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Encyclopedia > Mohammad Najibullah
Mohammad Najibullah
دوکتور نجيب الله
Mohammad Najibullah
In office
September 30, 1987 – April 16, 1992
Preceded by Haji Mohammad Chamkani
Succeeded by Sibghatullah Mojadeddi

Born 1947
Kabul, Afghanistan
Died September 28, 1996
Kabul, Afghanistan
Political party People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan
Religion Sunni Islam

Dr. Mohammad Najibullah (Pashto/Persian: دوکتور نجيب الله‎ ; born 1947, died September 27, 1996) was the fourth and last President of the communist Democratic Republic of Afghanistan. He is also considered the second President of the Republic of Afghanistan. Image File history File links Najibullah. ... September 30 is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 16 is the 106th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (107th in leap years). ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Sibghatullah Al-Mojaddedi ( 1926 - ). He served as the first President of the Islamic State of Afghanistan after the fall of the communist regime in 1992. ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... For other places with the same name, see Kabul (disambiguation). ... September 28 is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... For other places with the same name, see Kabul (disambiguation). ... The Peoples Democratic Party of Afghanistan (in Persian: حزب دموکراتيک خلق افغانستان, in Pashto: د افغانستان د خلق دموکراټیک ګوند, PDPA) was a Soviet-aligned Revisionist party that ruled Afghanistan from 1978 to 1991 with the help of 12000 Russian troops. ... Sunni Muslims are the largest denomination of Islam. ... Pashto (‎, IPA: also known as Pakhto, Pushto, Pukhto ‎, Pashtoe, Pashtu, Pushtu, Pushtoo, Pathan, or Afghan language) is an Iranian language of the Indo-Iranian language family spoken by Pashtuns living in southeastern Afghanistan and western Pakistan. ... Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... September 27 is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... President is a title held by many leaders of organizations, companies, trade unions, universities, and countries. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... This article is about Communist rule in Afghanistan (1978-1992), which is separate, although slightly so, from the Soviet war in Afghanistan. ... Afghanistan (Pashtu/Dari-Persian: Afğānistān افغانستان) is a country in Central Asia. ...

Contents

Early years

Mohammad Najibullah was born in Kabul of an Ahmadzai Ghilzai Pashtun family. He was educated at Habibia High School and Kabul University, where he graduated with a doctor degree in medicine in 1975. For other places with the same name, see Kabul (disambiguation). ... The Pashtuns (also Pushtun, Pakhtun, ethnic Afghan, or Pathan) are an ethno-linguistic group consisting mainly of eastern Iranian stock living primarily in eastern and southern Afghanistan, and the North West Frontier Province, Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Baluchistan provinces of Pakistan. ... Kabul University is located in Kabul, Afghanistan and was founded 1931, opened 1932 and formally established in 1947. ... medicines, see medication and pharmacology. ... 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday. ...


He joined the Parcham faction of the communist People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) in 1965. The PDPA staged a successful coup in 1978, but the Khalq faction of the PDPA gained supremacy, and after a brief stint as ambassador in Tehran, Najibullah was dismissed from government and went into exile in Europe. A communist group in Afghanistan formed in 1967 by USSRs help. ... The Peoples Democratic Party of Afghanistan (in Persian: حزب دموکراتيک خلق افغانستان, in Pashto: د افغانستان د خلق دموکراټیک ګوند, PDPA) was a Soviet-aligned Revisionist party that ruled Afghanistan from 1978 to 1991 with the help of 12000 Russian troops. ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... Khalq (Masses) was a faction of the Peoples Democratic Party of Afghanistan. ... Tehran (IPA: ; Persian: تهران Tehrān), population (as of 2005) 7,314,000 (metropolitan: 12,151,000), and a land area of 658 square kilometers (254 sq mi), is the capital city of Iran (Persia) and the center of Tehran Province. ... Exile (band) may refer to: Exile - The American country music band Exile - The Japanese pop music band Category: ... This article is 150 kilobytes or more in size. ...


