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Encyclopedia > Moldavia
For other uses of "Moldavia" or "Moldova," see Moldova (disambiguation).
Map showing Romania without Moldavia in blue and the territory of the Moldavian Principality (parts inside and outside Romania) in yellow
Map showing Romania without Moldavia in blue and the territory of the Moldavian Principality (parts inside and outside Romania) in yellow

Moldavia (Romanian: Moldova) is a geographical and historical region in South-Eastern Europe, roughly corresponding to the territory of the historic principality of the same name. The latter (an initially independent and later autonomous state) existed from the 14th century to 1859, when it united with Wallachia as the basis of the modern Romanian state; at various times, it included the regions of Bessarabia (with the Budjak) and much of Bukovina. The larger part of Bessarabia is nowadays the independent state of Moldova, while the rest of it and the northern part of Bukovina are territories of Ukraine. Moldova or Moldavia can refer to any of the following: Moldavia - a divided region and former principality, which comprised the Romanian informal region of that name, as well as the regions of Bessarabia, the Hertza region, the Bujak, and Bukovina. ... Image File history File links Moldavia_map. ... Image File history File links Moldavia_map. ... The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). ... A principality is a monarchical feudatory or sovereign state, ruled or reigned over by a Monarch with the title of prince or princess (a synonym is princedom) or (in the widest sense) a Monarch with another title within the generic use of the term prince. ... Map of Romania with Wallachia in yellow. ... 1927 map of Bessarabia from Charles Upson Clarks book Bessarabia (Basarabia in Romanian, Бесарабія in Ukrainian, Бессарабия in Russian, Бесарабия in Bulgarian, Besarabya in Turkish) is a historical term for the geographic entity in Eastern Europe bounded by the Dniester River on the East and the Prut River on the West. ... The fortress of Akkerman / Cetatea Albă (14th century), situated near the city of Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi. ... Bukovina (Ukrainian: , Bukovyna; Romanian: Bucovina; German and Polish: Bukowina; see also other languages) is a historical region on the northern slopes of the northeastern Carpathian Mountains and the adjoining plains. ...

Contents

Geography

Historically, Moldavia extended between the Carpathian Mountains (the historical border with Transylvania) and the Dniester River; the Prut River flowed approximately through its middle from north to south. Lands in Pokuttya and other portions outside of the Carpathians-Dniester area (such as Cetatea de Baltă and Ciceu, both in Transylvania) were at times politically connected with the Moldavian state, but were never considered part of its territory. Romania controls 43% of the former state's territory. Satellite image of the Carpathians. ... Map of Romania with Transylvania in yellow Transylvania (Romanian: or ; Hungarian: ; German: ; Serbian: / Transilvanija or / Erdelj) is a historical region in central and western Romania. ... The river Dniestr (in Polish and Russian; Nistru in Romanian; Дністер, Dnister in Ukrainian; Tyras in Latin; also known as Dniester) is a river in Eastern Europe. ... Length 953  km Elevation of the source -  m Average discharge -  m³/s Area watershed 27,500  km² Origin  Ukraine Mouth  Danube Basin countries Ukraine, Romania, Moldova The Prut, or Pruth river (Ukrainian: Прут) is 953 km long, originating in the Carpathian Mountains in Ukraine and flowing southeast to join the Danube... Pokuttya or Pokuttia (Ukrainian: , Romanian: , Polish: ) is a historical area of Central Europe, between upper Prut and Cheremosh rivers, in modern Ukraine. ... Cetatea de Baltă (hungarian:KüküllÅ‘vár , german: Kockelburg) is a village in Alba County with a 3235 people population. ... County Harghita County Status Commune Mayor József Balló, Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania, since 2004 Population (2002) 2,628 Geographical coordinates Ciceu or Csíkcsicsó (Romanian: ; Hungarian: ) is a commune in Romania, located in Harghita County. ... Map of Romania with Transylvania in yellow Transylvania (Romanian: or ; Hungarian: ; German: ; Serbian: / Transilvanija or / Erdelj) is a historical region in central and western Romania. ...


The Bujak region bordering the Black Sea was incorporated into the principality (and into Bessarabia) in 1392, however it was lost beginning with 1484 to the Ottoman Empire, and, from 1812, together with the rest of Bessarabia, to Imperial Russia (its areas around Bolhrad, Cahul, and Izmail, were part of Moldavia, and then of Romania, between the end of the Crimean War and that of the Romanian War of Independence). NASA satellite image of the Black Sea Map of the Black Sea The Black Sea is an inland sea between southeastern Europe and Anatolia that is actually a distant arm of the Atlantic Ocean by way of the Mediterranean Sea. ... 1927 map of Bessarabia from Charles Upson Clarks book Bessarabia (Basarabia in Romanian, Бесарабія in Ukrainian, Бессарабия in Russian, Бесарабия in Bulgarian, Besarabya in Turkish) is a historical term for the geographic entity in Eastern Europe bounded by the Dniester River on the East and the Prut River on the West. ... Events December 16 - Emperor Go-Kameyama of Japan abdicates in favor of rival claimant Go-Komatsu, ending the nanboku-cho period of competing imperial courts James of Jülich is boiled alive for pretending to be a bishop and ordaining his own priests Korean founder of the Joseon Dynasty General... Events January 25 - Peter Arbues, chief of the Spanish Inquisition, is assassinated when he is praying in the cathedral at Saragossa, Spain July 6 - Portuguese sea captain Diogo Cão finds the mouth of Congo River December 5 - Pope Innocent VIII gives the inquisition a mission to hunt heretics and... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–22 Mehmed VI... For the overture by Tchaikovsky, see 1812 Overture; For the wars, see War of 1812 (USA - United Kingdom) or Patriotic War of 1812 (France - Russia) For the Siberia Airlines plane crashed over the Black Sea on October 4, 2001, see Siberia Airlines Flight 1812 1812 was a leap year starting... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... The coat of arms of Bolhrad Bolhrad (Ukrainian: , Bulgarian: ) is a small city in the Odessa Oblast (province) of south-western Ukraine. ... Cahul is a city and an administrative region in the south of Moldova. ... Izmail or Ismail (Ukrainian: ; Russian: ; Romanian: Ismail), is a town in south-western Ukraine, located near Danube delta in Odessa Oblast (province). ... Combatants Allies: Second French Empire United Kingdom Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Sardinia Russian Empire Bulgarian volunteers Casualties 90,000 French 35,000 Turkish 17,500 British 2,050 Sardinian killed, wounded and died of disease ~134,000 killed, wounded and died of disease The Crimean War (1854–1856) was fought... The Romanian War of Independence was fought in 1877 against the Ottoman Empire. ...


The traditional border between the two Danubian Principalities - Moldavia and Wallachia - roughly coincided with the Milcov River. As a state, Moldavia also controlled a relatively narrow strip of land around Galaţi, which granted it access to the Chilia branch of the Danube. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Map of Romania with Wallachia in yellow. ... The Milcov is a river in eastern Romania. ... County GalaÅ£i County Status County capital Mayor Dumitru Nicolae, Social Democratic Party, since 2000 Area 246. ... The Chilia or Kilia branch is a distributary of the river Danube, that contributes in forming the Danube Delta. ... The Danube (ancient Danuvius, Iranian *dānu, meaning river or stream, ancient Greek Istros) is the longest river in the European Union and Europes second longest river. ...

Administrative map of Romania; counties in Moldavia are shown in red
Administrative map of Romania; counties in Moldavia are shown in red

The Romanian region itself spans over 46,173 km² (19.5% of Romania's territory), and consists of eight counties: Image File history File links Download high resolution version (917x678, 68 KB) This file was made by Bogdan with the help of Xara X and a public domain map from CIA. If you want the vectorial file (in . ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (917x678, 68 KB) This file was made by Bogdan with the help of Xara X and a public domain map from CIA. If you want the vectorial file (in . ... Administrative map of Romania. ...

Its total population is 4,681,555 as of 2002 (21.6% of Romania's population). Most of Moldavia (6 out of 8 counties) is part of the Nord-Est development region, while the two southern counties (Galaţi County and Vrancea County) are in the Sud-Est development region. Bacău (Hungarian: Bákó) is a county (judeÅ£) in the center-east of Romania, in the Moldova region, with its capital city at Bacău. ... Administrative map of Romania with BotoÅŸani county highlighted BotoÅŸani is a Romanian county (JudeÅ£) in the Bukovina region, with the capital city at BotoÅŸani (population: 128,888). ... Facts Development region: Sud-Est Historic region: Moldavia Capital city: GalaÅ£i Population:  â€¢ As of 2002:  â€¢ Population density: 619,556 139/km² Area: 4,466 km² Codes:  â€¢ Car numbers  â€¢ ISO 3166-2:RO GL RO-GL Telephone code: (+40) x36 (1) Web:   County Council Prefecture 1. ... Administrative map of Romania with IaÅŸi county highlighted IaÅŸi is a Romanian county (judeÅ£) in the Moldavia region, with the capital city at IaÅŸi. ... NeamÅ£ is a county (judeÅ£) in the North of Romania, in the Moldova region, with the capital city at Piatra NeamÅ£ (population: 125,050). ... Administrative map of Romania with Suceava county highlighted Suceava is a Romanian county (Judeţ) in the Bukovina region, with the capital city at Suceava (population: 118,670). ... Administrative map of Romania with Vaslui county highlighted Vaslui is a Romanian county (Judeţ) in the Moldovia region, with the capital city at Vaslui (population: 79,658). ... Vrancea is a county (judeÅ£) in the center of Romania in the Moldova region, with the capital city at FocÅŸani (population: 103,219). ... 2002 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nord-Est (North East) is a development region in Romania. ... Sud-Est (South East) is a development region in Romania. ...


The Republic of Moldova has a population of 3,388,000 (2004 census); data for the population of the areas within Ukraine, according to the 2001 census, indicates around 1,539,000 inhabitants. The estimated total for all regions is 9,608,600 people.


Name

Main article: Etymology of Moldova

The original and short-lived reference to the region was Bogdania, after Bogdan I, the founding figure of the principality. The names Moldavia and Moldova are derived from the name of the Moldova River, however the etymology is not known and there are several variants: Moldova was the Romanian name of a medieval principality (Moldavia) which included land in Eastern Romania and the Republic of Moldova and has a controversed etymology. ... Bogdan I is the second founder of the principality of Moldova. ... Moldova river is a river of the Moldavia region of Romania, which rises from the Obcine of Bukovina in Suceava county. ...

