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Encyclopedia > Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
محمدرضا پهلوی

Mohammad Reza Pahlavi

Shah of Iran, King of Kings
Mohammed Reza Pahlavi and his wife, Empress Farah.
Reign September 26, 1941February 11, 1979
Born October 26, 1919(1919-10-26)
Tehran, Persian Empire
Died July 27, 1980 (aged 60)
Cairo, Egypt
Predecessor Reza Shah
Heir-Apparent Reza Pahlavi
Successor Monarchy Abolished, Islamic Republic declared
Consort Fawzia bint Fuad (1941–1948)
Soraya Esfandiary (1951–1958)
Farah Diba (1959–1980)
Issue Shahnaz, Reza Cyrus, Farahnaz, Ali Reza, Leila Pahlavi
Royal House Pahlavi
Father Reza Shah
Mother Tadj ol-Molouk

Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran, GCB (Persian: محمدرضا پهلوی Moḥammad Rez̤ā Pahlavī) (October 26, 1919, TehranJuly 27, 1980, Cairo), styled His Imperial Majesty, and holding the imperial titles of Shahanshah (King of Kings), and Aryamehr (Light of the Aryans) until his overthrow by the Islamic Revolution, was the monarch of Iran from September 16, 1941, until the Iranian Revolution on February 11, 1979. He was the second monarch of the Pahlavi House and the last Shah of the Iranian monarchy. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... For other uses, see Tehran (disambiguation). ... Persia redirects here. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ... Reza Shah, also Reza Shah the Great, Reza Shah Pahlavi and Reza Pahlavi (Persian: , Rez̤ā PahlavÄ«), (March 16, 1878 – July 26, 1944), was Shah of Iran[1] from December 15, 1925 until he was forced to abdicate after the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran in September 16, 1941 by British... Reza Pahlavi (Persian: رضا پهلوی, born October 31, 1960) is the former Crown Prince of Iran, the eldest son of late Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and his Empress Consort, Farah Diba. ... Princess Fawzia bint Fuad of Egypt (Arabic: فوزية بنت الملك فؤاد, Farsi: فوزیه فؤاد) (Alexandria, Egypt, November 5, 1921 -) was the first wife and Queen consort of Shahanshah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi of Iran. ... Queen Soraya of Iran, on the cover of the Italian magazine Epoca, in 1953. ... Farah Diba Farah Diba (born October 14, 1938 in Tehran, Iran) (also known as Farah Pahlavi) was the third wife of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi of Iran and the Shahbanu (Empress) of Iran. ... Shahnaz Pahlavi (born October 27, 1940) is the first child of the last Shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, and his first wife, Fawzia of Egypt. ... Reza Pahlavi (Persian: رضا پهلوی, born October 31, 1960) is the former Crown Prince of Iran, the eldest son of late Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and his Empress Consort, Farah Diba. ... Farahnaz Pahlavi (born March 12, 1963) is a daughter of Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi of Iran and his third wife Farah Diba. ... Ali Reza Pahlavi (born April 28, 1966), a former Prince of Iran, is a younger son of Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and his third wife, Farah Diba. ... Leila Pahlavi (March 27, 1970 – June 10, 2001) was a Princess of Iran. ... The Pahlavi script was used broadly in the Sasanid Persian Empire to write down Middle Persian for secular, as well as religious purposes. ... Reza Shah, also Reza Shah the Great, Reza Shah Pahlavi and Reza Pahlavi (Persian: , Rez̤ā PahlavÄ«), (March 16, 1878 – July 26, 1944), was Shah of Iran[1] from December 15, 1925 until he was forced to abdicate after the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran in September 16, 1941 by British... Tadj ol-Molouk (1896-1982) was the wife of Reza Pahlavi of Iran who was Shah of Iran between 1925 and 1941. ... The following is a comprehensive list of all Persian Empires and their rulers: // The Elamites were a people located in Susa, in what is now Khuzestan province. ... GCB may stand for: In philosophy, the greatest conceivable being, used in discussion of ontology. ... Farsi redirects here. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... For other uses, see Tehran (disambiguation). ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ... Darius the Great, the first to bear the title Shahanshah. ... Aryamehr (Persian: آریامهر Ä€ryāmehr) was the title used in the Pahlavi dynasty by Shahanshah Mohammad Reza Shah of Iran. ... Aryan (/eÉ™rjÉ™n/ or /ɑːrjÉ™n/, Sanskrit: ) is a Sanskrit and Avestan word meaning noble/spiritual one. ... Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... This article is about the 1979 revolution in Iran. ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Shah of Iran redirects here. ...

Contents

Shah

The Shah came to power during World War II after an Anglo-Soviet invasion forced the abdication of his father, Reza Shah. Mohammad Reza Shah's rule oversaw the nationalization of the Iranian oil industry under the prime ministership of Mohammad Mossadegh. During the Shah's reign, Iran celebrated 2,500 years of continuous monarchy since the founding of the Persian Empire by Cyrus the Great. His White Revolution, a series of economic and social reforms intended to transform Iran into a global power, succeeded in modernizing the nation, nationalizing many natural resources and extending suffrage to women, among other things. However, a partial failure of the land reform, the lack of democratization as criticized by some of his opponents, as well as the decline[disputed] of the traditional power of the Shi'a clergy due to parts of the reforms, increased opposition to his authority. Combatants Allies (UK, India and USSR) Persia/ Iran The Anglo-Soviet invasion of Persia was the invasion of Iran by the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union, codenamed Operation Countenance, from August 25 to September 17 of 1941. ... Reza Shah, also Reza Shah the Great, Reza Shah Pahlavi and Reza Pahlavi (Persian: , Rez̤ā PahlavÄ«), (March 16, 1878 – July 26, 1944), was Shah of Iran[1] from December 15, 1925 until he was forced to abdicate after the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran in September 16, 1941 by British... Mohammed Mossadegh (Persian: محمد مصدق‎) (May 19, 1882 - March 4, 1967) was prime minister of Iran from 1951 to 1953. ... Symbol of 2,500 Year Celebration, Cyrus Cylinder in Center The 2,500 year celebration of Iran’s monarchy consisted of an elaborate set of festivities that took place October 12-16, 1971 on the occasion of the 2,500th anniversary of the founding of the Iranian monarchy by Cyrus... Persia redirects here. ... “Cyrus” redirects here. ... This article is about the White Revolution in Iran. ... The term womens suffrage refers to an economic and political reform movement aimed at extending suffrage — the right to vote — to women. ... -1... Democratization (British English: Democratisation) is the transition from an authoritarian or a semi-authoritarian political system to a democratic political system. ...


While a Muslim himself, the Shah gradually lost support from Muhammad Zain Elahi the great Shi'a clergy of Iran, particularly due to his strong policy of Westernization and recognition of Israel. Clashes with the religious right, increased communist activity, Western interference in the economy, and a 1953 period of political disagreements with Mohammad Mossadegh, eventually leading to Mossadegh's ousting, would cause an increasingly autocratic rule. In 2000, U.S. Secretary of State Madeleine K. Albright stated: There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This article is about the influence of western culture. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      An autocracy is a form of government in which the political power is held by a single self appointed ruler. ... Madeleine Korbel Albright (born May 15, 1937 in Prague, Czechoslovakia), American diplomat, served as the 64th United States Secretary of State. ...

"In 1953 the United States played a significant role in orchestrating the overthrow of Iran's popular Prime Minister, Mohammed Massadegh. The Eisenhower Administration believed its actions were justified for strategic reasons; but the coup was clearly a setback for Iran's political development. And it is easy to see now why many Iranians continue to resent this intervention by America in their internal affairs."[1]

Various controversial policies were enacted, including the banning of the Tudeh Party and the oppression of dissent by Iran's intelligence agency, SAVAK; Amnesty International reported that Iran had as many as 2,200 political prisoners in 1978. By 1979, the political unrest had transformed into a revolution which, on January 16, forced the Shah to leave Iran after 37 years of rule. Soon thereafter, the revolutionary forces transformed the government into an Islamic republic. The Tudeh Party of Iran (f. ... An intelligence agency is a governmental organization that for the purposes of national security is devoted to the gathering of information (known in the context as intelligence) by means of espionage, communication interception, cryptanalysis, cooperation with other institutions, and evaluation of public sources. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Amnesty international Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is an international non-governmental organization which defines its mission as to undertake research and action focused on preventing and ending grave abuses of the rights to physical and mental integrity, freedom of conscience... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... An Islamic republic, in its modern context, has come to mean several different things, some contradictory to others. ...


