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Encyclopedia > Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi
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Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi
India's "Father of the nation" —Mahatma Gandhi
Born October 2, 1869
Porbandar, Gujarat, India
Died January 30, 1948
New Delhi, India
"Gandhi" redirects here. For other uses, see Gandhi (disambiguation).

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (October 2, 1869January 30, 1948) (Devanagari : मोहनदास करमचन्द गांधी, Gujarati મોહનદાસ કરમચંદ ગાંધી) was a national icon who led the struggle for India's independence from British colonial rule, empowered by tens of millions of common Indians. Throughout his life he opposed any form of terrorism or violence, instead using only the highest moral standards. His philosophy of nonviolence, for which he coined the term satyagraha, has influenced national and international nonviolent resistance movements to this day, including the American Civil Rights Movement led by Martin Luther King. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (300x710, 53 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Jump to: navigation, search Father of the Nation is a term used by many countries to describe a political or symbolic leader who was one of the most influential founding fathers of the nation. ... October 2 is the 275th day (276th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 90 days remaining. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1869 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Porbandar is a town in the Gujarat state of India. ... Jump to: navigation, search Gujarat (ગુજરાત in Gujarati) is the most industrialized state in India after Maharashtra and is located in western India, bordered by Pakistan to the northwest and Rajasthan to the north. ... January 30 is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1948 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... Jump to: navigation, search This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Gandhi is the family name of a number of prominent 20th century Indian politicians and leaders. ... October 2 is the 275th day (276th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 90 days remaining. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1869 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... January 30 is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1948 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... च् + छ = च्छ Devanagari in Unicode The Unicode range for Devanagari is U+0900 . ... Jump to: navigation, search Gujarati (ગુજરાતીalso sometimes Gujrati) is a language native to the state of Gujarat in western India. ... The British Raj is an informal term for the period of British rule of most of the Indian subcontinent, or present-day India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka (previously known as Ceylon). ... The term terrorism is largely synonymous with political violence, and refers to a strategy of using coordinated attacks which typically fall outside of the time, place, and manner of conduct commonly understood as within the bounds of conventional warfare. ... [[[[Media:--84. ... Jump to: navigation, search See Satyagraha (opera) for an account of the opera of that title by Philip Glass. ... Nonviolent resistance (or nonviolent action) comprises the practice of applying power to achieve socio-political goals through symbolic protests, economic or political noncooperation, civil disobedience and other methods, without the use of physical violence. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Civil Rights Movement in the United States has been a long, primarily nonviolent struggle to bring full civil rights and equality under the law to primarily African American citizens of United States. ... Martin Luther King Jr. ...


From the time he took charge of the freedom struggle and the Indian National Congress in 1918, he was lovingly revered as "Mahatma", or "Great Soul" by millions of Indians. Although he was much averse to honorary addresses, Gandhi is still today commonly referred to as Mahatma Gandhi, rather than Mohandas Gandhi, all over the world. Apart from being considered one of the greatest Hindu and Indian leaders of all time, he is revered by many in India as the "Father of the Nation" or Bapu (Hindi for Father). His birthday on October 2, Gandhi Jayanti, is a national holiday in India. Indian National Congress (also known as the Congress Party, abbreviated INC) is a major political party in India. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1918 was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Mahatma is Sanskrit for Great Soul. ... Jump to: navigation, search It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Hindu people. ... Jump to: navigation, search Father of the Nation is a term used by many countries to describe a political or symbolic leader who was one of the most influential founding fathers of the nation. ... Jump to: navigation, search Hindī (हिन्दी) is an Indo-European language spoken mainly in North and Central India. ... October 2 is the 275th day (276th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 90 days remaining. ... Gandhi, taken in 1931. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with :Indian festivals. ...


By means of nonviolent civil disobedience, Gandhi helped bring about India's independence from British rule, inspiring other colonial peoples to work for their own independence and ultimately dismantling the British Empire. Gandhi's principle of satyagraha (from Sanskrit; satya for truth and agraha for endeavor), often translated as "way of truth" or "pursuit of truth", has inspired other freedom activists such as the Dalai Lama, Lech Wałęsa, Steve Biko, Aung San Suu Kyi and Nelson Mandela. However, not all these leaders kept to Gandhi's strict principle of nonviolence and nonresistance. Jump to: navigation, search An anti-war activist is arrested for civil disobedience on the steps of the Supreme Court on February 9, 2005. ... Jump to: navigation, search The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps The British Empire was one of the worlds first global powers , a product of the European Age of Exploration that began with the global maritime empires of Portugal... Jump to: navigation, search Sanskrit ( संस्कृता) is an Indo-Aryan language, and a classical language of India. ... Tenzin Gyatso The fourteenth Dalai Lama Tenzin Gyatso (Tibetan: བསྟན་འཛིན་རྒྱ་མཚོ་ Wylie: Bstan dzin Rgya mtsho) (b. ... Office President of Poland Term of office from December 22, 1990 until December 23, 1995 Profession Electrician and shipyard worker Political party none, see Solidarity for details Spouse Danuta WaÅ‚Ä™sa Date of birth September 29, 1943 Place of birth Popowo, Poland Date of death Place of death Lech Wa... Jump to: navigation, search Stephen Biko Stephen Bantu Biko (December 18, 1946 – September 12, 1977) was a noted nonviolent anti-apartheid activist in South Africa in the 1960s. ... Aung San Suu Kyi Daw Aung San Suu Kyi (born June 19, 1945 in Rangoon, now known as Yangon) is a nonviolent pro-democracy activist in Burma, now known as Myanmar. ... Jump to: navigation, search Nelson Mandela Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela, (born July 18, 1918), was the first democratically elected President of South Africa, having previously been a prominent anti-apartheid activist there. ... Nonresistance (or non-resistance) is a sub-type of nonviolence that strictly limits resistance to the enemy. ...


Gandhi often stated that his principles were simple; drawn from traditional Hindu beliefs: truth (satya) and nonviolence (ahimsa). As Gandhi said: "I have nothing new to teach the world. Truth and nonviolence are as old as the hills." Jump to: navigation, search This article is about the Hindu religion; for other meanings of the word, see Hindu (disambiguation). ... When someone sincerely agrees with an assertion, they are claiming that it is the truth. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... [[[[Media:--84. ... Ahimsa is a religious concept which advocates non-violence and a respect for all life. ...

Contents


Life

Early life (1869–1893)

Gandhi and his wife Kasturba (1902)
Gandhi and his wife Kasturba (1902)

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was born in 1929, in a rat infested town in India. His mother, Roxcette, was a toothless French whore with a club foot. After giving birth to Ghandi, Roxcette was purported to have simply got up and left, assuming she had not actually given birth, but had just taken a very painful dump. Little Ghandi, now motherless, was soon picked up by a guy named Peter, a tall Ukranian with a bad overbite. Despite Peter's dental problems, he was a good father to little Ghandi, raising him on wholesome food and nourishing the little one's mind with herioc stories of the Ukraine, and the occasional glimpse at raw, no-holds-barred pornography. Armed with this early training, Ghandi soon grew to be short, skinny Indian with crazy thoughts of world peace and donkey sex. None of this ever came true, unfortunately, and Ghandi died a lonely, frustrated man in 1987. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Kasturba Gandhi (1869-22 February 1944) was the wife of Mohandas Gandhi whom she married when she was 13 years old and she was born in ...


At the age of 19, Gandhi went to University College London to train as a barrister. His time in London, the Imperial capital, was influenced by a vow he had made to his mother in the presence of a Jain monk Becharji, upon leaving India to observe the Hindu precepts of abstinence from meat and alcohol. Although Gandhi experimented with becoming "English", taking dancing lessons for example, he could not stomach his landlady's mutton and cabbage. She pointed him towards one of London's few vegetarian restaurants. Rather than simply go along with his mother's wishes, he read about, and intellectually converted to vegetarianism. He joined the Vegetarian Society, was elected to its Executive Committee, and founded a local chapter. He later credited this with giving him valuable experience in organising and running institutions. Some of the vegetarians he met were members of the Theosophical Society, which had been founded in 1875 by H.P. Blavatsky to further universal brotherhood. The Theosophists were devoted to the study of Buddhist and Hindu Brahmanistic literature. They encouraged Gandhi to read the Bhagavad Gita. Although he had not shown a particular interest in religion before, he began to read works of and about Hinduism, Christianity, Buddhism and other religions. University College London, commonly known as UCL, is one of the colleges that make up the University of London. ... Barristers: traditional dress. ... London — containing the City of London — is the capital of the United Kingdom and of England and a major world city. With over seven million inhabitants (Londoners) in Greater London area, it is amongst the most densely populated areas in Western Europe. ... Jump to: navigation, search Meat is animal tissue (mainly muscle) used as food. ... In general usage, alcohol (from Arabic al-khwl الكحول, or al-ghawl الغول) refers almost always to ethanol, also known as grain alcohol, and often to any beverage that contains ethanol (see alcoholic beverage). ... This article is about the animal, sheep; for other meanings of Sheep, see Sheep (disambiguation). ... Jump to: navigation, search Cultivar Group Brassica oleracea Capitata Group The cabbage (Brassica oleracea Capitata Group) is an edible plant of the Family Brassicaceae (or Cruciferae). ... The Vegetarian Society is a British society founded 30 September 1847 and is believed to be the oldest society promoting vegetarianism in the world. ... The Theosophical Society was the original organization formed to advance the religious doctrine known as Theosophy. ... Helena Blavatsky Helena Petrovna Hahn (also Hélène) (July 31, 1831 (O.S.) (August 12, 1831 (N.S.)) - May 8, 1891 London, England), better known as Helena Blavatsky or Madame Blavatsky was the founder of Theosophy. ... Statues of Buddha such as this, the Tian Tan Buddha statue in Hong Kong, remind followers to practice right living. ... Here the underlined vowels carry the Vedic Sanskrit udātta pitch accent. ... Bhagavad Gīta भगवद्गीता, composed ca the fifth - second centuries BC, is part of the epic poem Mahabharata, located in the Bhisma-Parva chapters 23–40. ... Jump to: navigation, search This article is about the Hindu religion; for other meanings of the word, see Hindu (disambiguation). ... Jump to: navigation, search Christianity is a monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament writings of his early followers. ... Jump to: navigation, search A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a religion and philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE...


He returned to India after being admitted to the British bar. Trying to establish a law practice in Bombay, he had limited success. By this time, the legal profession was overcrowded in India, and Gandhi was not a dynamic figure in a courtroom. He applied for a part-time job as a teacher at a Bombay high school but was turned down. He ended up returning to Rajkot to make a modest living drafting petitions for litigants but was forced to close down that business as well when he ran afoul of a British officer. In his autobiography, he describes this incident as a kind of unsuccessful lobbying attempt on behalf of his older brother. It was in this climate that (in 1893) he accepted a year-long contract from an Indian firm to a post in Natal, South Africa. Jump to: navigation, search A bar association is a professional body of lawyers who, in some jurisdictions, are responsible for the regulation of the legal profession. ... Aphorism Critical legal studies Jurisprudence Law (principle) Legal research Letter versus Spirit List of legal abbreviations Legal code Natural justice Natural law Philosophy of law Religious law External links Wikibooks Wikiversity has more about this subject: School of Law Look up law on Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Jump to: navigation, search Mumbai (Marathi: मुंबई ) (pronounced in Marathi, and in English), formerly known as Bombay is the capital of the Indian state of Maharashtra and is the most populous Indian city with a 2005 estimated population of about 13 million. ... Capital Pietermaritzburg Largest city Durban Area  - Total Ranked 7th 92,100 km² Premier Sbu Ndebele (ANC) Population   - 2001   - 1996   - Density Ranked 1st 9,426,019 8,417,021 102/km² (2001) Languages isiZulu (80. ...


Civil rights movement in South Africa (1893–1914)

At this point in his life, Gandhi was a mild-mannered, diffident, politically indifferent individual. He had read his first newspaper at age 18 and was prone to horrible stage fright when speaking in court. South Africa changed him dramatically as he faced the humiliation and oppression that was commonly directed at Indians in that country. One day in court in the city of Durban, the magistrate asked him to remove his turban, which he refused to do, and Gandhi stormed out of the courtroom. A turning point in his life, often acknowledged in biographies, that would serve as the catalyst for his activism occurred several days later when he began a journey to Pretoria. He was literally thrown off a train at Pietermaritzburg after refusing to move from first class to a third class compartment, normally used by coloured peoples, while travelling on a valid first class ticket. Later, travelling further on by stagecoach, he was beaten by a driver for refusing to travel on the footboard to make room for a European passenger. He suffered other hardships on the journey as well, including being barred from many hotels on account of his race. This experience led him to more closely examine the hardships his people suffered in South Africa during his time in Pretoria. Central area of Durban Durban is a vibrant cosmopolitian city in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa. ... City motto: Praestantia Praevaleat Pretoria (May Pretoria Be Pre-eminent In Excellence) Province Gauteng Mayor Nomaindia Mfeketo Area  - % water 1,644 km² 0. ... Jump to: navigation, search Location of Pietermaritzburg in KwaZulu-Natal province Pietermaritzburg is the capital of KwaZulu-Natal Province in South Africa. ...

Gandhi in South Africa (1895)
Gandhi in South Africa (1895)

It was in South Africa through witnessing racism, prejudice and injustice first-hand that he started to question his countrymens status and his own place in society. In fact Gandhi has been accused of prejudice himself through some of his remarks made in his early life against the native Africans. Addressing a public meeting in Bombay on September 26, 1896 (Collected Works Volume II, page 74), Gandhi said: Image File history File links Public domain File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Public domain File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Jump to: navigation, search A black man drinks out of a water fountain designated for black people in 1939 at a streetcar terminal. ... Prejudice - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... // Etymology World map showing Africa (geographically) The name Africa came into Western use through the Romans, who used the name Africa terra — land of the Afri (plural, or Afer singular) — for the northern part of the continent, as the province of Africa with its capital Carthage, corresponding to modern-day... 1896 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...

Ours is one continued struggle against degradation sought to be inflicted upon us by the European, who desire to degrade us to the level of the raw kaffir, whose occupation is hunting and whose sole ambition is to collect a certain number of cattle to buy a wife with, and then pass his life in indolence and nakedness. The word kaffir (also keffir or kaffer) is a derogatory term used in South Africa for native Africans. ... Laziness is the lack of desire to act; to do nothing. ...