  • a legend featured in Cronica Anonimă a Moldovei links it to a wisent (or aurochs) hunting trip of the Maramureş voivode Dragoş, and the latter's chase of a star-marked bull. Dragoş was accompanied by his female hound called Molda; when they reached shores of an unfamiliar river, Molda caught up with the animal and was killed by it. The dog's name would have been given to the river, and extended to the country.
  • the old German Molde, meaning "open-pit mine"
  • the Gothic Mulda meaning "dust", "dirt" (cognate with the English mould), referring to the river.
  • a Slavic etymology (-ova is a quite common Slavic suffix), marking the end of one Slavic genitive form, denoting ownership, chiefly of feminine nouns (i.e.: "that of Molda").
  • a landowner by the name of Alexa Moldaowicz is mentioned in a 1334 document, as a local boyar in service to Yuriy II of Halych; this attests to the use of the name prior to the foundation of the Moldavian state, and could even be the source for the region's name.

In several early references, "Moldavia" is rendered under the composite form Moldo-Wallachia (in the same way Wallachia may appear as Hungro-Wallachia). Ottoman Turkish references to Moldavia included Boğdan Iflak and Boğdan (and occasionally Kara-Boğdan - "Black Bogdania"). See also: Name in other languages. Binomial name Bison bonasus (Linnaeus, 1758) The Wisent or European Bison (Bison bonasus) (IPA: ) is a bison species and the heaviest land animal in Europe. ... Binomial name Bos primigenius Subspecies Bos primigenius primigenius   (Bojanus, 1827) Bos primigenius namadicus   (Falconer, 1859) Bos primigenius mauretanicus   (Thomas, 1881) See Ur (rune) for the rune. ... Map of Romania with MaramureÅŸ region highlighted The MaramureÅŸ region (Hungarian: Máramaros; Latin: Marmatia; Ukrainian: Мармарощина, Marmaroščyna) is in the north of Romania, north of Transylvania along the Tisza River. ... Voivode (as it is spelled in the Oxford English Dictionary), or less commonly voivod, is a Slavic word that originally denoted the principal commander of a military force. ... DragoÅŸ I in a 19th century rendition. ... El Chino, located near Silver City, New Mexico, is an open-pit copper mine Open-pit mining, or opencast mining, refers to a method of extracting rock or minerals from the earth by their removal from an open pit or borrow. ... Gothic is an extinct Germanic language that was spoken by the Goths. ... Moldy cream cheese Molds (British English: moulds) are various fungi that cover surfaces as fluffy mycelium and usually produce masses of asexual, sometimes sexual spores. ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... Events Births January 4 - Amadeus VI of Savoy, Count of Savoy (died 1383) January 13 - King Henry II of Castile (died 1379) May 25 - Emperor Suko of Japan, third of the Northern Ashikaga Pretenders (died 1398) August 30 - King Peter I of Castile (died 1369) James I of Cyprus (died... A boyar (also spelled bojar) or bolyarin was a member of the highest rank of the feudal Russian, Romanian and Bulgarian aristocracy, second only to the ruling princes, from the tenth through the seventeenth century. ... George II, Prince of Halych, Polish BolesÅ‚aw Jerzy II Mazowiecki (Boleslaus George II of Masovia, also known as Yuriy II of Halicz and BolesÅ‚aw Trojdenowicz) (1308-1340) was a ruler of the Piast dynasty who reigned the originally Ruthenian principality of Galicia (Central Europe). ... Map of Romania with Wallachia in yellow. ... Ottoman Turkish (Turkish: or , Ottoman Turkish: ‎ ) was the variant of the Turkish language that was used as the administrative and literary language of the Ottoman Empire. ... Most regions and provinces of Europe have alternative names in different languages. ...


Flags and coats of arms

See Flag and coat of arms of Moldavia.

The flag and coat of arms of Moldavia, one of the two Danubian Principalities, together with Wallachia, which formed the basis for the Romanian state, were subject to numerous changes throughout their history. ...

History

Early history

Main articles: Origin of Romanians, Romania in the Dark Ages.

The Neolithic saw the Cucuteni culture extend over what would become Southern Moldavia and what is now Western Ukraine (roughly, to the Dnieper River). Peopled by Dacians in antiquity, the region remained outside of Roman Dacia. The Romanians (also sometimes referred to along with other Balkan Latin peoples as Vlachs) are a nation speaking Romanian, a Romance language, and living in Central and Eastern Europe. ... The Dark Ages in Romania refer to the period starting with the withdrawal of the Roman administration and ending roughly in the 11th century - with the last phase of the Age of Migrations. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... Reconstruction of a Trypillia hut, in the Trypillia museum, Ukraine. ... The Dnieper River (also known as: Dnepr, Dniapro, or Dnipro) is a river which flows from Russia, through Belarus and Ukraine, ending its flow in the Black Sea. ... Dacian kingdom during the reign of Burebista, 82 BC The Dacians (Lat. ... The times before writing belong either to protohistory or to prehistory. ... The provinces of the Roman Empire in 120, with Dacia highlighted. ...


During the Migration Period, Moldavia was successively invaded by Goths, Huns, Eurasian Avars, Slavs, and Bulgars. It was later under the brief occupations of Magyars, Pechenegs, and Cumans, and was invaded by Mongols of the Golden Horde (notably, during the expedition to Hungary in 1241). Human migration denotes any movement of groups of people from one locality to another, rather than of individual wanderers. ... Invasion of the Goths: a late 19th century painting by O. Fritsche, is a highly romanticized portrait of the Goths as cavalrymen. ... The Huns were a confederation of Central Asian equestrian nomads or semi-nomads. ... Map showing the location of Avar Khaganate, c. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... Bulgar warriors slaughter Byzantines, from the Menology of Basil II, 10th century. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Pechenegs or Patzinaks, also known as Besenyők, were a semi-nomadic steppes people of Central Asia that spoke a Turkic language. ... Cumans, also called as Polovtsy, (Russian Половцы, from old Slavic for pale yellowish) was the European name for the Western Kipchaks, a nomadic West Turkic tribe living on the north of the Black Sea along the Volga. ... Expansion of the Mongol Empire Another picture of Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Их Монгол Улс, literally meaning Greater Mongol Nation; 1206–1405) was the largest contiguous land empire in history, covering over 33 million km² [1] (12 million square miles) at its peak, with an estimated population of over 100 million... The four successor Khanates of the Mongol Empire: Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde, Il-Khanate and Chagatai Khanate The Golden Horde (Mongolian: Altan Orda; Tatar: Altın Urda; Russian: Золотая Орда) was a Mongol[1][2][3][4] - later Turkicized[3] - state established in parts of present-day... Combatants Kingdom of Hungary Golden Horde (Mongol Empire) Commanders King Béla IV , Batu Khan, Subotai Strength approximately 15,000 around 20,000-30,000 (mostly cavalry) Casualties 10,000 lost unknown The Battle of Mohi, or Battle of the Sajó River, (on April 11, 1241) was the main battle... Events April 5 - Mongols of Golden Horde under the command of Subotai defeat feudal Polish nobility, including Knights Templar, in the battle of Liegnitz April 27 - Mongols defeat Bela IV of Hungary in the battle of Sajo. ...


In the early 13th century, the Brodniks, a possible Slavic-Vlach vassal state of Halych, were present, alongside the Bolohoveni, in much of the region's territory (towards 1216, the Brodniks are mentioned as in service of Suzdal). On the border between Halych and the Brodniks, in the 11th century, a Viking by the name of Rodfos was killed in the area by Vlachs who supposedly betrayed him.[1] In 1164, the future Byzantine Emperor Andronicus I Comnenus, was taken prisoner by Vlach shepherds around the same region. (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... The Brodnici (or Brodniks) were a 13th-century Romanian or mixed Romanian-Jassic[1] population, probably vassals of Galicia for a period. ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A vassal, in European medieval feudalism terminology, is one who through a commendation ceremony (composed of homage and fealty) enters into mutual obligations with a lord, usually military conscription and mutual protection, in exchange for a fief. ... Halych-Volhynia, or Halych-Volodymyr, was a large state in Ruthenia (Rus ) which existed in the 13th and 14th centuries. ... Bolohoveni (Volohove) is the name used in the early Kievan chronicles, such as Nestor`s chronicle, to designate the Vlachs, or even a statal entity, prior to the establishment of the Principality of Moldavia. ... // Prince Louis of France, the future King Louis VIII, invades England in the First Barons War Henry III becomes King of England. ... Vladimir-Suzdal Principality, Vladimir-Suzdal Grand Duchy (Russian: , tr. ... The term Viking commonly denotes the ship-borne warriors and traders of Norsemen (literally, men from the north) who originated in Scandinavia and raided the coasts of the British Isles and mainland Europe as far east as the Volga River in Russia from the late 8th–11th century. ... Events Count Henry I of Champagne marries Marie de Champagne. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... This is a list of the Emperors of the late Eastern Roman Empire, called Byzantine by modern historians. ... Billon trachy (a cup-shaped coin) of Andronicus I Comnenus (1183-1185) Andronicus I Comnenus (c. ...

Outline of an image on stove remains excavated at the Piatra Neamţ Fortress, showing the Wisent/Aurochs coat of arms of Moldavia and the broken coat of arms of the Kingdom of Hungary.
Outline of an image on stove remains excavated at the Piatra Neamţ Fortress, showing the Wisent/Aurochs coat of arms of Moldavia and the broken coat of arms of the Kingdom of Hungary.

Image File history File links Cetate_20CahleTeracotass. ... Image File history File links Cetate_20CahleTeracotass. ... Piatra NeamÅ£ (population: 105,000) is the main city of NeamÅ£ county, Moldavia, Romania. ... Binomial name Bison bonasus (Linnaeus, 1758) The Wisent or European Bison (Bison bonasus) (IPA: ) is a bison species and the heaviest land animal in Europe. ... Binomial name Bos primigenius Subspecies Bos primigenius primigenius   (Bojanus, 1827) Bos primigenius namadicus   (Falconer, 1859) Bos primigenius mauretanicus   (Thomas, 1881) See Ur (rune) for the rune. ... The Kingdom of Hungary (Hungarian: Magyar Királyság) is the name of a multiethnic kingdom that existed in Central Europe from 1000 to 1918. ...

