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Encyclopedia > Mohammad Khatami
Mohammad Khatami
سید محمد خاتمی
Mohammad Khatami

In office
August 3, 1997 – August 2, 2005
Vice President(s) Hassan Habibi (19972001)
Mohammad Reza Aref (20012005)
Preceded by Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani
Succeeded by Mahmoud Ahmadinejad

Born September 29, 1943
Ardakan, Iran Flag of Iran
Political party Militant Clerics League

Mohammad Khatami (Persian : سید محمد خاتمی Seyyed Moḥammad Khātamī), born on September 29, 1943, in Ardakan city of Yazd province, is an Iranian intellectual, philosopher and political figure. He served as the fifth President of Iran from August 2, 1997 to August 2, 2005, and was succeeded by Mahmoud Ahmadinejad. Mohammad Khatami, president of Islamic Republic of Iran, 1997-2005 This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The President of Iran holds a very important office in Irans political establishment. ... August 3 is the 215th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (216th in leap years), with 150 days remaining. ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... August 2 is the 214th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (215th in leap years), with 151 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Hassan Ebrahim Habibi (in Persian: حسن ابراهیم حبیبی) (born 1937?) is an Iranian politician and scholar, presently the Head of Academy of Persian Language and Literature (from October 11, 2004, for four years), and a member of the High Council of Cultural Revolution. ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mohammad Reza Aref (محمدرضا عارف) (born 1941 in Yazd) is an Iranian (Persian) politician and university professor. ... 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Hojat al islam Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani (Persian: اکبر هاشمی رفسنجانی Akbar HāshemÄ« RafanjānÄ«), Hashemi Bahramani (هاشمی بهرمانی) born on August 25, 1934, is an influential Iranian politician, and is currently serving as the Chairman of the Expediency Discernment Council of Iran. ...   (Persian: ‎ ​, IPA: ), transcribed into English as Mahmud or Mahmood, Ahmadinezhad, Ahmadi-Nejad, Ahmadi Nejad, Ahmady Nejad) (born October 28, 1956) is the current president of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ... September 29 is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ... Ardakan (اردکان in Persian) is the second major city of Yazd province of Iran. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iran. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... September 29 is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ... Ardakan (اردکان in Persian) is the second major city of Yazd province of Iran. ... Yazd or Yezd (In Persian: یزد), is the capital of Yazd province, one of the most ancient and historic cities in Iran and a centre of Zoroastrian culture. ... The President of Iran holds a very important office in Irans political establishment. ... August 2 is the 214th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (215th in leap years), with 151 days remaining. ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... August 2 is the 214th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (215th in leap years), with 151 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...   (Persian: ‎ ​, IPA: ), transcribed into English as Mahmud or Mahmood, Ahmadinezhad, Ahmadi-Nejad, Ahmadi Nejad, Ahmady Nejad) (born October 28, 1956) is the current president of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ...


Khatami was elected president on May 23, 1997, and was re-elected on June 8, 2001, for a second term. Khatami won largely due to the female and youth vote, who voted for him because he promised to improve the status of women and respond to the demands of the young generation in Iran. May 23 is the 143rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (144th in leap years). ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 8 is the 159th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (160th in leap years), with 206 days remaining. ... 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The day of his election, the 2nd of Khordad, 1376, in the Iranian calendar, is regarded as the starting date of "reforms" in Iran. His followers or anybody who was following that current are therefore usually known as the "2nd of Khordad Movement". The Iranian calendar (Persian: ‎) also known as Persian calendar or the Jalāli Calendar is a solar calendar currently used in Iran and Afghanistan. ... Second of Khordad Movement refers to a movement started by 6th presidental election in Iran. ...

Contents

Early career

Khatami has a bachelor's degree in Western philosophy from Isfahan University, but he left academia while studying for a master's degree in Educational Sciences at Tehran University, and instead went to Qom to complete his previous studies in Islamic sciences. He studied there for seven years and completed the courses to the highest level, Ijtihad. After that, he went to Germany to chair the Islamic Centre in Hamburg, where he stayed until the Iranian revolution. A bachelors degree (Artium Baccalaureus, A.B. or B.A.) is usually an undergraduate academic degree awarded for a course or major that generally lasts for three, four, or in some cases and countries, five or six years. ... Western philosophy is a modern claim that there is a line of related philosophical thinking, beginning in ancient Greece (Greek philosophy) and the ancient Near East (the Abrahamic religions), that continues to this day. ... The University of Isfahan is the largest university in Isfahan Province in Iran. ... A masters degree is an academic degree usually awarded for completion of a postgraduate (or graduate) course of one to three years in duration. ... Look up Education in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The University of Tehran (دانشگاه تهران in Persian), also known as Tehran University, is the oldest and largest university of Iran. ... Qom (Persian: قم, also known as Qum or Kom) is a city in Iran and the Qom (River) flows through the town. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Islamic Centre Hamburg (Islamisches Zentrum Hamburg) is one of the oldest Iranian Shiite mosques in Germany and Europe. ... Hamburg from above Hamburgs motto: May the posterity endeavour with dignity to conserve the freedom, which the forefathers acquired. ... 1980 Iranian stamp commemorating the Islamic Revolution Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ...


