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Encyclopedia > Mold

Molds (or moulds, see spelling differences) include all species of microscopic fungi that grow in the form of multicellular filaments, called hyphae.[1] In contrast, microscopic fungi that grow as single cells are called yeasts. A connected network of these tubular branching hyphae has the same DNA and is considered a single organism, referred to as a colony or in more technical terms a mycelium. Typical orders Protostelia    Protosteliida Myxogastria    Liceida    Echinosteliida    Trichiida    Stemonitida    Physarida Dictyostelia    Dictyosteliida Slime moulds are peculiar protists that normally take the form of amoebae, but under certain conditions develop fruiting bodies that release spores, superficially similar to the sporangia of fungi. ... Orders Lagenidiales Leptomitales Peronosporales Pythiales Rhipidiales Saprolegniales Sclerosporales Water moulds or Oomycetes are a group of filamentous protists, physically resembling fungi. ... Mold (American English) or mould (Commonwealth English) can refer to a number of things. ... Spelling differences redirects here. ... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota The Fungi (singular: fungus) are a large group of organisms ranked as a kingdom within the Domain Eukaryota. ... Multicellular organisms are those organisms containing more than one cell, and having differentiated cells that perform specialized functions. ... A hypha (plural hyphae) is a long, branching filament that, with other hyphae, forms the feeding thallus of a fungus called the mycelium. ... Typical divisions Ascomycota (sac fungi) Saccharomycotina (true yeasts) Taphrinomycotina Schizosaccharomycetes (fission yeasts) Basidiomycota (club fungi) Urediniomycetes Sporidiales Yeasts are a growth form of eukaryotic microorganisms classified in the kingdom Fungi, with approximately 1,500 species described. ... A hypha (plural hyphae) is a long, branching filament that, with other hyphae, forms the feeding thallus of a fungus called the mycelium. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... This article is about a type of political territory. ... Mycelium is the vegetative part of a fungus, consisting of a mass of branching, thread-like hyphae. ...


Molds do not form a specific taxonomic or phylogenetic grouping, but can be found in the divisions Zygomycota, Deuteromycota and Ascomycota. Although some molds cause disease or food spoilage, others are useful for their role in biodegradation or in the production of various foods, beverages, antibiotics and enzymes. For the science of classifying living things, see alpha taxonomy. ... In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: phylon = tribe, race and genetikos = relative to birth, from genesis = birth) is the study of evolutionary relatedness among various groups of organisms (e. ... Orders Dimargaritales Endogonales Entomophthorales Harpellales Kickxellales Microsporidia Mucorales Zoopagales Zygomycota, or zygote fungi, are a division of fungi. ... The Deuteromycota are a form division of the fungi, including those fungi in which sexual reproduction is unknown. ... Subphyla/Classes Archaeascomycetes Euascomycetes Hemiascomycetes or Pezizomycotina Laboulbeniomycetes Eurotiomycetes Lecanoromycetes Leotiomycetes Pezizomycetes Sordariomycetes Dothideomycetes (and many more) Saccharomycotina Saccharomycetes Taphrinomycotina Neolectomycetes Pneumocystidomycetes Schizosaccharomycetes Taphrinomycetes The Ascomycota, formerly known as the Ascomycetae, or Ascomycetes, are a Division of Fungi, whose members are commonly known as the Sac Fungi, which produce spores... For other uses, see Decomposition (disambiguation). ... Biodegradation is the process by which organic substances are broken down by living organisms. ... Staphylococcus aureus - Antibiotics test plate. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ...

Contents

Biology

Mold covering a decaying peach over a period of six days. The frames were taken approximately 12 hours apart. There are 12 frames of changes.
Mold covering a decaying peach over a period of six days. The frames were taken approximately 12 hours apart. There are 12 frames of changes.
Moldy nectarines that were in a refrigerator. The nectarine with black mold is also affecting the nectarine underneath.
Moldy nectarines that were in a refrigerator. The nectarine with black mold is also affecting the nectarine underneath.