When Gandhi's contract was up, he prepared to return to India. However, at a farewell party in his honor in Durban, he happened to glance at a newspaper and learned that a bill was being considered by the Natal Legislative Assembly to deny the vote to Indians. When he brought this up with his hosts, they lamented that they did not have the expertise necessary to oppose the bill and implored Gandhi to stay and help them. He circulated several petitions to both the Natal Legislature and the British government in opposition to the bill. Though unable to halt the bill's passage, his campaign was successful in drawing attention to the grievances of Indians in South Africa. Supporters convinced him to remain in Durban to continue fighting against the injustices levied against Indians in South Africa. He founded the Natal Indian Congress in 1894 with himself as secretary. Through this organization, he formed the Indian community of South Africa into a heterogeneous political force, inundating government and press alike with statements of Indian grievances and evidence of British discrimination in South Africa. Gandhi returned briefly to India in 1896 to bring his wife and children to live with him in South Africa. When he returned in January 1897, a white mob attacked and tried to lynch him. In an early indication of the personal values that would shape his later campaigns, he refused to press charges on any member of the mob, stating it was one of his principles not to seek redress for a personal wrong in a court of law. 1894 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1896 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... January is the first month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1897 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...


At the onset of the South African War, Gandhi argued that Indians must support the war effort in order to legitimize their claims to full citizenship, organising a volunteer ambulance corps of 300 free Indians and 800 indentured laborers. At the conclusion of the war, however, the situation for the Indians did not improve, but continued to deteriorate. In 1906, the Transvaal government promulgated a new act compelling registration of the colony's Indian population. At a mass protest meeting held in Johannesburg that September, Gandhi adopted his platform of satyagraha (devotion to the truth), or non-violent protest, for the first time, calling on his fellow Indians to defy the new law and suffer the punishments for doing so rather than resist through violent means. This plan was adopted, leading to a seven-year struggle in which thousands of Indians were jailed (including Gandhi himself on many occasions), flogged, or even shot, for striking, refusing to register, or engaging in other forms of non-violent resistance. While the government was successful in repressing the Indian protesters, the public outcry stemming from the harsh methods employed by the South African government in the face of peaceful Indian protesters finally forced South African General Jan Christian Smuts to negotiate a compromise with Gandhi. Boer guerrillas during the Second Boer War There were two Boer wars, one in 1880-81 and the second from October 11, 1899-1902 both between the British and the settlers of Dutch origin (called Boere, Afrikaners or Voortrekkers) in South Africa that put an end to the two independent... Jump to: navigation, search 1906 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Flag of Transvaal The Transvaal (lit. ... City motto: Unity in Development Province Gauteng Mayor Amos Masondo Area  - % water 1,644 km² 0. ... September is the ninth month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of four Gregorian months with 30 days. ... Jan Christiaan Smuts, (May 24, 1870 - September 11, 1950) was a prominent South African statesman and soldier. ...


During his years in South Africa, Gandhi drew inspiration from the Bhagavad Gita and the writings of Leo Tolstoy (especially The Kingdom of God is Within You [1]), who in the 1880s had undergone a profound conversion to a personal form of Christian anarchism. Gandhi translated Tolstoy's A Letter to a Hindu (available at wikisource), written in 1908 in response to aggressive Indian nationalists. The two corresponded until Tolstoy's death in 1910. The letter by Tolstoy applies Hindu philosophy from the Vedas and the sayings of Krishna to the growing Indian nationalism. Gandhi was also inspired by the American writer Henry David Thoreau's famous essay Civil Disobedience. Gandhi's years in South Africa as a socio-political activist were when the concepts and techniques of civil disobedience and non-violent resistance were developed. Upon the outbreak of World War I, Gandhi decided to return to India, bringing all that he had learned from his experiences in South Africa with him. Bhagavad Gīta भगवद्गीता, composed ca the fifth - second centuries BC, is part of the epic poem Mahabharata, located in the Bhisma-Parva chapters 23–40. ... Jump to: navigation, search Leo Tolstoy, pictured late in life Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy listen [â–¶] (Russian: Лев Никола́евич Толсто́й; commonly referred to in English as Leo Tolstoy) (September 9, 1828 – November 20, 1910; August 28, 1828 – November 7, 1910, O.S.) was a Russian novelist, social reformer, pacifist, Christian anarchist, vegetarian, moral thinker... The 1st English edition of The Kingdom of God is Within You, 1894 The Kingdom of God is Within You is a non-fiction work written by Leo Tolstoy and was first published in Germany in 1894, after being banned in his home country of Russia. ... Jump to: navigation, search // Events and Trends Technology Development and commercial production of electric lighting Development and commercial production of gasoline-powered automobile by Karl Benz, Gottlieb Daimler and Maybach First commercial production and sales of phonographs and phonograph recordings. ... Christian anarchism is the belief that there is only one source of authority to which Christians are ultimately answerable, the authority of God as embodied in the teachings of Jesus. ... Letter to a Hindu was a letter written by Count Leo Nikolayevich Tolstoy in 1908 to an Indian Newspaper which sparked a relationship between the pacifist and another well-known anti-violence father figure, Mohandos Ghandi who was stationed in South Africa at the time and just beginning his life... Jump to: navigation, search 1908 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1910 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the Hindu Shruti. ... Jump to: navigation, search Lord Krishna Krishna (कृष्ण, Sanskrit for black or dark blue), is according to common Hindu tradition the eighth avatar of Vishnu. ... Henry David Thoreau Henry David Thoreau (July 12, 1817 – May 6, 1862; born David Henry Thoreau) was an American author, naturalist, pacifist, tax resister and philosopher who is famous for Walden (available at wikisource) on simple living amongst nature and Civil Disobedience (available at wikisource) on resistance to civil government. ... Henry David Thoreau Civil Disobedience is an essay (available at Wikisource), written by noted philosopher Henry David Thoreau. ... Jump to: navigation, search An anti-war activist is arrested for civil disobedience on the steps of the Supreme Court on February 9, 2005. ... Jump to: navigation, search World War I was primarily a European conflict with many facets: immense human sacrifice, stalemate trench warfare, and the use of new, devastating weapons - tanks, aircraft, machineguns, and poison gas. ...


Movement for Indian Independence (1914–1947)

As he had done in the South African War, Gandhi urged support of the British War effort and was active in encouraging Indians to join the army. His rationale, opposed by many others, was that if he desired the full citizenship, freedoms and rights in the Empire, it would be wrong not to help in its defense. He spoke at the conventions of the Indian National Congress, but was primarily introduced to Indian issues, politics and the Indian people by Gopal Krishna Gokhale, at the time the most respected leader of the Congress Party. Jump to: navigation, search The Indian Independence Movement was a series of revolutions empowered by the people of India put forth to battle the British Empire for complete political independence, beginning with the Rebellion of 1857, reaching its climax with Mahatma Gandhis Quit India Movement (1942-1945), and Subhas... Indian National Congress (also known as the Congress Party, abbreviated INC) is a major political party in India. ... Gopal Krishna Gokhale (गोपाल कृष्‍ण गोखले) was born on May 9, 1866, in Ratnagiri, Maharashtra. ...


Gandhi's first major achievements came in 1918 with the Champaran agitation and Kheda Satyagraha, although in the latter he was involved at par with Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, who acted as his right-hand and leader of the rebels. In Champaran, a district in the state of Bihar, he organized civil resistance on the part of tens of thousands of landless farmers and serfs, and poor farmers with small lands, who were forced to grow indigo and other cash crops instead of the food crops necessary for their survival. Suppressed by the ruthless militias of the landlords (mostly British), they were given measly compensation, leaving them mired in extreme poverty. The villages were kept extremely dirty and unhygienic, and alcoholism, untouchability and purdah were rampant. Now in the throes of a devastating famine, the British levied an oppressive tax which they insisted on increasing in rate. The situation was desperate. In Kheda in Gujarat, the problem was the same. Champaran was once an administrative district in the state of Bihar in India. ... Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel was Deputy Prime Minister of India till his death in 1950 Vallabhbhai Jhaverbhai Patel (October 31, 1875–December 15, 1950), popularly referred to as Sardar Patel (Sardar stands for Chief or Leader), was an Indian statesman, core leader of the Indian Independence Movement and of the Indian... Champaran was once an administrative district in the state of Bihar in India. ... Jump to: navigation, search Bihar ( बिहार in Devanagri) is a state of the Indian union situated in the eastern part of the country. ... Purdah (Urdu, Persian: پردہ ; also transliterated as purda) is the practice of requiring women to cover their bodies so as to cover their skin and conceal their form. ... Kheda is a town in the Gujarat state of India. ... Jump to: navigation, search Gujarat (ગુજરાત in Gujarati) is the most industrialized state in India after Maharashtra and is located in western India, bordered by Pakistan to the northwest and Rajasthan to the north. ...


Gandhi established an ashrama there, organizing scores of his veteran supporters and fresh volunteers from the region. He organized a detailed study and survey of the villages, accounting the atrocities and terrible episodes of suffering, including the general state of degenerate living. Building on the confidence of villagers, he began leading the clean-up of villages, building of schools and hospitals and encouraging the village leadership to undo purdah, untouchability and the suppression of women. This article is about the Hindu religion; for other meanings of the word, see Hindu (disambiguation). ...


But his main assault came as he was arrested by police on the charge of creating unrest and was ordered to leave the province. Hundreds of thousands of people protested and rallied outside the jail, police stations and courts demanding his release, which the court unwillingly did. Gandhi led organized protests and strike against the landlords, who with the guidance of the British government, signed an agreement granting more compensation and control over farming for the poor farmers of the region, and cancellation of revenue hikes and collection until the famine ended. It was during this agitation, that Gandhi was addressed by the people as Bapu (Father) and Mahatma (Great Soul). In Kheda, Patel represented the farmers in negotiations with the British, who suspended revenue collection and granted relief. All prisoners were released. Gandhi's resulting fame spread like fire all over the nation. He had become a defining influence on Indian Nationalism. Indian Nationalism is a political and social expression of patriotism, pride and unity of the people of India for their country, its history and heritage. ...


The Rowlatt Act of 1919, which empowered the government to imprison those accused of sedition without trial, was passed. Gandhi and the Congress Party organized major protests and strikes, all of a non-violent character around the nation. All major Indian cities and towns shut down, and the government machinery had to be taken over by the Army. Thousands of people were arrested, and martial law was imposed in many parts of the country. In Punjab, the Amritsar Massacre of 379 civilians by British and Indian troops caused deep trauma to the nation, and increased public anger and acts of violence. The Rowlatt Act was passed in 1919 and basically authorised the government to imprison any person living in the Raj without trial on suspicion of being a terrorist. ... This article details the Indian state of Punjab. ... Image:Kyle massacre. ...


Gandhi criticized both the actions of the British, and the retaliatory violence of Indians. He famously authored the resolution offering condolences to British civilian victims and condemning the riots, which after initial opposition in the party, was accepted after Gandhi made an emotional speech pushing forth his principle that all violence was evil and could not be justified. Indians should not become guilty of the racial hate carried by the British, and should not punish innocent British civilians.


But it was after the massacre and violence, that Gandhi realized that not only Indians were unprepared for mass scale resistance, but also that the British rule in India was evil and inherently oppressive. Gandhi's mind focused upon obtaining complete self-government and control of all Indian government institutions, maturing soon into Swaraj or complete individual, spiritual, political independence.

Gandhi in India
Gandhi in India

In April 1920, Gandhi was elected president of the All-India Home Rule League. He was invested with executive authority on behalf of the Indian National Congress in December 1921. Under Gandhi's leadership, the Congress was reorganized and given a new constitution, with the goal of swaraj (independence). Membership in the party was opened to anyone prepared to pay a token fee. A hierarchy of committees was set up to improve discipline and control over a hitherto amorphous and diffuse movement, transforming the party from an elite organization to one of mass national appeal. Gandhi expanded his non-violence platform to include the swadeshi policy – the boycott of foreign-made goods, especially British goods. Linked to this was his advocacy that khadi (homespun cloth) be worn by all Indians instead of British-made textiles. Gandhi exhorted Indian men and women, rich or poor, to spend time each day spinning khadi in support of the independence movement. This was a strategy to inculcate discipline and dedication to weed out the unwilling and ambitious, and include women in the movement at a time when many thought that such activities were not 'respectable' for women. In addition to boycotting British products, Gandhi urged the people to boycott British educational institutions and law courts, to resign from government employment, to refuse to pay taxes, and to forsake British titles and honours. This new program enjoyed wide-spread appeal and success, empowering the Indian people as never before, yet just as the movement reached its apex, it ended abruptly as a result of a violent clash in the town of Chauri Chaura, Uttar Pradesh, in February 1922. Fearing that the movement was about to take a turn towards violence, and convinced that this would be the undoing of all his work, Gandhi called off the campaign of mass civil disobedience. Now vulnerable, Gandhi was arrested on March 10, 1922, tried for sedition, and sentenced to six years. This was not the first time he had been jailed, but it was to be his longest term of imprisonment. Beginning on March 18, 1922, he only served about two years of the sentence, being released in February 1924 after an operation for appendicitis. Image File history File links Public domain File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Public domain File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... April is the fourth month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of four with the length of 30 days. ... 1920 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) // Events January January 7 - Forces of Russian White admiral Kolchak surrender in Krasnoyarsk. ... Indian National Congress (also known as the Congress Party, abbreviated INC) is a major political party in India. ... Jump to: navigation, search December is the twelfth and last month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1921 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Swadeshi Movement in context with Indian Independance is the movement carried out in India by the freedom fighters during the British occupation of India. ... The honours system of the United Kingdom is a means of rewarding personal bravery, achievement or service to the country. ... Chauri Chaura is a town in Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh, India, where in February, 1922 an occupied police chowki (small hut) was set fire killing 22 of the poliece occupants. ... Jump to: navigation, search Uttar Pradesh (Hindi: उत्तर प्रदेश, Urdu: اتر پردیش), also popularly known by its acronym UP, is the fifth largest and the most populous state in India. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1922 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Jump to: navigation, search March 10 is the 69th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (70th in Leap years). ... Jump to: navigation, search 1922 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Jump to: navigation, search March 18 is the 77th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (78th in leap years). ... Jump to: navigation, search 1922 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Jump to: navigation, search 1924 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Appendicitis is a condition characterised by inflammation of the appendix. ...