Before serving as president, Khatami had been a representative in the parliament from 1980 to 1982, supervisor of the Kayhan Institute, Minister of Culture and Islamic Guidance (1982-1986, and then for a second term from 1989 to 24 May 1992 (when he resigned), the head of the National Library of Iran from 1992 to 1997, and a member of the Supreme Council of Cultural Revolution. مجلس شورای اسلامی - The Majles; Irans Parliament. ... 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... May 24 is the 144th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (145th in leap years). ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... Image:Milli Library. ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... ...


He is also a member and chairman of the Central Council of the Militant Clerics League. This article is in need of attention. ...


Presidency

Khatami is regarded as Iran's first reformist president, since the focus of his campaign was on the rule of law, democracy and the inclusion of all Iranians in the political decision-making process. However, his policies of reform led to repeated clashes with the hardline and conservative Islamists in the Iranian government, who control powerful governmental organizations like the Guardian Council, whose members are appointed by the Supreme Leader. Khatami lost most of those clashes, and by the end of his presidency many of his followers had grown disillusioned with him.


As President, according to the Iranian political system, Khatami was outranked by the Supreme Leader, and had no legal authority over many key state institutions such as the armed forces (the police, the army, the revolutionary guards, etc.), the state radio and television, the judiciary, the prisons, etc. (See Politics of Iran). Ayatollah Sayyed Ali Khamenei, Supreme Leader of Iran. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Khatami presented the so called "twin bills" to the parliament during his term in office, these two pieces of proposed legislation would have introduced small but key changes to the national election laws of Iran and also presented a clear definition of the president's power to prevent constitutional violations by state institutions. Khatami himself described the "twin bills" as the key to the progress of reforms in Iran. The bills were approved by the parliament but were eventually vetoed by the Guardian Council.


Cabinet

OFFICE NAME TERM
President Mohammad Khatami 1997–2005
First Vice President Hassan Habibi 1997–2001
Mohammad Reza Aref 2001–2005
Foreign Affairs Kamal Kharrazi 1997–2005
Agricultural Issa Kalantari 1997–2000
Mahmoud Hojjati 2000–9999
Commerce Mohammad Shariatmadar 1997–2005
ICT Mohammad Reza Aref 1997–2000
Ahmad Motamedi 2000–2005
Cooperatives Morteza Haaji 1997–2001
Ali Soufi 2001–2005
Culture Attaollah Mohajerani 1997–2000
Ahmad Masjed-Jamei 2000–2005
Defense Ali Shamkhani 1997–2005
Economy Hossein Namazi 1997–2001
Tahmasb Mazaheri 2001–2004
Safdar Hosseini 2004–2005
Education Hossein Mozzafar 1997–2001
Morteza Haaji 2001–2005
Power Habibolah Bitaraf 1997–2005
Health Mohammad Farhadi 1997–2001
Masoud Pezeshkian 2001–2005
HUD Ali Abdolalizadeh 1997–2005
Industrial Gholamreza Shafei 1997–2001
Eshaq Jahangiri 2001–2005
Intelligence Ghorbanali Dorri Najafabadi 1997–1998
Ali Younesi 1998–2005
Interior Abdollah Nouri 1997–1998
Abdolvahed Mousavi Lari 1998–2005
Justice Mohammad Ismaeil Shooshtari 1997–2005
Labour Hossein Kamali 1997–2001
Safdar Hosseini 2001–2004
Nasser Khaleghi 2004–2005
Petroleum Bijan Namdar Zangeneh 1997–2005
Roads Mahmoud Hojatti 1997–2000
Rahman Dadman 2000
Ahmad Khorram 2000–2004
Mohammad Rahmati 2004–2005
Science Mostafa Moeen 1997–2003
Jafar Towfighi 2003–2005
Welfare Mohammad Hossein Sharifzadegan 2004–2005