Foundation of the principality

Later in the 13th century, the King of Hungary Charles I attempted to expand his realm and the influence of the Roman Catholic Church eastwards after the fall of Cuman rule, and ordered a campaign under the command of Phynta de Mende (1324). In 1342 and 1345, the Hungarians were victorious in a battle against Tatars; the conflict was resolved by the death of Jani Beg, in 1357). The Polish chronicler Jan Długosz mentioned Moldavians (under the name Wallachians) as having joined a military expedition in 1342, under King Władysław I, against Mark of Brandenburg.[1] This is a list of all rulers of Hungary since Árpád. ... Charles I of Hungary Charles I of Hungary (Anjou France 1288 or 1291–Visegrád, Hungary July 16, 1342), also called Charles Robert, Carobert and Charles I Robert, was the king of Hungary from August 27, 1310. ... The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church (see terminology below) is the Christian Church in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It traces its origins to the original Christian community founded by Jesus Christ and led by the Twelve Apostles, in particular Saint Peter. ... Events Publication of Defensor pacis by Marsilius of Padua Mansa Kankan Musa I, ruler of the Mali Empire arrives in Cairo on his hajj or pilgrimage to Mecca. ... Events May - Pope Clement VI elected John III Comnenus becomes emperor of Trebizond Louis becomes king of Sicily and duke of Athens Constantine IV becomes king of Armenia Patriarch of Antioch transferred to Damascus under Ignatius II Kitzbühel becomes part of Tyrol Louis I becomes king of Hungary Births... Events Miracle of the Host Births October 31 - King Fernando I of Portugal (died 1383) Agnès of Valois, daughter of John II of France (died 1349) Eleanor Maltravers, English noblewoman (died 1405) Deaths April 14 - Richard Aungerville, English writer and bishop (born 1287) September 16 - John IV, Duke of... Tatars (Tatar: Tatarlar/Татарлар), sometimes spelled Tartar (more about the name), is a collective name applied to the Turkic speaking people of Eastern Europe and Central Asia. ... Jani Beg (? — 1357) was a khan of the Golden Horde in 1342-1357, succeeding his father Uzbeg Khan. ... // May 28 - Peter I becomes King of Portugal after the death of his father, Alfonso IV. July 9 - Charles Bridge in Prague is founded King David II of Scotland is released by the English in return for a ransom. ... Generally a chronicle (Latin chronica, from Greek Χρόνος) is historical account of facts and events in chronological order. ... Jan DÅ‚ugosz Jan DÅ‚ugosz, also known as Joannes Longinus or Joannes Dlugossius (1415-1480) was a Polish historian (a chronicler) and a secretary of Bishop Zbigniew OleÅ›nicki of Kraków. ... Mieszko I. BolesÅ‚aw I Chrobry. ... Wladislaus I on Jan Matejkos painting Wladislaus I the Short or Elbow-high (Polish: WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw I Łokietek) (1261–1333), was a King of Poland. ... Surrounding but excluding the national capital Berlin, Brandenburg is one of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states). ...


In 1353, Dragoş, mentioned as a Vlach Knyaz in Maramureş, was sent by Louis I to establish a line of defense against the Golden Horde forces on the Siret River. This expedition resulted in a polity vassal to Hungary, centered around Baia (Târgul Moldovei or Moldvabánya). Events The Decameron was finished by Giovanni Boccaccio. ... DragoÅŸ I in a 19th century rendition. ... Kniaz’ or knyaz is a word found in some Slavic languages, denoting a nobility rank. ... Map of Romania with MaramureÅŸ region highlighted The MaramureÅŸ region (Hungarian: Máramaros; Latin: Marmatia; Ukrainian: Мармарощина, Marmaroščyna) is in the north of Romania, north of Transylvania along the Tisza River. ... Louis the Great. ... The Siret River is a river that rises from the Carpathians in the Northern Bukovina region of the Ukraine, flows southward into Romania for 470 km before it joins Danube. ... Baia is a commune in the Suceava County, with a population of 6,793 (2002 census). ...


Bogdan of Cuhea, another Vlach voivode from Maramureş who had fallen out with the Hungarian king, crossed the Carpathians in 1359, took control of Moldavia, and succeeded in removing Moldavia from Hungarian control. His realm extended north to the Cheremosh River, while the southern part of Moldavia was still occupied by the Tatars. Bogdan I Bogdan of Cuhea (or Bogdan-Vodă; Bogdan I of Moldavia) is the second founding-figure of the Principality of Moldavia, ruling between 1359 and 1365. ... Voivode (as it is spelled in the Oxford English Dictionary), or less commonly voivod, is a Slavic word that originally denoted the principal commander of a military force. ... Events Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Orhan I (1326-1359) to Murad I (1359-1389) Berlin joins the Hanseatic League. ... Cheremosh (Ukrainian: , Romanian: CeremuÅŸ) is a river flows the borderline of Bukovina and Galicia, and tributary of Prut river. ...


After first residing in Baia, Bogdan moved Moldavia's seat to Siret (it was to remain there until Petru Muşat moved it to Suceava; it was finally moved to Iaşi under Alexandru Lăpuşneanu - in 1565). The area around Suceava, roughly correspondent to Bukovina, formed one of the two administrative divisions of the new realm, under the name Ţara de Sus (the "Upper Land"), whereas the rest, on both sides of the Prut River, formed Ţara de Jos (the "Lower Land"). The Siret River is a river that rises from the Carpathians in the Northern Bukovina region of the Ukraine, flows southward into Romania for 470 km before it joins Danube. ... Petru I MuÅŸat was Voivode of Moldavia from 1375 to 1391, the son of Costea MuÅŸat, the first ruler from the MuÅŸatin family. ... County Suceava County Status County capital Mayor Ion Lungu, National Liberal Party, since 2004 Area 52 km² Population (2002) 105,865 (2002 census) 107,513 (as of July 1, 2004)[1] Density 2,032 inh/km² Geographical coordinates Web site http://www. ... County IaÅŸi County Status Municipality Mayor Gheorghe Nichita, Social Democratic Party, since 2003 Area 93. ... Alexandru LăpuÅŸneanu Alexandru LăpuÅŸneanu was Prince of Moldavia between September 1552 and 18 November 1561 and then between Octomber 1564 and 5 May 1568. ... // Events March 1 - the city of Rio de Janeiro is founded. ... Bukovina (Ukrainian: , Bukovyna; Romanian: Bucovina; German and Polish: Bukowina; see also other languages) is a historical region on the northern slopes of the northeastern Carpathian Mountains and the adjoining plains. ... Length 953  km Elevation of the source -  m Average discharge -  m³/s Area watershed 27,500  km² Origin  Ukraine Mouth  Danube Basin countries Ukraine, Romania, Moldova The Prut, or Pruth river (Ukrainian: Прут) is 953 km long, originating in the Carpathian Mountains in Ukraine and flowing southeast to join the Danube...


Disfavored by the brief union of Angevin Poland and Hungary (the latter was still the country's overlord), Bogdan's successor Laţcu accepted conversion to Roman Catholicism around 1370, but his gesture was to remain without consequences. Despite remaining officially Eastern Orthodox and culturally connected with the Byzantine Empire after 1382, princes of the Muşatin family entered a conflict with the Constantinople Patriarchy over control of appointments to the newly-founded Moldavian Metropolitan seat; Patriarch Anthony IV even cast an anathema over Moldavia after Roman I expelled his appointee back to Byzantium. The crisis was finally settled in favor of the Moldavian princes under Alexandru cel Bun. Nevertheless, religious policy remained complex: while conversions to faiths other than Orthodox were discouraged (and forbidden for princes), Moldavia included sizable Roman Catholic communities (Germans and Hungarians - specifically Csángós), as well as non-Chalcedonic Armenians; after 1460, the country welcomed Hussite refugees (founders of Ciuburciu and, probably, Huşi). In the first centuries of its existence, the Polish nation was led by a series of strong rulers who converted the Poles to Christendom, created a strong Central European state, and integrated Poland into European culture. ... In feudalism, an overlord is a supreme lord; one who is the lord of other lords. ... LaÅ£cu was the son of Bogdan I and Voivode of Moldavia between 1365 and 1373. ... Religious conversion is the adoption of new religious beliefs that differ from the converts previous beliefs; in some cultures (e. ... The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church (see terminology below) is the Christian Church in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It traces its origins to the original Christian community founded by Jesus Christ and led by the Twelve Apostles, in particular Saint Peter. ... Events Beginning of the rule of Poland by Capet-Anjou family. ... The Eastern Orthodox Church is a Christian body that views itself as: the historical continuation of the original Christian community established by Jesus Christ and the Twelve Apostles, having maintained unbroken the link between its clergy and the Apostles by means of Apostolic Succession. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... Events End of the reign of Emperor Go-Enyu of Japan, fifth and last of the Northern Ashikaga Pretenders Emperor Go-Komatsu ascends to the throne of Japan John Wyclifs teachings are condemned by the Synod of London. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... The Patriarch of Constantinople is the Ecumenical Patriarch, ranking as the first among equals in the Eastern Orthodox communion. ... Anathema (in Greek Ανάθεμα) meaning originally something lifted up as an offering to the gods; later, with evolving meanings, it came to mean: to be formally set apart, banished, exiled, excommunicated or denounced, sometimes accursed. ... Roman I Roman I was a Prince of Moldavia: December 1391 - March 1392. ... Alexandru cel Bun Alexandru cel Bun on a Moldovan coin Alexandru cel Bun (Alexandru I MuÅŸat, Alexander the Kind) was the ruler of Moldavia 1400-1432, son of Roman I MuÅŸat. ... Approximate area in eastern Romania inhabited by Csángós The Csángó (Romanian: Ceangău, plural Ceangăi) are an ethnic group of Roman Catholic faith, some speaking a Hungarian dialect and some Romanian. ... Official standard of Karekin II Catholicos of Armenia The Armenian Apostolic Church (Armenian: Õ€Õ¡Õµ Ô±Õ¼Õ¡Ö„Õ¥Õ¬Õ¡Õ¯Õ¡Õ¶ Եկեղեցի), sometimes called the Armenian Orthodox Church or the Gregorian Church, is the worlds oldest national church and one of the most ancient Christian communities. ... Events The first Portuguese navigators reach the coast of modern Sierra Leone. ... The Hussites comprised a Christian movement following the teachings of the reformer Jan Hus (circa 1369–1415), who was influenced by John Wyclif and became one of the forerunners of the Protestant Reformation. ... Coat of arms of the city HuÅŸi is a city in the Vaslui County, Romania, formal capital of the disbanned Falciu County, episcopal see, and home of some of the best wineyards of Romania. ...