Without Gandhi's forceful personality to keep his colleagues in check, the Indian National Congress began to splinter during his years in prison, splitting into two factions, one led by Chitta Ranjan Das and Motilal Nehru favoring party participation in the legislatures, and the other led by Chakravarti Rajagopalachari and Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, opposing this move. Furthermore, cooperation among Hindus and Muslims, which had been strong at the height of the nonviolence campaign, was breaking down. Gandhi attempted to bridge these differences through many means, including a three-week fast in the autumn of 1924, but with limited success. Chittaranjan Das, popularly called Deshbandhu was a leading Bengal based Indian freedom fighter in the first quarter of the 20th century. ... Jump to: navigation, search Motilal Nehru (May 6, 1861 - February 6, 1931) was an early leader of the Indian National Congress and Indian Nationalism. ... Rajaji Chakravarthi Rajagopalachari (December 1878 - December 25, 1972), known as or Rajaji or C.R., was an Indian lawyer, writer, statesman and a Hindu spiritualist. ... Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel was Deputy Prime Minister of India till his death in 1950 Vallabhbhai Jhaverbhai Patel (October 31, 1875–December 15, 1950), popularly referred to as Sardar Patel (Sardar stands for Chief or Leader), was an Indian statesman, core leader of the Indian Independence Movement and of the Indian...

Gandhi during the Salt March (1930)
Gandhi during the Salt March (1930)

Gandhi stayed out of the limelight for most of the 1920s, preferring to resolve the wedge between the Swaraj Party and the Indian National Congress, and expanding initiatives against untouchability, alcoholism, ignorance and poverty. He returned to the fore in 1928. The year before, the British government appointed a new constitutional reform commission under Sir John Simon numbering not a single Indian in its ranks. The result was a boycott of the commission by Indian political parties. Gandhi pushed through a resolution at the Calcutta Congress in December 1928 calling on the British government to grant India dominion status within a year or face a new campaign of non-violence with complete independence for the country as its goal. Image File history File links Gandhi_Salt_March. ... Image File history File links Gandhi_Salt_March. ... Scenes on the eve of the Salt Satyagraha, Gandhis famous 240 mile march on foot to the sea at Dandi. ... Swaraj Party, a political party of colonial India, was organized in 1923 by Deshbandhu Chitaranjan Das (1870-1925) and Motilal Nehru (1861-1931), to participate in legislative councils. ... Indian National Congress (also known as the Congress Party, abbreviated INC) is a major political party in India. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1928 was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ...


January 26, 1930 was celebrated by the Indian National Congress, meeting in Lahore as India's Independence Day. This day was commemorated by almost every other Indian political organization which strived for the country's independence or the socio-political empowerment of different peoples. Lahore (لاەور) is a major city in Pakistan and is the capital of the province of Punjab. ...


Making good on his word in March 1930, he launched a new satyagraha against the tax on salt, highlighted by the famous Salt March to Dandi from March 21 to April 6 1930, marching 400 kilometres (248 miles) from Ahmedabad to Dandi, Gujarat to make his own salt. Thousands of Indians joined him on this march to the sea. This campaign was one of his most successful, resulting in the imprisonment of over 60,000 people. The government, represented by Lord Irwin, decided to negotiate with Gandhi. Jump to: navigation, search 1930 is a common year starting on Wednesday. ... Scenes on the eve of the Salt Satyagraha, Gandhis famous 240 mile march on foot to the sea at Dandi. ... Jump to: navigation, search March 21 is the 80th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (81st in leap years). ... April 6 is the 96th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (97th in leap years). ... Jump to: navigation, search Ahmedabad (અમદાવાદ in Gujarati) or Ahmadābād is the largest city in Gujarat and the sixth largest city in India with a population of almost 5 million. ... Dandi is a small village in the district of Valsad, Gujarat, India. ... Edward Frederick Lindley Wood, 1st Earl of Halifax, known as Lord Irwin from 1926 until 1934, (1881-1959) was a British Conservative politician. ...


The Gandhi-Irwin Pact was signed in March 1931. In it, the British Government agreed to set all political prisoners free in return for the suspension of the civil disobedience movement. Furthermore, Gandhi was invited to attend the Round Table Conference in London as the sole representative of the Indian National Congress. The conference was a disappointment to Gandhi and the nationalists as it focused on the Indian princes and Indian minorities rather than the transfer of power. Furthermore, Lord Irwin's successor, Lord Willingdon, embarked on a new campaign of repression against the nationalists. Gandhi-Irwin Pact refers to a political agreement signed by Mahatma Gandhi and the-then Viceroy of India, Lord Irwin on 5th March 1931. ... March is the third month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1931 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... George Freeman Thomas later Freeman-Thomas, 1st Marquess of Willingdon of Ratton (September 12, 1866 - August 12, 1941) was a British Liberal politician who served as Governor General of Canada and Viceroy of India. ...


Gandhi was again arrested, and the government attempted to destroy his influence by completely isolating him from his followers. This tactic was not successful. In 1932, through the campaigning of the Dalit leader B. R. Ambedkar, the government granted untouchables separate electorates under the new constitution. In protest, Gandhi embarked on a six-day fast in September 1932, successfully forcing the government to adopt a more equitable arrangement via negotiations mediated by the Dalit cricketer turned political leader Palwankar Baloo. This began a new campaign by Gandhi to improve the lives of the untouchables, whom he named Harijans, the children of God. On May 8, 1933 Gandhi began a 21-day fast to protest British oppression in India. In the summer of 1934, three unsuccessful attempts were made on his life. 1932 is a leap year starting on a Friday. ... Jump to: navigation, search This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar (April 14, 1891 - December 6, 1956) was the most prominent Indian Untouchable leader of the 20th century. ... Jump to: navigation, search A cricket match in progress. ... Palwanker Baloo (born 19 March, 1876, Dharwad, died 4 July 1955, Bombay) was an Indian cricketer. ... In South Asias caste system, an untouchable, dalit, or achuta is a person outside of the four castes, and considered below them. ... Jump to: navigation, search May 8 is the 128th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (129th in leap years). ... Jump to: navigation, search 1933 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Jump to: navigation, search 1934 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ...


When the Congress Party chose to contest elections and accept power under the Federation scheme, Gandhi decided to resign from party membership. He did not at all disagree with the party's move, but felt that if he resigned, his iconic status to common Indians would cease to stifle the party's membership, that actually varied from communists, socialists, trade unionists, students, religious conservatives, pro-business and property rights. Gandhi also did not want to prove a target for Raj propaganda by leading a party that had temporarily accepted political accommodation with the Raj.


Gandhi returned to the head in 1936, with the Nehru presidency and the Lucknow session of the Congress. Although Gandhi desired a total focus on the task of winning independence and not speculation about India's future government, Gandhi did not restrain the Congress from adopting socialism as its goal. Jump to: navigation, search Lucknow (Hindi: लखनौ Lakhnau) is the capital city of the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. ... Jump to: navigation, search The color red and particularly the red flag are traditional symbols of Socialism. ...


Gandhi also criticized Subhas Chandra Bose and his rise to the presidency in 1938. While some historians suggest this was a power struggle between two iconic leaders, Gandhi basically objected to Bose's lack of commitment to non-violence and democracy, which Gandhi felt were fundamental to the struggle. Bose's desire to launch a widespread revolt against the British did not include the provision that all rebels use non-violent means, and Bose focused his first year of presidency on bringing in close supporters into leadership. Netaji poster in Thiruvananthapuram Subhas Chandra Bose (January 23, 1897 - August 18, 1945) also known as Netaji, was a Orissa born and Bengal based Indian leader of the movement to win independence from British rule. ...


Bose won his second term despite Gandhi's criticism, but left the Congress when the All-India leaders resigned en masse in protest of his abandonment of principles introduced by Gandhi in the early 1920s. In 1938-1939, all elected Congressmen resigned their offices as the Congress protested the unilateral inclusion of India into World War II without consultation of elected representatives. Jump to: navigation, search World War II was a truly global conflict with many facets: immense human suffering, fierce indoctrinations, and the use of new, extremely devastating weapons such as the atom bomb World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a mid-20th-century conflict that...


He continued his fight against untouchability, promoted handspinning and other cottage industries, and attempted to create a new system of education suited to the rural areas. He lived a simple life during these years at a village in central India called Sevagram. He underwent another fast at the end of the decade in Bombay on March 3, 1939. Sevagram is Hindi for village of servants and the name of a village in the state of Maharashtra, India which was the place of Mohandas Gandhis ashram. ... This article or section should be merged with Mumbai Mumbai (previously known as Bombay) is the worlds most populous conurbation, and is the sixth most populous agglomeration in the world. ... Jump to: navigation, search March 3 is the 62nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (63rd in leap years). ... Jump to: navigation, search 1939 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Do or Die: World War II and Quit India

World War II broke out in 1939 when Nazi Germany invaded Poland. Gandhi was fully sympathetic with the victims of fascist aggression. After lengthy deliberations with colleagues in the Congress, he declared that India could not be party to a war ostensibly being fought for democratic freedom while that freedom was denied in India herself. He said he would support the British if they could show him how the war's aims would be implemented in India after the war. The British government's response was entirely negative. They began fomenting tension between Hindus and Muslims. As the war progressed, Gandhi increased his demands for independence, drafting a resolution calling for the British to Quit India. The Quit India Movement was a call for immediate independence for India issued by MK Gandhi on August 8, 1942. ... Jump to: navigation, search World War II was a truly global conflict with many facets: immense human suffering, fierce indoctrinations, and the use of new, extremely devastating weapons such as the atom bomb World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a mid-20th-century conflict that... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Jump to: navigation, search Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... Jump to: navigation, search A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم) is an adherent of Islam. ... The Quit India Movement (Bharat chhodo) was a call for immediate independence of India from British rule. ...


This was Gandhi's and the Congress Party's most definitive, all-out revolt aimed at securing the British exit from Indian shores. Gandhi was criticized by some Congressmen and other Indian political groups, pro-British and anti-British. Some felt that opposing Britain in its life-death struggle was immoral, and others were angered that Gandhi wasn't doing enough. Many political parties actually opposed Gandhi's call. Thus apart from his age and health, it was probably likely to be his final initiative.


This sparked the largest movement for Indian independence to date, with mass arrests and violence on an unprecedented scale. Thousands of resisters were killed or injured in police fire, and hundreds of thousands of freedom-fighters were arrested. Gandhi and his supporters made it clear they would not support the war effort unless India were granted immediate independence. He even clarified that this time the movement would not be stopped if individual acts of violence were committed, saying that the "ordered anarchy" around him was "worse than real anarchy." He called on all Congressmen and Indians to maintain peaceful discipline, and do or die in the cause of ultimate freedom.


Gandhi and the entire Congress Working Committee was arrested in Mumbai by British forces on August 9, 1942. Gandhi was held for two years the Aga Khan Palace in Pune. It was here that Gandhi suffered to the worst blows of his life: his wife Kasturba passed on, just a few months after Mahadev Desai, his 42-year old, son-like secretary died of a heart attack. He was released before the end of the war only because of his failing health and necessary surgery; the Raj did not want him to die in prison and enrage the entire nation beyond control. Jump to: navigation, search Mumbai (Marathi: मुंबई ) (pronounced in Marathi, and in English), formerly known as Bombay is the capital of the Indian state of Maharashtra and is the most populous Indian city with a 2005 estimated population of about 13 million. ... Jump to: navigation, search August 9 is the 221st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (222nd in leap years), with 144 days remaining. ... Jump to: navigation, search This article is about the year. ... Jump to: navigation, search Pune (पुणे in Marathi), formerly Punavadi and Poona (पूना in Marathi), Maharashtra state, western India, is situated at the confluence of the Mula and Mutha rivers. ... Mahadev Desai was the personal secretary of Mohandas K. Gandhi for 25 years, from 1917 to Desais death in 1942. ...


Although the ruthless suppression of the movement by British forces brought relative order to India by end 1943, Quit India succeeded in its objective. At the end of the war, the British gave clear indications that power would be transferred to Indian hands, and Gandhi called off the struggle, and the Congress leadership and around 100,000 political prisoners were released. After 90 years of trying, freedom was just around the corner for India.


Freedom, partition of India and assassination (1945–1948)

See also: Partition of India
Gandhi's Memorial in Delhi.

Gandhi advised the Congress to reject the proposals of the British Cabinet Mission Plan offered in 1946, as he was deeply suspicious of power-sharing with the Muslim League and the divisions and minimization of central power involved. Gandhi warned against the grouping proposed for Muslim-majority states. However, this became one of the few times the Congress broke from Gandhi's advice (not his leadership though), as not only did Congress leaders want to create a government which would take over from the British as quickly as possible, but the aim was to prevent Mohammed Ali Jinnah and the League from obtaining political parity to the more national, secular Congress Party. The Partition of India was the process by which British dependencies and treaty states in the Indian subcontinent were granted independence in the 1940s. ... Image File history File links I had a double extension, i. ... Image File history File links I had a double extension, i. ... Muhammed Ali Jinnah, the Great Leader of the Muslim League The All India Muslim League was a political party in British India and was the driving force behind the creation of Pakistan as a Muslim state from British India on the Indian subcontinent. ... Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah of Pakistan Mohammad Ali Jinnah (referred to in Pakistan as Quaid-e-Azam, or Great Leader, which is a legally defined title) (December 25, 1876 - September 11, 1948) was an Indian Muslim nationalist, who led the movement demanding a separate homeland for Muslims in...


Between 1946 and 1947, over 5,000 people were killed in violence. The League enjoyed popularity in the Muslim majority Punjab, Bengal, Sindh, NWFP and Baluchistan. The partition plan was approved by the Congress leadership as the only way to prevent a wide-scale Hindu-Muslim civil war. Punjab, 1903 Punjab Province, 1909 The Punjab (Meaning: Land of five Rivers) (also Panjab, Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬ, Shahmukhi: پنجاب) is a region straddling the border between India and Pakistan. ... Jump to: navigation, search Bengal, known as Bôngo (Bengali: বঙ্গ), Bangla (বাংলা), Bôngodesh (বঙ্গদেশ), or Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ) in Bangla (Bengali), is a region in the northeast of South Asia. ... Jump to: navigation, search Sindh (Sind) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan. ... North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) is geographically the smallest of the four provinces of Pakistan. ... Baluchistan (or Balochistan), also known as Greater Baluchistan is an arid region of south Asia, presently split between Iran, Pakistan and Afghanistan. ...


