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Encyclopedia > Mohammed Mossadegh
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Dr. Mohammad Mossadegh
Dr. Mohammad Mossadegh

Mohammed Mossadegh (Mossadeq )(Persian: محمد مصدق‎‎ ​, also Mosaddegh or Mosaddeq) (19 May 1882 - 5 March 1967) was the democratically elected[1] prime minister of Iran from 1951 to 1953. He was twice appointed to office by Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the Shah of Iran, and approved by the vote of parliament [2]. Mossadegh was a nationalist and passionately opposed foreign intervention in Iran. He was also the architect of the nationalization of the Iranian oil industry which was dominated and exploited by the British through the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company (today known as British Petroleum (BP)). He was later removed from power by Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, in a CIA orchestrated coup[3], supported and funded by the British and the U.S. governments. The coup was led by CIA agent Kermit Roosevelt, Jr.[4][5], the grandson of President Theodore Roosevelt, and came to be known as Operation Ajax[4], by its secret CIA cryptonym and the "28 Mordad 1332" coup, by its Iranian date. [6][7] Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Mohammed Mossadeq File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Mossadeq. ... Persian, (local name: FārsÄ« or PārsÄ«), is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... May 19 is the 139th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (140th in leap years). ... 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar. ... March 5 is the 64th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (65th in leap years). ... 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (the link is to a full 1967 calendar). ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of a cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran (Persian: محمد رضا پهلوی , ،شاه ایران) (October 26, 1919, Tehran – July 27, 1980, Cairo), styled His Imperial Majesty, and holding the monarchial titles of Shāhanshāh (King of Kings) and Aryamehr (Light of the Aryans), was the ruler of Iran from September 16, 1941 until the Iranian Revolution... One of the worlds longest-lasting monarchies, the Iranian monarchy went through many transformations over the centuries, from the days of Persia to the creation of what is now modern day Iran. ... Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ... The Anglo-Iranian Oil Company (AIOC) was founded in 1909, as the Anglo-Persian Oil Company, following the discovery of a large oil field in Masjed Soleiman, Iran. ... This article is about the corporation known as BP. See also BP (disambiguation) BP (formerly British Petroleum and briefly known as BP Amoco) (NYSE: BP) is a petroleum company headquartered in London, United Kingdom. ... Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran (Persian: محمد رضا پهلوی , ،شاه ایران) (October 26, 1919, Tehran – July 27, 1980, Cairo), styled His Imperial Majesty, and holding the monarchial titles of Shāhanshāh (King of Kings) and Aryamehr (Light of the Aryans), was the ruler of Iran from September 16, 1941 until the Iranian Revolution... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... Kermit Roosevelt Kermit Kim Roosevelt, Jr. ... Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. ... Soldiers surround the Parliament building in Tehran on August 19, 1953. ... CIA cryptonyms are code words seen in declassified documents of the US Central Intelligence Agency. ...

Contents

Early life

Mohammad Mossadegh was born in 1882 in Tehran to an Ashtiani finance minister and a Qajar princess. When his father died in 1892, he was appointed the tax collector of the Khorasan province and was bestowed with the title of "Mossadegh-os-Saltaneh" by Nasser_al-Din_Shah. [2] He studied at "Ecôle Libre Des Sciences Politiques" in Paris and in 1914, received his PhD in Law from the Neuchâtel University in Switzerland. The Qajar dynasty was the ruling family of Persia from 1796 to 1925. ... Khorasan (also spelled Khurasan and Khorassan; خراسان in Persian) is an area, located in eastern and northeastern Iran. ... Nasser-al-Din Shah The Shah, on his European tour, in The Royal Albert Hall, London Nasser al-Din Shah Qajar (Persian: ‎ translit: ) (July 16, 1831 - May 1, 1896) was the Shah of Persia from September 17, 1848 until his death on May 1, 1896. ... PhD usually refers to the academic title Doctor of Philosophy PhD can also refer to the manga Phantasy Degree This is a disambiguation page — a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... Weighing scales represent the way law balances peoples interests For other senses of this word, see Law (disambiguation). ...