Early Muşatin rulers

Main article: Romania in the Middle Ages.
Possible version of a Moldavian princely standard during Stephen the Great (attested versions of the number and general aspects of symbols other than the aurochs/wisent vary considerably)
Possible version of a Moldavian princely standard during Stephen the Great (attested versions of the number and general aspects of symbols other than the aurochs/wisent vary considerably)

Petru I profited from the end of the Hungarian-Polish union, and moved the country closer to the Jagiellon realm, becoming a vassal of Władysław II on September 26, 1387. This gesture was to have unexpected consequences: Petru supplied the Polish ruler with funds needed in the war against the Teutonic Knights, and was granted control over Pokuttya until the debt was to be repaid; as this is not recorded to have been carried out, the region became disputed by the two states, until it was lost by Moldavia in the Battle of Obertyn (1531). Prince Petru also expanded his rule southwards to the Danube Delta, and established a frontier with Wallachia[citation needed]; his son Roman I conquered the Hungarian-ruled Cetatea Albă in 1392, giving Moldavia an outlet to the Black Sea, before being toppled from the throne for supporting Theodor Koriatovich in his conflict with Vytautas the Great of Lithuania. Under Stephen I, growing Polish influence was challenged by Sigismund of Hungary, whose expedition was defeated at Ghindăoani in 1385; however, Stephen disappeared in mysterious circumstances, and the throne was soon occupied by Yury Koriatovich[citation needed] (Vytautas' favorite). // Main article: Romania in the Dark Ages The Dark Ages in what is now Romania ended around the 11th century, following the period in which the Romanian lands had been part of the First Bulgarian Empire (802-1018). ... Image File history File links Moldobour. ... Image File history File links Moldobour. ... Binomial name Bos primigenius Subspecies Bos primigenius primigenius   (Bojanus, 1827) Bos primigenius namadicus   (Falconer, 1859) Bos primigenius mauretanicus   (Thomas, 1881) See Ur (rune) for the rune. ... Binomial name Bison bonasus (Linnaeus, 1758) The Wisent or European Bison (Bison bonasus) (IPA: ) is a bison species and the heaviest land animal in Europe. ... Petru I MuÅŸat was Voivode of Moldavia from 1375 to 1391, the son of Costea MuÅŸat, the first ruler from the MuÅŸatin family. ... Poland and Lithuania in 1387 The Jagiellon Era 1385-1569, was dominated by the union of Poland with Lithuania under the Jagiellon Dynasty, founded by the Lithuanian grand duke Jogaila. ... A vassal, in European medieval feudalism terminology, is one who through a commendation ceremony (composed of homage and fealty) enters into mutual obligations with a lord, usually military conscription and mutual protection, in exchange for a fief. ... WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw II JagieÅ‚Å‚o. ... September 26 is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events June 2 - John Holland, a maternal half-brother of Richard II of England, is created Earl of Huntingdon. ... For Sienkiewicz novel, see The Teutonic Knights. ... Pokuttya or Pokuttia (Ukrainian: , Romanian: , Polish: ) is a historical area of Central Europe, between upper Prut and Cheremosh rivers, in modern Ukraine. ... Combatants Poland Principality of Moldavia Commanders Jan Amor Tarnowski Petru RareÅŸ Strength 4484 cavarly 1167 infantry 1143 firearms 12 cannon 17 000 cavarly 50 cannon Casualties 256 killed 7746 killed 1000 captured 50 cannon lost The Battle of Obertyn (September 22, 1531) was fought between Moldavian Prince Petru RareÅŸ and... January 26 - Lisbon, Portugal is hit by an earthquake - thousands die. ... Danube Delta - Landsat satellite photo (2000) The Danube Delta (Delta Dunării in Romanian), split between Tulcea County of Romania and Odessa Oblast of Ukraine, is the largest and best preserved of European deltas, with an area of 3446 km², after the Volga Delta. ... Map of Romania with Wallachia in yellow. ... Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi (Ukrainian: , translit. ... Events December 16 - Emperor Go-Kameyama of Japan abdicates in favor of rival claimant Go-Komatsu, ending the nanboku-cho period of competing imperial courts James of Jülich is boiled alive for pretending to be a bishop and ordaining his own priests Korean founder of the Joseon Dynasty General... NASA satellite image of the Black Sea Map of the Black Sea The Black Sea is an inland sea between southeastern Europe and Anatolia that is actually a distant arm of the Atlantic Ocean by way of the Mediterranean Sea. ... Fedir Koriatovych (Ukrainian: ; died in 1414) was a Ruthenian prince. ... Vytautas the Great, 17th century painting Trakai Island Castle Vytautas the Great (Lithuanian:  ; Belarusian: ; Polish: ; Ruthenian: Vitovt; German: ; Latin: Alexander Vitoldus; ca. ... Sigismund, aged approximately 50, depicted by unknown artist in the 1420s - the only contemporary portrait. ... Events August 14 - Battle of Aljubarrota between the Portuguese under John I of Portugal and the Castilians, under John I of Castile. ... Iuga Koriatovici (Gheorghe, Iurg or Iurie; rendering Yuriy Koriatovich or Koriatowicz; deemed Ologul - the Limp), Ruthenian Prince in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania from the Eastern Orthodox branch of the Gediminids (his immediate lineage is not known), married to Anastasia (daughter of LaÅ£cu), was Voivode (Prince) of Moldavia from...


Alexandru cel Bun, although brought to the throne in 1400 by the Hungarians (with assistance from Mircea I of Wallachia), shifted his allegiances towards Poland (notably engaging Moldavian forces on the Polish side in the Battle of Grunwald and the Siege of Marienburg), and placed his own choice of rulers in Wallachia. His reign was one of the most successful in Moldavia's history, but also saw the very first confrontation with the Ottoman Turks at Cetatea Albă in 1420, and later even a conflict with the Poles. A deep crisis was to follow Alexandru's long reign, with his successors battling each other in a succession of wars that divided the country until the murder of Bogdan II and the ascension of Petru Aron in 1451. Nevertheless, Moldavia was subject to further Hungarian interventions after that moment, as Matthias Corvinus deposed Aron and backed Alexăndrel to the throne in Suceava. Petru Aron's rule also signified the beginning of Moldavia's Ottoman Empire allegiance, as the ruler agreed to pay tribute to Sultan Mehmed II. Alexandru cel Bun Alexandru cel Bun on a Moldovan coin Alexandru cel Bun (Alexandru I MuÅŸat, Alexander the Kind) was the ruler of Moldavia 1400-1432, son of Roman I MuÅŸat. ... Events Henry IV quells baron rebellion and executes The Earls of Kent, Huntingdon and Salisbury for their attempt to have Richard II of England restored as King Jean Froissart writes the Chronicles Medici family becomes powerful in Florence, Italy Births December 25 - John Sutton, 1st Baron Dudley, Lord Lieutenant of... Mircea the Elder Wallachia under Mircea cel Bătrân, c. ... Combatants Kingdom of Poland Grand Duchy of Lithuania Kingdom of Moldavia Teutonic Order and Mercenaries and Various Knights from the rest of Europe Commanders WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw II JagieÅ‚Å‚o, Vytautas the Great, Alexandru cel Bun Ulrich von Jungingen† Strength 39,000 (2/3 was Polish Knights) 27,000 Casualties... Modern view of the castle of Malbork The Siege of Marienburg was an unsuccessful siege of the Teutonic Order headquarters, the castle in Marienburg, by the joint Polish-Lithuanian forces under King WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw JagieÅ‚Å‚o. ... The Ottoman Turks were the ethnic subdivision of the Turkish people who dominated the ruling class of the Ottoman Empire. ... Events May 21 - Treaty of Troyes. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Petru III Aron (d. ... // Events February 3 - Murad II, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire dies and is succeeded by his son Mehmed II. April 11 - Celje acquires market-town status and town rights by orders from the Celje count Frederic II. June 30 - French troops under the Comte de Dunois invade Guyenne and capture... Matthias Corvinus as depicted in Chronica Hungarorum by Johannes de Thurocz Matthias Corvinus (Matthias the Just) (February 23, 1443 (?) – April 6, 1490) was King of Hungary, ruling between 1458 and 1490. ... County Suceava County Status County capital Mayor Ion Lungu, National Liberal Party, since 2004 Area 52 km² Population (2002) 105,865 (2002 census) 107,513 (as of July 1, 2004)[1] Density 2,032 inh/km² Geographical coordinates Web site http://www. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–22 Mehmed VI... A tribute (from Latin tribulum, contribution) is wealth one party gives to another as a sign of respect or, as was often case in historical contexts, of submission or allegiance. ... The Ottoman Dynasty (or the Imperial House of Osman) ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1281 to 1923, beginning with Osman I (not counting his father, ErtuÄŸrul), though the dynasty was not proclaimed until 1383 when Murad I declared himself sultan. ... Mehmed II (Ottoman Turkish: محمد ثانى , Turkish: ), (also known as el-Fatih (الفاتح), the Conqueror, in Ottoman Turkish, or, in modern Turkish, Fatih Sultan Mehmet) (March 30, 1432 – May 3, 1481) was Sultan of the Ottoman Empire for a short time from 1444 to 1446, and later from 1451 to 1481. ...