Senior Congress leaders knew that although Gandhi would viscerally oppose partition, it was doubly impossible for the Congress to go ahead without his agreement, for Gandhi's support in the party and throughout India was wide and deep. Gandhi's closest colleagues had accepted partition as the best way out, and Sardar Patel endeavored to convince Gandhi that it was the only way to avoid civil war. Gandhi gave his assent and endorsed the move. Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel Vallabhbhai Jhaverbhai Patel (October 31, 1875–December 15, 1950), popularly referred to as Sardar Patel, was an Indian statesman, an important leader of the Indian National Congress and the deputy Prime Minister in the first cabinet of Independent India. ...


Gandhi had great influence among the Hindu and Muslim communities of India. It is said that he ended riots through his mere presence. He was vehemently opposed to any plan that partitioned India into two separate countries. The Muslim League argued that the Muslim minority would be systematically oppressed by the Hindu majority in a united India, and that a separate Muslims homeland was the only just solution. However, many Muslims in the Indian heartland lived side by side with Hindus, Sikhs, Buddhists, Jains, Parsis, Christians, and Jews, and were in favor with a united India. But Jinnah commanded widespread support in Western Punjab, Sindh, NWFP and Eastern Bengal, all that form today's Pakistan and Bangladesh. This new Muslim homeland was created from areas on the east and west of India. It was originally called West and East Pakistan, which now correspond to Pakistan and Bangladesh, respectively. On the day of the transfer of power, Gandhi did not celebrate independence with the rest of India, but was alone in Kolkata, mourning the partition and working to end the violence. Jump to: navigation, search It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Hindu people. ... Jump to: navigation, search A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم) is an adherent of Islam. ... The Punjab/ پنجاب province of Pakistan is part of the larger Punjab region. ... Jump to: navigation, search Sindh (Sind) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan. ... North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) is geographically the smallest of the four provinces of Pakistan. ... Jump to: navigation, search Bengal, known as Bôngo (Bengali: বঙ্গ), Bangla (বাংলা), Bôngodesh (বঙ্গদেশ), or Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ) in Bangla (Bengali), is a region in the northeast of South Asia. ... It has been suggested that East Bengal (province) be merged into this article or section. ... Kolkata (Bangla: কলকাতা, Hindi: कोलकता), is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal and was capital of British India until 1912. ...


Assassination

On January 30, 1948, on his way to a prayer meeting, Gandhi was shot dead in Birla House, New Delhi, by Nathuram Godse. Godse was a Hindu radical with alleged links to right-wing Hindu organisations, like the Hindu Mahasabha, who held him responsible for weakening the new government by insisting upon a payment to Pakistan. Godse and his co-conspirator Narayan Apte were later tried and convicted, and executed on 15 November 1949. A prominent revolutionary and Hindu extremist, the president of the Mahasabha, Vinayak Damodar Savarkar was accused of being the architect of the plot, but was acquitted due to lack of evidence. January 30 is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1948 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... The white, palatial house of the business dynasty, Birla, stands just a couple of kilometres from Connought Place, a well-known tourist attraction in the greenest area of Delhi. ... Jump to: navigation, search This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Nathuram Vinayak Godse (May 19, 1910 - November 15, 1949) born at Baramati, Poona District, was the assassin of Mahatma Gandhi, one of the principal figures in the movement for Indias independence from Britain. ... Akhil Bharatiya Hindu Mahasabha, a Hindu nationalist organization originally founded in 1915 to counter the Muslim League and the secular Indian National Congress. ... Jump to: navigation, search November 15 is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 46 days remaining. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1949 is a common year starting on Saturday. ... Veer Savarkar on a stamp issued by Government of India Vinayak Damodar Savarkar (May 28, 1883-1966), (Devanagari: विनायक दामॊदर सावरकर) sometimes called Veer Savarkar (वीर सावरकर - Brave Savarkar), was an Indian Freedom fighter, and a Hindu nationalist leader. ...


It is indicative of Gandhi's long struggle and search for God that his dying words were said to have been a homage to God, Rama: "He Ram!" (Oh God!). This is seen as an inspiring signal of his spirituality as well as his idealism regarding the possibility of a unifying peace. The words are inscribed upon his memorial in New Delhi. While some are sceptical of this, evidence from a number of witnesses supports the claim that he made this utterance (see External links). Some sources state that Gandhi's last words were "He Ram, He Ram" or "Rama, Rama". It has also been claimed that when Gandhi fell to the ground dying, he clasped his hands together in the form of the namaste. Deities of Sri Sri Sita (far right), Rama (center), Lakshmana (far left) and Hanuman (below seated) at the Bhaktivedanta Manor, Watford England Lord Rama (center) with wife Sita, brother Lakshmana and devotee Hanuman. ... Raj Ghat, Delhi Raj Ghat, a memorial to Mahatma Gandhi is a simple black marble platform that marks the spot of his cremation on 31 January 1948. ... Namaste or Namaskar (नमस्ते) is an Indian greeting, which is used when both hello and goodbye would be used in English. ...


Vision for India

Stop! The neutrality of this section is disputed.

The anger of Hindu extremists and the antagonism of Pakistan advocates and extremist Muslims have left blurred the vision of India cherished by the Mahatma and his followers. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


Gandhi was blamed directly by men like Vinayak Damodar Savarkar for mollycoddling Jinnah and his Muslims, and thus increasing his political importance, treating him and his League as equals of the Congress. Savarkar's modern-day supporters point to damning evidence that Gandhi had at one point offered to hand over the entire Government of a free India to be run exclusively by Jinnah and his party, if he would drop his Pakistan demand. Veer Savarkar on a stamp issued by Government of India Vinayak Damodar Savarkar (May 28, 1883-1966), (Devanagari: विनायक दामॊदर सावरकर) sometimes called Veer Savarkar (वीर सावरकर - Brave Savarkar), was an Indian Freedom fighter, and a Hindu nationalist leader. ...


During the riots, Gandhi was again criticized for protecting Muslims in India even as Hindus in Pakistan were hurtled out in refugee caravans or simply murdered by extremists and the unsympathetic new government and Pakistani army.


What Gandhi had really wanted was a united India, absolutely free in every possible sense of the word. He wanted Muslims and Hindus to live in absolute freedom with respect and friendship. He wanted each to be free to express themselves, worship and enjoy their heritage and culture, especially with each other.


Gandhi wanted women to be equal to men, live with dignity, security and enjoy opportunities of personal progress. Gandhi wanted untouchability, casteism in Hindu society to be absolutely eliminated, and all Hindus to be equal and united, proud of their faith and heritage. In South Asias caste system, an untouchable, dalit, or achuta is a person outside of the four castes, and considered below them. ... The word Caste is derived from the Portuguese word casta, meaning lineage, breed or race. ...


Gandhi wanted the people to help themselves: for the rich to help the poor, respect each other as brother and sister. He did not want big Government, but a government limited to protecting people, giving justice and spreading opportunities.


Gandhi had fought and led millions of Indians with a vision of individual freedom, and genuine cultural and religious respect and harmony, not merely "tolerance." He wanted the people to develop the spirit of love and brotherhood, and not just create a legal system imposing these virtues to an unresponsive population.


In these years of the division process (1946-1947), Gandhi was a desperate man. Already above 75 years in age, thin, frail and with delicate health, exhausted after 30 years of struggles, all of Gandhi's soul, intelligence and health were expended in his desperation to avoid the partition of India. He foresaw, what many others did not, that the matter would not end there. It would tie-down generations of Indians in a bitter, poisonous, continous war of attrition. The conflicts to come would be territorial, but they principally would arise from the Hindu-Muslim problem. Pakistan today contends for Kashmir only because of its Muslim-majority, which it claims only it can protect and represent, and India refutes that contention with its own military force because it believes Hindus and Muslims are one nation, and can live in freedom together. It is the very partition debate that is today being carried out, now with nuclear weapons on the debate teams.


Gandhi consented to partition only when his closest associates had pointed out the brutal truth, the consequences of not doing so: outright Hindu-Muslim civil war. All the work of 30 years would be undone in moments, and Gandhi was old and weak, unable to retaliate with civil disobedience or popular protests. In a country of 350 million, the horrors could pale the Holocaust into insignificance. Concentration camp inmates during the Holocaust The Holocaust was Nazi Germanys systematic genocide (ethnic cleansing) of various ethnic, religious, national, and secular groups during World War II. Early elements include the Kristallnacht pogrom and the T-4 Euthanasia Program established by Hitler that killed some 200,000 people. ...


In his last months, Gandhi was a broken man inside. He regarded the partition as his personal failure. Even though many great Congress leaders and freedom fighters and Mohammed Ali Jinnah and his supporters felt that only good could come out of it, that the dam had been sealed from explosion, Gandhi felt a hole, invisible as it was, had indeed been carved out.


The consequences of war between India and Pakistan today are far worse than in 1947: over 1.2 billion people inhabit the Indian subcontinent, and nuclear weapons are capable of killing 10 million people in a matter of minutes.


Principles

See also: Gandhism

Gandhi's principles and his ideas of satya and ahimsa were influenced by the Bhagavad Gita, Hinduism, Jainism and Christian anarchism. Jump to: navigation, search Gandhism (or Gandhi-ism) is an informal reference to the core inspiration and philosophy of Mahatma Gandhi. ... Bhagavad Gīta भगवद्गीता, composed ca the fifth - second centuries BC, is part of the epic poem Mahabharata, located in the Bhisma-Parva chapters 23–40. ... Jump to: navigation, search This article is about the Hindu religion; for other meanings of the word, see Hindu (disambiguation). ... Jump to: navigation, search This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Christian anarchism is the belief that there is only one source of authority to which Christians are ultimately answerable, the authority of God as embodied in the teachings of Jesus. ...


Nonviolence

The concept of nonviolence (ahimsa) and nonresistance has a long history in Indian religious thought and has had many revivals in Hindu, Buddhist, Jain and Christian contexts. Gandhi explains his philosophy and way of life in his autobiography The Story of My Experiments with Truth. He was quoted with saying: [[[[Media:--84. ... Ahimsa is a religious concept which advocates non-violence and a respect for all life. ... Nonresistance (or non-resistance) is a sub-type of nonviolence that strictly limits resistance to the enemy. ... The Story of My Experiments with Truth (available at wikisource) is the autobiography of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (or Mahatma Gandhi) and was first published in two volumes, Volume I in 1927 and Volume II in 1929. ...

"What difference does it make to the dead, the orphans, and the homeless, whether the mad destruction is wrought under the name of totalitarianism or the holy name of liberty and democracy?"
"An eye for an eye makes the whole world blind".
"There are many causes that I am prepared to die for but no causes that I am prepared to kill for".

In applying these principles, Gandhi did not balk from taking them to their most logical extremes. In 1940, when invasion of the British Isles by Nazi Germany looked imminent, Gandhi offered the following advice to the British people (Non-Violence in Peace and War): Jump to: navigation, search 1940 was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ...

"I would like you to lay down the arms you have as being useless for saving you or humanity. You will invite Herr Hitler and Signor Mussolini to take what they want of the countries you call your possessions.... If these gentlemen choose to occupy your homes, you will vacate them. If they do not give you free passage out, you will allow yourselves, man, woman, and child, to be slaughtered, but you will refuse to owe allegiance to them".

Truth

The embracing of nonviolence was part of Gandhi's wider mission to seek truth (The Story of My Experiments with Truth). He tried to achieve this by learning from his own mistakes and conducting experiments on himself. When someone sincerely agrees with an assertion, they are claiming that it is the truth. ... The Story of My Experiments with Truth (available at wikisource) is the autobiography of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (or Mahatma Gandhi) and was first published in two volumes, Volume I in 1927 and Volume II in 1929. ...


He found that uncovering the truth was not always popular as many people were resistant to change, preferring instead to maintain the existing status quo because of either inertia, self-interest or misguided beliefs. However he also discovered that once the truth was on the march nothing could stop it. All it took was time to achieve traction and gain momentum. As Gandhi said: Look up Status quo in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Status quo is a Latin term meaning the present current, existing state of affairs. ...

"The Truth is far more powerful than any weapon of mass destruction".

He said that the most important battle to fight was in overcoming his own demons, fears and insecurities. He thought it was all too easy to blame people, governing powers or enemies for his personal actions and wellbeing. He noted the solution to problems could normally be found just by looking in the mirror.


One of the greatest contributions of Mahatma Gandhi was in the realm of ontology and its association with truth. For Gandhi, "to be" did not mean to exist within the realm of time, as it has in the past with the Greek philosophers. But rather, "to exist" meant to exist within the realm of truth, or to use the term Gandhi did, satya. Gandhi summarized his beliefs first when he said "God is Truth," but as typical of Gandhi, he evolved, later to correct himself and state that "Truth is God." The first statement seemed insufficient to Gandhi, as the mistake could be made that Gandhi was using Truth as a description of God, as opposed to God as an aspect of satya. Satya (Truth) in Gandhi's philosophy IS God. It shares all the characteristics of the Hindu concept of God, or Brahman. It lives within us, that little voice that tells us what to do, but also guides the universe. Jump to: navigation, search In philosophy, ontology (from the Greek ὄν, genitive ὄντος: being (part. ... Jump to: navigation, search This article needs copyediting (checking for proper English spelling, grammar, usage, etc. ... Here the underlined vowels carry the Vedic Sanskrit udātta pitch accent. ...


Vegetarianism

Although he experimented with eating meat in India when he was very young, he later became a strict vegetarian. He wrote books on the subject while in London, having met vegetarian campaigner Henry Stephens Salt at gatherings of the Vegetarian Society. The idea of vegetarianism is deeply ingrained in Hindu and Jain traditions in India, and, in his native land of Gujarat, most Hindus were vegetarian. He experimented with various diets and concluded that a vegetarian diet should be enough to satisfy the minimum requirements of the body. However he was flexible for his time and had little reservations on eating table eggs as seen in his 1948 article Key to Health [2]. He abstained from eating for long periods, using fasting as a political weapon. He refused to eat until his death or his demands were met. Jump to: navigation, search Vegetarianism is the theory or practice of eating only foods of plant origin, including fruits, grains and nuts. ... Henry Stephens Salt (September 20, 1851 - April 19, 1939) was an influential English writer and campaigner for social reform in the fields of prisons, schools, economic institutions and the treatment of animals – he was a noted anti-vivisectionist and pacifist. ... The Vegetarian Society is a British society founded 30 September 1847 and is believed to be the oldest society promoting vegetarianism in the world. ... Jump to: navigation, search Fasting is the act of willingly abstaining from all food and in some cases drink, for a period of time. ...