Biography

Early life

Born in Tehran to Reza Pahlavi and his second wife, Tadj ol-Molouk, Mohammad Reza was the eldest son of the first Shah of the Pahlavi dynasty, and the third of his eleven children. He was born with a twin sister, Ashraf Pahlavi. However, Mohammad Reza, Ashraf, Ali Reza, and their older half-sister, Fatemeh, were born as non-royals, as their father did not become Shah until 1925. For other uses, see Tehran (disambiguation). ... Reza Shah, also Reza Shah the Great, Reza Shah Pahlavi and Reza Pahlavi (Persian: , Rez̤ā Pahlavī), (March 16, 1878 – July 26, 1944), was Shah of Iran[1] from December 15, 1925 until he was forced to abdicate after the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran in September 16, 1941 by British... Tadj ol-Molouk (1896-1982) was the wife of Reza Pahlavi of Iran who was Shah of Iran between 1925 and 1941. ... The Pahlavi dynasty (in Persian: دودمان پهلوی) of Iran began with the crowning of Reza Shah Pahlavi in 1925 and ended with the Iranian Revolution of 1979, and the subsequent collapse of the ancient tradition of Iranian monarchy. ... Prince Shahryar showing a military site to his mother, Princess Ashraf Pahlavi Princess (Shahdokht) Ashraf ul-Mulk (Persian: اشرف پهلوی Ashraf Pahlavī) (born October 26, 1919), is the twin sister of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the last Shah of Iran and the Pahlavi Dynasty. ... Ali Reza Pahlavi (1 March 1922 - 17 October 1954) was Reza Shah Pahlavis second son, and the brother of Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. ...


On February 21, 1921, Reza Khan together with Seyyed Zia'eddin Tabatabaee staged a successful coup d'état against the reigning Qajar dynasty of Persia. Years later, on December 12, 1925, Reza Khan was declared Shah by the country's National Assembly, the Majlis of Iran. He was crowned in a ceremony on April 25, 1926; at the same time, his son Mohammad Reza was proclaimed Crown Prince of Iran. is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Seyyed Ziaeddin Tabatabaee (Persian: سید ضیاءالدین طباطبایی) (1888 - 1969) was a Persian politician and the Prime Minister of Persia from February to May 1921 under Ahmad Shah, the last Shah of the Qajar dynasty. ... edit The Qajar dynasty ( ) (Persian: - or دودمان قاجار) was a ruling Persian dynasty[1] of Turkic descent[2], that ruled Iran (Persia) from 1781 to 1925. ... Persia redirects here. ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The National Assembly is either a legislature, or the lower house of a bicameral legislature in some countries. ... Image:DSC--Majlis5323. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A Crown Prince or Crown Princess is the heir or heiress apparent to the throne in a royal or imperial monarchy. ...


As a child, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi attended Institut Le Rosey, a Swiss boarding school, completing his studies there in 1935. Around the same time, his father officially asked the international community to refer to Persia by its internal name, "Iran". Upon Mohammad Reza's return to the country, he enrolled in the local military academy in Tehran; he remained in the academy until 1938. Institut Le Rosey, established in 1880, is the oldest private boarding school in Switzerland and one of the most exclusive educational institutions in the world. ... A boarding school is a usually fee-charging school where some or all pupils not only study, but also live during term time, with their fellow students and possibly teachers. ... A military academy (American English), or service academy (British English) is an educational institution which prepares candidates for service in the military (officer corps of the Army), naval service or air force or provides education in a service environment, the exact definition depending on the country. ...


Early reign

Deposition of his father

During World War II, Reza Shah was forced to abdicate in favor of his son.
During World War II, Reza Shah was forced to abdicate in favor of his son.
Main articles: Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran and Persian Corridor

In the midst of World War II in 1941, Nazi Germany began Operation Barbarossa and invaded the Soviet Union, breaking the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact. The act had a huge impact on Iran[citation needed] , as the country had declared neutrality in the conflict.[2] Image File history File links Rezashah. ... Image File history File links Rezashah. ... Reza Shah, also Reza Shah the Great, Reza Shah Pahlavi and Reza Pahlavi (Persian: , Rez̤ā PahlavÄ«), (March 16, 1878 – July 26, 1944), was Shah of Iran[1] from December 15, 1925 until he was forced to abdicate after the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran in September 16, 1941 by British... Combatants Allies (UK, India and USSR) Persia/ Iran The Anglo-Soviet invasion of Persia was the invasion of Iran by the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union, codenamed Operation Countenance, from August 25 to September 17 of 1941. ... The Persian Corridor is the name for a supply route through Iran into Soviet Azerbaijan by which British aid and American Lend-Lease supplies were transferred to the Soviet Union during World War II. Map of Iran & Borders with former Soviet Republics of Armenia, Turkmenistan and Azerbaijan // Background Note: The... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Combatants Germany Romania Finland Italy Hungary Slovakia  Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Fedor von Bock Gerd von Rundstedt Heinz Guderian Günther von Kluge Franz Halder Ion Antonescu C.G.E. Mannerheim Giovanni Messe, CSIR Italo Garibaldi, ARMIR Iosef Stalin Kliment Voroshilov Semyon Timoshenko Fyodor Kuznetsov... Molotov signs the German-Soviet non-aggression pact. ... A neutral country takes no side in a war between other parties, and in return hopes to avoid being attacked by either of them. ...


During the subsequent military invasion and occupation, the joint Allied and Soviet command forced Reza Shah to abdicate in favor of his son, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. He replaced his father on the throne on September 16, 1941. It was hoped that the younger prince would be more open to influence from the pro-Allied West, which later proved to be the case. Combatants Allies (UK, India and USSR) Persia/ Iran The Anglo-Soviet invasion of Persia was the invasion of Iran by the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union, codenamed Operation Countenance, from August 25 to September 17 of 1941. ... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Allies. ... Reza Shah, also Reza Shah the Great, Reza Shah Pahlavi and Reza Pahlavi (Persian: , Rez̤ā Pahlavī), (March 16, 1878 – July 26, 1944), was Shah of Iran[1] from December 15, 1925 until he was forced to abdicate after the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran in September 16, 1941 by British... Abdication (from the Latin abdicatio disowning, renouncing, from ab, from, and dicare, to declare, to proclaim as not belonging to one), the act whereby a person in office renounces and gives up the same before the expiry of the time for which it is held. ... is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... The term prince, from the Latin root princeps, is used for a member of the highest ranks of the aristocracy or the nobility. ...


Subsequent to his succession as Shah, Iran became a major conduit for British and, later, American aid to the USSR during the war. This massive supply effort became known as the Persian Corridor and marked the first large-scale American and Western involvement in Iran, an involvement that would continue to grow until the successful revolution against the Iranian monarchy in 1979. The Persian Corridor is the name for a supply route through Iran into Soviet Azerbaijan by which British aid and American Lend-Lease supplies were transferred to the Soviet Union during World War II. Map of Iran & Borders with former Soviet Republics of Armenia, Turkmenistan and Azerbaijan // Background Note: The... Occident redirects here. ... For other uses, see Revolution (disambiguation). ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ...


Oil nationalization and the 1953 coup

Dr. Mohammad Mossadegh was named Prime Minister of Iran following the nationalization of Iran's oil industry in 1951.
Dr. Mohammad Mossadegh was named Prime Minister of Iran following the nationalization of Iran's oil industry in 1951.

