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Encyclopedia > Mohammed Zahir Shah

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Mohammed Zahir Shah
King of Afghanistan
Reign 8 November 1933 - 17 July 1973
Born 16 October 1914
Kabul, Afghanistan
Died July 23, 2007 (aged 92)
Kabul, Afghanistan
Buried Maranjan Hill
Predecessor Mohammed Nadir Shah
Successor Monarchy abolished Mohammed Daoud Khan as President of Afghanistan
Consort Humaira Begum (deceased 2002)
Royal House Barakzai
Father Mohammed Nadir Shah
Mother Mah Parwar Begum

Mohammed Zahir Shah (16 October 191423 July 2007) was the last King (Shah) of Afghanistan, reigning for four decades, from 1933 to 1973. List of the Heads of State of Afghanistan Ashvagan c1220 to mid-13thC ruled by Mongol Emperors mid-13thC to 1404 divided between local Mongol leaders 1404 to 1507 within Timurid Empire 1507 to 1709 Iranian rule The Afghan State in Qandahar Mir Veys Khan Hotak (1709-1715) Mahmud Khan... Image File history File links Mohammed_Zahir_Shah. ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... For other places with the same name, see Kabul (disambiguation). ... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Mohammed Nadir Shah (born Mohammed Nadir Khan; 1883 - November 8, 1933) was king of Afghanistan from 1929 until his assassination in 1933 (see Reigns of Nadir Shah and Zahir Shah). ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... Afghanistan has only intermittently been a republic - between 1973-1992 and from 2001 onwards - at other times being governed by a variety of kings, emirs and (under the mujahideen and Taliban regimes in the 1990s) Islamist rulers. ... Barakzai or Barakzay is a Pashtun clan, belonging to Afghanistan and some also to Balochistan. ... Mohammed Nadir Shah (born Mohammed Nadir Khan; 1883 - November 8, 1933) was king of Afghanistan from 1929 until his assassination in 1933 (see Reigns of Nadir Shah and Zahir Shah). ... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Shah or Shahzad is a Persian term for a monarch (ruler) that has been adopted in many other languages. ...

Contents

Background

Zahir Shah was the son of Mohammed Nadir Shah, a military officer under former king Amanullah Khan. Nadir Shah assumed the throne after he had Habibullah Ghazi executed. Mohammed Zahir's father was born in Dehradun, India descending from a Pashtun family from Peshawar, India. Nadir Shah was a descendant of Colonel Sardar Mohammad Yusuf Khan Telai, the half-brother of Dost Mohammad Khan. His great grandfather Mohammad Yahya Khan was responsible for the mediation between Yaqub Khan and the British during the Gandomak Negotiations which is known as the Gandomak Treaty. After the signing of the treaty, Yaqub Khan and Yahya Khan fled to British India. Mohammed Nadir Shah (born Mohammed Nadir Khan; 1883 - November 8, 1933) was king of Afghanistan from 1929 until his assassination in 1933 (see Reigns of Nadir Shah and Zahir Shah). ... King Amanullah Khan Ghazi Amir Amanullah Khan (June 1, 1892 - April 25, 1960) was the ruler of Afghanistan from 1919 to 1929. ... Amir Habibullah Ghazi (name transliterated in many other ways, born Habibullah) (c. ... , Dehradun (Hindi: देहरादून)  , also sometimes spelled Dehra Doon, is the capital city of the Uttarakhand state (earlier called Uttaranchal) in India, and the headquarters of Dehradun District. ... The Pashtuns (also Pushtun, Pakhtun, ethnic Afghan, or Pathan) are an ethno-linguistic group consisting mainly of eastern Iranian stock living primarily in eastern and southern Afghanistan, and the North West Frontier Province, Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Baluchistan provinces of Pakistan. ...   (Urdu: پشاور; Pashto: پښور) literally means City on the Frontier in Persian and is known as Pekhawar in Pashto. ... Dost Mahommed Khan (1793 - June 9, 1863) founded the Barakzai dynasty in Afghanistan. ... Mohammad Yaqub Khan Mohammad Yaqub Khan (1849 - November 15, 1923) was Emir of Afghanistan from February to October 1879. ...


Zahir Shah was sent to be educated in France at the Pasteur Institute and the University of Montpellier.[1] He spoke fluent Persian, and some French, English and Italian.[2] The Pasteur Institute (French: Institut Pasteur) is a French non-profit private foundation dedicated to the study of biology, microorganisms, diseases and vaccines. ... The University of Montpellier, (Université de Montpellier), is a French university in Montpellier. ... “Farsi” redirects here. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


His preference of the Persian language gave him credibility with the most important group of the country: the Persian-speaking elite of Kabul.[3] For other places with the same name, see Kabul (disambiguation). ...