Political career

In 1977 he joined the Central Committee, and in 1978 the Revolutionary Council. After the Khalqis pressured the Parchamis, the former banished him to Iran as ambassador. Soon it dismissed him and deprived him of Afghan citizenship. For the album by Ash, see 1977 (album). ... Central Committee most commonly refers to the central executive unit of a communist party, whether ruling or non-ruling. ... 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... An ambassador, rarely embassador, is a diplomatic official accredited to a foreign sovereign or government, or to an international organization, to serve as the official representative of his or her own country. ... Citizenship is membership in a political community (originally a city or town but now usually a country) and carries with it rights to political participation; a person having such membership is a citizen. ...


He returned to Kabul after the Soviet invasion in 1979. In 1980, he was appointed the head of KHAD, the secret police. Under Najibullah's control, it is claimed that KHAD arrested, tortured and executed tens of thousands of Afghans. Amnesty International provided evidence of ‘widespread and systematic torture of men, women and children’. Survivors of his prisons have accused him of personally torturing and killing inmates, often by beating them to the ground and kicking them to death.[1] In 1981 he was promoted to full membership in the Politburo. The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan was a 10-year war which wreaked incredible havoc and destruction on Afghanistan. ... For the song by The Smashing Pumpkins, see 1979 (song). ... 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... KHAD or KhAD is an abbreviation for Khedamat-e Eteleaat-e Dawlati, the Afghanistan Marxist regimes secret police, also known as the State Information Agency. ... // Secret police (sometimes political police) are a police organization which operates in secrecy for the national purpose of maintaining national security against internal threats to the state. ... Torture is defined by the United Nations Convention Against Torture as any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, is intentionally inflicted on a person for such purposes as obtaining from him or a third person information or a confession, punishing him for an act he... 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Politburo is short for Political Bureau. ...


Meanwhile, a change had taken place in Kabul. On May 4, 1986, under pressure of the Soviet Union Babrak Karmal resigned as secretary general of the PDPA and was replaced by Dr. Najibullah. Karmal retained the presidency for a while, but power had shifted to Najibullah. May 4 is the 124th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (125th in leap years). ... 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Babrak Karmal (January 6, 1929 - December 3, 1996) was the third President of Afghanistan (1979 - 1986) during the period of the communist Democratic Republic of Afghanistan. ... A large number of international organizations and other bodies have a secretary general or secretary-general as their chief administrative officers or in other administrative capacities. ... The word Presidency is often used to describe the collective administrative and governmental entity that exists around an office of president of a state or nation. ...


His selection by the Soviets was clearly related to his success in running KHAD, the secret police, more effectively than the rest of the DRA had been governed.


President of the Republic (November 1986 - April 1992)

Flag of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan during Dr. Najibullah's presidency. The Red Star was removed, the cogwheel was relocated to the bottom and the green "horizon" below the sunburst is now curved.
Flag of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan during Dr. Najibullah's presidency. The Red Star was removed, the cogwheel was relocated to the bottom and the green "horizon" below the sunburst is now curved.

In November 1986, Dr. Najibullah was elected president and a new constitution was adopted. Some of the innovations incorporated into the constitution were a multi-party political system, freedom of expression, and an Islamic legal system presided over by an independent judiciary. Image File history File links Flag_of_Afghanistan_1987. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Afghanistan_1987. ... A political system is a social system of politics and government. ... Freedom of speech is the right to freely say what one pleases, as well as the related right to hear what others have stated. ... Islam (Arabic: ; ( â–¶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      In law, the judiciary or judicial is the system of courts which administer justice in the name of the sovereign or state, a mechanism for the resolution of disputes. ...


However, all of these measures were largely outweighed by the broad powers of the president, who commanded a military and police apparatus under the control of the Homeland Party (Hizb-i Watan, as the PDPA became known in 1988). In September he set up the National Compromise Commission to contact counter-revolutionaries "in order to complete the Saur Revolution in its new phase." Allegedly some 40,000 rebels were contacted. 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A rebellion is, in the most general sense, a refusal to accept authority. ...