In the early 1950s, there was a political crisis centered in Iran that commanded the focused attention of British and American intelligence outfits. In 1951 Dr. Mossadegh came to office, committed to re-establish the democracy, constitutional monarchy, and nationalizing the Iranian petroleum industry, which was controlled by the British. From the start he erroneously believed that the Americans, who had no interest in Anglo-Iranian Oil company, would support his nationalization plan. He was buoyed by the American Ambassador, Henry Grady. In the events, Americans supported the British, and fearing that the Communists with the help of Soviets were posed to overthrow the government they decided to remove Mossadegh from the office. Shortly before the 1952 presidential election in the US the British government invited Kermit Roosevelt of the CIA to London and proposed that they cooperate under the code name “Operation Ajax” to cause the downfall of Mossadegh from office.[3]. Mohammed Mossadeq File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Mohammed Mossadeq File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Mohammed Mossadegh (Persian: محمد مصدق‎) (May 19, 1882 - March 4, 1967) was prime minister of Iran from 1951 to 1953. ... As the result of an amendment to the Constitution of Iran in 1989, there is no longer a post titled Prime Minister of Iran, but Iran has had many prime ministers since the Qajar era, when the country was internationally known as Persia. ... The 1950s decade refers to the years 1950 to 1959 inclusive. ...


In 1951, under the leadership of the nationalist movement of Dr. Mohammed Mossadegh, the Iranian parliament voted unanimously to nationalize the oil industry. This shut out the immensely profitable Anglo-Iranian Oil Company (AIOC), which was a pillar of Britain's economy and political clout. A month after that vote, Mossadegh was named Prime Minister of Iran. Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nationalization, also spelled nationalisation, is the act by which a nation takes possession of assets without requiring the owners consent, with or without payment of compensation. ... Dr. Mohammad Mossadegh Mohammed Mossadegh ( )(Persian: ‎ ​, also Mosaddegh or Mosaddeq) (19 May 1882 - 5 March 1967) was the democratically elected[1] prime minister of Iran from 1951 to 1953. ... The Anglo-Iranian Oil Company (AIOC) was founded in 1909, as the Anglo-Persian Oil Company, following the discovery of a large oil field in Masjed Soleiman, Iran. ... As the result of an amendment to the Constitution of Iran in 1989, there is no longer a post titled Prime Minister of Iran, but Iran has had many prime ministers since the Qajar era, when the country was internationally known as Persia. ...


Under the direction of Kermit Roosevelt, Jr., a senior CIA officer and grandson of the former U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt, the CIA and British intelligence funded and led a covert operation to depose Mossadegh with the help of military forces loyal to the Shah, known as Operation Ajax.[4] The plot hinged on orders signed by the Shah to dismiss Mossadegh as prime minister and replace him with General Fazlollah Zahedi, a choice agreed on by the British and Americans. Despite the high-level coordination and planning, the coup initially failed, causing the Shah to flee to Baghdad, later leaving for Rome. After a brief exile in Italy, the Shah returned to Iran, this time through a successful second attempt at the coup. The deposed Mossadegh was arrested, given a show trial, and condemned to death.[citation needed] The Shah commuted this sentence to solitary confinement for three years in a military prison, followed by house arrest for life.[citation needed] Zahedi was installed to succeed Prime Minister Mossadegh. Kermit Roosevelt Kermit Kim Roosevelt, Jr. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... From The U.S. Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms - Joint Publication JP1-02 dated 05 January 2007: Covert Operation: An operation that is so planned and executed as to conceal the identity of or permit plausible denial by the sponsor. ... Soldiers surround the Parliament building in Tehran on August 19, 1953. ... General Fazlollah Zahedi Mohammad Fazlollah Zahedi (1897-1963) was an Iranian general, Prime Minister, and politician. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ...


The American Embassy in Tehran was reporting that Mossadegh had near total support from the nation and was unlikely to fall. The prime minister asked the Majles to give him direct control of the army. Given the situation, alongside the strong personal support of Eden and Churchill for covert action, the American government gave a go-ahead to a committee, attended by the Secretary of State, John Foster Dulles, Allen Dulles, Kermit Roosevelt, Ambassador Henderson, and Secretary of Defense Charles Erwin Wilson. Kermit Roosevelt returned to Iran on July 13 and on August 1 in his first meeting with the shah. A car picked him up in the midnight and drove him to the palace. He lay down on the seat and covered himself with a blanket as guards waved his driver through the gates. The shah got into the car and Roosevelt explained the mission. The CIA provided $1 million in Iranian currency, which Roosevelt had stored in a large safe, a bulky cache given the exchange rate 1000 rial = 15 dollars at the time.[5]. Charles Erwin Wilson (July 18, 1890 - September 26, 1961), American businessman and politician, was United States Secretary of Defense from 1953 to 1957 under President Eisenhower. ...


The Communists staged massive demonstrations to hijack the prime minister’s initiatives. The United States had announced its total lack of confidence in him; and his followers were drifting to indifference. On August 16, 1953, the right wing of the Army reacted. Armed with an order by the shah, appointing General Fazlollah Zahedi as prime minister, a coalition of mobs and retired officers close to the Palace, attempting what could be counted as a coup d’etat. They failed dismally. The shah fled the country in a humiliating haste. Even Ettelaat, the nation’s largest daily newspaper, and its pro-shah publisher Abbas Masudi, published negative commentaries on the shah.[6] General Fazlollah Zahedi Mohammad Fazlollah Zahedi (1897-1963) was an Iranian general, Prime Minister, and politician. ... Ettelaat is an Iranian newspaper. ...


In the following two days the Communists turned against Mossadegh. They roamed Tehran raising red flags and pulling down statues of Reza Shah. This frightened the conservative clergies like Kashani and National Front leaders like Makki, who sided with the shah. On August 18, Mossadegh hit back. Tudeh Partisans were clubbed to be dispersed.[7]


Tudeh had no choice but to accept the defeat. In the meantime, according to the CIA plot, Zahedi appealed to the military, and claimed to be the legitimate prime minister and charged Mossadegh with staging a coup by ignoring the shah’s decree. Zahedi’s son Ardeshir acted as the go-between for the CIA and his father. On August 19th the thugs organized with $100,000 of the CIA funds finally appeared, marched out of south Tehran into the city center, other mobs joined in. Gang with clubs, knives, and rocks controlled the street overturning Tudeh trucks and beating up anti-shah activists. As Roosevelt was congratulating Zahedi in the basement of his hiding place the new prime minister’s mobs burst in and carried him upstairs on their shoulders. That evening Ambassador Henderson suggested to Ardashir that Mossadegh not be harmed. Roosevelt furnished Zahedi with $900,000 left from the operation Ajax funds. The shah returned to power, but never extended the elitism of the court to the technocrats and intellectuals who emerged from Iranian and Western universities. Indeed, his system irritated the new classes, for they were barred from partaking in real power.[8]


Assassination attempts

The Shah was the target of two unsuccessful assassination attempts. On February 4, 1949, the Shah attended an annual ceremony to commemorate the founding of Tehran University.[9] At the ceremony, Fakhr-Arai fired five shots at the Shah from a ten foot range. Only one of the shots hit the Shah and his cheek was mildly wounded. Fakhr-Arai was instantly shot by nearby officers. After some investigations, it was found that Fakhr-Arai was a member of the Tudeh party,[10] which was subsequently banned.[11] However, there is evidence that the would-be assassin was not a Tudeh member but a religious fundamentalist.[12][13] The Tudeh was nonetheless blamed and persecuted. The second attempt on the Shah's life was on April 10, 1965.[14] A soldier shot his way through the Marble Palace. The assailant was killed before he reached the Shah's quarters. Two civilian guards died protecting the Shah.


According to Vladimir Kuzichkin, a former KGB officer who defected to the SIS, the Shah was also allegedly targeted by Soviet Union, who tried to use a TV remote control to detonate a Volkswagen which was turned into an IED. The TV remote failed to function.[15] Vladimir Andreyevich Kuzichkin Владимир Андреевич Кузичкин (born 1947) was a Soviet KGB officer who defected to the Tehran Station of the British Secret Intelligence Service in 1982. ... This article is about the KGB of the Soviet Union. ... The Secret Intelligence Service (SIS), commonly known as MI6 (Military Intelligence, Section 6)[1] is the United Kingdoms external intelligence agency. ... For other uses, see Remote control (disambiguation). ... This article is about the original Volkswagen Beetle. ... Munitions rigged for an IED discovered by Iraqi police in Baghdad, November 2005. ...