Moldavia and possessions under Stephen the Great, ca. 1500
Moldavia and possessions under Stephen the Great, ca. 1500

Under Stephen the Great, who took the throne and subsequently came to an agreement with Kazimierz IV of Poland in 1457, the state reached its most glorious period. Stephen blocked Hungarian interventions in the Battle of Baia, invaded Wallachia in 1471, and dealt with Ottoman reprisals in a major victory (the 1475 Battle of Vaslui; after feeling threatened by Polish ambitions, he also attacked Galicia and resisted Polish reprisals in the Battle of the Cosmin Forest (1497). However, he had to surrender Chilia (Kiliya) and Cetatea Albă (Bilhorod-Dnistrovs'kyi), the two main fortresses in the Bujak, to the Ottomans in 1484, and in 1498 he had to accept Ottoman suzereignty, when he was forced to agree to continue paying tribute to Sultan Bayezid II. Following the taking of Khotyn and Pokuttya, Stephen's rule also brought a brief extension of Moldavian rule into Transylvania: Cetatea de Baltă and Ciceu became his fiefs in 1489. Image File history File links Tara_Moldovei_map. ... Image File history File links Tara_Moldovei_map. ... Stephen the Great (Romanian icon) Stephen III of Moldavia, also called Stephen MuÅŸat III (BorzeÅŸti, 1433 – Suceava, 1504-07-02) was a voivod (prince) of Moldova (1457-1504), who won renown in Europe for his long resistance against the Ottoman Empire. ... Kazimierz IV Jagiellon ((?)Polish: , Lithuanian: ; 1427 - 1492), of the House of Jagiellons, was Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1440 and King of Poland from 1447 to his death. ... Events University of Freiburg founded. ... The Battle of Baia was an important battle in the history of medieval Romania. ... This article is about the year 1471, not the BT caller ID service accessible by dialling 1-4-7-1. ... 5<sup>Superscript text</sup>7<!-- Comment --><blockquote> Block quote </blockquote>{| class=class=wikitable |- ! header 1 ! header 2 ! header 3 |-{| class=wikitable |- ! header 1 ! header 2 ! header 3{| class=wikitable |- ! header 1 ! header 2 ! header 3 |- | row 1, cell 1 | row 1, cell 2 | row 1, cell 3 |- | row 2... The Battle of Vaslui (also referred to as the Battle of Podul ÃŽnalt) (January 10, 1475) was fought between the Moldavian (Romanian) Prince, Åžtefan cel Mare (Stephen the Great) and the Ottoman General Suleiman Pasha. ... Coat-of-arms of the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria Galicia (Ukrainian: , Polish: , Russian: , German: , Hungarian: , Czech: , Yiddish: , Turkish: , Romanian: ) is an historical region in East Central Europe, currently divided between Poland and Ukraine. ... The Battle of the Cosmin Forest (1497) was fought between the Moldavian Prince, Åžtefan cel Mare (Stephen the Great), and King John Albert (Jan Olbracht) of the Commonwealth of Poland-Lithuania. ... 1497 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Kilia may refer to: Kilia, a town in Ukraine Chilia Veche, a town in Tulcea County, Romania Chilia branch, a distributary of the Danube. ... Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi (Ukrainian: ; Romanian: Cetatea Albă; Turkish: Akkerman; Russian: , Belgorod-Dnestrovsky; Hungarian: Nyeszterfehérvár; Italian: Moncastro) is a city in southern Ukraine. ... Budjak or Budzhak is the southern part of Bessarabia, now part of the Odessa Oblast (province) of Ukraine. ... Sultan Beyazid II Bayezid II (1447/48 – May 26, 1512) (Arabic: بايزيد الثاني) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1481 to 1512. ... // Khotyn (Ukrainian: , Polish: , Romanian: , Turkish: Khotin, Russian: , translit. ... Pokuttya or Pokuttia (Ukrainian: , Romanian: , Polish: ) is a historical area of Central Europe, between upper Prut and Cheremosh rivers, in modern Ukraine. ... Map of Romania with Transylvania in yellow Transylvania (Romanian: or ; Hungarian: ; German: ; Serbian: / Transilvanija or / Erdelj) is a historical region in central and western Romania. ... Cetatea de Baltă (hungarian:KüküllÅ‘vár , german: Kockelburg) is a village in Alba County with a 3235 people population. ... County Harghita County Status Commune Mayor József Balló, Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania, since 2004 Population (2002) 2,628 Geographical coordinates Ciceu or Csíkcsicsó (Romanian: ; Hungarian: ) is a commune in Romania, located in Harghita County. ... Under the system of feudalism, a fiefdom, fief, feud or fee, often consisted of heritable lands or revenue-producing property granted by a liege lord in return for a form of allegiance, originally often to give him the means to fulfill his military duties when called upon. ... Events March 14 - The Queen of Cyprus, Catherine Cornaro, sells her kingdom to Venice. ...


Under Bogdan III cel Orb, Ottoman overlordship was confirmed in the shape that would rapidly degenerate into control over Moldavia's affairs. Petru Rareş, who reigned in the 1530s and 1540s, clashed with the Habsburg Monarchy over his ambitions in Transylvania (losing possessions in the region to George Martinuzzi), was defeated in Pokuttya by Poland, and failed in his attempt to extricate Moldavia from Ottoman rule – the country lost Bender to the Ottomans, who included it in their Silistra eyalet. Bogdan III the Blind Bogdan III cel Orb or Bogdan cel Chior (Bogdan III the Blind or Bogdan the One-Eyed; b. ... Petru IV RareÅŸ (ca. ... The Habsburg Monarchy, often called Austrian Monarchy or simply Austria, are the territories ruled by the Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg, and then by the successor House of Habsburg-Lorraine, between 1526 and 1867/1918. ... George Martinuzzi (born 1482 in Kamicac, Dalmatia; died December 16, 1551) was a Hungarian statesman. ... Tighina or Bender (Russian: ; Moldovan Cyrillic: Тигина) is a city in Transnistria, the breakaway region of Moldova. ... Silistra Province (Turkish: Silistre Eyaleti), sometimes called Özi Province was an eyalet of the Ottoman Empire along the Black Sea littoral and south bank of the Danube River in southeastern Europe. ... Ottoman Empire, 1481-1683 The Ottoman Empire existed from 1299 to 1922 and, at the height of its power in the 16th century, it included nearly 20 million km² in Anatolia (Asia Minor), the Middle East, parts of North Africa, and much of south-eastern Europe, and the Caucasus. ...


Renaissance Moldavia

Main article: Early Modern Romania.

A period of profound crisis followed. Moldavia stopped issuing its own coinage cca. 1520, under Prince Ştefăniţă, when it was confronted with rapid depletion of funds and rising demands from the Porte. Such problems became endemic when the country, brought into the Great Turkish War, suffered the impact of the Stagnation of the Ottoman Empire; at one point, during the 1650s and 1660s, princes began relying on counterfeit coinage (usually copies of Swedish riksdalers, as was that issued by Eustratie Dabija). The economic decline was accompanied by a failure to maintain state structures: the feudal-based Moldavian military forces were no longer convoked, and the few troops maintained by the rulers remained professional mercenaries such as the seimeni. It has been suggested that Byzantium after Byzantium be merged into this article or section. ... mary elline m. ... Synonym of the government of the Ottoman Empire. ... The Great Turkish War was a series of conflicts between the Ottoman Empire and European powers at the time (joined into a Holy League) during the second half of the 17th century. ... The Battle of Vienna of 1683 was the real point at which the Empire began its decline. ... For other uses, see Counterfeit (disambiguation). ... The Riksdaler was the name of the currency used in Sweden until 1873 when it was replaced with the krona as an effect of the Scandinavian Monetary Union. ... Eustratie (or Istrate) Dabija was Prince (Voivode) of Moldavia between 1661 and his death in September 1665. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste. ... Moldavian troops engaging the Poles in the Battle of Obertyn (1531) Moldavia had a military force for much of its history as an independent and, later, autonomous principality subject to the Ottoman Empire (14th century-1859). ... A mercenary, is a person who takes part in an armed conflict and is motivated to take part in the hostilities essentially by the desire for private gain and, in fact, is promised, by or on behalf of a Party to the conflict, material compensation substantially in excess of that... Seimeni designates the group of infantry mercenaries charged with guarding the voivode and his Court in XVIIth and XVIIth century Wallachia and Moldavia. ...

Moldavian coat-of-arms, carved on the walls of Cetăţuia Monastery in Iaşi.
Moldavian coat-of-arms, carved on the walls of Cetăţuia Monastery in Iaşi.

However, Moldavia and the similarly-affected Wallachia remained both important sources of income for the Ottoman Empire and relatively prosperous agricultural economies (especially as suppliers of grain and cattle – the latter was especially relevant in Moldavia, which remained an under-populated country of pastures). In time, much of the resources were tied to the Ottoman economy, either through monopolies on trade which were only lifted in 1829, after the Treaty of Adrianople (which did not affect all domains directly), or through the raise in direct taxes - the one demanded by the Ottomans from the princes, as well as the ones demanded by the princes from the country's population. Taxes were directly proportional with Ottoman requests, but also with the growing importance of Ottoman appointment and sanctioning of princes in front of election by the boyars and the boyar Council – Sfatul boieresc (drawing in a competition among pretenders, which also implied the intervention of creditors as suppliers of bribes). The fiscal system soon included taxes such as the văcărit (a tax on head of cattle), first introduced by Iancu Sasul in the 1580s. Image File history File links Moldova_herb. ... Image File history File links Moldova_herb. ... County IaÅŸi County Status Municipality Mayor Gheorghe Nichita, Social Democratic Party, since 2003 Area 93. ... Pastureland Pasture is land with lush herbaceous vegetation cover used for grazing of ungulates as part of a farm or ranch. ... 19th century While the industrial revolution had swept through western Europe, the Ottoman Empire was still relying mainly on medieval technologies. ... In economics, a monopoly (from the Latin word monopolium - Greek language monos, one + polein, to sell) is defined as a persistent market situation where there is only one provider of a product or service. ... Johann Wolfgang von Goethe 1829 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The 1829 peace treaty of Adrianople (called also Treaty of Edirne), was settled between Russia and the Ottoman Empire. ... A tax is a financial charge or other levy imposed on an individual or a legal entity by a state or a functional equivalent of a state (for example, tribes, secessionist movements or revolutionary movements). ... A boyar (also spelt bojar; Romanian: boier) was a member of the highest rank of the feudal Ruthenian (Russian) and Romanian aristocracy, second only to the ruling princes, from the 10th through the 17th century. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The National Assembly is either a legislature, or the lower house of a bicameral legislature in some countries. ... Bribery is the practice of offering a professional money or other favours in order to circumvent ethics in a variety of professions. ... Iancu Sasul (John the Saxon) or Ioan Vodă V (Voivode John V; d. ...