Early political career

Mossadegh got his start in Iranian politics with the Iranian Constitutional Revolution,when at the age of 24 ,he was elected from Isfahan to the newly inaugurated Persian Parliament,"Majles".In 1920,after being self-exiled to Switzerland in protest to the Anglo-Persian Treaty of 1919,he was invited by the new Persian Prime Minister, Hassan Pirnia (Moshir-ed-Dowleh) to become his "Minister of Justice";but in his route to Tehran, he was asked by the people of Shiraz to become Governor of the "Fars" Province. He was later appointed Finance Minister, in the government of Ahmad Ghavam (Ghavam os-Saltaneh) in 1921, and then Foreign Minister, in the government of Moshir-ed-Dowleh in June 1923.He then became Governor of the "Azerbaijan" Province. Later in 1923, he was re-elected to the "Majlis"and voted against the selection of the Prime Minister Reza Khan as the new Shah of Persia. A Revolution in Iran against the despotic rule of the last Qajar Shah. ... The finance minister is a cabinet position in a government. ... A minister for foreign affairs, or foreign minister, is a cabinet minister who helps form the governmental foreign policy of a sovereign nation. ... Shah Reza Pahlavi Reza Pahlavi (Persian: رضا پهلوی), (March 16, 1877–July 26, 1944), called Reza Shah the Great after his death, was Shah of Persia (later Iran) from December 15, 1925 to September 16, 1941. ...


By 1944, Reza Shah Pahlavi had abdicated, and Mossadegh was once again elected to parliament. This time he took the lead of Jebhe Melli(National Front of Iran), an organization he had founded, aiming to establish Democracy and end the foreign presence in the Iranian politics, especially regarding the exploitation of Iran's rich oil resources by the "Anglo-Iranian Oil Company"(AIOC). Shah Reza Pahlavi Reza Pahlavi (Persian: رضا پهلوی), (March 16, 1877–July 26, 1944), called Reza Shah the Great after his death, was Shah of Persia (later Iran) from December 15, 1925 to September 16, 1941. ... The National Front of Iran (Jebhe Melli) is a political opposition party founded by Mohammad Mossadegh and other Iranian nationalist leaders in the late 1940s. ...


After negotiations for higher oil royalties failed, on 15 March 1951 the Iranian parliament voted to nationalize Iran's oil industry and seize control of the British-owned and operated Oil Company. Prime Minister General Haj-Ali Razmara, elected in June 1950, had opposed the nationalization bill on technical grounds. Razmara was assassinated on 7 March 1951 by Khalil Tahmasebi, a member of the militant fundamentalist group Fadayan-e Islam. March 15 is the 74th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (75th in Leap years). ... 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Sarnia, Ontario Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... General Ali Razmara was a prime minister of Iran during the early 1950s. ... March 7 is the 66th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (67th in leap years). ... 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ... Khalil Tahmasebi, Iranian who murdered the prime minister of Iran (Ali Razmara) in 1951. ... Fadayan-e Islam was founded in 1946 as an Islamic fundamentalist organization. ...


Prime minister

On 28 April 1951 the Majlis named Mossadegh as new prime minister by a vote of 79-12. Aware of Mossadegh's rising popularity and political power, the young Shah was left with no other option but to give assent to the Parliament's vote. Shortly after coming to office, Mossadegh enforced the Oil Nationalization Act, which involved the expropriation of the AIOC's assets. April 28 is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 247 days remaining. ... 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ... مجلس شورای اسلامی - The Majles; Irans Parliament. ...


Responding to the latter, the British government announced it would not allow Mossadegh's government to export any oil produced in the formerly British-controlled refineries. A blockade by British ships was established in the Persian Gulf to prevent any attempts by Iran to ship oil out of the country. Furthermore, the AIOC withdrew its British trained technicians when Mossadegh nationalized the oil industry. Thus, many of the refineries lacked properly trained technicians that were needed to continue production. An economic stalemate thus ensued, with Mossadegh's government refusing to allow any British involvement in Iran's oil industry, and Britain refusing to allow any oil to leave Iran. It has been suggested that Persian Gulf States be merged into this article or section. ...