In this way, Dr. Najibullah had stabilized his political position enough to begin matching Moscow's moves toward withdrawal. On July 20, 1987, the withdrawal of Soviet troops from the country was announced.. Location Position of Moscow in Europe Government Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2007)    - Density 10,469,000   9684. ... Withdrawal refers to the characteristic signs and symptoms that appear when a drug that causes a physical dependency is regularly used for a long time and then suddenly discontinued or decreased in dosage. ... July 20 is the 201st day (202nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 164 days remaining. ... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


It was also during his Administration that the peak of the fighting came in 1985-86. The Soviet forces launched their largest and most effective assaults on the mujahedeen supply lines adjacent to Pakistan. Major campaigns had also forced the mujahedeen into the defensive near Herat and Kandahar. 1985 (MCMLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mujahideen (مجاهدين; also transliterated as mujāhidīn, mujahedeen, mujahedin, mujahidin, mujaheddin, etc. ... Herāt (Persian: ‎ ) is a city in western Afghanistan, in the province also known as Herāt. ... This article is about the city in Afghanistan. ...


Dr. Najibullah made an expanded reconciliation offer to the resistance in July 1987, including twenty seats in State (formerly Revolutionary) Council, twelve ministries and a possible prime minister-ship and Afghanistan's status as an Islamic non-aligned state. Military, police, and security powers were not mentioned, and the offer still fell far short of what even the moderate mujahedeen parties would accept. A prime minister is the most senior minister of a cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... Caliph is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... The Non-Aligned Movement, or NAM is an international organization of over 100 states which consider themselves not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc. ...


Najibullah then reorganized his government to face the mujahedeen alone. A new constitution took effect in November, 1987. The name of the country was reverted to the Republic of Afghanistan, the State Council was replaced by a National Assembly for which "progressive parties" could freely compete. Mir Hussein Sharq, a non-party politician, was named Prime Minister.


On June 7, 1988, President Najibullah addressed the UN General Assembly for peace solution of crisis in Afghanistan. June 7 is the 158th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (159th in leap years), with 207 days remaining. ... 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... United Nations General Assembly The United Nations General Assembly is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations. ...


Soviet withdrawal and Civil War

Immediately after the Soviet departure, Dr. Najibullah pulled down the façade of shared government. He declared an emergency, removed Sharq and the other non-party ministers from the cabinet. The Soviet Union responded with a flood of military and economic supplies. Sufficient food and fuel were made available for the next two difficult winters.


Much of the military equipment belonging to Soviet units evacuating Eastern Europe was shipped to Afghanistan. Assured adequate supplies, the Afghan Air Force, which had developed tactics minimizing the threat from Stinger missiles, now deterred mass attacks against the cities. Medium-range missiles, particularly the SCUD, were successfully launched from Kabul in the defense of Jalalabad, 145 kilometres miles away. Regions of Europe as delineated by the United Nations (UN definition of Eastern Europe marked salmon):  Northern Europe  Western Europe  Eastern Europe  Southern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium... Variants of this emblem adorned many Afghan military aircraft in 2006. ... Two soldiers preparing to fire a shoulder-mounted Stinger missile launcher Light to carry and easy to operate, the FIM-92 Stinger is a passive infrared homing/seek surface-to-air missile, shoulder-fired by a single operator and designed to attack aircraft at a range of up to 15... Polish missile wz. ... Jalalabad (Persian: Jalālābād, 34°31′N 70°31′E) is the capital of Nangarhar province in Afghanistan, 150 km east of Kabul near the Khyber Pass and west of the Kunar River. ...


Victory at Jalalabad dramatically revived the morale of the Kabul government. Its army proved able to fight effectively alongside the already hardened troops of the Soviet-trained special security forces. Defections decreased dramatically when it became apparent that the resistance was in disarray, with no capability for a quick victory. Soviet redirects here. ...


Soviet support reached a value of $3 billion a year in 1990. Kabul had achieved a stalemate which exposed the mujahedeen weaknesses, political and military. Dr. Najibullah's government survived for another four years. Eventually divisions within his own ranks, including the defection of General Abdul Rashid Dostam fatally weakened the government's resolve. MCMXC redirects here; for the Enigma album, see MCMXC a. ... A General is an officer of high military rank. ... General Abdul Rashid Dostum (also Abdurrashid Dostum, born 1954) is the Deputy Defense Minister of Afghanistan and an Uzbek warlord. ...


In March 1990, his government successfully withstood a Khalqi coup, headed by Defense Minister Shahnawaz Tanai. Gulbuddin Hekmatyar was one of the main supporters of the coup. A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... Lieut. ... Gulbuddin Hekmatyar (born 1947 in Imam Saheb, Kunduz province, Afghanistan) is an Afghan warlord. ...