The President of Iran holds a very important office in Irans political establishment. ... Vice President of Iran is defined by article 124 of the Iranian constitution, as anyone appointed by the President to lead an organization related to the Presidential affairs. ... Hassan Ebrahim Habibi (in Persian: حسن ابراهیم حبیبی) (born 1937?) is an Iranian politician and scholar, presently the Head of Academy of Persian Language and Literature (from October 11, 2004, for four years), and a member of the High Council of Cultural Revolution. ... Mohammad Reza Aref (محمدرضا عارف) (born 1941 in Yazd) is an Iranian (Persian) politician and university professor. ... The first Minister of Foreign Affairs (or Foreign Minister) of Iran was Mirza Abdolvahhab Khan Motamed od-Dowleh Neshat who served between 1819 and 1824. ... Kamal Kharrazi (Persian: کمال خرازی) (born December 1, 1944 in Tehran), is the Iranian Minister of Foreign Affairs, serving since August 20, 1997. ... Issa Kalantari (In Persian: عیسی کلانتری) (born 1952 in Marand) is an Iranian politician. ... Mohammad Reza Aref (محمدرضا عارف) (born 1941 in Yazd) is an Iranian (Persian) politician and university professor. ... Seyyed Ahmad Motamedi (In Persian: سید احمد معتمدی) (born 1953 in Tehran) is the Iranian Minister of Communication and Information Technology. ... Dr. Mohajerani served as minister of culture and speaker of the cabinet in President Mohammad Khatamis government. ... Ahmad Masjed-Jamei is an Iranian reformist politician, who served as Culture Minister under President Mohammad Khatami from 2000 to 2005, and was elected a Tehran City Councillor in 2006. ... Ali Shamkhani is an Iranian admiral. ... Safdar Hosseini (Persian: صفدر حسینی) is an Iranian politician. ... Habibolah Bitaraf was Power Minister for 8 years in Mohammad Khatami peresidency. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Eshaq Jahangiri Kouhshahi (In Persian: اسحاق جهانگیری کوهشاهی) (born 1957 in Sirjan) is an Iranian politician. ... The Ministry of Intelligence (وزارت اطلاعات), is the primary intelligence agency of Iran. ... Ayatollah Ghorbanali Dorri-Najafabadi (قربانعلی دری نجف‌آبادی) is an Iranian politician and cleric, previously the Minister of Intelligence of Iran. ... Ali Younesi was The Ministry of Intelligence and National Security in Khatami Government of Iran. ... Minister of Justice of the Islamic Republic of Iran is responsible for prosecuting the government cases. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Hojjatoleslam Abdolvahed Mousavi-Lari (1954[1]-)- was the interior minister of the Islamic Republic of Iran during the presidency of Mohammad Khatami. ... Minister of Justice of the Islamic Republic of Iran is responsible for prosecuting the government cases. ... Hojjat al-Islam Mohammad Ismaeil Shooshtari (born in 1949 Quchan in Khorasan province) was the Minister of Justice of the Islamic Republic of Iran for 1997-2005. ... Hossein Kamali (In Persian: حسین کمالی) (born 1953 in Doroud) is an Iranian politician. ... Safdar Hosseini (Persian: صفدر حسینی) is an Iranian politician. ... The Iranian constitution prohibits the granting of petroleum rights on a concessionary basis or direct equity stake. ... Bijan Namdar Zangeneh is an Iranian politician. ... Rahman Dadman was an Iranian(Persian) politician . ... Ahmad Khorram (احمد خرم) (born 1950) is Iranian politician. ... Dr Mostafa Moeen Mostafa Moeen, M.D. (مصطفی معین; born April 1, 1951), also spelled Moin, is an Iranian politician and professor, and an Advisor to the former President Mohammad Khatami. ...


Economic policy

Khatami's economic policies follow the previous government's commitment to industrialization. As for the macro-economic policies, Khatami continued the liberal policies that Rafsanjani had embarked on in the state's first five year economic development plan (1990-1995). Right-wing critics accuse President Khatami of neglecting the economy in favour of politics. [7] In April 10, 2005 Khatami cited economic development, large-scale operations of the private sector in the country's economic arena and the 6-percent economic growth as among the achievements of his government. $5 billion had been allocated to the private sector for promoting the economy, adding that the value of contracts signed in this regard has reached $10 billion. A year into his first term as president of Iran, Mohammad Khatami admitted that the Iranian economy was "chronically ill ... and it will continue to be so unless there is fundamental restructuring". His economic team has managed to address a number of economic shortcomings but many problems remained unresolved. The remaining difficulties can be attributed to the limited capability of his team, the structure of the economy and society, and also the power struggle. Macroeconomics is the study of the entire economy in terms of the total amount of goods and services produced, total income earned, the level of employment of productive resources, and the general behavior of prices. ... April 10 is the 100th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (101st in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Foreign policy