There are thousands of known species of molds, which include opportunistic pathogens, exclusive saprotrophs, aquatic species and thermophiles.[2] Like all fungi, molds derive energy not through photosynthesis but from the organic matter on which they live. Typically, molds secrete hydrolytic enzymes from predominantly the hyphal tips. These enzymes degrade complex biopolymers such as starch, cellulose and lignin into simpler substances which can enter the hyphae. In this way, molds play a major role in causing decomposition of organic material, enabling the recycling of nutrients throughout ecosystems. Many molds also secrete mycotoxins which, together with hydrolytic enzymes, inhibit the growth of competing microorganisms. Image File history File links DecayingPeachSmall. ... Binomial name (L.) Batsch Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 592 KB) Summary Moldy nectarines. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 592 KB) Summary Moldy nectarines. ... Nectarine is a cultivar group of peach that has a smooth, fuzzless skin. ... Opportunistic infections are infections caused by organisms that usually do not cause disease in a person with a healthy immune system, but can affect people with a poorly functioning or suppressed immune system. ... A Saprotroph (or saprobe) is an organism that obtains its nutrients from non-living organic matter, usually dead and decaying plant or animal matter, by absorbing soluble organic compounds. ... This article is about a type of organism. ... The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... Organic material or organic matter is informally used to denote a material that originated as a living organism; most such materials contain carbon and are capable of decay. ... Neuraminidase ribbon diagram An enzyme (in Greek en = in and zyme = blend) is a protein, or protein complex, that catalyzes a chemical reaction and also controls the 3D orientation of the catalyzed substrates. ... A biopolymer is a polymer found in nature. ... Starch (CAS# 9005-25-8, chemical formula (C6H10O5)n,[1]) is a mixture of amylose and amylopectin (usually in 20:80 or 30:70 ratios). ... Cellulose as polymer of β-D-glucose Cellulose in 3D Cellulose (C6H10O5)n is a polysaccharide of beta-glucose. ... Lignin (sometimes lignen) is a chemical compound (complex, highly cross-linked aromatic polymer) that is most commonly derived from wood and is an integral part of the cell walls of plants, especially in tracheids, xylem fibres and sclereids. ... For other uses, see Decomposition (disambiguation). ... A coral reef near the Hawaiian islands is an example of a complex marine ecosystem. ... Mycotoxin (from Gk. ... A cluster of Escherichia coli bacteria magnified 10,000 times. ...


Molds reproduce through small spores,[2] which may contain a single nucleus or be multinucleate. Mold spores can be asexual (the products of mitosis) or sexual (the products of meiosis); many species can produce both types. Some can remain airborne indefinitely, and many are able to survive extremes of temperature and pressure. The term spore has several different meanings in biology. ... HeLa cells stained for DNA with the Blue Hoechst dye. ... Mitosis divides genetic information during cell division. ... For the figure of speech, see meiosis (figure of speech). ...


Although molds grow on dead organic matter everywhere in nature, their presence is only visible to the unaided eye when mold colonies grow. A mold colony does not comprise discrete organisms, but an interconnected network of hyphae called a mycelium. Nutrients and in some cases organelles may be transported throughout the mycelium. In artificial environments like buildings, humidity and temperature are often stable enough to foster the growth of mold colonies, commonly seen as a downy or furry coating growing on food or surfaces. This is a biological article: For a territory administered by another territory see: Colony For a group attempting to affiliate with a Fraternity or Sorority see: Colony (fraternity) In biology, a colony (from Latin colonia) refers to several individual organisms of the same species living closely together, usually for mutual... Mycelium is the vegetative part of a fungus, consisting of a mass of branching, thread-like hyphae. ...


Some mold can begin growing at temperatures as low as 2°C. When conditions do not enable growth, molds can remain alive in a dormant state, within a large range of temperatures before they die. This explains how molds can survive harsh conditions such as containers in refrigerators or inside building structure cavities.


Xerophilic molds use the humidity in the air as their only water source; other molds need more moisture. Xerophiles are extremophilic organisms that can grow and reproduce in conditions with a low availability of water, also known as water activity. ...


Common molds

Species Aspergillus caesiellus Aspergillus candidus Aspergillus carneus Aspergillus clavatus Aspergillus deflectus Aspergillus flavus Aspergillus fumigatus Aspergillus glaucus Aspergillus nidulans Aspergillus niger Aspergillus ochraceus Aspergillus oryzae Aspergillus parasiticus Aspergillus penicilloides Aspergillus restrictus Aspergillus sojae Aspergillus sydowi Aspergillus terreus Aspergillus ustus Aspergillus versicolor Aspergillus is a genus of around 200 filamentous fungi... Cladosporium is a genus of fungi including some of the most common indoor and outdoor moulds. ... Cryptococcus is a genus of fungus. ... Fusarium is a large genus of filamentous fungi widely distributed in soil and in association with plants. ... Species Penicillium bilaiae Penicillium camemberti Penicillium candida Penicillium claviforme Penicillium crustosum Penicillium glaucum Penicillium marneffei Penicillium notatum Penicillium purpurogenum Penicillium roqueforti Penicillium stoloniferum Penicillium viridicatum Penicillium verrucosum Penicillium commune Penicillium is a genus of ascomyceteous fungi that includes: Penicillium bilaiae, which is an agricultural inoculant. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Species S. chartarum Stachybotrys is a genus of molds, or asexually-reproducing, filamentous fungi. ... Diversity about 35 species; see List of Trichoderma species Trichoderma are in nearly all soils, where they are the most prevalent culturable fungi. ...