Gandhi (last picture of Gandhi taken when he was alive; spinning wheel in foreground)
Gandhi (last picture of Gandhi taken when he was alive; spinning wheel in foreground)

Image File history File links Public domain File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Public domain File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... A spinning wheel is a device for making thread or yarn from fibrous material such as wool or cotton. ...

Celibacy

Gandhi gave up sexual intercourse at the age of 36, becoming totally celibate while still married. This decision was deeply influenced by the Hindu idea of brahmacharya—spiritual and practical purity—largely associated with celibacy. Gandhi did not however believe that this was something that everyone should take up. In his autobiography he tells of his battle against lustful urges and fits of jealousy with his childhood bride, Kasturba. He felt it his personal obligation to remain celibate so that he could learn to love, rather than lust. Jump to: navigation, search The missionary position is the most common position for sexual intercourse in humans The cowgirl sex position is a good position for kissing, caressing, and embracing of the paramour The Doggy position is thus named because canines as well as most other mammals use this position. ... Celibacy may refer either to being unmarried or to sexual abstinence. ... Brahmacharya is a Sanskrit word. ...


Silence

Gandhi spent one day of each week in silence. He believed that abstaining from speaking brought him inner peace. This influence was drawn from the Hindu principles of mouna (silence) and shanti (harmony). On such days he communicated with others by writing on paper. For three and a half years, from the age of 37, Gandhi refused to read newspapers, claiming that the tumultuous state of world affairs caused him more confusion than his own inner unrest. Jump to: navigation, search Inner peace or peace of mind is a colloquialism that refers to a state of being mentally or spiritually at peace, with enough knowledge and understanding to keep onself strong in the face of discord or stress. ...


Clothing

Returning to India from South Africa, where he had enjoyed a successful legal practice, he gave up wearing Western-style clothing, which he associated with wealth and success. He dressed to be accepted by the poorest person in India. He advocated the use of homespun cloth (khadi). Gandhi and his followers adopted the practice of weaving their own clothes from thread they themselves spun, and encouraged others to do so. While Indian workers were often idle due to unemployment, they had often bought their clothing from industrial manufacturers owned by British interests. It was Gandhi's view that if Indians made their own clothes, it would deal an economic blow to the British establishment in India. Consequently, the spinning wheel was later incorporated into the flag of the Indian National Congress. Dorothea Langes Migrant Mother depicts destitute pea pickers in California during the Great Depression. ... A spinning wheel is a device for making thread or yarn from fibrous material such as wool or cotton. ... Indian National Congress (also known as the Congress Party, abbreviated INC) is a major political party in India. ...


Religion

Gandhi questioned religious practices and doctrines regardless of traditions or beliefs. On the subject of Christianity he noted that: Jump to: navigation, search Christianity is a monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament writings of his early followers. ...

"The only people on earth who do not see Christ and His teachings as nonviolent are Christians".

Although Gandhi was born a Hindu he was critical of most religions, including Hinduism. He wrote in his autobiography: Jump to: navigation, search Jesus (Greek: Ιησούς, Iēsoûs), also known as Jesus of Nazareth or Jesus Christ, is Christianitys central figure, both as Messiah and, for most Christians, as God incarnate. ... [[[[Media:--84. ... Jump to: navigation, search As a noun, Christian is an appellation and moniker deriving from the appellation Christ, which many people associate exclusively with Jesus of Nazareth. ... Jump to: navigation, search This article is about the Hindu religion; for other meanings of the word, see Hindu (disambiguation). ... The Story of My Experiments with Truth (available at wikisource) is the autobiography of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (or Mahatma Gandhi) and was first published in two volumes, Volume I in 1927 and Volume II in 1929. ...

"Thus if I could not accept Christianity either as a perfect, or the greatest religion, neither was I then convinced of Hinduism being such. Hindu defects were pressingly visible to me. If untouchability could be a part of Hinduism, it could but be a rotten part or an excrescence. I could not understand the raison d'etre of a multitude of sects and castes. What was the meaning of saying that the Vedas were the inspired Word of God? If they were inspired, why not also the Bible and the Koran? As Christian friends were endeavouring to convert me, so were Muslim friends. Abdullah Sheth had kept on inducing me to study Islam, and of course he had always something to say regarding its beauty".

He then went on to say: Jump to: navigation, search A caste system is a rigid system of social stratification, which divides members of a society into different castes and sub-castes or Varnas and jatis. ... This article is about the Hindu Shruti. ... Many religions and spiritual movements hold certain written texts (or series of spoken legends not traditionally written down) to be sacred. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Bible (sometimes The Book, Good Book, Word of God, or Scripture), from Greek (τα) βιβλια, (ta) biblia, (the) books, plural of βιβλιον, biblion, book, originally a diminutive of βιβλος, biblos, which in turn is derived from βυβλος—byblos, meaning papyrus, from the ancient Phoenician city of Byblos which exported this... Jump to: navigation, search The Quran (Arabic: al-qurān literally the recitation; also called Al Qurān Al Karīm or The Noble Quran; or transliterated Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ... Jump to: navigation, search A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم) is an adherent of Islam. ... Jump to: navigation, search Islam [▶] (Arabic: الإسلام al-islām) the submission to God is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions, the worlds second-largest religion, and the fastest growing religion in the world. ...

"As soon as we lose the moral basis, we cease to be religious. There is no such thing as religion over-riding morality. Man, for instance, cannot be untruthful, cruel or incontinent and claim to have God on his side".

Gandhi was critical of the hypocrisy in organised religion, rather than the principles on which they were based. He also said the following about Hinduism: Jump to: navigation, search Look up Hypocrisy on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Hypocrisy is the act of pretending to have morals or virtues that one does not truly possess or practice. ...

"Hinduism as I know it entirely satisfies my soul, fills my whole being ... When doubts haunt me, when disappointments stare me in the face, and when I see not one ray of light on the horizon, I turn to the Bhagavad Gita, and find a verse to comfort me; and I immediately begin to smile in the midst of overwhelming sorrow. My life has been full of tragedies and if they have not left any visible and indelible effect on me, I owe it to the teachings of the Bhagavad Gita".

The concept of Islamic jihad can also be taken to mean a nonviolent struggle or satyagraha, in the way Gandhi practiced it. On Islam he said: Jump to: navigation, search This article is about the Hindu religion; for other meanings of the word, see Hindu (disambiguation). ... Bhagavad Gīta भगवद्गीता, composed ca the fifth - second centuries BC, is part of the epic poem Mahabharata, located in the Bhisma-Parva chapters 23–40. ... Jump to: navigation, search Jihad (Arabic: jihād) is an Islamic term, from the Arabic root jhd (to exert utmost effort, to strive, struggle), which connotes a wide range of meanings: anything from an inward spiritual struggle to attain perfect faith to a political or military struggle to further the...

"The sayings of Muhammad are a treasure of wisdom, not only for Muslims but for all of mankind".

Later in his life when he was asked whether he was a Hindu, he replied: Jump to: navigation, search Muhammad is a common Muslim male name. ...

"Yes I am. I am also a Christian, a Muslim, a Buddhist and a Jew".

Gandhi believed that at the core of every religion was Truth and Love (compassion, nonviolence and the Golden Rule). He was deeply influenced by the Christian teaching of nonresistance and "turning the other cheek", once stating that if Christianity practised the Sermon on the Mount, he would indeed be a Christian. Gandhi felt that one should be aware of worshiping the symbols and idols of the religion and not its teachings, such as worshipping the crucifix whilst ignoring its significance as a symbol for self-sacrifice, for example. The Truth may mean: A statement that is known to be in accord with the actual state of affairs because there is historical evidence or experience. ... Jump to: navigation, search The heart, a frequent modern symbol of love Love has many different meanings in English, from something that gives a little pleasure (I loved that meal) to something one would die for (patriotism, pairbonding). ... The Golden Rule or ethic of reciprocity is: Do unto others as you would have others do unto you This phrase can be found in Matthew 7:12 but the principle clearly pre-dates this. ... Nonresistance (or non-resistance) is a sub-type of nonviolence that strictly limits resistance to the enemy. ... Turn the other cheek is a famous phrase taken from the Christian New Testament, Matthew 5:39-40, when Jesus says: But I tell you, do not resist an evil person. ... The Sermon on the Mount was, according to the Gospel of Matthew, a particular sermon given by Jesus of Nazareth around 30 CE on a mountainside to his disciples and a large crowd (Matt. ... For the California hardcore punk band see Crucifix (band) A small, handheld crufix. ...


Faith

In spite of their deep reverence to each other, Gandhi and Rabindranath Tagore got involved in protracted debates more than once. These debates exemplify the philosophical differences between the two most famous Indians at the time. On January 15, 1934, an earthquake hit Bihar and caused extensive damage and loss of life. Gandhi maintained this was because of the sin committed by upper caste Hindus by not letting untouchables in their temples (Gandhi was committed to the cause of improving the fate of untouchables, referring to them as Harijans, people of Krishna). Tagore vehemently opposed Gandhi's stance, maintaining that an earthquake can only be caused by natural forces, not moral reasons, however repugnant the practice of untouchability may be. Jump to: navigation, search Rabindranath Tagore Rabindranath Tagore (Bangla: রবীন্দ্রনাথ ঠাকুর, Robindronath Ţhakur) (May 7, 1861 – August 7, 1941) (in the Bangla Calendar, 25 Baishakh, 1268 – 22 Srabon, 1348), also called Gurudev, was a Bengali poet, Brahmo philosopher and nationalist who was awarded the Nobel Prize for literature in 1913, becoming the... Jump to: navigation, search Bihar ( बिहार in Devanagri) is a state of the Indian union situated in the eastern part of the country. ... Jump to: navigation, search It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Hindu people. ... Jump to: navigation, search Lord Krishna Krishna (कृष्ण, Sanskrit for black or dark blue), is according to common Hindu tradition the eighth avatar of Vishnu. ... Jump to: navigation, search Tagore is the name of a prominent Bengali family of intellectuals, writers and artists. ...


Influence on Hindu society

Mahatma Gandhi was perhaps the greatest modern leader of Hindu society, in the mold of reformers and religious thinkers like Kabir, Ramakrishna and Sai Baba, but with a considerably wider impact. Jump to: navigation, search It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Hindu people. ... Kabir (कबीर) (1440 - 1518)(better known as Kabira) was an Indian Mystic who preached an ideal of seeing all of humanity as one. ... Sri Thakur Gadadhar Chattopadhyaya Ramakrishna Paramahamsa (Bangla: শ্রীরামকৄষ্ঞ পরমহংস) (February 18, 1836 - August 16, 1886) was a Bengali saint. ... This article is about the original, turn of the century Shirdi Sai Baba from Bombay state (now Maharashtra). ...


Gandhi was a member of the third caste, but was revered by thousands of Brahmin priests as an expert on Hindu religion. His ascetic lifestyle, uncompromising adherence to the moral high-ground (he stopped a national civil disobedience campaign over the killing of a few policemen by a rowdy mob of agitators in 1922), and his insistence on the equality of all humankind enabled him to touch Indian society as few have. A Brahmin is a member of the Hindu priestly caste. ...


Gandhi struck out firmly against untouchability and caste discrimination. He brought uniformity, a sense of common identity and unity to millions of Congressmen and hundreds of millions of people who were divided by caste, religion, language and ethnicity. Gandhi defended common Hindu traditions, customs and values against the criticism of Christian missionaries and the Westernized elite of England-educated Indians and Britons in India; equally, he was critical of Brahmin corruption and the oppression of the common people by corrupt priests and leaders.


Gandhi felt that as long as Hindu society retained this system of oppression, the nation could never truly be free in spirit and character, which he viewed as more important than mere control of the government. Adopting the call of the freedom struggle, tens of millions of orthodox Hindus invited untouchables to eat with them, and the Congress and social groups opened dozens of unsegregated schools and hospitals in different parts of the country. Thousands of prominent Hindus worked to end this regressive practice within Hindu society.


Gandhi never allowed the British government and other political groups to divide Hindu society along caste lines by granting them different political status; his fast at Yeravda Jail compelled B.R. Ambedkar, political leader of the untouchables, to agree to reject separate electorates, demonstrating the formidable support he commanded from the harijans of India. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar (April 14, 1891 or 1892 - December 6, 1956) was the most prominent Indian Untouchable leader of the 20th century. ...


Gandhi was also a champion of women's freedoms and rights, and was especially critical of child marriage and the social castigation of widows. He wanted Hindu women to receive equal treatment in the eyes of the law, and a position of respect and honour in mainstream society. He also worked strongly against alcoholism, which had ruined the lives of countless women by claiming their husbands.


Much of the persisting momentum to break with old, regressive social practices was fueled by Gandhi's leadership and the freedom movement he cultivated and strengthened. Untouchability, dowry, child marriage, and the purdah were outlawed in independent India and casteism was denied official recognition and use. Although a controversial figure for some Hindus (owing to the partition of India), and despite the persistence of many of the social problems he tried to end, Gandhi is widely viewed as having been a progressive influence on Hindu society. Purdah (Urdu, Persian: پردہ ; also transliterated as purda) is the practice of requiring women to cover their bodies so as to cover their skin and conceal their form. ...


The triumvirate

The most closely analyzed of all personal relationships with the Indian leaders by historians, is the triumvirate of Gandhi, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel and Jawaharlal Nehru. Jump to: navigation, search The term triumvirate (Latin for rule by three men) or troika in Russian, is commonly used to describe an alliance between three equally powerful political or military leaders. ... Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel was Deputy Prime Minister of India till his death in 1950 Vallabhbhai Jhaverbhai Patel (October 31, 1875–December 15, 1950), popularly referred to as Sardar Patel (Sardar stands for Chief or Leader), was an Indian statesman, core leader of the Indian Independence Movement and of the Indian... Jawaharlal Nehru (जवाहरलाल नेहरू, Javāharlāl Nehrū) (November 14, 1889 – May 27, 1964), also called Pandit (Teacher) Nehru, was the leader of the socialist wing of the Indian National Congress during and after Indias struggle for independence from the British Empire. ...