Najibullah had been working on a compromise settlement to end the civil war with Ahmad Shah Masood, brokered by the United Nations. But talks broke down and the government fell, and by 1992 Najibullah agreed to step down in favor of a transitional government. He also announced that a bicameral parliament would be established "within a few months," on the basis of "free and democratic elections." A civil war is a war in which parties within the same culture, society or nationality fight against each other for the control of political power. ... Ahmed Shah Massoud (احمد شاه مسعود) (c. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... A transitional government is a temporary national administration usually put into place pending the establishment of a permanent government. ... In government, bicameralism is the practice of having two legislative or parliamentary chambers. ... A parliament is a legislature, especially in those countries whose system of government is based on the Westminster system modelled after that of the United Kingdom. ... Democracy (literally rule by the people, from the Greek demos, people, and kratos, rule[1]) is a form of government. ...


Downfall

The regime collapsed, as Kabul was short of fuel and food at the end of winter in 1992. Najibullah announced his willingness on March 18 to resign in order to make way for a neutral interim government. On April 16, having lost internal control, was forced to resign by his own ruling party, following the capture of the strategically important Bagram air base and the nearby town of Charikar, by the Jamiat-i-Islami guerrilla group. 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... March 18 is the 77th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (78th in leap years). ... A neutral country takes no side in a war between other parties, and in return hopes to avoid being attacked by either of them. ... April 16 is the 106th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (107th in leap years). ... Aromatic vials in the shape of Greek gods, Begram, 2nd century. ... For other uses, see Airport (disambiguation). ... Capital of Parvan one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan. ... Jamiat Islami (Jamiat-e-Islami, Jamiat-i Islami - Islamic Society) Mainly Tajhik group opposed to the Taliban. ... Guerilla may refer to Guerrilla warfare. ...


Najibullah tried to meet Benin Sevan - director and senior political advisor to the UN Secretary-General's representative on the Afghan conflict at Kabul International Airport, but he was blocked by Abdul Rashid Dostum. On April 17, he sought sanctuary in the UN compound in Kabul. Burhanuddin Rabbani refused to let him leave the country, but made no attempt to arrest him. This article is about the United Nations, for other uses of UN see UN (disambiguation) Official languages English, French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, Arabic Secretary-General Kofi Annan (since 1997) Established October 24, 1945 Member states 191 Headquarters New York City, NY, USA Official site http://www. ... A small number of international organizations and other bodies use the title secretary general or secretary-general for their chief administrative officer. ... Kabul International Airport is located 16km (9miles) from Kabul, Afghanistan. ... April 17 is the 107th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (108th in leap years). ... A compound is an area of land that is surrounded by fences, walls, or barbed wire and is used for a particular purpose, especially an area containing buildings and where the entry and exit of people is controlled. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


On the day Sarobi fell to the Taliban, Dr. Najibullah sent a message to the United Nations in Islamabad, asking them to arrange the evacuation of himself, his brother Ahmadzai and some of his bodyguards, but the UN did not respond due to the intervention by Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence's (ISI) in the process. Sarobi is a town betwenn Kabul and Jalalabad in Afghanistan. ... Armed Taliban in pickup truck in Herat, July 2001. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... Islamabad (Urdu: اسلام آباد, abode of Islam), is the capital city of Pakistan, and is located in the Potohar Plateau in the northwest of the country. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Military manpower Military age 16 years of age Availability 39,028,014 (2005) Males ages 16-49 Reaching military age males: 1,969,055 (2005) Active troops 620,000 (Ranked 7th) Military expenditures Dollar figure $3. ...


Death

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This article list Controversies related to Islam and Muslims. ...