Later years

Foreign relations

Pakistan's first President Major-General Iskander Mirza and First Lady Begum Rafat Iskander Ali Mirza Visiting The Shah of Iran at his palace in Tehran. Being Personally Greeted by The Shah himself.
Pakistan's first President Major-General Iskander Mirza and First Lady Begum Rafat Iskander Ali Mirza Visiting The Shah of Iran at his palace in Tehran. Being Personally Greeted by The Shah himself.

The Shah supported the Yemeni royalists against republican forces in the Yemen Civil War (1962-70) and assisted the sultan of Oman in putting down a rebellion in Dhofar (1971). Concerning the fate of Bahrain (which Britain had controlled since the 19th century, but which Iran claimed as its own territory) and three small Persian Gulf islands, the Shah negotiated an agreement with the British, which, by means of a public consensus, ultimately led to the independence of Bahrain (against the wishes of Iranian nationalists). In return, Iran took full control of Greater and Lesser Tunbs and Abu Musa, three strategically sensitive islands in the Strait of Hormuz which were claimed by the United Arab Emirates. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 705 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1056 × 898 pixel, file size: 200 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Major - General Iskander Mirza n Wife at Royal Palace in Iran being greeted by the shah himself. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 705 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1056 × 898 pixel, file size: 200 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Major - General Iskander Mirza n Wife at Royal Palace in Iran being greeted by the shah himself. ... Syed Iskander Ali Mirza or Iskander Mirza (Urdu: اسکندر مرزا) (November 13, 1899 – November 12, 1969) was the first President of Pakistan and held that position from 1956 until 1958. ... The Yemen Civil War was a war fought between Royalist and Republican factions in Yemen from 1962 to 1970. ... The Dhofar (Arabic ظفار Ẓufār) region lies in Southern Oman, on the eastern border of Yemen. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... The Greater and Lesser Tunbs, and Abu Musa Greater Tunb and Lesser Tunb (Arabic: طنب الكبرى Ùˆ طنب الصغرى ; Persian: ) are two small islands in the eastern Persian Gulf, close to the Strait of Hormuz. ... Abu Musa and its environs This is a geographical article. ... Historical map of the area (1892) Map Of Strait of Hormuz Satellite image The Strait of Hormuz (Arabic: ‎, Persian: ‎) is a narrow, strategically important stretch of ocean between the Gulf of Oman in the southeast and the Persian Gulf in the southwest. ...


During this period, the Shah maintained cordial relations with the Persian Gulf states and established closer diplomatic ties with Saudi Arabia. Relations with Iraq, however, were often difficult until 1975 when both countries signed the Algiers Accord, which granted Iraq equal navigation rights in the Shatt al-Arab river, with the Shah also agreeing to end his support for Iraqi Kurdish rebels.[16] Saddam Hussein talking with Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr For the Algiers Agreement between Ethiopia and Eritrea see Algiers Agreement (2000) The 1975 Algiers Agreement, commonly known as the Algiers Accord. ... The Shatt al-Arab (Arabic: شط العرب, Stream of the Arabs) or Arvand (called اروندرود: arvandrūd in Persian), also called the Shatt-al-Arab waterway, is a river in Southwest Asia of some 200 km in length, formed by the confluence of the Euphrates and the Tigris in the town of al... Languages Kurdish Religions Predominantly Sunni Muslim also some Shia, Yazidism, Yarsan, Judaism, Christianity Related ethnic groups other Iranian peoples (Talysh Baluch Gilak Bakhtiari Persians) The Kurds are an ethnic group who consider themselves to be indigenous to a region often referred to as Kurdistan, an area which includes adjacent parts...


The Shah also maintained close relations with King Hussein of Jordan, Anwar Sadat of Egypt, and King Hassan II of Morocco.[17] Hussein bin Talal, King of Jordan (Arabic: ‎, ) (November 14, 1935 – February 7, 1999) was the ruler of Jordan since his father, King Talal, abdicated in 1952, until his death. ... Muhammad Anwar Al-Sadat (محمد أنورالسادات in Arabic) (December 25, 1918 – October 6, 1981) was an Egyptian politician and served as the third President of Egypt from September 28, 1970 until his assassination on October 6, 1981. ... King Hassan, pictured late in life. ...


In July 1964, Shah Pahlavi, Turkish President Cemal Gürsel and Pakistani President Ayub Khan announced in Istanbul the establishment of the Regional Cooperation for Development (RCD) organization to promote joint transportation and economic projects also envisioning Afghanistan joining some time in the future. The Shah maintained close relations with Pakistan. During the 1965 war of Pakistan with India the Shah provided free fuel to the Pakistani planes who used to land on Iranian soil, refuel and then take off. Cemal Gürsel (October 13, 1895— September 14, 1966), a statesman and a soldier, was a Turkish army officer, political leader and the 4th president of Turkey. ... This article is about a Pakistani military officer. ... Regional Cooperation for Development (RCD) was a multi governmental organization which was originally established in 1962 by Iran, Pakistan and Turkey to allow socio-economic development of the member states. ...


The Shah of Iran was the first Muslim leader to recognize the State of Israel, although when interviewed on CBS 60 Minutes by reporter, Mike Wallace, he criticized US Jews for their control over US media and finance.[18] The State of Israel (Hebrew: מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, transliteration: ; Arabic: دَوْلَةْ اِسْرَائِيل, transliteration: ) is a country in the Middle East on the eastern edge of the Mediterranean Sea. ...


During his reign however, it was reported in the New York Times (1982), that half of the arms to Iran were "being supplied or arranged by Israel".


Westernization and autocracy

Further information: White Revolution
The Shah with President Richard Nixon of the United States and First Lady Pat Nixon during a state visit in 1971.

With Iran's great oil wealth, Mohammad Reza Shah became the pre-eminent leader of the Middle East, and self-styled "Guardian" of the Persian Gulf. He became increasingly despotic during the last years of his regime. In the words a US Embassy dispatch, “The shah’s picture is everywhere. The beginning of all film showings in public theaters presents the shah in various regal poses accompanied by the strains of the National anthem… The monarch also actively extends his influence to all phases of social affairs…there is hardly any activity or vocation which the shah or members of his family or his closest friends do not have a direct or at least a symbolic involvement. In the past, he had claimed to take a two party-system seriously and declared “If I were a dictator rather than a constitutional monarch, then I might be tempted to sponsor a single dominant party such as Hitler organized”.[19] This article is about the White Revolution in Iran. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Nixon redirects here. ... First Lady Laura Bush and former first ladies (from left to right) Rosalynn Carter, Sen. ... Thelma Catherine Pat Ryan Nixon (March 16, 1912 – June 22, 1993) was the wife of former President Richard Nixon and the First Lady of the United States of America from 1969 to 1974. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ...


However, by 1975, he abolished the multi-party system of government so that he could rule through a one-party state under the Rastakhiz (Resurrection) Party in autocratic fashion. All Iranians were pressured to join in. The shah’s own words on its justification was; “We must straighten out Iranians’ ranks. To do so, we divide them into two categories: those who believe in Monarchy, the constitution and the Six Bahman Revolution and those who don’t… A person who does not enter the new political party and does not believe in the three cardinal principles will have only two choices. He is either an individual who belongs to an illegal organization, or is related to the outlawed Tudeh Party, or in other words a traitor. Such an individual belongs to an Iranian prison, or if he desires he can leave the country tomorrow, without even paying exit fees; he can go anywhere he likes, because he is not Iranian, he has no nation, and his activities are illegal and punishable according to the law”.[20] In addition, the Shah had decreed that all Iranian citizens and the few remaining political parties must become part of Rastakhiz.[21] Rastakhiz (Resurrection) is an Iranian monarchist party that was founded in the late 1960s under the government of Amir Abbas Hoveyda. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      An autocracy is a form of government in which the political power is held by a single self appointed ruler. ...

Official Coat of Arms & Flag of Shahinshah Aryamehr
Official Coat of Arms & Flag of Shahinshah Aryamehr

Achievements

The Shah made major changes to curb the power of certain ancient elite factions by expropriating large and medium-sized estates for the benefit of more than four million small farmers. In the White Revolution, he took a number of major modernization measures, including extending suffrage to women, much to the discontent and opposition of the Islamic clergy. He instituted exams for Islamic theologians to become established clerics, which were widely unpopular and broke centuries-old religious traditions. The mullahs were accustomed to having total control over admission to their ranks.[citation needed] This article is about the White Revolution in Iran. ... Mullah (Persian: ملا) is a title given to some Islamic clergy, coming from the Arabic word mawla, meaning both vicar and guardian. ...