Sardar Patel was a settled, successful middle-aged barrister in Ahmedabad, earning wealth and respect and with no hankering for the stylish politics of pre-Gandhi Congressmen. But in 1918, with the Kheda Satyagraha, Patel volunteered to head the movement with Gandhi, and abandoned his life of comfort and riches. Gandhi almost single-handedly inspired the re-birth of a proud, hard-charging barrister, who became the most aggressive and action-minded of all nationalist leaders, the undisputed leader of Gujarat, the paramount contributor state to the Indian Independence Movement and the "Ironman of India"; a man who single-handedly brought 565 princely states into the Union to form a united India by independence; led the charge to fight-back the communal riots in Punjab and Delhi and rehabilitate over 10 million refugees, and defended the young nation's unity and peace by swift action against the rogue state Hyderabad and Pakistan's invasion and claims over Jammu and Kashmir and Junagadh. This political phenomenon in 1918, had been a bridge-playing, sharp-witted, sophisticated barrister in the Gujarat Club, cracking jokes about loose-mouthed politicians and the newcomer from South Africa. Jump to: navigation, search Gujarat (ગુજરાત in Gujarati) is the most industrialized state in India after Maharashtra and is located in western India, bordered by Pakistan to the northwest and Rajasthan to the north. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Indian Independence Movement was a series of revolutions empowered by the people of India put forth to battle the British Empire for complete political independence, beginning with the Rebellion of 1857, reaching its climax with Mahatma Gandhis Quit India Movement (1942-1945), and Subhas... Punjab, 1903 Punjab Province, 1909 The Punjab (Meaning: Land of five Rivers) (also Panjab, Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬ, Shahmukhi: پنجاب) is a region straddling the border between India and Pakistan. ... Jump to: navigation, search This article deals with the city of Delhi. ... Hyderabad and Berar, 1903 Hyderābād was an autonomous princely state of south-central India from 1724 until 1948, ruled by a hereditary Nizam, and an Indian state from 1948 to 1956. ... Jump to: navigation, search Jammu and Kashmir is the northern-most state of the Republic of India, with Srinagar as its summer capital and Jammu as its winter capital. ... Junagadh is a city, and also a district, in the Indian state of Gujarat. ...


Sardar Patel grew very close to Gandhi and his wife Kasturba, personally serving Gandhi as a younger brother when they were incarcerated in the early 1930s at Yeravda. Patel developed a deep respect for Gandhi's political instincts, and did not disagree with him until the partition crisis in 1946-47. Patel realized that Gandhi's true power lay in inspiring common people to fight for their rights and freedom, that the purity of non-violent resistance empowered a wide majority of Indians. Gandhi in turn, developed a deep affection for Patel.


There were notable incidents in the Gandhi-Patel relationship. In 1929, a Sardar Patel who had just won a great victory in Gujarat over the British was passed up for the Congress Presidency for the glamourous, unseasoned and suave Nehru. Gandhi also famously asked Patel to stand down from the election for the party's presidency in 1946. This election was crucial because the elected man would go on to head a free India's new government. 11 out of 15 Congress provincial committees had submitted Patel's name. Despite receiving no nomination, Nehru's candidacy was backed by the Working Committee. After pointing out to Nehru the fact that no PCC had nominated him, and measuring Nehru's frigid response, Gandhi asked Patel in a written note to withdraw, even though the election was his.


Both in 1929 and 1946, Patel obeyed the Mahatma. In 1946 especially, it was the greatest sacrifice to forgo becoming India's first Prime Minister. Yet Patel never hesitated to relinquish the honor, and remained very close to Gandhi.


Why did Gandhi pick Nehru? Contemporary media often portrays the Gandhi-Nehru relationship as that of a father and son. Scion of a political family, Nehru was more radical in ideas, more glamorous in persona and the darling of the masses. Nehru and Subhas Bose were considered the young radicals of the Congress in the 1920s, but Nehru had, like Patel, agreed with the Mahatma or stuck to his line more than Subhas Bose did. Nehru was often a political liability, speaking his radical views at the embrassment of the Congress, and was never actually responsible for a singular initiative in the movement, or commanding the loyalty of Congress organization.


Gandhi saw all his flaws, but knew that Nehru's energy, passion and rapport with the public was more advantageous to a young nation when a leader was to be picked. The PM would be the public image, which would form the public's trust with the Government. Gandhi knew that Nehru's appeal to the hundreds of millions of common Indians, to the Muslim community and to young Indians would serve as a uniter, especially in the poisonous, suspicion-filled climate of partition-era India. Nehru was energetic and young, while both Gandhi and Patel were in their 70s in 1947.


While Gandhi sparked the inner fires of Sardar Patel, he actually made Nehru. Without Gandhi's patronage and mentorship, Nehru's raw, temperate political judgment would have won him no kudos from the Congress Party. Patel on the other hand was the chief of India's most nationalistic province. Patel was the architect of the Congress Party's election strategy in 1934, 1937, 1946 and 1947. Patel was Gandhi's foundation pillar of support and execution during the Civil Disobedience Movement and the controversial and divisive, yet India's largest mass revolt, the Quit India Movement, and of course, at anything that happened in Gujarat. Had Patel openly objected to Gandhi's leadership at any of these junctures, it would have wrecked the Congress right down the line. Even the British acknowledged that Sardar Patel was the only man who could stand up to Gandhi. The Quit India Movement was a call for immediate independence for India issued by MK Gandhi on August 8, 1942. ...


But the Sardar's loyalty and affection for Gandhi, and vice versa were higher than thirst for power or office. And if Gandhi gave birth to the modern rebellion and oversaw its nationwide expansion, it was the Sardar who saw the nationalists and India through the finish line and safely into a free future.


The relations between the Sardar and Nehru were never personally affectionate, but of camaderie despite ideological differences. After independence, Patel became the Deputy Prime Minister, and the rivalry that fostered there drew Patel to the limit of his emotions and constitution. Gandhi was the referee in the Patel-Nehru disputes, and in early 1948, it was widely assumed that an exhausted Patel would be asked to leave the Government in Nehru's hands entirely by the Mahatma.


On January 30th 1948, Gandhi and Patel had the most crucial talk of both their lives. Gandhi asked Patel to continue as Deputy Prime Minister, and equal partner in India's leadership team. Gandhi then asked Patel to tell Nehru about his wishes, and left for his prayer meeting. Sardar Patel thus became the last of Gandhi's closest associates to see and talk with him. He was assassinated half an hour later.


Before Gandhi's body later that evening, a distraught Nehru emotionally embraced the Sardar and gave his pledge for their united partnership. This would last till the Sardar's own death in 1950, although it would undergo more rocky bumps.


Sardar Patel himself suffered a heart attack one month after Gandhi's death. He was saved only by the divine-sent presence of his nurse. It was the observation of his closest associates and Patel's own confession that it was Gandhi's tragic murder and Patel's bottling up of immense grief that caused his own shy with death.


While Nehru's relationship with Gandhi is more celebrated and fantasized about by Indian media, school books and common people, the Gandhi-Patel relationship produced the phenomenon, the wonder of absolute self-less patriotism and dynamic revolution that propelled a disunited, enslaved and divided India into freedom, unity and the future.


Mentors and protégés

Gandhi inspired spiritually and emotionally many men and women like Kala Kalelkar, Vinoba Bhave, Mirabehn, Mahadev Desai, Narhari Parikh and Badshah Khan. Mirabehn was a young Englishwoman Madeleine Slade who had left England inspired by Gandhi's teaching and had come to live by his side, utterly devoted to her guru and his teachings. Mahadev Desai was a young lawyer who had abandoned his ambitions to become his most loyal secretary, gaining an insight into the Mahatma which Wikipedia and countless historians would have loved to have. Narhari Parikh was the architect of many inspired revolts and battles in Gujarat against the British, and a close associate of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel himself. Badshah Khan was a Pathan leader, who in stark contrast to the common perceptions of his people, built an organization more committed to non-violent resistance than the Congress itself. Vinoba Bhave (September 11, 1895–November 15, 1982), born Vinayak Narahari Bhave, often called Acharya Vinoba Bhave (Acharya in Sanskrit means teacher) is considered as a National Teacher of India who has left his firm imprint on the religious, social and political consciousness of India. ... Jump to: navigation, search Formerly Miss Slade, Mirabhen admired Gandhi so much that she dropped everything in London to come stay with him. ... Mahadev Desai was the personal secretary of Mohandas K. Gandhi for 25 years, from 1917 to Desais death in 1942. ... Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan (also known as Bacha Khan) (1890 - January 20, 1988) was a Pathan political and spiritual leader known for his nonviolent opposition to British rule during the final years of the Empire on the Indian sub-continent. ... Jump to: navigation, search Formerly Miss Slade, Mirabhen admired Gandhi so much that she dropped everything in London to come stay with him. ... Mahadev Desai was the personal secretary of Mohandas K. Gandhi for 25 years, from 1917 to Desais death in 1942. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Wikipedia logo. ... Jump to: navigation, search Gujarat (ગુજરાત in Gujarati) is the most industrialized state in India after Maharashtra and is located in western India, bordered by Pakistan to the northwest and Rajasthan to the north. ... Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel was Deputy Prime Minister of India till his death in 1950 Vallabhbhai Jhaverbhai Patel (October 31, 1875–December 15, 1950), popularly referred to as Sardar Patel (Sardar stands for Chief or Leader), was an Indian statesman, core leader of the Indian Independence Movement and of the Indian... Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan (also known as Bacha Khan) (1890 - January 20, 1988) was a Pathan political and spiritual leader known for his nonviolent opposition to British rule during the final years of the Empire on the Indian sub-continent. ... The Pashtuns (also Pushtun, Pakhtun, or ethnic Afghan; in referring to the period of the British Raj or earlier, sometimes Pathan) are an ethnic/religious group of people, living primarily in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India who follow Pashtunwali, their indigenous religion. ...


Kalelkar and Bhave built ashramas in Maharashtra, and worked hard against economic injustice, social reform, against discrimination, untouchability, the opression of women and human freedom. Both are widely regarded as having carried the flame of Gandhi's non-political work and legacy, as Nehru is seen to have carried on Gandhi's political mission. Maharashtra (महाराष्ट्र) is Indias third largest state in terms of area and second largest in terms of population after Uttar Pradesh. ...


Gandhi's optimistic, sweet nature won him the undying loyalty and reverence of thousands of co-workers, and led them to openly confide with him and ask his guidance upon the most personal issues of the lives of each person. The daughter of Sardar Patel, Manibehn, spoke to Gandhi more openly about her future, especially marriage and family, than she could with her more reserved father. Gandhi served as a facilitator between the two.


Gandhi's open and humble nature also won him the admiration, mentorship and support of distinguished men who clashed with him ideologically on several issues at different times. Rabindranath Tagore, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Annie Besant, Gopal Krishna Gokhale and Motilal Nehru were all senior leaders of the Indian cultural conscience and the freedom movement before Gandhi came along. Besant and Tilak opposed the satyagraha of the early 1920s, and Tagore clashed with Gandhi from time to time. But he only fascinated them, despite the reality that he was disloding a departing generation and ushering in a new era, far more different than their own. Jump to: navigation, search Rabindranath Tagore Rabindranath Tagore (Bangla: রবীন্দ্রনাথ ঠাকুর, Robindronath Ţhakur) (May 7, 1861 – August 7, 1941) (in the Bangla Calendar, 25 Baishakh, 1268 – 22 Srabon, 1348), also called Gurudev, was a Bengali poet, Brahmo philosopher and nationalist who was awarded the Nobel Prize for literature in 1913, becoming the... Image:Tilak. ... Annie Besant Annie Wood Besant (Clapham, London October 1, 1847 - India September 20, 1933) was a prominent Theosophist, womens rights activist, writer and orator. ... Gopal Krishna Gokhale (गोपाल कृष्‍ण गोखले) was born on May 9, 1866, in Ratnagiri, Maharashtra. ... Jump to: navigation, search Motilal Nehru (May 6, 1861 - February 6, 1931) was an early leader of the Indian National Congress and Indian Nationalism. ...


Rabindranath Tagore wrote a poem for Gandhi, which famously and beautifully asked him to press forward, do the right thing and walk forth, even if it meant walking alone. Luckily, the hundred million followers of Gandhi made sure this encouragement was not necessary.


Opponents

Throughout the Gandhi Era (1918-1948), there were many political leaders who fought for India's freedom but did not share Gandhi's views, and sometimes outrightly opposed them. Such leaders included Subhas Chandra Bose, who sided openly with Germany and Japan in World War II and organized the Indian National Army to militarily liberate India from colonial rule. Mohammad Ali Jinnah was opposed to Gandhi's satyagraha methodology, and became the leader of Muslim separatists. Vinayak Damodar Savarkar was a Hindu fundamentalist, who was implicated in the assassination of the Mahatma. Netaji poster in Thiruvananthapuram Subhas Chandra Bose (January 23, 1897 - August 18, 1945) also known as Netaji, was a Orissa born and Bengal based Indian leader of the movement to win independence from British rule. ... Jump to: navigation, search World War II was a truly global conflict with many facets: immense human suffering, fierce indoctrinations, and the use of new, extremely devastating weapons such as the atom bomb World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a mid-20th-century conflict that... Jump to: navigation, search The Indian National Army or Azad Hind Fauj was an auxiliary force to the Imperial Japanese Army in its southern mainland campaign during the Second World War. ... office: 1st Governor-General of Pakistan Term of office: August 14, 1947 – September 11, 1948 Succeeded by: Khawaja Nazimuddin Date of birth: December 25, 1876 Place of birth: Wazir Mansion, Karachi Wives: Emibai, Rattanbai Petit Children: daughter Dina Date of Death: September 11, 1948 Place of Death: Karachi Political party... Veer Savarkar on a stamp issued by Government of India Vinayak Damodar Savarkar (May 28, 1883-1966), (Devanagari: विनायक दामॊदर सावरकर) sometimes called Veer Savarkar (वीर सावरकर - Brave Savarkar), was an Indian Freedom fighter, and a Hindu nationalist leader. ...


Gandhi's own entrance into Indian politics was greeted with skepticism over his work in South Africa. When he introduced Satyagraha as a methodology of revolution, Gandhi was opposed by the leading Indian revolutionaries of the earliest years: Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Bipin Chandra Pal, Annie Besant and Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Yet Gandhi was of the new generation of Indian nationalists, and his rise inevitable due to the empowerment the common man felt from non-violent resistance. Image:Tilak. ... He was one of the trilogy of the three Extremist patriots of the Indian National Congress who had fought and gave his life during Indias freedom struggle in the first half of the twentieth century. ... Annie Besant Annie Wood Besant (Clapham, London October 1, 1847 - India September 20, 1933) was a prominent Theosophist, womens rights activist, writer and orator. ... Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah of Pakistan Mohammad Ali Jinnah (referred to in Pakistan as Quaid-e-Azam, or Great Leader, which is a legally defined title) (December 25, 1876 - September 11, 1948) was an Indian Muslim nationalist, who led the movement demanding a separate homeland for Muslims in...