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His wife Fatana and his three daughters had lived in exile in New Delhi since 1992. He spent the rest of his days in virtual detention, and remained there until September 1996 when the Taliban captured Kabul. Criticism of Islam has existed since Islams formative stages, as with many other religions, on philosophical, scientific, ethical, political and theological grounds. ... This is a sub-article to Criticism of Islam and Non-Muslim view of Muhammad Muslims consider Muhammad to be the final and greatest prophet, the messenger of the final revelation that he called the Qur’an. ... This is a sub-article to Criticism of Islam and Quran. ... Political Ideologies Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article is about political Islamism. ... Qutbism is the Islamic strain of thought and activism, or ideology, based on the thought and writings of Sayyid Qutb. ... Jihad, sometimes spelled Jahad, Jehad, Jihaad, Jiaad, Djihad, or Cihad, (Arabic: ‎ ) as an Islamic term, literally means struggle in the way of God or striving hard in Gods cause and is sometimes referred to as the sixth pillar of Islam, although it occupies no official status as such in... This article covers: The prevalence of antisemitism amongst Muslims - and whether it is more or less common than amongst people of other religions. ... Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Hate groups Genocide · Holocaust · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Supremacism Fundamentalism · Kahanism Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism · Civil rights · Gay rights Womens/Universal suffrage · Mens rights Childrens rights · Youth rights... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... This article is about dhimmi in the context of Islamic law. ... Conflicts between Muslims and non-Muslims made the persecution of both Muslims and non-Muslims a recurring phenomenon during the history of Islam. ... This article contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... Detainees upon arrival at Camp X-Ray, January 2002 Guantánamo Bay detainment camp serves as a joint military prison and interrogation camp under the leadership of Joint Task Force Guantanamo (JTF-GTMO) and has occupied a portion of the United States Navys base at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba since... The controversial cartoons of Muhammad, as they were first published in Jyllands-Posten in September 2005. ... Protests in Islamabad, Pakistan, following allegations that U.S. military personnel had desecrated the Quran The Quran desecration controversy of 2005 captured international attention in April 2005 when Newsweek published an article containing allegations that U.S. personnel at the Guantánamo Bay prison camp had deliberately damaged... Police observing crowds prior to confrontations The 2005 Cronulla riots were a series of ethnically motivated mob confrontations which originated in and around Cronulla, a beachfront suburb of Sydney, Australias largest city. ... Norman Kember and Harmeet Singh Sooden were held hostage, as depicted here on Al Jazeera television. ... 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The Flying Imams controversy is a controversy concerning the removal of six Muslim imams from US Airways Flight 300, from Minneapolis, Minnesota to Phoenix, Arizona, at 6:30 PM on November 20, 2006. ... The Imam Rapito affair refers to the ongoing exposé in the Italian press, notably in the newspapers Corriere della Sera and Repubblica, regarding the events surrounding the abduction of Egyptian cleric (and alleged former Albanian national intelligence service asset) Hassan Mustafa Osama Nasr, also known as Abu Omar, from the... Theo van Gogh (IPA pronunciation: ) (July 23, 1957 – November 2, 2004) was a Dutch film director, television producer, publicist and actor. ... Ahmad Kasravi Tabrizi (b. ... This list of Guantanamo Bay detainees is compiled from various sources. ... Babar Ahmad (b. ... Moazzam Begg before speaking at a meeting about civil liberties Moazzam Begg (born 1968) is one of nine British men who were held at Camp X-Ray, Guantanamo Bay by the government of the United States of America. ... Ibn Warraq is the pen name of an author of several books on Islam. ... This article is about the urban region that is the capital of India. ... 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... Armed Taliban in pickup truck in Herat, July 2001. ...


Ahmed Shah Massoud, commander-in-chief of Burhanuddin Rabbani's Army, fled Kabul and surrendered much of the country to the Taliban. There are rumors about Massoud who made attempts to secure Dr. Najibullah's life and that of his brother and bodyguards, but Najibullah thought that he will be more safe in the hands of Pashtun Taliban and rejected the offer. This is supported by General Tokhi's letters. Tokhi was with Najibullah at the UN compound when he was taken away by Taliban and brutally murdered. Commander-in-Chief (in NATO-lingo often C-in-C or CINC pronounced sink) is the commander of all the military forces within a particular region or of all the military forces of a state. ... A bodyguard is a person or group of people who professionally protect someone (known as their principal) from personal assault, kidnapping, assassination, loss of confidential information, or other threats. ...