The economic opportunities offered brought about a significant influx of Greek and Levantine financiers and officials, who entered a stiff competition with the high boyars over appointments to the Court. As the manor system suffered the blows of economic crises, and in the absence of salarisation (which implied that persons in office could decide their own income), obtaining princely appointment became the major focus a boyar's career. Such changes also implied the decline of free peasantry and the rise of serfdom, as well as the rapid fall in the importance of low boyars (a traditional institution, the latter soon became marginal, and, in more successful instances, added to the population of towns); however, they also implied a rapid transition towards a monetary economy, based on exchanges in foreign currency. Serfdom was doubled by the much less numerous slave population, comprised of migrant Roma and captured Nogais. The Levant The Levant (IPA: /ləvænt/) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... Generic plan of a mediaeval manor; open-field strip farming, some enclosures, triennial crop rotation, demesne and manse, common woodland, pasturage and meadow Manorialism or Seigneurialism is the organization of rural economy and society in medieval western and parts of central Europe, characterised by the vesting of legal and economic... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Costumes of Slaves or Serfs, from the Sixth to the Twelfth Centuries, collected by H. de Vielcastel, from original Documents in the great Libraries of Europe. ... A monetary economy is a societys economy where products and services are traded in exchange for money. ... Slave redirects here. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require a spell check. ... The Nogais, also spelled Nogay, Noghai, and often called the Caucasian Mongols (Caucasian refers to their geographic position, in the Caucasus mountains, not to their ethnicity), are a Turkic people, and an important ethnic group in the Daghestan region who speak the Turkic Nogai language. ...


The conflict between princes and boyars was to become exceptionally violent – the latter group, who frequently appealed to the Ottoman court in order to have princes comply with its demands, was persecuted by rulers such as Alexandru Lăpuşneanu and Ioan Vodă cel Cumplit. Ioan Vodă's revolt against the Ottomans ended in his execution (1574). The country descended into political chaos, with frequent Ottoman and Tatar incursions and pillages. The claims of Muşatins to the crown and the traditional system of succession were ended by scores of illegitimate reigns; one of the usurpers, Ioan Iacob Heraclid, was a Protestant Greek who encouraged the Renaissance and attempted to introduce Lutheranism to Moldavia. Alexandru LăpuÅŸneanu Alexandru LăpuÅŸneanu was Prince of Moldavia between September 1552 and 18 November 1561 and then between Octomber 1564 and 5 May 1568. ... Ioan Vodă cel Cumplit or Ioan Vodă cel Viteaz (b. ... Year 1574 was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Tatars (Tatar: Tatarlar/Татарлар), sometimes spelled Tartar (more about the name), is a collective name applied to the Turkic speaking people of Eastern Europe and Central Asia. ... A Greek soldier from Samos also known as Jacob Heraclides, Ioan Iacob Heraclid travelled over much Europe, converted to a Polish form of Reformed Protestantism and in 1561, receiving armed help from the Hapsburgs and Poland-Lithuania, made himself Despot of Moldova. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ... Lutheranism describes those churches within Christianity that were reformed according to the theological insights of Martin Luther in the 16th century. ...

Moldavia (in orange) towards the end of the 16th century
Moldavia (in orange) towards the end of the 16th century

In 1595, the rise of the Movileşti boyars to the throne with Ieremia Movilă coincided with the start of frequent anti-Ottoman and anti-Habsburg military expeditions of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth into Moldavian territory (see Moldavian Magnate Wars), and rivalries between pretenders to the Moldavian throne encouraged by the three competing powers. The Wallachian prince Michael the Brave deposed Prince Ieremia in 1600, and managed to become the very first monarch to unite Moldavia, Wallachia, and Transylvania under his rule; the episode ended in Polish conquests of lands down to Bucharest, soon ended by the outbreak of the Polish-Swedish War and the reestablishment of Ottoman rule. Polish incursions were dealt a blow by the Ottomans during the 1620 Battle of Cecora, which also saw an end to the reign of Gaspar Graziani. Image File history File links Mihai_1600. ... Image File history File links Mihai_1600. ... Events January 30 - William Shakespeares Romeo and Juliet is performed for the first time. ... The MovileÅŸti were a family of noblemen in the mediaeval principality of Moldavia. ... Ieremia Movilă and his family Tomb veil of Ieremia Movilă Ieremia Movilă (Jeremi MohyÅ‚a in Polish) was a Voivode (Moldavian Prince) between August 1595 and May 1600 and again between September 1600 and July 10, 1606. ... The Habsburg Monarchy, often called Austrian Monarchy or simply Austria, are the territories ruled by the Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg, and then by the successor House of Habsburg-Lorraine, between 1526 and 1867/1918. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Engraving of Michael the Brave Mihai Viteazu redirects here. ... 1600 was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Status Capital of Romania Mayor Adriean Videanu, since 2005 Area 238 km² Population (2005) 1,924,959[1] Density 8,088 inh/km² Geographical coordinates Web site http://www. ... Combatants Sweden Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth // This conflict between the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Sweden can trace its roots to the War against Sigismund, where Sigismund III Vasa, at one time king of both the Commonwealth and Sweden, lost the throne of Sweden during the civil war (1597–1599). ... Year 1620 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Combatants Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Ottoman Empire Commanders StanisÅ‚aw Żółkiewski Iskander Pasha Strength ~10. ... Gaspar Graziani Gaspar (or GaÅŸpar) Graziani (also credited as Grazziani, Gratiani and GraÅ£iani; Kasper Gratiani in Polish; between 1575 and 1580 - 1620) was Voivode (Prince) of Moldavia between February 4OS/February 14 NS 1619 and September 19 OS/September 29 NS 1620 (see Old Style and New Style...


The following period of relative peace saw the more prosperous and prestigious rule of Vasile Lupu, who took the throne as a boyar appointee in 1637, and began battling his rival Gheorghe Ştefan, as well as the Wallachian prince Matei Basarab – however, his invasion of Wallachia with the backing of Cossack Hetman Bohdan Khmelnytsky ended in disaster at the Battle of Finta (1653). A few years later, Moldavia was occupied for two short intervals by the anti-Ottoman Wallachian prince Constantin Şerban, who clashed with the first ruler of the Ghica family, Gheorghe Ghica. In the early 1680s, Moldavian troops under George Ducas intervened in Right-bank Ukraine and assisted Mehmed IV in the Battle of Vienna, only to suffer the effects of the Great Turkish War. Vasile Lupu (1595—1661) was a Moldavian Voivode (Prince) between 1634 and 1653. ... Events February 3 - Tulipmania collapses in Netherlands by government order February 15 - Ferdinand III becomes Holy Roman Emperor December 17 - Shimabara Rebellion erupts in Japan Pierre de Fermat makes a marginal claim to have proof of what would become known as Fermats last theorem. ... Gheorghe Åžtefan (seldomly referred to as Burduja; d. ... Matei Basarab Matei Basarab was a Wallachian voivode between 1632 and 1654. ... Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan Mehmed IV of Ottoman Empire. ... Bulava-mace traditional symbol of the supreme power of Ukrainian Hetmans. ... Bohdan Zynovii Mykhailovych Khmelnytskyi (Ukrainian: Богдан Зиновій Михайлович Хмельницький, commonly transliterated as Khmelnytsky; known in Polish as Bohdan Zenobi Chmielnicki; in Russian as Богда́н Хмельни́цкий (Bogdan Khmelnitsky)) ( 1595 — August 6, 1657) was a famous and a somewhat controversial leader of the Zaporozhian Cossack Hetmanate, hetman of Ukraine. ... The Battle of Finta (May 1653) was a confrontation between Matei Basarabs Wallachian army and a combined Moldo-Cossack force under Vasile Lupu and Tymofiy Khmelnytsky. ... Events February 2 - New Amsterdam (later renamed New York City) is incorporated. ... Constantin Åžerban was a Wallachian voivode between 1654 and 1658, bastard son to Radu Åžerban (it must be noted that, according to custom, being born out of wedlock did not disqualify Constantin from becoming Prince). ... Ghica family was a Romanian noble family. ... Gheorghe Ghica (1600-1664), founder of the Ghica family, is said to have been a playmate of another Albanian known to history as Ktipruli Aga, the famous vizier, who recognized Gheorghe while he was selling melons in the streets of Constantinople and helped him on to high positions. ... Voivode George Ducas (Greek: Γεώργιος Δούκας, Romanian: Gheorghe Duca) (d. ... Right-bank Ukraine (Ukrainian: &#1055;&#1088;&#1072;&#1074;&#1086;&#1073;&#1077;&#1088;&#1077;&#1078;&#1085;&#1072; &#1059;&#1082;&#1088;&#1072;&#1111;&#1085;&#1072; Russian: &#1055;&#1088;&#1072;&#1074;&#1086;&#1073;&#1077;&#1088;&#1077;&#1078;&#1085;&#1072;&#1103; &#1059;&#1082;&#1088;&#1072;&#1080;&#1085;&#1072;; Polish: Prawobrze&#380;na Ukraina), a... Sultan Mehmed IV Mehmed IV (also known as Dördüncü, fourth, and Avci, hunter) (January 2, 1642–1693) (Arabic: محمد الرابع) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1648 to 1687. ... // For siege of Vienna in 1529 see Siege of Vienna Combatants Holy League: Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Austria, Saxony, Franconia, Swabia, Bavaria Ottoman Empire, Khanate of Crimea, Transylvania, Wallachia, Moldavia Commanders John III Sobieski, Charles V of Lorraine Kara Mustafa Pasha Strength 70,000, (10,000 during siege) 138,000, (200... The Great Turkish War was a series of conflicts between the Ottoman Empire and European powers at the time (joined into a Holy League) during the second half of the 17th century. ...


18th century

Main articles: Phanariotes, History of the Russo-Turkish wars.