Indian heroes like Bhagat Singh and Chandrashekhar Azad also did not meet with Gandhi's approval, who absolutely despised violent means of gaining freedom. But Gandhi always admired the courage of revolutionaries like Bhagat Singh and Azad, and strongly protested the execution sentence handed to them. When their differing approaches were brought up, Gandhi always openly encouraged everybody to abandon violence and remain united, to prevent the British from justifying repression and dividing the Indian political leaders. There were never harsh words from Gandhi for anybody, even when he was on the receiving end of some terrible criticism. For example, Subhas Bose had repeatedly declared from Europe that Gandhi's leadership had failed. Jinnah called him a hypocrite, and openly accused him of suppressing Muslims. And Savarkar attacked him as being a "traitor" by conceeding Pakistan and mollycoddling Muslims at the expense of Hindus. Bhagat Singh Bhagat Singh (1907–1931) was an Indian revolutionary and believed by many to be one of the earlist Marxists in India. ... Chandrasekhar Azad Chandrasekhar Azad was one of four most famous revolutionaries that fought for Indias freedom from the British. ...


To Gandhi, men like Subhas Bose, Jinnah and Bhagat Singh were all Indians, and thus partners in the freedom struggle. Even at the height of the tensions between the Congress and the Muslim separatists, Gandhi never refrained from openly talking to Jinnah, calling him "my brother." After Pakistan was created, Gandhi had planned to visit to heal the wounds of partition, and re-create an atmosphere of friendship and goodwill, instead of the mistrust and hatred that poisoned inter-community and inter-nation relations for decades after Gandhi.


When the World War ended and the INA surrendered to the British, Gandhi openly lauded their bravery and encouraged the Congress to itself take up the work of rehabilitating INA soldiers, supporting the families of the soldiers and honoring their sacrifices.


To his direct and main opponents, the British, Gandhi was always most gracious and civil. While he was the victim of Raj propaganda attempting to defame him and break up the freedom fighters, Gandhi's image in the United Kingdom proper was of a holy man, a lovable, saint-like gentle soul. When he traveled to England in 1931, he was lovingly greeted by Lancashire textile workers, whose produced goods he had himself advocated to be burned in India. The working English, if not their government, understood how the manufactures were hurting poor Indians, and that Gandhi wanted friendship with the British, but only on equal terms and with a free India.


Legacy

Stop! The neutrality of this section is disputed.

India's independence was not won by Gandhi alone, but by the work and sacrifice of 100 million Indians over three to four generations. Gandhi himself stated that "truth and non-violence are as old as the hills" and that he had taught nothing new to the world. Mahatma Gandhi's biggest contributions to India and the world were: Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


The universal weapon

Gandhi was a simple, frail and timid-looking man. He had not been a distinguished student or great professional. Yet he led a rebellion of 300 million people from the front and tore down the British Empire. Gandhi gave the universal weapon of Satyagraha to ordinary human beings to fight injustice, tyranny and oppression. It did not require men becoming armed militants and leading the lives of the hunted. It instead gave voice and strength to the poorest farmers, the most downtrodden of a huge society, the youngest of men and women and the most timid housewife. Gandhi helped a silent nation that had suffered through 1,000 years of tyranny, oppression and invasion, to stand up for themselves, their beliefs and way of life, and tear down a world-wide empire.


The making of a nation

Before Gandhi, the Congress Party itself had been segregated by caste and ethnicity. Language differences and religious antagonism made it a body of talk, not action or results. It claimed to represent a country united only in poverty and ignorance. Elitist lawyers from Delhi and Mumbai made up its office-bearers, speakers and leaders. Jump to: navigation, search This article deals with the city of Delhi. ... Jump to: navigation, search Mumbai (Marathi: मुंबई ) (pronounced in Marathi, and in English), formerly known as Bombay is the capital of the Indian state of Maharashtra and is the most populous Indian city with a 2005 estimated population of about 13 million. ...


In reality, India had not been united since Emperor Ashoka over 1,500 years ago. It had seen over 1,000 years of oppression, tyranny and invasion, new rulers coming and going. None had touched or changed the lives of the people. Please see Ashoka (disambiguation) for other uses of the word Ashoka Ashoka the Great (also Asoka, अशोक Aśoka; pronounced Ashok, even though there is an a at the end) was the ruler of the Mauryan empire from 273 BC to 232 BC. After a number of military conquests, Ashoka reigned...


The Rebellion of 1857 touched something deep in many common Indians, but failed to do anything more. It was Gandhi who created the first-ever nationwide organization truly representative of the common Indians. It contained men and women of all religions, 18 different language groups and from the poorest villages of the farthest corners of the Indian subcontinent. And all these Indians, numbering in the tens of millions, were united in a nationwide struggle for something called freedom and democracy. An engraving titled Sepoy Indian troops dividing the spoils after their mutiny against British rule gives a contemporary view of events from the British perspective. ...


In his famous attire of loincloth and shawl, Gandhi instantly struck a chord with the hundreds of millions of people who thought he was one of them. He talked in the native language, inspiring the common man to feel he belonged to something called a nation.


Gandhi made this Indian National Congress fight for the causes of common man: he led the fights against poverty, alcoholism, illiteracy, disease while simultaneously fighting the British. He knew there could be no freedom when a system of slavery remained a part of Hindu society, called untouchability. He gave voice to Muslim and Hindu women, and brought Muslims and Hindus together for the first time in history in a peaceful and righteous common cause. And above all, he made them work together for something common, and develop a common sense of identity and brotherhood.


Gandhi's all-cultures, egalitarian, democratic organization laid the foundation for a nation that would genuinely be free, and where all religions, ethnic and linguistic groups would have genuine respect, love and brotherhood for one another.


It may be too much to say he made a nation, for India is as timeless and boundless as the whole world itself. But he did something, without which there would be no one country but 500, and no real freedom for the so-called common Indian. All 350 million of them.


Modern criticism

Supporters of Vinayak Damodar Savarkar and the Hindu hard-right seem to believe that Gandhi is single-handedly to blame for partition, and for the mollycoddling of Muslims at the expense of the concerns, feelings and rights of Hindu communities. Members of hard-right Hindu political parties have often been quoted making anti-Gandhi remarks. In 2004, the state of Gujarat was criticized for including anti-Gandhi passages in its mandated school history textbooks. Veer Savarkar on a stamp issued by Government of India Vinayak Damodar Savarkar (May 28, 1883-1966), (Devanagari: विनायक दामॊदर सावरकर) sometimes called Veer Savarkar (वीर सावरकर - Brave Savarkar), was an Indian Freedom fighter, and a Hindu nationalist leader. ... Jump to: navigation, search Gujarat (ગુજરાત in Gujarati) is the most industrialized state in India after Maharashtra and is located in western India, bordered by Pakistan to the northwest and Rajasthan to the north. ...


Numerous historians and commentators have criticized Gandhi for his attitudes towards Hitler and Nazism, including statements to the effect that the Jews would win a moral victory by permitting themselves to be exterminated. [3] [4] Penn and Teller, in an episode of their Showtime program Bullshit! ("Holier than Thou"), attacked Gandhi for, inter alia, racist statements against Africans, hypocrisy for perceived inconsistent stands on nonviolence, and inappropriate behavior with women. Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (April 20, 1889 – April 30, 1945, standard German pronunciation in the IPA) was the Führer (leader) of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party) and of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. ... Jump to: navigation, search The term National Socialism has been used in self-description by a number of different political groups and ideologies, some of which have no connection with the Nazis; see National socialism (disambiguation). ... Concentration camp inmates during the Holocaust The Holocaust was Nazi Germanys systematic genocide (ethnic cleansing) of various ethnic, religious, national, and secular groups during World War II. Early elements include the Kristallnacht pogrom and the T-4 Euthanasia Program established by Hitler that killed some 200,000 people. ... Penn (left) & Teller Penn and Teller are a two-man magic and comedy team, specializing in gory tricks (in which the mechanisms of the illusions are fully revealed) and clever pranks, who have become associated with Las Vegas, skepticism and libertarianism. ... Showtime is a subscription television brand used by a number of channels and platforms around the world, but primarily refers to a group of channels in the United States. ... Penn & Teller: Bullshit! (2003-) is a Showtime Channel TV program shown in the United States, hosted by professional magicians/comedians Penn Jillette and Teller. ... World map showing location of Africa A satellite composite image of Africa Africa is the worlds second_largest continent in both area and population, after Asia. ... Jump to: navigation, search Look up Hypocrisy on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Hypocrisy is the act of pretending to have morals or virtues that one does not truly possess or practice. ...


Recognition

Gandhi never received the Nobel Peace Prize, though he was nominated for it five times between 1937 and 1948. Decades later however, the Nobel Committee publicly declared its regret for the omission, and admitted to deeply divided nationalistic opinion denying the award to Gandhi. When the Dalai Lama was awarded the Peace Prize in 1989, the chairman of the committee said that this was "in part a tribute to the memory of Mahatma Gandhi". The official Nobel e-museum has an article discussing the issue.[5] Jump to: navigation, search The Nobel Institute in Oslo, Norway. ... 1937 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Jump to: navigation, search 1948 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... Tenzin Gyatso is the fourteenth and current Dalai Lama. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1989 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Time Magazine had named Gandhi as the runner-up in "Person of the Century" and had an article with write-ups on Dalai Lama, Lech Wałęsa, Martin Luther King Jr. and Nelson Mandela titled "Children of Gandhi" to recognise his influence on the future generations of leaders. Jump to: navigation, search (Clockwise from upper left) Notable Time magazine covers from the dates May 7, 1945; July 25, 1969; December 31, 1999; September 14, 2001; and April 21, 2003. ... Person of the Year is an annual issue of U.S. newsmagazine TIME that features a profile ostensibly on the man, woman, couple, group, idea, place, or machine that for better or worse, has most influenced events in the preceding year. ... Tenzin Gyatso is the fourteenth and current Dalai Lama. ... Office President of Poland Term of office from December 22, 1990 until December 23, 1995 Profession Electrician and shipyard worker Political party none, see Solidarity for details Spouse Danuta WaÅ‚Ä™sa Date of birth September 29, 1943 Place of birth Popowo, Poland Date of death Place of death Lech Wa... Martin Luther King, Jr. ... Jump to: navigation, search Nelson Mandela Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela, (born July 18, 1918), was the first democratically elected President of South Africa, having previously been a prominent anti-apartheid activist there. ...

Rs. 1000 currency of the Mahatma Gandhi series
Rs. 1000 currency of the Mahatma Gandhi series

The Government of India awards the Mahatma Gandhi Peace Prize to distinguished social workers, world leaders and citizen leaders. Nelson Mandela, the leader of South Africa's struggle to end racial discrimination and segregation, is a prominent non-Indian recipient of this honor. A thousand rupee note from India. ... A thousand rupee note from India. ... The MAHATMA GANDHI PEACE PRIZE is an official honour granted in the name of Mahatma Gandhi, the leader of the Indian Independence Movement by the Government of India. ... Jump to: navigation, search Nelson Mandela Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela, (born July 18, 1918), was the first democratically elected President of South Africa, having previously been a prominent anti-apartheid activist there. ...


In 1996, the Government introduced the Mahatma Gandhi series of currency notes of denominations Rupees 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 500 and 1000. The Rupee (₨ or Rs. ...


Mahatma

The word Mahatma, while often mistaken for Gandhi's given name, is taken from the Sanskrit term of reverence mahatman, meaning “Great Soul”. The title "Mahatma" was accorded Gandhi in 1915 by his admirer Rabindranath Tagore (the first Asian to win the Nobel Prize for Literature). It was given in response to Gandhi conferring the title of "Gurudev" (Great Teacher; Guru: Teacher Dev: God/Holy) upon Tagore. As stated in his autobiography, Gandhi never accepted the title because he believed himself unworthy of it. The Sanskrit language (Skt. ... Jump to: navigation, search Rabindranath Tagore Rabindranath Tagore (Bangla: রবীন্দ্রনাথ ঠাকুর, Robindronath Å¢hakur) (May 7, 1861 – August 7, 1941) (in the Bangla Calendar, 25 Baishakh, 1268 – 22 Srabon, 1348), also called Gurudev, was a Bengali poet, Brahmo philosopher and nationalist who was awarded the Nobel Prize for literature in 1913, becoming the... The Nobel Prize in literature is awarded annually to an author from any country who has produced the most outstanding work of an idealistic tendency. The work in this case generally refers to an authors work as a whole, not to any individual work, though individual works are sometimes... Jump to: navigation, search Rabindranath Tagore Rabindranath Tagore (Bangla: রবীন্দ্রনাথ ঠাকুর, Robindronath Å¢hakur) (May 7, 1861 – August 7, 1941) (in the Bangla Calendar, 25 Baishakh, 1268 – 22 Srabon, 1348), also called Gurudev, was a Bengali poet, Brahmo philosopher and nationalist who was awarded the Nobel Prize for literature in 1913, becoming the...


The wide acceptance of this title outside India may in part reflect the complexities of the relationship between India and Britain during Gandhi's lifetime. Such acceptance is consistent with the widespread perception of his deeply held religious beliefs and commitment to non-violence.


Artistic depictions

The best-known artistic depiction of his life is the film Gandhi (1982), directed by Richard Attenborough and starring Ben Kingsley (himself half-Gujarati) in the title role. However, the film has since been criticised by post-colonial scholars who argue that it depicts Gandhi as single-handedly bringing India to independence, and ignores other prominent figures (both elite and subaltern) in the anti-colonial struggle. The Making of the Mahatma, directed by Shyam Benegal and starring Rajat Kapur, is a film about Gandhi's 21 years of life in South Africa. Jump to: navigation, search Film refers to the celluloid media on which movies are printed Film is a term that encompasses motion pictures as individual projects, as well as the field in general. ... Jump to: navigation, search Gandhi (1982) is an Anglo-Indian film, directed by Richard Attenborough, about the life of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (also known as Mahatma Gandhi), leader of the nonviolent resistance movement against British colonial rule in India during the first half of the 20th century. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1982 is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Richard Samuel Attenborough, Baron Attenborough, KBE, CBE (born on August 29, 1923 in Cambridge, England) is a prolific British actor, director and film producer. ... Sir Ben Kingsley (born Krishna Bhanji on Friday, December 31, 1943) is an British actor of Indian (Gujarati Hindu) and Russian-Jewish descent. ... Jump to: navigation, search Gujarat (ગુજરાત in Gujarati) is the most industrialized state in India after Maharashtra and is located in western India, bordered by Pakistan to the northwest and Rajasthan to the north. ... Shyam Benegal is a prolific Indian director, born 14 December 1934 in Aliwal, Hyderabad, British India (now Andhra Pradesh, India). ...