Uses

Stilton cheese contains edible mold.
Stilton cheese contains edible mold.

Download high resolution version (903x700, 76 KB) Blue Stilton cheese. ... Download high resolution version (903x700, 76 KB) Blue Stilton cheese. ... Stilton cheese is a cheese of England. ...

Food production

Cultured molds are used in the production of foods including cheese (Penicillium spp), tempeh (Rhizopus oligosporus), Quorn (Fusarium venenatum), the black tea pu-erh and some sausages. Cheese is a solid food made from the milk of cows, goats, sheep, and other mammals. ... Species Penicillium bilaiae Penicillium camemberti Penicillium candida Penicillium claviforme Penicillium crustosum Penicillium glaucum Penicillium marneffei Penicillium notatum Penicillium purpurogenum Penicillium roqueforti Penicillium stoloniferum Penicillium viridicatum Penicillium verrucosum Penicillium commune Penicillium is a genus of ascomyceteous fungi that includes: Penicillium bilaiae, which is an agricultural inoculant. ... Fresh tempeh at the market, Jakarta, Indonesia. ... Binomial name Rhizopus oligosporus (Saito, 1905) Rhizopus oligosporus is a fungus of the Mucoraceae family and is a widely used starter-culture for the home production of tempeh. ... For other uses, see Quorn (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Fusarium venenatum Fusarium venenatum is a fungus, more precisely a mold, from which a mycoprotein can be derived. ... Pu-erh or Pu-er tea (Chinese: 普洱茶) is a fermented tea, named after Pu Erh region in Yunnan, China. ... This article is about the prepared meat. ...


The koji molds are a group of Aspergillus species, notably Aspergillus oryzae, that have been cultured in eastern Asia for many centuries. They are used to ferment a soybean and wheat mixture to make soybean paste and soy sauce. They are also used to break down the starch in rice (saccharification) in the production of sake and other distilled spirits. Species Aspergillus caesiellus Aspergillus candidus Aspergillus carneus Aspergillus clavatus Aspergillus deflectus Aspergillus flavus Aspergillus fumigatus Aspergillus glaucus Aspergillus nidulans Aspergillus niger Aspergillus ochraceus Aspergillus oryzae Aspergillus parasiticus Aspergillus penicilloides Aspergillus restrictus Aspergillus sojae Aspergillus sydowi Aspergillus terreus Aspergillus ustus Aspergillus versicolor Aspergillus is a genus of around 200 filamentous fungi... Aspergillus oryzae (Japanese: kōji 麹) is a fungus used in Japanese cuisine. ... Miso ) is a traditional Japanese food produced by fermenting rice, barley and/or soybeans, with salt and kōji (the most typical miso is made with soy). ... Soy sauce (US) or soya sauce (UK) is a fermented sauce, made from soybeans (soya beans), roasted grain, water and salt, commonly used in Asian cuisine, and in some Western cuisine dishes, especially Worcestershire sauce. ... Starch (CAS# 9005-25-8, chemical formula (C6H10O5)n,[1]) is a mixture of amylose and amylopectin (usually in 20:80 or 30:70 ratios). ... Sake barrels at Itsukushima Shrine. ...


Drug creation

Alexander Fleming's famous discovery of the antibiotic penicillin involved the mold Penicillium notatum. Sir Alexander Fleming (6 August 1881 – 11 March 1955) was a Scottish biologist and pharmacologist. ... For the Japanese rock band, see Penicillin (band). ... Binomial name Penicillium notatum Westling Penicillium notatum is a synonym of Penicillium chrysogenum, which has taxonomic priority. ...


Other Uses

Other molds are cultivated for their ability to produce useful substances. Aspergillus niger is used in the production of citric acid, gluconic acid and many other compounds and enzymes. ... Citric acid is a weak organic acid found in citrus fruits. ... Gluconic acid is the carboxylic acid formed by the oxidation of the first carbon of glucose and has the chemical formula C6H12O7. ...


The molds Neurospora crassa and Aspergillus nidulans are commonly used model organisms. Binomial name Neurospora crassa Shear & B.O. Dodge Neurospora crassa is a type of red bread mold of the phylum Ascomycota. ... Binomial name Aspergillus nidulans G Winter 1884 Synonyms Emericella nidulans Aspergillus nidulans (sometimes found like Emericella nidulans) is one of many species of filamentous fungi in the phylum Ascomycota. ... A model organism is a species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms. ...