During the late 17th century, Moldavia became the target of the Russian Empire's southwards expansion, inaugurated by Peter the Great during the Russo-Turkish War of 1710-1711; Prince Dimitrie Cantemir's siding with Peter and open anti-Ottoman rebellion, ended in defeat at Stănileşti, provoked Sultan Ahmed III's reaction, and the official discarding of recognition of local choices for princes, imposing instead a system which relied solely on Ottoman approval – the Phanariote epoch, inaugurated by the reign of Nicholas Mavrocordatos. Short and frequently ended through violence, Phanariote rules were usually marked by political corruption, intrigue, and high taxation, as well as by sporadic incursions of Habsburg and Russian armies deep into Moldavian territory; nonetheless, they also saw attempts at legislative and administrative modernization inspired by The Enlightenment (such as Constantine Mavrocordatos' decision to salirize public offices, to the outrage of boyars, and the abolition of serfdom in 1749, as well as Scarlat Callimachi's Code), and signified a decrease in Ottoman demands after the threat of Russian annexation became real and the prospects of a better life led to waves of peasant emigration to neighboring lands. The effects of Ottoman control were also made less notable after the 1774 Treaty of Kucuk Kaynarca allowed Russia to intervene in favor of Ottoman subjects of the Eastern Orthodox faith - leading to campaigns of petitioning by the Moldavian boyars against princely politics. An image of the extravagance attributed to Phanariotes in Wallachia: Nicholas Mavrogenes riding through Bucharest in a deer-drawn carriage (late 1780s) Phanariotes, Phanariots, or Phanariote Greeks (Greek: Φαναριώτες, Romanian: FanarioÅ£i) were members of those prominent Greek families residing in Phanar[1] (Φανάρι, modern Fener),[2] the chief Greek quarter of... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... Peter the Great or Pyotr Alexeyevich Romanov (Russian: Пётр I Алексеевич Pyotr I Alekséyevich) (9 June 1672–8 February 1725 [30 May 1672–28 January 1725 O.S.][1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his weak and sickly... Russo-Turkish War of 1710-1711 was the southernmost theatre of the Great Northern War. ... Dimitrie Cantemir (-Romanian, Дмитрий Кантемир in Russian, KantemiroÄŸlu in Turkish, Kantymir in Polish), (October 26, 1673 - 1723) was a Moldavian Voivode (Prince; March-April 1693 and 1710-1711), philosopher, historian, composer, linguist and scholar. ... Sultan Ahmed III Köçeks at a fair. ... An image of the extravagance attributed to Phanariotes in Wallachia: Nicholas Mavrogenes riding through Bucharest in a deer-drawn carriage (late 1780s) Phanariotes, Phanariots, or Phanariote Greeks (Greek: Φαναριώτες, Romanian: FanarioÅ£i) were members of those prominent Greek families residing in Phanar[1] (Φανάρι, modern Fener),[2] the chief Greek quarter of... Nicholas Mavrocordatos Nicholas Mavrocordatos (Greek: Νικόλαος Μαυροκορδάτος, Romanian: Nicolae Mavrocordat; May 3, 1670—September 3, 1730) was a Greek member of the Mavrocordatos family, Grand Dragoman to the Divan (1697), and consequently the first Phanariote Hospodar of the Danubian Principalities - Prince of Moldavia, and Prince of Wallachia (both on two separate occasions). ... World map of the Corruption Perceptions Index, which measures the degree to which corruption is perceived to exist among public officials and politicians. Blue colors indicate little corruption, red colors indicate much corruption In broad terms, political corruption is the misuse by government officials of their governmental powers for illegitimate... // The Age of Enlightenment (French: ; German: ; Polish: ) was an eighteenth-century movement in European and American philosophy, or the longer period including the Age of Reason. ... Constantine Mavrocordatos (February 27, 1711-November 23, 1769) (Greek: Κωνσταντίνος Μαυροκορδάτος, Romanian: Constantin Mavrocordat ) was Prince of Wallachia and Prince of Moldavia at several intervals. ... Events While in debtors prison, John Cleland writes Fanny Hill (Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure). ... Chesma Column in Tsarskoe Selo, commemorating the end of the Russo-Turkish War. ... The Treaty of Kuchuk-Kainarji (Küçük Kaynarca) was signed on July 21, 1774, between Russia (represented by Field-Marshal Rumyantsev) and the Ottoman Empire after the Ottoman Empire was defeated in the Russo-Turkish War of 1768-1774. ... Look up Petition in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In 1712, Khotyn was taken over by the Ottomans, and became part of a defensive system that Moldavian princes were required to maintain, as well as an area for Islamic colonization (the Laz community). Moldavia also lost Bukovina, Suceava included, to the Habsburgs in 1772, which meant both an important territorial loss and a major blow to the cattle trade (as the region stood on the trade route to Central Europe). The 1792 Treaty of Jassy forced the Ottoman Empire to cede all of its holdings in what is now Transnistria to Russia, which made Russian presence much more notable, given that the Empire acquired a common border with Moldavia. The first effect of this was the cession of Bessarabia to the Russian Empire, in 1812 (through the Treaty of Bucharest). // Events Treaty of Aargau signed between Catholic and Protestants. ... // Khotyn (Ukrainian: , Polish: , Romanian: , Turkish: Khotin, Russian: , translit. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Colonialism. ... The Laz (Lazi (ლაზი) or Lazepe (ლაზეფე) in Laz, Lazlar in Turkish, Lazi (ლაზი) or Chani (ჭანი) in Georgian) are an ethnic group who live primarily on the Black Sea coastal regions of Turkey and Georgia. ... Bukovina (Ukrainian: , Bukovyna; Romanian: Bucovina; German and Polish: Bukowina; see also other languages) is a historical region on the northern slopes of the northeastern Carpathian Mountains and the adjoining plains. ... County Suceava County Status County capital Mayor Ion Lungu, National Liberal Party, since 2004 Area 52 km² Population (2002) 105,865 (2002 census) 107,513 (as of July 1, 2004)[1] Density 2,032 inh/km² Geographical coordinates Web site http://www. ... Year 1772 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Central Europe The Alpine Countries and the Visegrád Group (Political map, 2004) Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... For the region during the Second World War, see Transnistria (World War II). ... 1927 map of Bessarabia from Charles Upson Clarks book Bessarabia (Basarabia in Romanian, Бесарабія in Ukrainian, Бессарабия in Russian, Бесарабия in Bulgarian, Besarabya in Turkish) is a historical term for the geographic entity in Eastern Europe bounded by the Dniester River on the East and the Prut River on the West. ... For the overture by Tchaikovsky, see 1812 Overture; For the wars, see War of 1812 (USA - United Kingdom) or Patriotic War of 1812 (France - Russia) For the Siberia Airlines plane crashed over the Black Sea on October 4, 2001, see Siberia Airlines Flight 1812 1812 was a leap year starting... Treaty of Bucharest of 1812 was signed on 28 May 1812 by the Ottoman Empire and the Russian Empire, at the end of the Russian-Turkish war (1806-1812). ...


Organic Statute, revolution, and union with Wallachia

Main article: National awakening of Romania.
Principality of Moldavia, 1793-1812, highlighted in orange
Principality of Moldavia, 1793-1812, highlighted in orange

Phanariote rules were officially ended after the 1821 occupation of the country by Alexander Ypsilantis' Filiki Eteria during the Greek War of Independence; the subsequent Ottoman retaliation brought the rule of Ioan Sturdza, considered as the first one of a new system – especially since, in 1826, the Ottomans and Russia agreed to allow for the election by locals of rulers over the two Danubian Principalities, and convened on their mandating for seven-year terms. In practice, a new fundament to reigns in Moldavia was created by the Russo-Turkish War of 1828-1829, and a period of Russian domination over the two countries which ended only in 1856: begun as a military occupation under the command of Pavel Kiselyov, Russian domination gave Wallachia and Moldavia, which were not removed from nominal Ottoman control, the modernizing Organic Statute (the first document resembling a constitution, as well as the first one to regard both principalities). After 1829, the country also became an important destination for immigration of Ashkenazi Jews from the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria and areas of Russia (see History of the Jews in Romania and Sudiţi). During the period of Austro-Hungarian rule in Transylvania and Ottoman suzerainty over Wallachia and Moldavia, most Romanians were in the situation of being second-class citizens (or even non-citizens) in their own country. ... Image File history File links Rom1793-1812. ... Image File history File links Rom1793-1812. ... The coronation banquet for George IV 1821 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Alexander Ypsilantis, Ypsilanti, or Alexandros Ypsilantis, (Greek: Αλέξανδρος Υψηλάντης; Romanian: Alexandru Ipsilanti) (1792—1828) was a Phanariot Greek military commander and national hero. ... The Filiki Eteria (spelt also Philikí Etaireía), meaning Friendly Society in Greek, was a secret organisation working in the early 19th century, whose purpose was to overthrow the Ottoman rule over Greece and to establish an independent Greek state. ... Combatants Greek revolutionaries United Kingdom France Russian Empire Ottoman Empire Egyptian Khedivate Commanders Theodoros Kolokotronis, Alexander Ypsilanti Omer Vryonis, Dramalis, Ibrahim Pasha. ... Ioan Sturdza was a prince of Moldavia (1822-1828) and the most famous descendant of Alexandru Sturdza. ... The oldest surviving photograph, Nicéphore Niépce, circa 1826 1826 (MDCCCXXVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Russo-Turkish War of 1828-1829 was sparked by the Greeks struggle for independence. ... Count Pavel D. Kiselyov (portrait by Franz Krüger, 1851). ... The National Assembly of Wallachia in 1837 Regulamentul Organic (Romanian name, translated as Organic Statute or Organic Regulation; French: Règlement Organique, Russian: Oрганический регламент, Organichesky reglament)[1] was a quasi-constitutional organic law enforced in 1831–1832 by the Imperial Russian authorities in Moldavia and Wallachia (the two Danubian Principalities... Languages Yiddish, Hebrew, Russian, English Religions Judaism, Satanism, Nazism Related ethnic groups Sephardi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, and other Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (Standard Hebrew: sing. ... Coat-of-arms of the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria Galicia (Ukrainian: , Polish: , Russian: , German: , Hungarian: , Czech: , Yiddish: , Turkish: , Romanian: ) is an historical region in East Central Europe, currently divided between Poland and Ukraine. ... Jewish Romanian history concerns the Jews of Romania and of Romanian origins. ... People in Bucharest during the late 1700s The SudiÅ£i (plural of Sudit - Romanian language, from Italian suddito, meaning subject or citizen) were inhabitants of the Danubian Principalities (Wallachia and Moldavia) who, for the latter stage of the 18th and a large part of the 19th century — during and after...