Soon, a special Taliban unit of five men designated for the task by Pakistani intelligence ISI, breaking international immunity laws, dragged Dr. Najibullah outside of the UN compound. The Taliban tortured him and wanted him to sign papers related to the Durand line, then bundled his brother and him into a pick-up truck and drove them to the presidential palace, where they killed him together with his brother. The Taliban cut off Najibullah's testicles then dragged his body behind a jeep. Then they shot him and his brother, hanging their mutilated bodies from a street lamp outside the presidential palace for two days. In a symbolic gesture of his "debauchery and corruption, the ex-president's pockets were stuffed with money, and cigarettes were pressed between his broken fingers."[2] Armed Taliban in pickup truck in Herat, July 2001. ... Military manpower Military age 16 years of age Availability 39,028,014 (2005) Males ages 16-49 Reaching military age males: 1,969,055 (2005) Active troops 620,000 (Ranked 7th) Military expenditures Dollar figure $3. ... Immunity confers a status ojavascript:insertTags(ì,,)n a person or body that makes that person or body free from otherwise legal obligations such as, for example, lijavascript:insertTags(Ú,,)ability for damages or punishment for criminal acts. ... The Durand Line is a term for the poorly marked 2,640 kilometer (1,610 mile) border between Afghanistan and Pakistan. ... Pickup truck with extended cabin and homebuilt lumber rack. ... The official residence of the President of India. ...


There was widespread international condemnation, particularly from the Muslim world. Mohammad Najibullah's body was removed and sent to Gardez in Paktia Province, where he was buried by his Ahmadzai tribesmen. Nations with a Muslim majority appear in green, while nations that are approximately 50% Muslim appear yellow. ... Gardez is the capital of Paktia province, Afghanistan. ... Paktia province is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... ...

Preceded by
Haji Mohammad Chamkani
President of Afghanistan
September 1987 – April 1992
Succeeded by
Sibghatullah Mojadeddi
Preceded by
Asadullah Amin

(as Head of the KAM) To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The President of Afghanistan is Afghanistans head of state, head of government, and the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. ... Sibghatullah Al-Mojaddedi ( 1926 - ). He served as the first President of the Islamic State of Afghanistan after the fall of the communist regime in 1992. ...

General Secretary of the KHAD
1980 – May 1986
Succeeded by
Gen. Ghulam Faruq Yakubi
Preceded by
Babrak Karmal
General Secretary of the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan
May 1986 – April 1992
Succeeded by
None - Party Dissolved
Preceded by
Babrak Karmal
Chairman of the Revolutionary Council
May 1986 – November 1987
Succeeded by
None - Revolutionary Council replaced by State Council

KHAD or KhAD is an abbreviation for Khedamat-e Eteleaat-e Dawlati, the Afghanistan Marxist regimes secret police, also known as the State Information Agency. ... Ghulam Faruq Yaqubi was an Afghan politician and Army General. ... Babrak Karmal (January 6, 1929 - December 3, 1996) was the third President of Afghanistan (1979 - 1986) during the period of the communist Democratic Republic of Afghanistan. ... The Peoples Democratic Party of Afghanistan (in Persian: حزب دموکراتيک خلق افغانستان, in Pashto: د افغانستان د خلق دموکراټیک ګوند, PDPA) was a Soviet-aligned Revisionist party that ruled Afghanistan from 1978 to 1991 with the help of 12000 Russian troops. ... Babrak Karmal (January 6, 1929 - December 3, 1996) was the third President of Afghanistan (1979 - 1986) during the period of the communist Democratic Republic of Afghanistan. ...

References

  1. ^ Christopher M Andrew and Vasili Mitrokhin (2005). The World Was Going Our Way: The KGB and the Battle for the Third World. Basic Books, p.409. ISBN 0465003117. 
  2. ^ Ian Buruma and Avishai Margalit (2004). Occidentalism: The West in the Eyes of Its Enemies. The Penguin Press, p.44. ISBN 1594200084. 

See also

  • Biography of Najibullah - Afghanland.com

  Results from FactBites:
 
Afghanland.com Afghanistan Dr Najibullah Ahmadzai (511 words)
Mohammad Najibullah Ahmadzai was the fourth President of Afghanistan during the period of the communist Democratic Republic of Afghanistan.
Najibullah (meaning "Honored of God") was born in August 1947 to a moderately prosperous family belonging to the Pushtun Ahmadzai sub-tribe of the Ghilzai.
Najibullah sought sanctuary in the UN compound in Kabul.
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