Health effects

Main article: Mold health issues

Mold spores can be allergenic, causing irritations of eye, nose, throat, and lungs. Light micrograph of the hyphae and spores of the human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus Molds are ubiquitous in nature, and mold spores are a common component of household and workplace dust. ... The term spore has several different meanings in biology. ... An allergen is any substance (antigen), most often eaten or inhaled, that is recognized by the immune system and causes an allergic reaction. ...


Molds excrete liquids or gases as defecatory matter; not all can be detected by smell. Some molds generate toxic liquid or gaseous compounds, called mycotoxins. Molds that produce mycotoxins are sometimes referred to as toxic molds. Of these molds, some only produce mycotoxins under specific growing conditions. Mycotoxins are harmful or lethal to humans and animals when exposure is high enough. Mycotoxin (from Gk. ... Mycotoxin (from Gk. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Mold. ...


Dermatophytes are the parasitic fungi that cause skin infections such as Athlete's foot and Jock Itch. Most dermataphyte fungi take the form of a mold, as opposed to a yeast, with appearance (when cultured) that is similar to other molds. A dermatophyte is a parasitic fungus that infects the skin. ... Athletes foot or Tinea pedis[1] is a parasitic fungal infection of the epidermis of the foot. ... Jock itch, or in medical Latin officially tinea cruris (vermin of the crotch), is a fungal infection of the groin region. ...


Infection by opportunistic pathogen molds such as Penicillium marneffei and Aspergillus fumigatus is a common cause of death among immunocompromised people, including AIDS victims. Opportunistic infections are infections caused by organisms that usually do not cause disease in a person with a healthy immune system, but can affect people with a poorly functioning or suppressed immune system. ... Binomial name Penicillium marneffei Segretain Penicillium species are usually regarded as unimportant in terms of causing disease. ... Aspergillus fumigatus is a fungus of the genus Aspergillus, and it is one of the most common Aspergillus species to cause disease in humans with a weakened immune response. ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ...


Growth in buildings

Main articles: Mold growth, assessment, and remediation and Indoor air quality

Mold growth in buildings can lead to variety of health issues. Various practices can be followed to mitigate mold growth in buildings. This article is about mold growth in buildings, how to kill mold, and the more formal topics of assessment and remediation. ... Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) deals with the content of interior air that could affect health and comfort of building occupants. ...


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Mold

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Mildew is a grey, mold-like growth caused by one of two different types of micro-organisms. ... Mold mites is a general term that refers to a variety of mites (e. ... Typical orders Protostelia Protosteliida Myxogastria Liceida Echinosteliida Trichiida Stemonitida Physarida Dictyostelia Dictyosteliida Slime (or slime mold) is a broad term often referring to roughly six groups of Eukaryotes. ... Species S. chartarum Stachybotrys is a genus of molds, or asexually-reproducing, filamentous fungi. ... Orders Lagenidiales Leptomitales Peronosporales Pythiales Rhipidiales Saprolegniales Sclerosporales Water moulds or Oomycetes are a group of filamentous protists, physically resembling fungi. ... A bioaerosol is a biological aerosol. ... Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) deals with the content of interior air that could affect health and comfort of building occupants. ...

References

  1. ^ Madigan M; Martinko J (editors). (2005). Brock Biology of Microorganisms, 11th ed., Prentice Hall. ISBN 0131443291. 
  2. ^ a b Ryan KJ; Ray CG (editors) (2004). Sherris Medical Microbiology, 4th ed., McGraw Hill, pp. 633–8. ISBN 0838585299. 

External links

  • Environmental Protection Agency - Mold Homepage

  Results from FactBites:
 
Easy do-it-yourself mold products & services at Mold Mart. (570 words)
Use do-it-yourself mold test kits or the Scotch tape lift sampling technique [explained in the mold test kit section of Mold Mart] to test any visible mold growth so that you can send the mold test kits to a mold laboratory for analysis and mold species identification.
Also, use mold test kits to mold test the air of each room, attic, basement, crawl space, and the outward air flow [if electricity is on] from each heating/cooling duct register for the possible presence of elevated levels of airborne mold spores, in comparison to an outdoor mold control test.
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There is no practical way to eliminate all mold and mold spores in the indoor environment; the way to control indoor mold growth is to control moisture.
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Mold and mildew are commonly found on the exterior wall surfaces of corner rooms in heating climate locations.
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