Since Britain had long been Iran's primary oil-consumer, the stalemate was particularly hard on Iran. While the country had once boasted over a 100 million dollars a year in exports to Britain, after nationalization, the same oil industry began increasing Iran's debt by nearly 10 million dollars a month. The Abadan Crisis quickly plunged the country into economic difficulties. For other uses, see Debt (disambiguation). ... The Abadan Crisis occurred from 1951 to 1954, after Iran nationalized the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, and expelled Western companies from oil refineries in the city of Abadan. ...


Despite the economic hardships of his nationalization plan, Mossadegh remained popular, and in 1952 was approved by parliament for a second term. Sensing the difficulties of a worsening political and economic climate, he announced that he would ask the Shah to grant him emergency powers. Thus, during the royal approval of his new cabinet, Mossadegh insisted on the constitutional prerogative of the prime minister to name a Minister of War and the Chief of Staff. The Shah refused, and Mossadegh announced his resignation. A cabinet is a body of high-ranking members of government, typically representing the executive branch. ...


Ahmad Qavam (also known as Ghavam os-Saltaneh) was appointed as Iran's new prime minister. On the day of his appointment, he announced his intention to resume negotiations with the British to end the oil dispute. This blatant reversal of Mossadegh's plans sparked a massive public outrage. Protestors of all stripes filled the streets, including communists and radical Muslims led by Ayatollah Kashani. Frightened by the unrest, the Shah quickly dismissed Qavam, and re-appointed Mossadegh, granting him the full control of the military he had previously requested. Ahmad Ghavam in royal court attire. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Turkish: Müslüman, Persian and Urdu: مسلمان, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of Islam. ... This article needs cleanup. ...


Taking advantage of his popularity, Mossadegh convinced the parliament to grant him increased powers and appointed Ayatollah Kashani as house speaker. Kashani's radical Muslims, as well as the Tudeh Party, proved to be two of Mossadegh's key political allies, although both relationships were often strained. The Tudeh Party of Iran (f. ...


Mossadegh quickly implemented more sociopolitical changes. Iran's centuries old feudal agriculture sector was abolished, and replaced with a system of collective farming and government land ownership. Feudalism comes from the Late Latin word feudum, itself borrowed from a Germanic root *fehu, a commonly used term in the Middle Ages which means fief, or land held under certain obligations by feodati. ...


Plot against Mossadegh

Soldiers surround the Parliament building in Tehran on 19 August 1953.
Soldiers surround the Parliament building in Tehran on 19 August 1953.

The government of Britain had grown increasingly distressed over Mossadegh's policies and were especially bitter over the loss of their control on the Iranian oil industry. Despite Mossadegh's repeated attempts to negotiate a reasonable settlement with them they refused outright the same terms, and later total control over Iranian oil. Photo is from CHN Archives of Irans Cultural Heritage Organization. ... Photo is from CHN Archives of Irans Cultural Heritage Organization. ... Tehran (IPA: ; Persian: تهران, also transliterated as Teheran or Tehrān), population 7,160,094 (metropolitan: 14,000,000[citation needed]), and a land area of 658 square kilometers, is the capital city of Iran (Persia) and the center of Tehran Province. ... August 19 is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday. ...


Unable to resolve the issue singlehandedly due to its post second world war problems, Britain looked towards the United States to settle the issue. The United States was falsely informed that Mossadegh was increasingly turning towards Communism and was moving Iran towards the Soviet sphere at a time of high Cold War fears.[3] [4] [5] This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... For other uses, please see Cold War (disambiguation). ...


Acting on the fears created by Britain the United States and Britain began to publicly denounce Mossadegh's policies for Iran as harmful to the country.