The first Moldavian rule established under the Statute, that of Mihail Sturdza, was nonetheless ambivalent: eager to reduce abuse of office. Sturdza introduced reforms (the abolition of slavery, secularization, economic rebuilding), but he was widely seen as enforcing his own power over that of the newly-instituted consultative Assembly. A supporter of the union of his country with Wallachia and of Romanian Romantic nationalism, he obtained the establishment of a customs union between the two countries (1847) and showed support for radical projects favored by low boyars; nevertheless, he clamped down with noted violence the Moldavian revolutionary attempt in the last days of March 1848. Grigore Alexandru Ghica allowed the exiled revolutionaries to return to Moldavia cca. 1853, which led to the creation of Partida Naţională (the “National Party”), a trans-boundary group of radical union supporters which campaigned for a single state under a foreign dynasty. Mihail Sturdza (1795-1884) was a prince of Moldavia from 1834 to 1849. ... Secularization or secularisation is a process of transformation as a society slowly migrates from close identification with the local institutions of religion to a more clearly separated relationship. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... A customs union is a free trade area with a Common External Tariff. ... The term Radical (latin radix meaning root) has been used since the late 18th century as a label in political science for those favoring or trying to produce thoroughgoing political reforms which can include changes to the social order to a greater or lesser extent. ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Grigore Alexandru Ghica Grigore Alexandru Ghica (1807 – 1857) was the Prince of Moldavia between October 14, 1849 and 1853 and then between October 30, 1854 and 3 June 1856. ... 1853 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... The Partida NaÅ£ională (English: National Party) was a liberal Romanian political party active between 1856 and 1859. ...

Moldavia (in orange) between 1856 and 1859
Moldavia (in orange) between 1856 and 1859

Russian domination ended abruptly after the Crimean War, when the Treaty of Paris passed the two principalities under the tutelage of Great European Powers (together with Russia and the Ottoman overlord, power-sharing included the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, the Austrian Empire, the French Empire, the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia, and Prussia). Due to Austrian and Ottoman opposition and British reserves, the union program as demanded by radical campaigners was debated intensely. In September 1857, given that Caimacam Nicolae Vogoride had perpetrated fraud in elections in Moldavia in July,[citation needed] the Powers allowed the two states to convene Ad-hoc divans, which were to decide a new constitutional framework; the result showed overwhelming support for the union, as the creation of a liberal and neutral state. After further meetings among leaders of tutor states, an agreement was reached (the Paris Convention), whereby a limited union was to be enforced – separate governments and thrones, with only two bodies (a Court of Cassation and a Central Commission residing in Focşani; it also stipulated that an end to all privilege was to be passed into law, and awarded back to Moldavia the areas around Bolhrad, Cahul, and Izmail. Image File history File links Rom1856-1859. ... Image File history File links Rom1856-1859. ... Combatants Allies: Second French Empire United Kingdom Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Sardinia Russian Empire Bulgarian volunteers Casualties 90,000 French 35,000 Turkish 17,500 British 2,050 Sardinian killed, wounded and died of disease ~134,000 killed, wounded and died of disease The Crimean War (1854–1856) was fought... The Treaty of Paris of 1856 settled the Crimean War between Russia and Ottoman Empire and its allies France and Britain. ... One of the hallmarks of contemporary great power status is permanent membership on the United Nations Security Council. ... Motto Dieu et mon droit (French: God and my right)1 Anthem God Save the King/Queen Territory of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Capital London Language(s) English2 Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1801–1820 George III  - 1820–1830 George IV  - 1830–1837 William IV  - 1837–1901... Anthem: Volkshymne (Peoples Anthem) Capital Vienna Language(s) German Religion Roman Catholic Government Monarchy History  - Established 1804  - Disestablished 1867 Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy The Crown of the Austrian Emperor The Austrian Empire (German: ) was an empire centred on what is modern day Austria that officially lasted from 1804... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... Kingdom of Sardinia, in 1839: Mainland Piedmont with Savoy, Nice, and Sardinia in the inset. ... Motto: Suum cuique Latin: To each his own Prussia at its peak, as leading state of the German Empire Capital Königsberg, later Berlin Political structure Duchy, Kingdom, Republic Duke1  - 1525–68 Albert I  - 1688–1701 Frederick III King1  - 1701–13 Frederick I  - 1888–1918 William II Prime Minister1,2... Kaymakam (Turkish term; also rendered as kaimakam) was the Ottoman title used by provincial governors. ... Prince (Knyaz or Bey) Nicolae Vogoride (-Romanian version; Bulgarian: Никола or Николай Богориди, Nikola or Nikolay Bogoridi; Greek: Νικόλαος Βογορίδης, Nikolaos Vogoridis; Turkish: Nikolaki Bey; 1820-April 23, 1863) was the Ottoman-nominated caimacam (governor) of Moldavia (1857-1858) following the Crimean War. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... Neutrality: Neutrality in international law is the status of a nation that refrains from participation in a war between other states and maintains an impartial attitude toward the belligerents. ... The High Court of Cassation and Justice (Romanian: ÃŽnalta Curte de CasaÅ£ie ÅŸi JustiÅ£ie) is Romanias supreme Court of justice. ... County Vrancea County Status County capital Mayor Decebal Bacinschi, Social Democratic Party, since 2004 Area 48. ... A privilege—etymologically private law or law relating to a specific individual—is an honour, or permissive activity granted by another person or a government. ... The coat of arms of Bolhrad Bolhrad (Ukrainian: , Bulgarian: ) is a small city in the Odessa Oblast (province) of south-western Ukraine. ... Cahul is a city and an administrative region in the south of Moldova. ... Izmail or Ismail (Ukrainian: ; Russian: ; Romanian: Ismail), is a town in south-western Ukraine, located near Danube delta in Odessa Oblast (province). ...

Romania, 1878-1913

However, the Convention failed to note whether the two thrones could not be occupied by the same person, allowing Partida Naţională to introduce the candidacy of Alexander John Cuza in both countries. On January 5 (January 17, 1859 Old Style), he was elected prince of Moldavia by the respective electoral body. After street pressure over the much more conservative body in Bucharest, Cuza was elected in Wallachia as well (February 5/January 24). Exactly three years later, after diplomatic missions that helped remove opposition to the action, the formal union created Romania and instituted Cuza as Domnitor (all legal matters were clarified after the replacement of the prince with Carol of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen in April 1866, and the creation of an independent Kingdom of Romania in 1881). Image File history File links Rom1878-1913. ... Image File history File links Rom1878-1913. ... Alexander John Cuza Alexandru Ioan Cuza (March 20, 1820, GalaÅ£i – May 15, 1873, Heidelberg), more commonly known in English as Alexander John Cuza, was the domnitor (ruler) of the United Principalites of Romania between 1859 and 1866. ... January 5 is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 17 is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1859 (MDCCCLIX) is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar). ... Old Style or O.S. is a designation indicating that a date conforms to the Julian calendar, formerly in use in many countries, rather than the Gregorian calendar, currently in use in most countries. ... This article deals with conservatism as a political philosophy. ... Status Capital of Romania Mayor Adriean Videanu, since 2005 Area 238 km² Population (2005) 1,924,959[1] Density 8,088 inh/km² Geographical coordinates Web site http://www. ... February 5 is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 24 is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Domnitor (pl. ... Carol I, original name Karl Eitel Friedrich Zephyrinus Ludwig von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (April 20, 1839 - October 10, 1914) was elected Domnitor (prince) of Romania in April 1866 following the overthrow of Alexander John Cuza, and proclaimed king on March 26, 1881. ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... From 1859 to 1877, Romania evolved from a personal union of two vassal principalities (Moldavia and Wallachia) under a single prince to a full-fledged independent kingdom with a Hohenzollern monarchy. ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ...


See also

1927 map of Bessarabia from Charles Upson Clarks book Bessarabia (Basarabia in Romanian, Бесарабія in Ukrainian, Бессарабия in Russian, Бесарабия in Bulgarian, Besarabya in Turkish) is a historical term for the geographic entity in Eastern Europe bounded by the Dniester River on the East and the Prut River on the West. ... Bukovina (Ukrainian: , Bukovyna; Romanian: Bucovina; German and Polish: Bukowina; see also other languages) is a historical region on the northern slopes of the northeastern Carpathian Mountains and the adjoining plains. ... Moldavian coat-of-arms. ... This article provides only a brief outline of each period of the History of Romania; details are presented in separate articles (see the links in the box and below). ... This is a list of rulers of Moldavia. ... Moldavian troops engaging the Poles in the Battle of Obertyn (1531) Moldavia had a military force for much of its history as an independent and, later, autonomous principality subject to the Ottoman Empire (14th century-1859). ... The painted churches of northern Moldavia are seven Romanian Orthodox churches in Suceava County, Romania in northern Moldavia, built approximately between 1487 and 1532. ...

References

  1. ^ The Annals of Jan Długosz, p. 273
  • Gheorghe I. Brătianu, Sfatul domnesc şi Adunarea Stărilor în Principatele Române, Bucharest, 1995
  • Vlad Georgescu, Istoria ideilor politice româneşti (1369-1878), Munich, 1987
  • Ştefan Ştefănescu, Istoria medie a României, Bucharest, 1991

Gheorghe (George) I. Brătianu (February 3, 1898 – April 23-27 1953) was a Romanian politician and historian. ...

External links

  • The Princely Court in Bacău - images, layouts (at the Romanian Group for an Alternative History Website)
  • Original Documents concerning both Moldavia and other Romania Principalities during the Middle Ages (at the Romanian Group for an Alternative History Website)
  • Pilgrimage and Cultural Heritage Tourism in Moldavia

  Results from FactBites:
 
NodeWorks - Encyclopedia: Moldavia (399 words)
Moldavia west of Prut river united with Wallachia in 1859 as the principality of Romania.
The parts of Moldavia situated East of Prut were occupied by Russia in 1812 and named Bessarabia, united with Romania in 1918, was reoccupied by the Soviet Union in 1940, recovered by Romania in 1941, reoccupied by the Soviet Union in 1944 and transformed into Moldavian SSR, and in 1991 declared independence as Moldova Republic.
Moldavia is represented by an auroch in the Coat of Arms of Romania.
Moldavia. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05 (595 words)
Moldavia borders on Ukraine in the northeast and on Walachia in the south.
Moldavia, a fertile plain drained by the Siretul, is the granary of Romania.
Moldavia was part of the Kievan state from the 9th to the 11th cent.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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