Year 2001 was named the year of dialogue after Mohammad Khatami's proposal

During Khatami's presidency, Iran's foreign policy had entered into a new phase; moving from confrontation to conciliation. Khatami's worldview and his notion of foreign policy was different from his predecessors'. In Khatami's notion of foreign policy, there was no "clash of civilizations", he favours a "dialogue among civilizations". The detente policy of Khatami had created a congenial atmosphere for expanding relations with the world, and its relations with the major powers (Iran's) was improving. Relations with the US alone were still marred by mutual suspicion and distrust. During Khatami's two terms, Tehran was increasingly making efforts to play a greater role in the Persian Gulf region and beyond. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Look up policy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Cover of The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order The Clash of Civilizations is a controversial theory that peoples cultural and religious identities will be the primary source of conflict in the post-Cold War world. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ...


Khatami has met with many influential figures, including Pope John Paul II, Koichiro Matsuura, Jacques Chirac, Johannes Rau, Vladimir Putin, Abdulaziz Bouteflika and Hugo Chávez. Coat of Arms of Pope John Paul II. The Letter M is for Mary, the mother of Jesus, to whom he held strong devotion Pope John Paul II (Latin: , Italian: Giovanni Paolo II) born   [] (May 18, 1920, Wadowice, Poland – April 2, 2005, Vatican City) reigned as Pope of the Catholic... Koichiro Matsuura (foreground) at the 32nd G8 summit Kōichiro Matsuura (, b. ... Jacques René Chirac (born November 29, 1932) has served as the Gaullist President of France since he was first elected in 1995. ... Johannes Rau (January 16, 1931 – January 27, 2006) was the President of Germany from July 1, 1999 until June 30, 2004. ... Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (Russian: ) (born October 7, 1952) is the incumbent President of Russia. ... Abdelaziz Bouteflika (عبجد العزيز بوتفليقة) (born March 2, 1937) is the president of Algeria (since 1999). ... Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías (IPA: ) (born July 28, 1954) is the current President of Venezuela. ...


After the 2003 earthquake in Bam, Iran, the Iranian government rebuffed Israel's offer of assistance. On April 8, 2005, Khatami sat near Iranian-born Israeli President Moshe Katsav during the funeral of Pope John Paul II because of alphabetical order. Later, Katsav claimed that he shook hands and spoke with Khatami. Katsav himself is in origin an Iranian Jew, and from a part of Iran close to Khatami's home - he stated that they had spoken about their home province. That would make this incident the first political contact between Iran and Israel since diplomatic ties were severed in 1979.[8] [9] However, after he returned to Iran, Khatami was subject to harsh criticism from conservatives for having 'recognised' Israel by speaking to its president. Subsequently, the country's state-run media reported that Khatami strongly denied shaking hands and chatting with Katsav[10] Bam in 2002. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (99th in leap years). ... President of the State of Israel (Hebrew: , Nesí Hamdiná, literally: The President of the State) is the Head of state of Israel. ... Moshe Katsav (Hebrew: ‎; born December 5, 1945) is the eighth and current President of Israel (since 2000). ... The funeral of Pope John Paul II was held on 8 April 2005, six days after his death on 2 April. ... The Pope (or Pope of Rome) (from Latin: papa, Papa, father; from Greek: papas / = priest originating from πατήρ = father )[1] is the Bishop of Rome and the spiritual leader of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Coat of Arms of Pope John Paul II. The Letter M is for Mary, the mother of Jesus, to whom he held strong devotion Pope John Paul II (Latin: , Italian: Giovanni Paolo II) born   [] (May 18, 1920, Wadowice, Poland – April 2, 2005, Vatican City) reigned as Pope of the Catholic... For the song by the Smashing Pumpkins, see 1979 (song). ...