In October 1952 Mossadegh declared that Britain was "an enemy", and cut all diplomatic relations with the United Kingdom. In November and December 1952 British intelligence officials suggested to American intelligence that the prime minister should be ousted. The new US administration under Dwight Eisenhower and the British government under Winston Churchill agreed to work together toward Mossadegh's removal. In March 1953 Secretary of State John Foster Dulles directed the US Central Intelligence Agency, which was headed by his younger brother Allen Dulles, to draft plans to overthrow Mossadegh [6]. Dwight David Ike Eisenhower (October 14, 1890–March 28, 1969), American soldier and politician, was the 34th President of the United States (1953–1961) and supreme commander of the Allied forces in Europe during World War II, with the rank of General of the Army. ... This article is becoming very long. ... Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice. ... John Foster Dulles John Foster Dulles (February 2, 1888 – May 24, 1959) was an American statesman who served as Secretary of State under President Dwight D. Eisenhower from 1953 to 1959. ... The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an intelligence agency of the United States Government. ... Allen W. Dulles Allen Welsh Dulles (April 7, 1893 – January 29, 1969) was the first civilian Director (1953-1961) of the Central Intelligence Agency and a member of the Warren Commission. ...


On 4 April 1953 CIA director Dulles approved $1 million to be used "in any way that would bring about the fall of Mossadegh". Soon the CIA's Tehran station started to launch a propaganda campaign against Mossadegh. Finally, according to The New York Times, in early June, American and British intelligence officials met again, this time in Beirut, and put the finishing touches on the strategy. Soon afterward, according to his later published accounts, the chief of the CIA's Near East and Africa division, Kermit Roosevelt, Jr., a grandson of Theodore Roosevelt, arrived in Tehran to direct it. April 4 is the 94th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (95th in leap years). ... 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... Tehran (IPA: ; Persian: تهران, also transliterated as Teheran or Tehrān), population 7,160,094 (metropolitan: 14,000,000[citation needed]), and a land area of 658 square kilometers, is the capital city of Iran (Persia) and the center of Tehran Province. ... The New York Times is a newspaper published in New York City by Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. ... For other uses, see Beirut (disambiguation). ... Kermit Roosevelt Kermit Kim Roosevelt, Jr. ... Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. ...


The plot, known as Operation Ajax, centered around convincing Iran's monarch to use his constitutional authority to dismiss Mossadegh from office, as he had attempted some months earlier. But the Shah was uncooperative, and it would take much persuasion and many meetings to successfully execute the plan. Meanwhile, the CIA stepped up its operations. According to Dr. Donald N. Wilber, who was involved in the plot to remove Mossadegh from power, in early August, Iranian CIA operatives pretending to be socialists and nationalists threatened Muslim leaders with "savage punishment if they opposed Mossadegh," thereby giving the impression that Mossadegh was cracking down on dissent, and stirring anti-Mossadegh sentiments within the religious community. Soldiers surround the Parliament building in Tehran on August 19, 1953. ... Shah is an Iranian & Pakistani/Indian term in Persian language & Urdu (شاه), for a monarch (king or emperor), and has also been adopted in many other languages. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... Donald Newton Wilber, American writer and spy. ...


Mossadegh became aware of the plots against him and grew increasingly wary of conspirators acting within his government. He set up a national referendum to dissolve parliament. Some purport that the vote was rigged, with Mossadegh claiming a 99.9 percent victory for the "yes" side. Allegations that Mossadegh was resorting to dictatorial tactics to stay in power were in turn cited by US- and British-supported opposition press as a reason to remove Mossadegh from power. Parliament was suspended indefinitely, and Mossadegh's emergency powers were extended. Ballots of the Argentine plebiscite of 1984 on the border treaty with Chile A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... ]] originally limited to a term -commonly of six months or the duration of a military conflict- and lacked power over the public finances. ... A state of emergency is a governmental declaration that may suspend certain normal functions of government, may work to alert citizens to alter their normal behaviors, or may order government agencies to implement emergency preparedness plans. ...


Inside Iran, Mossadegh's popularity was eroding as promised reforms failed to materialize [7] and the economy continued to suffer due to heavy British sanctions. The Tudeh Party abandoned its alliance with Mossadegh, as did the conservative clerical factions. The Tudeh Party of Iran (f. ...