Criticism

The Shah used secret imprisonment and extensive torture to maintain power. Amnesty International estimated the Shah's political prisoners at 60,000 to 100,000 in number.[22]


In October 1971, the Shah celebrated the twenty-five-hundredth anniversary of the Iranian monarchy. The New York Times reported that $100 million was spent.[23] Next to the ruins of Persepolis, the Shah gave orders to build a tent city covering 160 acres, studded with three huge royal tents and fifty-nine lesser ones arranged in a star-shaped design . French chefs from Maxim’s of Paris prepared breast of peacock for royalty and dignitaries around the world, the buildings were decorated by Maison Jansen (the same firm that helped Jacqueline Kennedy redecorate the White House), the guests ate off Ceraline Limoges china and drank from Baccarat crystal glasses. This became a major scandal for the contrast between the dazzling elegance of celebration and the misery of the nearby villages was so dramatic that no one could ignore it. Months before the festivities, university students struck in protest. Indeed, the cost was sufficiently impressive that the shah forbade his associates to discuss the actual figures.[24][25] For other uses, see October (disambiguation). ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ... Symbol of 2,500 Year Celebration, Cyrus Cylinder in Center The 2,500 year celebration of Iran’s monarchy consisted of an elaborate set of festivities that took place October 12-16, 1971 on the occasion of the 2,500th anniversary of the founding of the Iranian monarchy by Cyrus... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... This article is about the ancient city. ... The term tent city covers a wide variety of usually temporary housing made of tents. ... The facade of Maxims Restaurant Maxims is the name of a restaurant in Paris, France, located on the rue Royale. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... The White House Red Room as designed by Stéphane Boudin during the administration of John F. Kennedy. ... First official White House portrait. ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... This article is about the French commune. ... Baccarat Crystal is a manufacturer of fine crystal located in Baccarat, France. ...


Cottam has argued that the longevity of the Shah’s rule was due largely to his success in balancing his security chiefs against each other. Although the shah was clearly willing to utilize instruments of terror to remain in power, he nevertheless was probably sincere about wishing to bring economic, social, and political reform to his country.


Revolution

Main articles: Iranian Revolution and United States-Iran relations
The Iranian Shah, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi meeting with Arthur Atherton, William H. Sullivan, Cyrus Vance, President Jimmy Carter, and Zbigniew Brzezinski,1977.
The Iranian Shah, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi meeting with Arthur Atherton, William H. Sullivan, Cyrus Vance, President Jimmy Carter, and Zbigniew Brzezinski,1977.

On January 16, 1979, he and his wife left Iran at the behest of Prime Minister Shapour Bakhtiar (a long time opposition leader himself), who sought to calm down the situation.[26] Bakhtiar dissolved SAVAK and freed all political prisoners, and allowed Ayatollah Khomeini to return to Iran after years in exile, asking him to create a Vatican-like state in Qom, promised free elections and called upon the opposition to help preserve the constitution, proposing a 'national unity' government including Khomeini's followers. Khomeini fiercely rejected Dr. Bakhtiar's demands and appointed his own interim government, with Mehdi Bazargan as prime minister, demanding "since I have appointed him he must be obeyed." In February, pro-Khomeini Revolutionary guerrilla and rebel soldiers gained the upper hand in street fighting and the military announced their neutrality. On the evening of February 11 the dissolution of the monarchy was complete. This article is about the 1979 revolution in Iran. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      Political relations between Iran (Persia) and the United States began when the Shah... The Iranian Shah meeting with Alfred Atherton, William Sullivan, Cyrus Vance, President Carter, and Zbigniew Brzezinski, 1997. ... The Iranian Shah meeting with Alfred Atherton, William Sullivan, Cyrus Vance, President Carter, and Zbigniew Brzezinski, 1997. ... The Iranian Shah meeting with Alfred Atherton, William Sullivan, Cyrus Vance, President Carter, and Zbigniew Brzezinski, 1979. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ... Zbigniew Kazimierz Brzezinski (born March 28, 1928, Warsaw, Poland) is a Polish-American political scientist, geostrategist, and statesman. ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Shapour Bakhtiar Shapour Bakhtiar (  ) (also Shapur Bakhtiar) (Persian: شاپور بختیار ShāpÅ«r Bakhtīār) (born 1914 or 1915 - August 6, 1991) was an Iranian politician and the last Prime Minister of Iran under Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Ayatollah Khomeini founded the first modern Islamic republic Ayatollah Seyyed Ruhollah Khomeini (آیت‌الله روح‌الله خمینی in Persian) (May 17, 1900 – June 3, 1989) was an Iranian Shia cleric and the political and spiritual leader of the 1979 revolution that overthrew Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the then Shah of Iran. ... Qom (Persian: قم, also known as Qum or Kom) is a city in Iran and the Qom (River) flows through the town. ...


Exile and death

The exiled monarch had become unpopular in much of the world, especially in the liberal West, ironically his original backers and those who had most to lose from his downfall. The Jimmy Carter administration was determined to overthrow the shah, and the western concerns and criticism of human rights situation under shah was an excuse, that had been accompanied by secret tasks of paralyzing the Iranian army to destabilize Iran, while providing logistics and advocacy to the oppositions including the extremists who are considered an enemy today. As Shah mentions in his memoir Answer to History (ISBN 0-8128-2755-4), General Robert Huyser, a top NATO official, came to Iran unannounced with the primary mission of paralyzing the army. Huyser's role was also confirmed with consistency by Shah's top military officials, and Shah's last prime minister Shapour Bakhtiar who was assassinated in France immediately after the revolution. Huyser later received a medal from president Carter for accomplishing this mission. Although he later writes a book, Mission to Tehran, denying the events and claiming that his mission was protecting Shah and stabilizing Iran. This was in line with the policy of US and UK to claim that the western alliance with Shah was genuine, which provided the basis for Islamic Republic of Iran's to accuse west for backing Shah. For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ... This article is about the military alliance. ... Shapour Bakhtiar Shapour Bakhtiar (  ) (also Shapur Bakhtiar) (Persian: شاپور بختیار ShāpÅ«r Bakhtīār) (born 1914 or 1915 - August 6, 1991) was an Iranian politician and the last Prime Minister of Iran under Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. ...


Allegedly, the leaders of US, UK, France, and Germany in the summit held in Guadeloupe had came to an agreement with the US proposed removal of Shah. After revolution Shah witnessed religious extremists take control of the country, and very soon the war with Iraq, one of the most destructive wars in the history, massively supplied by the west, which took more than eight years and millions of lives, sent Iran for decades back in the history. During the war, US a former ally of Iran directly participated in the war, including US Air Force bombing of Iranian oil platforms, providing intelligence and WMD to Iraq, and targeting an Iranian civilian airliner IR655 over Persian Gulf by US Navy. Although, Iran's relations with its former allies had came to an end, oil supplies continued to flow to west even during the war. The revolution in Iran had severe aftermaths for the region, including USSR occupation of Afghanistan followed by US support of Mujahideen in Afghanistan. The revolution also had a negative impact on achieving a peace deal between Israel and Palestine by I.R. of Iran's alleged funding of Hezbollah and Hamas, contributing to the objective of radicals in Israel who seek enemies abroad to launch wars. In contrast, Shah, and president Anwar el-Sadat of Egypt, who was also a true friend of Shah and was later assassinated, were genuinely in favor of peace. United States may refer to: Places: United States of America SS United States, the fastest ocean liner ever built. ... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent... Seal of the Air Force. ... An Airbus A340 airliner operated by Air Jamaica An airliner is a large fixed-wing aircraft with the primary function of transporting paying passengers. ... Iran Air Flight 655 IR655 was a commercial flight operated by Iran Air, that flew on a Tehran-Bandar Abbas-Dubai route. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Soviet republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ... Mujahideen (Arabic: ‎, , literally strugglers) is a term for Muslims fighting in a war or involved in any other struggle. ... A 2003 satellite image of the region. ... For other uses, see Hezbollah (disambiguation). ... Hamas (; acronym: , or Harakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya or Islamic Resistance Movement[1]) is a Palestinian Islamist[2][3] militant organization and political party. ... Anwar Sadat Mohamed Anwar el-Sadat ( Arabic : محمد انور السادات ) (December 25, 1918 - October 6, 1981) was an Egyptian politician and President from 1970 to 1981. ...


