan is the official name for the Romanian language in the Republic of Moldova and in the territory of Transnistria.
The Constitution of Moldova declares that the Moldovan language is the official language of the state.
Title I, Article 13 of the Moldovan Constitution, names it "the national language of the country" (the original Moldovan/Romanian uses the term limba de stat, which literally means the language of the state, thus avoiding the term national, whose sense is that of ethnicity).
Romanian language at AllExperts (4726 words)
The introduction of the law concerning the functioning of the languages (September 1989), still effective in Moldova according to the Constitution [2], asserts the linguistic identity between the Romanian language and the Moldovan language.
Romanian is a Romance language, belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European language family, having much in common with languages such as French, Italian, Portuguese and Spanish.
The Dacian language was an Indo-European language spoken by the ancient Dacians.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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