In August 1953 Mossadegh attempted to convince the Shah to leave the country. The Shah refused, and formally dismissed the Prime Minister, in accordance with the foreign intelligence plan. Mossadegh refused to leave, however, and when it became apparent that he was going to fight, the Shah, as a precautionary measure foreseen by the British/American plan, flew to Baghdad and on from there to Rome, Italy, after hesitantly signing two decrees, one dismissing Mossadegh and the other nominating General Fazlollah Zahedi Prime Minister, subsequent to pressure from the US and UK intelligence agencies. The choice had fallen on Zahedi, whom in the months before, Roosevelt and Wilbur had identified as perfectly suitable to carry out the dirty work, during and following the coup. Fazlollah Zahedi was to prove that they had betted on the right horse, afterall he had fallen out with Mossadeq and resigned from his post as minister of the interior, as well as having been briefly detained already on suspicions of planning a coup of his own, by Mossadegh's orders in February of 1953. Fearing imminent re-arrest, Zahedi went into hiding, with another affair, the torture death of Tehran's chief of Police, General Afshartus being blamed on him by the authorities. Baghdad ( translit: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Nickname: The Eternal City Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 8th century BC Mayor Walter Veltroni Area    - City 1,285 km²  (496. ... Muhammad Fazlollah Zahedi (1897-1963) was an Iranian general and politician. ...


Once again, massive protests broke out across the nation. Anti- and pro-monarchy protestors violently clashed in the streets, leaving almost 300 dead. Funded with money from the U.S. CIA and the British MI6, the pro-monarchy forces, led by retired army General and former Minister of Interior in Mossadegh's cabinet , Fazlollah Zahedi, gained the upper hand on 19 August 1953 (28 Mordad). The military intervened as the pro-Shah tank regiments stormed the capital and bombarded the prime minister's official residence. Mossadegh managed to flee from the mob that set in to ransack his house, and, the following day, surrendered to General Zahedi, who had meanwhile established his makeshift headquarters at the Officers' Club. A tearful Dr. Mossadegh was received in dignity however and placed under arrest in a comfortable apartment [8] at the Officers' Club and transferred to a military jail shortly after. The Secret Intelligence Service (SIS), commonly known as MI6, is the United Kingdoms external intelligence agency. ... Muhammad Fazlollah Zahedi (1897-1963) was an Iranian general and politician. ... August 19 is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday. ...


Shortly after the return of the Shah on 22 August 1953 from the brief self-imposed exile in Rome, Mossadegh was tried by a military tribunal for high treason. Zahedi and the Shah were inclined, however, to spare the ailing man's life (the death penalty would have applied according to the laws of the day). Mossadegh received a sentence of 3 years in solitary confinement at a military jail and was exiled to his village, not far from Tehran, where he remained under house arrest until his death, on 5 March 1967. August 22 is the 234th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (235th in leap years), with 131 days remaining. ... 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... March 5 is the 64th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (65th in leap years). ... 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (the link is to a full 1967 calendar). ...


Zahedi's new government soon reached an agreement with foreign oil companies to form a "Consortium" and "restore the flow of Iranian oil to world markets in substantial quantities." [9].


Legacy

When the Iranian revolution occurred in 1979 the overthrow of Mossadegh was used as a rallying point in anti-US protests. To this day, Mossadegh is one of the most popular figures in Iranian history [10]. Although he is very popular among people and is considered a national hero by most, the now fundamentalist theocratic regime doesn't approve of him and his secularism and western manners. Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ...


The extent of the US role in Mossadegh's overthrow was not formally acknowledged for many years, although the Eisenhower administration was quite vocal in its opposition to the policies of the ousted Iranian Prime Minister. In his memoirs, Eisenhower writes angrily about Mossadegh, and describes him as impractical and naive, though stops short of admitting any overt involvement in the coup.


Eventually the CIA's role became well-known, and caused controversy within the organization itself, and within the CIA congressional hearings of the 1970s. Die-hard CIA supporters maintain that the plot against Mossadegh was strategically necessary, and praise the efficiency of agents in carrying out the plan. Critics say the scheme was paranoid and colonial, as well as immoral.