Shah traveled from country to country in his second exile seeking what he hoped would be a temporary residence. First he went to Egypt, and got an invitation and warm welcome from president Anwar el-Sadat. He later lived in Morocco, the Bahamas, and Mexico. But his non-Hodgkin's lymphoma began to grow worse, and required immediate and sophisticated treatment. Anwar Sadat Mohamed Anwar el-Sadat ( Arabic : محمد انور السادات ) (December 25, 1918 - October 6, 1981) was an Egyptian politician and President from 1970 to 1981. ... [--168. ... Non-Hodgkins lymphoma is a type of cancer. ...


Reluctantly, on October 22, 1979, President Jimmy Carter allowed the Shah to make a brief stopover in the United States to undergo medical treatment. The compromise was extremely unpopular with the revolutionary movement, which were against the United States' years of support of the Shah's rule, and demanded his return to Iran to stand trial. is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ...


Apparently, this resulted in the kidnapping of a number of American diplomats, military personnel and intelligence officers at the American embassy in Tehran, which soon became known as the Iran hostage crisis. Once the Shah's course of treatment had finished, the American government, eager to avoid further controversy, pressed the former monarch to leave the country. Iranian militants escort a blindfolded U.S. hostage to the media. ...


He left the United States on December 15, 1979, and lived for a short time in the Isla Contadora in Panama. Finally he went back to Egypt, where he died on July 27, 1980, at the age of 60. Egyptian President Sadat gave the Shah a state funeral. is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ...


Mohammad Reza Pahlavi is buried in the Al Rifa'i Mosque in Cairo, a mosque of great symbolic value. The last royal rulers of two monarchies are buried here, Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi of Iran and King Farouk of Egypt, his former brother-in-law. The tombs lie off to the left of the entrance. The Al-Rifai Mosque (Arabic: مسجد الرفاعى ) (or Al-Rifai, al-Refai, al-refai); is located in Cairo, Egypt, in Midan al-Qala, adjacent to the Cairo Citadel. ... King Farouk of Egypt (February 11, 1920 - March 18, 1965) was the penultimate King of Egypt, succeeding his father Fuad I in 1936. ...


Shortly after his overthrow, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi wrote an autobiographical memoir entitled Answer to History (ISBN 0-8128-2755-4), which was translated from the original French (Réponse à l'histoire) into both English and Persian (Pasokh be Tarikh) as well as other languages, and was later published posthumously in 1980. The book is his personal account of his reign and accomplishments, as well as his perspective on issues related to the Iranian Revolution and Western foreign policy toward Iran. His love for his country vividly come through in his final memoirs, and it is clear that at the end of his life, he realized some of the mistakes he had made. However, the Shah places some of the blame for the wrongdoings of SAVAK and the failures of various democratic and social reforms (particularly through the White Revolution) upon Amir Abbas Hoveyda and his administration. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... This article is about the 1979 revolution in Iran. ... This article is about the White Revolution in Iran. ... Amir Abbas Hoveida (in Persian: امیر عباس هویدا; February 18, 1919–April 7, 1979), also spelled Hoveyda, was a significant Iranian politician. ...


Legacy

In the 1990s and the decade following 2000, the Shah's reputation has staged something of a revival, with many Iranians looking back on his era as time when Iran was more prosperous[27][28] and the government less oppressive.[29] Journalist Afshin Molavi reports even members of the uneducated poor - traditionally core supporters of the revolution that overthrew the Shah - making remarks such as 'God bless the Shah's soul, the economy was better then;' and finds that "books about the former Shah (even censored ones) sell briskly," while "books of the Rightly Guided Path sit idle."[30]


In 1969, the Shah sent one of 73 Apollo 11 Goodwill Messages to NASA for the historic first lunar landing.[31] The message still rests on the lunar surface today. He stated in part, "...we pray the Almighty God to guide mankind towards ever increasing success in the establishment of culture, knowledge and human civilization." The Apollo 11 crew visited the Shah during a world tour. The silicon disc with goodwill messages left on Moon by Apollo 11 astronauts The Apollo 11 Goodwill Messages[1] are statements from leaders of 73 countries around the world on a disc about the size of a 50-cent piece made of silicon that was left on the Moon by... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ...


Marriages and children

Mohammad Reza Pahlavi was married three times.


Fawzia of Egypt

His first wife was Princess Fawzia of Egypt (born November 5, 1921), a daughter of King Fuad I of Egypt and Nazli Sabri; she also was a sister of King Farouk I of Egypt. They married in 1939 and were divorced in 1945 (Egyptian divorce) and 1948 (Iranian divorce). They had one daughter, Princess Shahnaz Pahlavi (born October 27, 1940). Princess Fawzia Her Royal Highness Princess Fawzia bint Fuad of Egypt (Arabic: فوزية بنت الملك فؤاد) (Alexandria, Egypt, November 5, 1921 -) was a Queen of Iran having been the first wife of the last Shah of Iran and a sister of King Farouk I. Though referred to as a princess out of courtesy, she... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Categories: People stubs | 1868 births | 1936 deaths | Egyptian heads of state ... Nazli Sabri Nazli Sabri (Arabic: ) (June 25, 1894 - May 29, 1978), was the Queen consort of Egypt, (May 26, 1919 - April 28, 1936) as the second wife of King Fuad. ... King Farouk of Egypt (February 11, 1920 - March 18, 1965) was the penultimate King of Egypt, succeeding his father Fuad I in 1936. ... Shahnaz Pahlavi (born October 27, 1940) is the first child of the last Shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, and his first wife, Fawzia of Egypt. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Soraya Esfandiary

His second wife was Soraya Esfandiary (June 22, 1932-October 26, 2001), the only daughter of Khalil Esfandiary, Ambassador of Iran to the Federal Republic of Germany, and his wife, the former Eva Karl. They married in 1951 and divorced in 1958 when it became apparent that she could not bear children. Soraya later told The New York Times that the Shah had no choice but to divorce her, and that he was heavyhearted about the decision.[32] Queen Soraya of Iran, on the cover of the Italian magazine Epoca, in 1953. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ...


After his second divorce, the Shah, who told a reporter who asked about his feelings for the former queen that "nobody can carry a torch longer than me,"[citation needed] indicated his interest in marrying Princess Maria Gabriella of Savoy, a daughter of the deposed Italian king, Umberto II. Pope John XXIII reportedly vetoed the suggestion. In an editorial about the rumors surrounding the marriage of "a Muslim sovereign and a Catholic princess", the Vatican newspaper, L'Osservatore Romano, considered the match "a grave danger,"[33] especially considering that under the 1917 Code of Canon Law a Roman Catholic who attempted to contract a marriage with a divorced person could incur the penalty of excommunication. Maria Gabriella di Savoia (Naples, 24 February 1940) complete name Maria Gabriella Giuseppa Aldegonda Adelaide Daisy Ludovica Felicita Gennara, is daughter of the last King of Italy Umberto II and José. Maria married to 12 Saint-Mesme February 1955 Robert Zellinger de Balkany (NATO to Iklod, 4 Hungary August 1931). ... Umberto II, occasionally anglicized as Humbert II, (September 15, 1904 - March 18, 1983), the last King of Italy, nicknamed the King of May (Italian Re di Maggio), was born the Prince of Piedmont. ... The Blessed John XXIII wearing a Papal Tiara Angelo Roncalli was born in Sotto il Monte (province of Bergamo), Italy on November 25, 1881. ... Masthead LOsservatore Romano is the Vaticans newspaper. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Canon law is the term used for... Excommunication is a religious censure used to deprive or suspend membership in a religious community. ...