Rule

On 8 November 1933, he was proclaimed king at the age of nineteen after the assassination of his father, Mohammed Nadir Shah. For the first twenty years he did not effectively rule, ceding power to his paternal uncles.[4] This period fostered a growth in Afghanistan's relations with the international community. In 1934, Afghanistan joined the League of Nations while also receiving a formal recognition from the United States. Throughout the 1930s, agreements on foreign assistance and trade had been reached with many countries, most notably Germany, Italy, and Japan.[5] is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mohammed Nadir Shah (born Mohammed Nadir Khan; 1883 - November 8, 1933) was king of Afghanistan from 1929 until his assassination in 1933 (see Reigns of Nadir Shah and Zahir Shah). ...


In 1964, Zahir Shah promulgated a new constitution. He instituted programs of political and economic modernization, ushering in a democratic legislature and education for women. These reforms put him at odds with the conservative clerics who opposed him.[6] Modernization (also Modernisation) is a concept in the sphere of social sciences that refers to process in which society goes through industrialization, urbanization and other social changes that completely transforms the lives of individuals. ... For other uses, see Democracy (disambiguation). ... A legislatureis a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to ratify laws. ...


By the time he returned to Afghanistan in the twenty-first century, his rule was characterized by a lengthy span of peace, but with no significant progress[4]


Exile

In 1973, while Mohammed Zahir Shah was in Italy undergoing eye surgery as well as therapy for lumbago, his cousin and former Prime Minister Mohammed Daoud Khan staged a coup d'état and established a republican government. As a former prime minister, Daoud Khan had been fired by Zahir Shah a decade earlier.[4] In the August following this coup, Zahir Shah abdicated rather than risk an all-out civil war.[4] Lumbago is a term used to refer to low back pain. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... Coup redirects here. ...


Zahir Shah lived in exile in Italy for twenty-nine years in a villa in the affluent community of Olgiata[2] on Via Cassia, north of the city of Rome. He was barred from returning to Afghanistan during Soviet-backed Communist rule in the late 1970s. Exile (band) may refer to: Exile - The American country music band Exile - The Japanese pop music band Category: ... The Albertian Villa Medici in Fiesole: terraced grounds on a sloping site. ... Route of Via Cassia (in green). ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ...


In 1991, Zahir Shah survived an attempt on his life by a knife-wielding assassin who pretended to be a Portuguese journalist.[4]


During the regime of the Taliban, he remained secluded in exile and refused to speak out against the Taliban. Rather, when the Taliban managed to capture the northern city of Mazari Sharif in 1998, the exiled Zahir Shah sent the Taliban a letter of congratulations. The Taliban (Pashto: , also anglicized as Taleban) are a Sunni Muslim Pashtun movement [2] that ruled most of Afghanistan from 1996 until 2001, when their leaders were removed from power by a cooperative military effort between the Northern Alliance, United States, and the United Kingdom. ... Mazari Sharif, also known as Mazar-i Sharif or Mazār-e Sharīf (Persian: ‎ ), is the fourth largest city of Afghanistan, with population of 300,600 people (2006 official estimate). ...


On his return to Afghanistan in 2002, he vowed not to challenge Hamid Karzai for the presidency.[7] Hamid Karzai (Pashto: حامد کرزي) (b. ...


Return

In April 2002, while the country was under American occupation, he returned to Afghanistan to open the Loya jirga, which met in June 2002. After the fall of the Taliban, there were open calls for a return to the monarchy.[4] Zahir Shah toyed with the idea of becoming president, however he made clear he did not want to return as king: "I will accept the responsibility of head of state if that is what the loya jirga demands of me, but I have no intention to restore the monarchy. I do not care about the title of king. The people call me Baba and I prefer this title."[4] He was given the ceremonial title "Father of the Nation" in the current Constitution of Afghanistan[8] symbolizing his role in Afghanistan's history as a nonpolitical symbol of national unity. The title of the 'Father of the Nation' dissolved with his death.[9] [[Image:Loya_Jirga_2002. ... The Constitution of afghanistan became the official law of Afghanistan when the 2003 Loya jirga approved it by the consensus on January 4, 2004. ...


Hamid Karzai, a prominent figure from the Popalzai clan, became the president of Afghanistan and Zahir Shah's relatives and supporters were handed key posts in the transitional government. He moved back into his old palace, but the Loya Jirga refused to give him the throne. Criticisms include his over-zealous attempts to modernize Afghanistan, often putting his policies against traditional values, and his failure to come to a working and stable agreement with neighbouring Pakistan, which also contains a significant Afghan and Pashtun population. Hamid Karzai (Pashto: حامد کرزي) (b. ...


In an October 2002 visit to France, he had slipped in a bathroom, bruising his ribs, but on 21 June 2003, while in France for a medical check-up, he broke his femur by slipping in a bathroom. is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The femur or thigh bone is the longest, most voluminous, and strongest bone of the mammalian bodies. ... A typical American bathroom A bathroom is a room that may have different functions depending on the cultural context. ...


On 3 February 2004, Shah was flown from Kabul to New Delhi, India, for medical treatment after complaining of an intestinal problem. He was hospitalized for two weeks and remained in New Delhi under observation. On 18 May 2004, he was brought to a hospital in the United Arab Emirates because of nose bleeding caused by heat. is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... , This article is about the urban region that is the capital of India. ... In anatomy, the intestine is the segment of the alimentary canal extending from the stomach to the anus and, in humans and other mammals, consists of two segments, the small intestine and the large intestine. ... is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Zahir Shah attended the 7 December 2004 swearing in of Hamid Karzai as President of Afghanistan. is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Hamid Karzai (Pashto: حامد کرزي) (b. ...