In March 2000 then secretary of state Madeleine Albright stated her regret that Mossadegh was ousted: "The Eisenhower administration believed its actions were justified for strategic reasons. But the coup was clearly a setback for Iran's political development and it is easy to see now why many Iranians continue to resent this intervention by America." In the same year, the New York Times published a detailed report about the coup based on CIA documents. [11]. Madeleine Korbel Albright (born Marie Jana Korbelová on May 15, 1937) served as the 64th United States Secretary of State. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ...


Because of his legacy, Mossadegh was named as Time Magazine's 1951 Man of the Year. (Clockwise from upper left) Time magazine covers from May 7, 1945; July 25, 1969; December 31, 1999; September 14, 2001; and April 21, 2003. ... 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ... Person of the Year is an annual issue of U.S. newsmagazine TIME that features a profile ostensibly on the man, woman, couple, group, idea, place, or machine that for better or worse, has most influenced events in the preceding year. ...


In early 2004, the Egyptian government changed a street name in Cairo from Pahlavi to Mossadegh, to facilitate closer relations with Iran. Abbey Road in London A street name or odonym is an identifying name given to a street. ... Cairos location in Egypt Coordinates: Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area    - City 210 km²  - Metro 1,492 km² Population    - City (2005) 7,438,376  - Density 35,420/km²  - Urban 10,834,495  - Metro 15,200,000 Time zone EET (UTC+2) EEST (UTC+3) Cairo (Arabic: ‎ translit: ), It comes... The Pahlavi dynasty(سلسله پهلوی) of Iran began with the crowning of Reza Shah Pahlavi in 1925 and ended with the Iranian Revolution of 1979, and the subsequent collapse of the ancient tradition of Iranian monarchy. ...

Preceded by:
Hossein Ala'
Prime Minister of Iran
1951 – 1952 July 16
Succeeded by:
Ghavam os-Saltaneh
Preceded by:
Ghavam os-Saltaneh
Prime Minister of Iran
1952 July 211953 August 19
Succeeded by:
Fazlollah Zahedi

Hosein Ala Hosein Alā was a Prime Minister of Iran during 1951. ... As the result of an amendment to the Constitution of Iran in 1989, there is no longer a post titled Prime Minister of Iran, but Iran has had many prime ministers since the Qajar era, when the country was internationally known as Persia. ... 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... July 16 is the 197th day (198th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 168 days remaining. ... Ahmad Ghavam in royal court attire. ... Ahmad Ghavam in royal court attire. ... As the result of an amendment to the Constitution of Iran in 1989, there is no longer a post titled Prime Minister of Iran, but Iran has had many prime ministers since the Qajar era, when the country was internationally known as Persia. ... 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... July 21 is the 202nd day (203rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 163 days remaining. ... 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... August 19 is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Muhammad Fazlollah Zahedi (1897-1963) was an Iranian general and politician. ...

References

  1. ^ Mike Thomson (2005-08-22). A Very British Coup, An award winning radio documentary from the BBC revealing "the true extent of Britain 's involvement in the coup of 1953 which toppled Iran's democratically elected government and replaced it with the tyranny of the Shah". BBC Radio 4. Retrieved on 2006-11-03.
  2. ^ [1]
  3. ^ James Risen (2000-04-16). Secrets of History: The C.I.A. in Iran. The New York Times. Retrieved on 2006-11-03.
  4. ^ a b Dan De Luce (2003-09-20). The Spectre of Operation Ajax. Guardian Unlimited. Retrieved on 2006-11-03.
  5. ^ Amy Goodman (2003-09-20). 50 Years After the CIA’s First Overthrow of a Democratically Elected Foreign Government. Democracy Now. Retrieved on 2006-11-03.
  6. ^ Mark J. Gasiorowski and Malcolm Byrne (2004-06-22). Mohammad Mosaddeq and the 1953 Coup in Iran. National Security Archive. Retrieved on 2006-11-03.
  7. ^ The Independent, Leading Article: A counter-productive policy towards Iran