Farah Diba

Mohammad Reza Pahlavi married to his third and final wife, Farah Diba (born October 14, 1938), the only child of Sohrab Diba, Captain in the Imperial Iranian Army, and his wife, the former Farideh Ghotbi. They were married in 1959, and Queen Farah was crowned Shahbanu, or Empress, a title created especially for her in 1967. Previous royal consorts had been known as "Malakeh" (Arabic: Malika), or Queen. The couple remained together for twenty years, until the Shah's death. Farah Diba bore him four children: Farah Diba Farah Diba (born October 14, 1938 in Tehran, Iran) (also known as Farah Pahlavi) was the third wife of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi of Iran and the Shahbanu (Empress) of Iran. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Shahbanu (in Persian: شهبانو) means Empress in Persian. ... Malika is the female version of the word Malik that means King in Arabic. ... Farah Diba Farah Diba (born October 14, 1938 in Tehran, Iran) (also known as Farah Pahlavi) was the third wife of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi of Iran and the Shahbanu (Empress) of Iran. ...

  1. Reza Pahlavi, the Crown Prince (born October 31, 1960)
  2. Farahnaz Pahlavi (born March 12, 1963)
  3. Ali Reza Pahlavi (born April 28, 1966)
  4. Leila Pahlavi (March 27, 1970June 10, 2001)

Reza Pahlavi (Persian: رضا پهلوی, born October 31, 1960) is the former Crown Prince of Iran, the eldest son of late Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and his Empress Consort, Farah Diba. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Farahnaz Pahlavi (born March 12, 1963) is a daughter of Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi of Iran and his third wife Farah Diba. ... is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... Ali Reza Pahlavi (born April 28, 1966), a former Prince of Iran, is a younger son of Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and his third wife, Farah Diba. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... Leila Pahlavi (March 27, 1970 – June 10, 2001) was a Princess of Iran. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ...

Quotes

On the revolution

  • When asked whether he thought that Iranians had been ungrateful towards him: Gratitude is the prerogative of the people.[34]
  • The role of the U.S.: I did not know it then – perhaps I did not want to know – but it is clear to me now that the Americans wanted me out. Clearly this is what the human rights advocates in the State Department wanted... What was I to make of the Administration's sudden decision to call former Under Secretary of State George Ball to the White House as an adviser on Iran?... Ball was among those Americans who wanted to abandon me and ultimately my country.[35]
  • Promise to the nation: You, the people of Iran, rose against injustice and corruption... I too, have heard the voice of your revolution. As the Shah of Iran, and as an Iranian, I will support the revolution of my people. I promise that the previous mistakes, unlawful acts and injustice will not be repeated.[36][37]

The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ... George Wildman Ball (1909 - 1994) was born in Des Moines, Iowa. ...

On the role of women

  • Women are important in a man's life only if they're beautiful and charming and keep their femininity and... this business of feminism, for instance. What do these feminists want? What do you want? You say equality. Oh! I don't want to seem rude, but... you're equal in the eyes of the law but not, excuse my saying so, in ability... You've never produced a Michelangelo or a Bach. You've never even produced a great chef. And if you talk to me about opportunity, all I can say is, Are you joking? Have you ever lacked the opportunity to give history a great chef? You've produced nothing great, nothing!... You're schemers, you are evil. All of you.[38][39]

- When later he was asked in an interview by Barbara Walters if he had said this, he answered "Not with the same words, no."[40] Barbara Jill Walters[1] (born September 25, 1929) is an American journalist, writer, and media personality who has been a regular fixture on morning television shows (Today and The View), an evening news magazine (20/20), and on The ABC Evening News as the first female evening news anchor. ...

  • ... women- who after all make up half the population- should be treated as equals...[41]
  • I have never believed that women were diabolical creatures if they showed their faces or arms, or went swimming, or skied or played basketball. If some women wish to live veiled, then it is their choice, but why deprive half of our youth of the healthy pleasure of sports?[42]

See also

Left to right: General Secretary of the Communist Party Joseph Stalin, President Franklin D. Roosevelt of the United States, and Prime Minister Winston Churchill of the United Kingdom . ... The Trans-Iranian Railway was a major railway building project started in the 1930s and finished in 1939, under the direction of the Persian monarch, Reza Shah, to construct a basic network of railways joining the capital Tehran to the Persian Gulf and Caspian Sea. ... The Middle East Theatre of World War II is defined largely by reference to the British Middle East Command, which controlled Allied forces in both Southwest Asia and eastern North Africa. ... Official portrat of Col. ... This article is about Irans nuclear power program. ... The entrance to the Museum. ... Syed Iskander Ali Mirza or Iskander Mirza (Urdu: اسکندر مرزا) (November 13, 1899 – November 12, 1969) was the first President of Pakistan and held that position from 1956 until 1958. ...

Further reading

  • Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Answer to History, Stein & Day Pub, 1980, ISBN 0-8128-2755-4.
  • Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, The Shah's Story, M. Joseph, 1980, ISBN 0-7181-1944-4
  • Farah Pahlavi, An Enduring Love : My Life with the Shah - A Memoir, Miramax Books, 2004, ISBN 1-4013-5209-X.
  • Stephen Kinzer, All The Shah's Men: An American Coup and the Roots of Middle East Terror, John Wiley & Sons, 2003, ISBN 0-471-26517-9
  • William Shawcross, The Shah's last ride: The death of an ally, Touchstone, 1989, ISBN 0-671-68745-X.
  • Ardeshir Zahedi, The Memoirs of Ardeshir Zahedi , IBEX, 2005, ISBN 1-58814-038-5.
  • Amin Saikal The Rise and Fall of the Shah 1941 - 1979 Angus and Robertson (Princeton University Press) ISBN 0-207-14412-5
  • Abbas Milani, The Persian Sphinx: Amir Abbas Hoveyda and the Riddle of the Iranian Revolution, Mage Publishers, 2000, ISBN 0-934211-61-2.
  • David Harris, "The Crisis: the President, the Prophet, and the Shah--1979 and the Coming of Militant Islam" New York: Little, Brown &Co, 2004. ISBN 0-316-32394-2.
  • Kapuściński, Ryszard (1982). Shah of Shahs. Vinage. ISBN 0-679-73801-0
  • Ali M. Ansari, Modern Iran since 1921 ISBN 0-582-35685-7

Official State portrait of Empress Farah of Iran, taken during the visit of American president Richard Nixon to Iran on May 30, 1972. ... Stephen Kinzer is an American author and newspaper reporter. ... All the Shahs Men : An American Coup and the Roots of Middle East Terror (ISBN 0471678783 ) is a book, written by journalist Stephen Kinzer, about the 1953 CIA-engineered coup in which Mohammed Mossadegh was overthrown by American and British agents (chief among them Kermit Roosevelt) and royalists loyal... William Shawcross (born 28 May 1946, Sussex) is a British writer, broadcaster and commentator. ... Ardeshir Zahedi Ardeshir Zahedi (born October 16, 1928) was an important Iranian diplomat during the 1960s and 1970s, serving as the countrys foreign minister and its ambassador to the United States and the United Kingdom. ... Abbas Milani on C-SPAN 2 Abbas Malek-Z Milani (born 1949) is an Iranian-American historian, Iranologist, and author. ... Among those named David Harris are: David Harris (Hambledon cricketer) David Harris (professor) David Harris (protestor) David Harris (software developer) David Harris (actor) David Ray Harris (murderer featured in The Thin Blue Line) David Harris (politician), British Conservative MP David Harris (rabbi) David Harris (publisher, photographer, miami beach) Category: ... Ryszard KapuÅ›ciÅ„ski   (March 4, 1932 - January 23, 2007) was a popular Polish journalist, author, publicist and poet both at home and abroad. ... Shah of Shahs, published in 1982, is Polish journalist Ryszard KapuÅ›ciÅ„skis analysis of the decline and fall of of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the last Shah of Iran. ... Vintage Books was founded in 1954 by Alfred A. Knopf as a trade paperback home for its authors. ...