In the United Kingdom, there are several prominent statues of Gandhi, most notably in Tavistock Gardens, London, near University College London, where he studied law. Jump to: navigation, search The clock tower of the Palace of Westminster, which contains Big Ben London is the capital city of the United Kingdom and of England. ... University College London, commonly known as UCL, is one of the colleges that make up the University of London. ...

The centennial commemorative statue of Mahatma Gandhi in the center of downtown Pietermaritzburg, South Africa.
The centennial commemorative statue of Mahatma Gandhi in the center of downtown Pietermaritzburg, South Africa.

In the United States, there are statues of Gandhi outside the Ferry Building in San Francisco, in Herman Park, Houston Garden Center in Houston, in Union Square Park in New York City, at the Martin Luther King, Jr. National Historic Site in Atlanta, outside the Honolulu Zoo in Kapiolani Park, Hawaii, and near the Indian Embassy in the Dupont Circle neighbourhood of Washington, DC. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 162 KB)The centennial commemorative statue of Mahatma Gandhi in the center of downtown Pietermaritzburg, South Africa. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 162 KB)The centennial commemorative statue of Mahatma Gandhi in the center of downtown Pietermaritzburg, South Africa. ... Jump to: navigation, search Location of Pietermaritzburg in KwaZulu-Natal province Pietermaritzburg is the capital of KwaZulu-Natal Province in South Africa. ... The Embarcaderos Ferry Building The Ferry Building is a terminal for ferries that travel across the San Francisco Bay and a shopping center located on The Embarcadero in San Francisco, California. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Houston redirects here. ... Equestrian George Washington, by Henry Kirke Brown, 1856. ... New York City, officially named the City of New York, is the most populous city in the United States, the most densely populated major city in North America, and is at the center of international finance, politics, entertainment, and culture. ... The Martin Luther King, Jr. ... Jump to: navigation, search Atlanta is the capital and largest city of Georgia, a state of the United States of America. ... The Honolulu Zoo is the only zoo in the United States to be established through royal grants. ... Julia Kapiolani reigned as Queen Consort of Hawaii alongside King David Kalakaua. ... State nickname: The Aloha State Other U.S. States Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Governor Linda Lingle (R) Senators Daniel Inouye (D) Daniel Akaka (D) Official languages Hawaiian and English Area 28,337 km² (43rd)  - Land 16,649 km²  - Water 11,672 km² (41. ... Aerial photograph of Dupont Circle. ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United...


The city of Pietermaritzburg, South Africa, home to the infamous 1893 ejection of Gandhi from a first-class train, now hosts a commemorative statue of the Indian independence figure, installed a century after the incident. Jump to: navigation, search Location of Pietermaritzburg in KwaZulu-Natal province Pietermaritzburg is the capital of KwaZulu-Natal Province in South Africa. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1893 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


There are statues in honour of Gandhi in other cities such as Moscow, Paris, Amsterdam, Barcelona, Lisbon, Canberra and San Fernando, Trinidad and Tobago. The government of India donated a statue to the City of Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, to signify their support for the future Canadian Museum for Human Rights. [6] Moscow (Russian: Москва́, Moskva, IPA:   listen?) is the capital of Russia, located on the river Moskva. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Eiffel Tower has become a symbol of Paris throughout the world. ... Jump to: navigation, search Amsterdam Location Country The Netherlands Province North Holland Population 739,295 (1 January 2005) Coordinates 4°54E - 52°22N Website www. ... Jump to: navigation, search Barcelona within Barcelonès Population (2003) 1,582,738 Area 100. ... District Lisbon Mayor   - Party Pedro Santana Lopes PSD Area 84. ... Canberra is the capital of the Commonwealth of Australia and, with a population of just over 323,000, is also Australias largest inland city. ... The City of San Fernando is one of the two cities which exist in the twin island Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. ... Jump to: navigation, search {{Hide = {{{Disable Motto Link}}}}} Motto: {{Unhide = {{{Disable Motto Link}}}}} Unum Cum Virtute Multorum (One With the Strength of Many) City of Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada location. ... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Glorious and free) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Lieutenant Governor John Harvard Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Area 647,797 km² (8th) Land 553,556 km² Water 64,241 km² (14. ...


There is also a large bust of Gandhi in front of the library at Laurentian University [7] in Sudbury, Ontario. In St. Louis, Missouri there is a bust honoring Gandhi in front of the International Institute. [8] The Gateway Arch, shown here behind the Old Courthouse, is the most recognizable part of the St. ... State nickname: The Show Me State Other U.S. States Capital Jefferson City Largest city Kansas City (largest metropolitan area is Saint Louis) Governor Matt Blunt (R) Senators Kit Bond (R) Jim Talent (R) Official languages English Area 69,709 mi²; 180,693 km² (21st)  - Land 68,898 mi²; 178...


Miscellaneous

Throughout his lifetime, Gandhi's activities attracted a wide range of comment and opinion. For example, as a more than loyal subject of the British Empire, Winston Churchill once stated: Jump to: navigation, search The Right Honourable Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, FRS, PC (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was a British statesman, best known as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during the Second World War. ...

"It is... nauseating to see Mr. Gandhi, a seditious Middle Temple lawyer, now posing as a fakir of a type well-known in the East, striding half-naked up the steps of the Viceregal Palace".

Conversely, Albert Einstein said of Gandhi: Sedition refers to a legal designation of non-overt conduct that is deemed by a legal authority as being acts of treason, and hence deserving of legal punishment. ... The Middle Temple is one of the four Inns of Court around the Royal Courts of Justice in London. ... Jump to: navigation, search A lawyer is a person licensed by the state to advise clients in legal matters and represent them in courts of law and in other forms of dispute resolution. ... According to Herbert Ponting, who took this photograph in 1907, this is a fakir in Benares (Varanasi), India. ... The term Eastern world refers very broadly to the various cultures, social structures and philosophical systems of the East, namely Asia (including China, India, Japan, and surrounding regions). ... Jump to: navigation, search Albert Einstein, by Yousuf Karsh Albert Einstein (March 14, 1879 – April 18, 1955) was a German-born Jewish theoretical physicist of profound genius, who is widely regarded as the greatest scientist of the 20th century. ...

"Generations to come will scarcely believe that such a one as this ever walked upon this earth in flesh and blood".

Martin Luther King Jr. said:

"Jesus gave me message and Gandhi gave me method".

Nobel Laureate and former Israel Premier Shimon Peres once commented that: The Nobel Prizes (pronounced no-BELL or no-bell) are awarded annually to people who have done outstanding research, invented groundbreaking techniques or equipment, or made outstanding contributions to society. ... Jump to: navigation, search Shimon Peres Shimon Peres [▶] (Hebrew שִׁמְעוֹן פֶּרֶס (without Niqqud: שמעון פרס)) (born August 21, 1923), an Israeli politician, is the head of the Israeli Labour Party and served as 8th Prime Minister of Israel from 1984-1986 and 1995-1996 and Foreign Affairs Minister of Israel from 2001-2002, and...

"Mahatma Gandhi belonged to the future, not to the past".

Mahatma Gandhi's work is not forgotten by his descendants. His grandsons, Arun Gandhi and Rajmohan Gandhi, and his great grandson, Tushar Gandhi, are also socio-political activists, promoting non-violence around the world. Arun Gandhi Arun Manilal Gandhi (born April 14, 1934, Durban, South Africa) is the fifth grandson of Mahatma Gandhi through his second son Manilal. ... Rajmohan Gandhi is a biographer and grandson of Mahatma Gandhi. ... Tushar Gandhi is a great-grandson of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, the Indian who helped India gain independence. ...


Margaret Bourke-White, a famous American photographer, took the last picture of Mahatma Gandhi alive moments before his assassination (See above). Self portrait of Margaret Bourke-White Margaret Bourke-White (June 14, 1906–August 27, 1971) was an American photographer and photo journalist. ...


See also

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File links The following pages link to this file: Abraham Lincoln Aristotle Ayn Rand Adolf Hitler Al Gore A Modest Proposal Articles of Confederation Arthur Schopenhauer Albert Einstein Amhrán na bhFiann Arthur Conan Doyle Ada programming language Antarctic Treaty System Andrew Jackson Andrew Johnson Adam Smith Bill Clinton Bible... Wikisource, The Free Library, is a Wikimedia project to build a free wiki library of primary source texts, along with translations of source-texts into any language and other supporting materials. ... Image File history File links i would like to see some quotations by or about goebbels. ... Wikiquote logo Wikiquote is a sister project of Wikipedia, using the same MediaWiki software. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Ahimsa is a religious concept which advocates non-violence and a respect for all life. ... Jump to: navigation, search Gandhism (or Gandhi-ism) is an informal reference to the core inspiration and philosophy of Mahatma Gandhi. ... Horace Gundry Alexander (July 30, 1889 - September 30, 1989) was an English Quaker teacher and writer, pacifist and ornithologist. ... Arun Gandhi Arun Manilal Gandhi (born April 14, 1934, Durban, South Africa) is the fifth grandson of Mahatma Gandhi through his second son Manilal. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Max Weber. ... Christian anarchism is the belief that there is only one source of authority to which Christians are ultimately answerable, the authority of God as embodied in the teachings of Jesus. ... GandhiCon is a concept in hacker culture. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Indian Independence Movement was a series of revolutions empowered by the people of India put forth to battle the British Empire for complete political independence, beginning with the Rebellion of 1857, reaching its climax with Mahatma Gandhis Quit India Movement (1942-1945), and Subhas... Jump to: navigation, search This is a list of famous and notable people from India. ... Mahatma is Sanskrit for Great Soul. ... Mahadev Desai was the personal secretary of Mohandas K. Gandhi for 25 years, from 1917 to Desais death in 1942. ... Sarojini Naidu (February 13, 1879 - March 2, 1949) was known as Bharata Kokila (The Nightingale of India) and was a freedom fighter and poet. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Netaji - Subhash Chandra Bose Subhash Chandra Bose (Bangla: সুভাষ চন্দ্র বসু) (January 23, 1897–August 18, 1945note) also known as Netaji, was a prominent leader of the Indian independence movement against the authoritarian British Raj. ... Jump to: navigation, search Vegetarianism is the theory or practice of eating only foods of plant origin, including fruits, grains and nuts. ... Vinoba Bhave (September 11, 1895–November 15, 1982), born Vinayak Narahari Bhave, often called Acharya Vinoba Bhave (Acharya in Sanskrit means teacher) is considered as a National Teacher of India who has left his firm imprint on the religious, social and political consciousness of India. ...

Bibliography

The Story of My Experiments with Truth (available at wikisource) is the autobiography of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (or Mahatma Gandhi) and was first published in two volumes, Volume I in 1927 and Volume II in 1929. ...

References

  • Gandhi: A Photo biography by Peter Rühe ISBN 0714892793
  • The Essential Gandhi: An Anthology of His Writings on His Life, Work, and Ideas by Louis Fischer ISBN 1400030501
  • Gandhi: A Life by Yogesh Chadha ISBN 0471350621
  • Gandhi (1982), film by Richard Attenborough
  • Gandhi and India: A Century in Focus by Sofri, Gianni (1995) ISBN 1900624125
  • The Kingdom of God is Within You [10] by Leo Tolstoy (1894) ISBN 0803294042
  • An Autobiography, or the Story of My Experiments with Truth M.K. Gandhi (1929)
  • Patel: A Life by Rajmohan Gandhi

Jump to: navigation, search Gandhi (1982) is an Anglo-Indian film, directed by Richard Attenborough, about the life of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (also known as Mahatma Gandhi), leader of the nonviolent resistance movement against British colonial rule in India during the first half of the 20th century. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1982 is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Richard Samuel Attenborough, Baron Attenborough, KBE, CBE (born on August 29, 1923 in Cambridge, England) is a prolific British actor, director and film producer. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1995 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The 1st English edition of The Kingdom of God is Within You, 1894 The Kingdom of God is Within You is a non-fiction work written by Leo Tolstoy and was first published in Germany in 1894, after being banned in his home country of Russia. ... Jump to: navigation, search Leo Tolstoy, pictured late in life Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy listen [▶] (Russian: Лев Никола́евич Толсто́й; commonly referred to in English as Leo Tolstoy) (September 9, 1828 – November 20, 1910; August 28, 1828 – November 7, 1910, O.S.) was a Russian novelist, social reformer, pacifist, Christian anarchist, vegetarian, moral thinker... 1894 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...

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Mahatma Gandhi - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (11527 words)
Gandhi was a mediocre student in his youth at Porbandar and later Rajkot, barely passing the matriculation exam for the University of Bombay in 1887, and joining Samaldas College, Bhavnagar.
Gandhi felt that one should be aware of worshiping the symbols and idols of the religion and not its teachings, such as worshipping the crucifix whilst ignoring its significance as a symbol for self-sacrifice, for example.
Gandhi maintained this was because of the sin committed by upper caste Hindus by not letting untouchables in their temples (Gandhi was committed to the cause of improving the fate of untouchables, referring to them as Harijans, people of Krishna).
MSN Encarta - Gandhi (1217 words)
Gandhi, also known as Mahatma Gandhi, was born in Porbandar in the present state of Gujarāt on October 2, 1869, and educated in law at University College, London.
Gandhi also acknowledged his debt to the teachings of Christ and to the 19th-century American writer Henry David Thoreau, especially to Thoreau's famous essay “Civil Disobedience.” Gandhi considered the terms passive resistance and civil disobedience inadequate for his purposes, however, and coined another term, satyagraha (Sanskrit for “truth and firmness”).
Gandhi traveled through India, teaching ahimsa and demanding eradication of “untouchability.” The esteem in which he was held was the measure of his political power.
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