2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... August 22 is the 234th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (235th in leap years), with 131 days remaining. ... BBC Radio 4 is a British domestic radio station which broadcasts a wide variety of chiefly spoken-word programmes including news, drama, comedy, science and history. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 3 is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 58 days remaining. ... James Risen is a reporter for the New York Times and previously the Los Angeles Times, and author/co-author of two books about the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). ... This article is about the year 2000. ... April 16 is the 106th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (107th in leap years). ... The New York Times is a newspaper published in New York City by Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 3 is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 58 days remaining. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 20 is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years). ... Front page of Guardian Unlimited from August 16, 2005 Guardian Unlimited is a British website owned by the Guardian Media Group. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 3 is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 58 days remaining. ... Amy Goodman on Democracy Now! Amy Goodman (b. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 20 is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years). ... Democracy Now! is an independent, award-winning news and opinion radio program airing on over 300 stations across North America every weekday, as well as both satellite television networks. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 3 is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 58 days remaining. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 22 is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 192 days remaining. ... The National Security Archive is an independent organization located within the George Washington University. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 3 is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 58 days remaining. ...

Further reading

  • Farhad Diba, "Dr.Mohammad Mossadegh; A Political Biography". London: Croom Helm, 1986, ISBN 0-7099-4517-5
  • Mostafa Elm, "Oil, Power, and Principle: Iran's Oil Nationalization and Its Aftermath". Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1994, ISBN 0-8156-2642-8
  • Mark Gasiorowski, U.S. Foreign Policy and the Shah: Building a Client State in Iran, Cornell University Press, 1991, ISBN 0-8014-2412-7
  • Mary Ann Heiss, Empire and Nationhood: The United States, Great Britain, and Iranian Oil, 1950-1954, Columbia University Press,1997, ISBN 0-231-10819-2
  • Stephen Kinzer, All The Shah's Men: An American Coup and the Roots of Middle East Terror, John Wiley & Sons, 2003, ISBN 0-471-26517-9
  • Id., Overthrow: America's Century of Regime Change from Hawaii to Iraq, Times Books, 2006, ISBN 0-8050-7861-4
  • Nikki R. Keddie, Modern Iran: Roots and Results of Revolution, Yale University Press, 2003, ISBN 0-300-09856-1
  • Mohammad Mosaddeq and the 1953 Coup in Iran, edited by Mark J. Gasiorowski and Malcolm Byrne. Translated into Persian as Mosaddegh va Coup de Etat by Ali Morshedizad, Ghasidehsara Pub. Co.

Stephen Kinzer is an American author and newspaper reporter. ... All the Shahs Men : An American Coup and the Roots of Middle East Terror (ISBN 0471678783 ) is a book, written by journalist Stephen Kinzer, about the 1953 CIA-engineered coup in which Mohammed Mossadegh was overthrown by American and British agents (chief among them Kermit Roosevelt) and royalists loyal... Overthrow: Americas Century of Regime Change from Hawaii to Iraq is a book by Stephen Kinzer released in 2006 about the United Statess involvement in overthrowing governments from the Kingdom of Hawaii in 1893 to Iraq in 2003. ... Nikkie R. Keddie is a professor at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). ...

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Mohammed Mossadegh - Biocrawler (2005 words)
Mohammed Mossadegh (Persian: محمد مصدق‎;) (May 19, 1882 - March 4, 1967) was prime minister of Iran from 1951 to 1953.
After being educated in France, Mohammed Mossadegh got his start in Iranian politics in 1914, when he was appointed Governor General of the Iranian province of Fars by Ahmad Shah Qajar and was titled Mosaddegh os-Saltaneh by the Shah.
In October of 1952, Mossadegh declared that Britain was "an enemy," and cut all diplomatic relations with the United Kingdom.
Mohammed Mossadegh - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2373 words)
Mohammad Mossadegh was born in 1882 in Tehran to a Bakhtiari finance minister and a Qajar princess.
Mossadegh got his start in Iranian politics in 1920 when he was appointed Governor General of the Iranian province of Fars by Ahmad Shah Qajar and was bestowed with the title of Mosaddegh os-Saltaneh by the Shah.
Mossadegh received a sentence of 3 years in solitary confinement, at a military jail, and was exiled to his village, not far from Tehran, where he remained under house arrest until his death, on 5 March 1967.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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