References

  1. ^ 3/17/00 Albright remarks on American-Iran Relations
  2. ^ Pierre Renouvin, World War II and Its Origins: International Relations, 1929-1945. page 329
  3. ^ Kermit Roosevelt, Counter coup, New York, 1979
  4. ^ Risen, James. "Secrets of History: The C.I.A. in Iran", The New York Times, 2000. Retrieved on 2007-03-30. 
  5. ^ Robert Graham, Iran: The Illusion of Power, p. 66
  6. ^ New York Times, July 23, 1953, 1:5
  7. ^ New York Times, August 19, 1951, 1:4,5
  8. ^ R.W Cottam, Nationalism in Iran
  9. ^ Ali Vazir Safavi
  10. ^ The Shah
  11. ^ Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi
  12. ^ Stephen Kinzer, All The Shah's Men: An American Coup and the Roots of Middle East Terror, John Wiley & Sons, 2003, ISBN 0-471-26517-9
  13. ^ Dreyfuss, Robert (2006). Devil's Game: How the United States Helped Unleash Fundamentalist Islam. Owl Books. ISBN 0805081372. 
  14. ^ JSTOR: The Journal of Politics: Vol. 32, No. 1 (Feb., 1970)
  15. ^ Kuzichkin, Vladimir (1990). Inside the KGB: My Life in Soviet Espionage. Ballantine Books. ISBN 0-8041-0989-3. 
  16. ^ Iran - State and Society, 1964-74
  17. ^ Interview with Farah Pahlavi by Mary Bitterman, 2004-03-15.
  18. ^ Mike Wallace interviews Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
  19. ^ Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Mission for my Country, London, 1961, page 173
  20. ^ Fred Halliday, Iran; Dictatorship and Development, Penguin, ISBN 0-14-02.2010-0)
  21. ^ Opposition to Mohammad Reza Shah's Regime
  22. ^ Iran's "Progress" by Thomas R. Moore, Reply by Reza Baraheni.
  23. ^ The New York Times, October 12, 1971, 39:2
  24. ^ (R.W Cottam, Nationalism in Iran P.329)
  25. ^ Michael Ledeen & William Lewis, Debacle: The American Failure in Iran, Knopf, p. 22)
  26. ^ 1979: Shah of Iran flees into exile. BBC. Retrieved on 2007-01-05.
  27. ^ Molavi, Afshin, The Soul of Iran, Norton (2005), p.74
  28. ^ Iran Report 2 February 2004
  29. ^ Sciolino, Elaine, Persian Mirrors, Touchstone, (2000), p.239, 244
  30. ^ Molavi, Afshin, The Soul of Iran, Norton (2005), p.74, 10
  31. ^ Rahman, Tahir (2007). We Came in Peace for all Mankind- the Untold Story of the Apollo 11 Silicon Disc. Leathers Publishing. ISBN 978-1585974412
  32. ^ "Soraya Arrives for U.S. Holiday" (PDF), The New York Times, 1958-04-23, pp. 35. Retrieved on 2007-03-23. 
  33. ^ Paul Hofmann, Pope Bans Marriage of Princess to Shah, The New York Times, 24 February 1959, p. 1.
  34. ^ The Shah's last interview, Panama [1]
  35. ^ What Really Happed to the Shah of Iran - [2]
  36. ^ Iranian State Radio, 5 Nov. 1978 - Partial transcript (in Persian)
  37. ^ Audio of Mohammad Reza Shah's televized speech, November 6, 1978
  38. ^ Oriana Fallaci, Interview with History. New York; Liveright Publishing, 1976. pp. 270-272.
  39. ^ Excerpt available in the introduction to an interview with Grand Ayatollah Montazeri by Golbarg Bashi
  40. ^ Barbara Walters interview, cited in Elaine Sciolino, The Last Empress, May 2, 2004
  41. ^ Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Answer to History, Stein & Day Pub, 1980, ISBN 0-8128-2755-4.
  42. ^ Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Answer to History, Stein & Day Pub, 1980, ISBN 0-8128-2755-4.

The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Stephen Kinzer is an American author and newspaper reporter. ... All the Shahs Men : An American Coup and the Roots of Middle East Terror (ISBN 0471678783 ) is a book, written by journalist Stephen Kinzer, about the 1953 CIA-engineered coup in which Mohammed Mossadegh was overthrown by American and British agents (chief among them Kermit Roosevelt) and royalists loyal... Vladimir Andreyevich Kuzichkin Владимир Андреевич Кузичкин (born 1947) was a Soviet KGB officer who defected to the Tehran Station of the British Secret Intelligence Service in 1982. ... Ballantine Books, founded in 1952 by Ian Ballantine, is a major book publisher and is currently owned by Random House. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... Jan. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Oriana Fallaci Oriana Fallaci (born July 29, 1930) is an Italian journalist , author, and political interviewer. ... Golbarg Bashi (Persian: ‎ ​) is a Swedish feminist academic and human rights activist of Iranian origin. ... Barbara Jill Walters[1] (born September 25, 1929) is an American journalist, writer, and media personality who has been a regular fixture on morning television shows (Today and The View), an evening news magazine (20/20), and on The ABC Evening News as the first female evening news anchor. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
Born: 16 October 1919 Died: 27 July 1980
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Rezā Shah
Shah of Iran
16 September 194111 February 1979
Vacant
Political offices
Preceded by
Rezā Shah
as Shah of Iran
Iranian Head of State
16 September 194111 February 1979
Succeeded by
Rūhullāh Khumaynī
as Supreme Leader of Iran
Titles in pretence
New title
— TITULAR —
Shah of Iran
11 February 197927 July 1980
Reason for succession failure:
Iranian Revolution
Succeeded by
Rezā Pahlavī
Persondata
NAME Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Shahanshah Aryamehr Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
SHORT DESCRIPTION Second Iranian Shah of the Pahlavi dynasty
DATE OF BIRTH October 26, 1919
PLACE OF BIRTH Tehran, Iran
DATE OF DEATH July 27, 1980
PLACE OF DEATH Cairo, Egypt
Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Ardeshir Zahedi Ardeshir Zahedi (born October 16, 1928) was an important Iranian diplomat during the 1960s and 1970s, serving as the countrys foreign minister and its ambassador to the United States and the United Kingdom. ... The Pahlavi dynasty (in Persian: دودمان پهلوی) of Iran began with the crowning of Reza Shah Pahlavi in 1925 and ended with the Iranian Revolution of 1979, and the subsequent collapse of the ancient tradition of Iranian monarchy. ... Reza Shah, also Reza Shah the Great, Reza Shah Pahlavi and Reza Pahlavi (Persian: , Rez̤ā PahlavÄ«), (March 16, 1878 – July 26, 1944), was Shah of Iran[1] from December 15, 1925 until he was forced to abdicate after the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran in September 16, 1941 by British... Shah of Iran redirects here. ... is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Anthem SorÅ«d-e MellÄ«-e Īrān Â² Capital (and largest city) Tehran Official languages Persian Demonym Iranian Government Islamic Republic  -  Supreme Leader  -  President Unification  -  Unified by Cyrus the Great 559 BCE   -  Parthian (Arsacid) dynastic empire (first reunification) 248 BCE-224 CE   -  Sassanid dynastic empire 224–651 CE   -  Safavid dynasty... Reza Shah, also Reza Shah the Great, Reza Shah Pahlavi and Reza Pahlavi (Persian: , Rez̤ā PahlavÄ«), (March 16, 1878 – July 26, 1944), was Shah of Iran[1] from December 15, 1925 until he was forced to abdicate after the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran in September 16, 1941 by British... Shah of Iran redirects here. ... is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Ruhollah Musawi Khomeini (Persian:  , RÅ«ullāh MÅ«sawÄ« KhumaynÄ«) (September 24, 1902[1][2] – June 3, 1989) was a senior Shia Muslim scholar, marja (religious authority), and the political leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolution which saw the overthrow of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the last Shah of Iran. ... The post of Supreme Leader (Persian: رهبر انقلاب, Rahbare Enqelab,[1] lit. ... This article is about pretender as applied to a monarchy. ... This article is about the 1979 revolution in Iran. ... Shah of Iran redirects here. ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is about the 1979 revolution in Iran. ... Reza Pahlavi (Persian: رضا پهلوی, born October 31, 1960) is the former Crown Prince of Iran, the eldest son of late Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and his Empress Consort, Farah Diba. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... For other uses, see Tehran (disambiguation). ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2617 words)
Born in the Sadabad Palace complex in northern Tehran to Reza Shah Pahlavi and his second wife, Tadj ol-Molouk, Mohammad Reza was the eldest son of the first Shah of the Pahlavi dynasty.
Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, crowning Farah Pahlavi as Empress of Iran.
Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi's tomb in the Al Rifa'i Mosque, Cairo, Egypt.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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