In his final years, he was frail and required a microphone pinned to his collar so that his faint voice could be heard.[4] In January 2007, Shah was reported to be seriously ill and bedridden. On 23 July 2007, he died in the compound of the presidential palace in Kabul after prolonged illness.[7][10] His death was announced on national television by President Karzai.[4] His funeral was held on July 24. It began on the premises of the presidential palace, where political figures and dignitaries paid their respects; his coffin was then taken to a mosque before being moved to his tomb on Maranjan Hill.[11] is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Family

He married Homairah Begum (1918-2002) on 7 November 1931 and had issue, six sons and two daughters:[12] is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

  1. Princess Bilqis Begum (born 17 April 1932)
  2. Crown Prince Muhammed Akbar Khan (4 August 1933 - 26 November 1942)
  3. Crown Prince Ahmad Shah (born 23 September 1934)
  4. Princess Maryam Begum (born 2 November 1936)
  5. Prince Muhammed Nadir Khan (born 21 May 1941)
  6. Prince Shah Mahmoud Khan (15 November 1946 - 7 December 2002)
  7. Prince Muhammed Daoud Pashtunyar Khan (born 14 April 1949)
  8. Prince Mir Wais Khan (born 7 January 1957)

is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ahmed Shah Khan, Crown Prince of Afghanistan (born 23 September 1934) is the second son of Mohammed Zahir Shah, the former King of Afghanistan and current pretender to the throne of Afghanistan. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... April 14 is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 261 days remaining. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ...

See also

// Reign of Mohammed Nadir Shah, 1929-1933 Mohammed Nadir Shah quickly abolished most of Amanullah Khans reforms, but despite his efforts to rebuild an army that had just been engaged in suppressing a rebellion, the forces remained weak while the religious and tribal leaders grew strong. ...

References

  1. ^ Mohammad Zahir Shah, 92, Last King of Afghanistan.
  2. ^ a b McCarthy, Michael. "War On Terrorism: Opposition - Exiled king declares himself ready to return", The Independent (London), Look Smart: Find Articles, 2001-09-24. Retrieved on 2007-07-23. 
  3. ^ A. Rashid, "Kabul", 2002, (LINK) :"... The last time Zahir Shah saw Kabul it was an international diplomatic backwater, but a thriving, bustling town where the elite..."
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i Barry Bearak, Former King of Afghanistan Dies at 92, The New York Times, July 23, 2007.
  5. ^ Dupree, Louis: "Afghanistan", pages 477-478. Princeton University Press, 1980
  6. ^ [1]
  7. ^ a b "Former king of Afghanistan dies", BBC News, July 23, 2007.
  8. ^ The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan.
  9. ^ "The late King was always fondly referred to by all Afghans, cutting across ethnic boundaries, as "Baba-e-Millat" or 'Father of the Nation', a position given to him in the country's Constitution passed in January 2004, about two years after the collapse of Taliban rule. The title of the 'Father of the Nation' dissolves with his death." Last King of Afghanistan dies at 92.
  10. ^ "Former Afghanistan King dead". 
  11. ^ "Afghanistan's King Mohammad Zahir Shah Laid to Rest", Associated Press (Fox News), July 24, 2007.
  12. ^ Royal Ark

For other uses, see The Independent (disambiguation). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ahmed Rashid (b. ... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

External links

  • Robert Fisk on Zahir Shah: The last king of Afghanistan
  • Profile from The Observer
  • Genealogy of Mohammed Zahir Shah
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Mohammed Nadir Shah
King of Afghanistan
1933 — 1973
Succeeded by
Mohammed Daoud Khan
as President of Afghanistan
Titles in pretence
Monarchy abolished — TITULAR —
King of Afghanistan
1973 — 2007
Succeeded by
Crown Prince Ahmad Shah

  Results from FactBites:
 
Mohammed Zahir Shah - Independent Online Edition > Obituaries (1299 words)
When Zahir Shah ended his long exile, landing at Kabul airport to crowds of well-wishers in June 2002, he was 87 years old, a frail man in poor health.
Zahir Shah did open the loya jirga and to thunderous applause, but Afghans watching on television failed to hear what he had to say.
Zahir Shah occasionally conducted ceremonial duties, but he was basically a private citizen.
Mohammed Zahir Shah - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (469 words)
Mohammed Zahir Shah (born October 16, 1914) was the last King of Afghanistan from 1933 to 1973.
Shah was born into a family of Pashtuns (of the Durrani Popalzay clan) Afghanistan's largest ethnic group, he was also educated in the culture of Afghanistan's Darizobans, giving him access to both groups.
His cousin and former Prime Minister Mohammed Daoud Khan staged a coup d'état in 1973, and established a republican government while Mohammed Zahir Shah was in Italy.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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