Khatami and Iran's 2004 parliamentary election

In February 2004 Parliament elections, the Council of Guardians banned thousands [1] of candidates, including most of the reformist members of the parliament and all the candidates of the Islamic Iran Participation Front party from running. This led to a win by the conservatives of at least 70% of the seats. Approximately 60% of the eligible voting population participated in the elections. 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Politics of Iran Categories: Stub | 2004 elections | Elections in Iran ... The Guardian Council of the Constitution (شورای نگهبان قانون اساسی in Persian) is a high office within the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran which has the authority to interpret the constitution... The Islamic Iran Participation Front (Jebheye Mosharekate Iran-e Eslaami, جبهه مشارکت ایران اسلامی in Persian) is a reformist political party in Iran. ...


Khatami recalled his strong opposition against[citation needed] holding an election his government saw as unfair and not free. He also narrated the story of his visit to the Supreme Leader, Khamenei, together with the Parliament's spokesman (considered the head of the legislature) and a list of conditions they had handed him before they could hold the elections. The list, he said, was then passed on to the Guardian Council, the legal supervisor and major obstacle to holding free and competitive elections in recent years. The weighty members of the Guardian Council are all appointed directly by the Supreme Leader and thus are considered as applying his will. "But," Khatami said, "the Guardian Council kept neither the Supreme Leader's nor its own word [...] and we were faced with a situation in which we had to choose between holding the election or risking huge unrest [...] and so damaging the regime." At this point a slogan was repeatedly chanted by the student protesters: "Jannati* is the nation's enemy." Khatami strangely replied, "If you are the nation, then we are the nation's enemy," and closed his speech.


Dialogue Among Civilizations

Mr. Khatami introduced the theory of Dialogue Among Civilizations as a response to Huntington's theory of Clash of Civilizations. After introducing the concept of his theory in several international societies (most importantly the U.N.) the theory gained a lot of international support. Consequently the United Nations proclaimed the year 2001 as the United Nations' Year of Dialogue Among Civilizations, as per Khatami's suggestion [11] [12]. Pleading for the moralization of politics, Khatami argued that “The political translation of dialogue among civilizations would consist in arguing that culture, morality and art must prevail on politics.” Khatami has become an international personality, and he has gained much fame among intellectuals all over the world. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Cover of The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order The Clash of Civilizations is a controversial theory that peoples cultural and religious identities will be the primary source of conflict in the post-Cold War world. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Khatami’s dialogue of civilisations, challenging Samuel Huntington’s The Clash of Civilisations and the Remaking of World Order (Huntington, 1998), is not just a domestic plea but a worldwide invitation. In 1998, Khatami addressed an international audience at the United Nations General Assembly in New York to delineate his main arguments (Khatami, 2001c, pp. 11–22) and the UN declared the year 2001 as the Year of Dialogue Among Civilisations. His proposal for such a dialogue is an inclusive concept that reaches beyond Iranian/non-Iranian, Muslim/non-Muslim dichotomies. It is an appeal to all humanity in the midst of growing violence and conflict worldwide, ultimately aiming at the betterment of human life. The dialogue of civilisations has several goals: laying the ground for peaceful, constructive debate among nations; providing a context in which civilisations can learn from each other’s strengths and weaknesses; replacing fear, blame, and prejudice with reason, fairness, and tolerance; and facilitating a dynamic exchange of experiences among culture, religions, and civilisations aimed at reform and amelioration. Khatami believes that such dialogue would strike a balance between the two extremes of self-denial, unquestioning imitation, and surrender and hatred, irrational rejection, and execration.[2] The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... NY redirects here. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... For other uses, see Civilization (disambiguation). ...


Personal life and family

President Khatami on the last day of his presidency, "reconciles" with his family. His son Emad, and his younger daughter Narges are seen in the picture

Khatami married Zohreh Sadeghi, daughter of a famous professor of religious law, and niece of Imam Musa al-Sadr, in 1974 (at the age of 31). They have two daughters and one son: Leila (born 1975) who is now a university professor of Mathematics, Narges (born 1982), and Emad (born 1988). Image File history File links Khatamifamily. ... Image File history File links Khatamifamily. ... Sayyid Musa al-Sadr Mūsā al-Sadr (1928-1978?) (Persian: ‎ ) also transliterated Mūsā-e Sader, and many other variants, was an Iranian philosopher and a prominent Shiite religious leader who spent many years of his life in Lebanon as a religious and political leader. ... 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday. ... 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Khatami's father, the late Ayatollah Ruhollah Khatami, was a high ranking cleric and the Khateeb (the one who delivers the sermon for Friday prayers)in the city of Yazd in the early years of the Iranian Revolution. Ayatollah Ruhollah Khatami (not to be mistaken with Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini who was the leader of the 1979 Iranian revolution) was a senior Iranian cleric in the city of Yazd. ... Khātīb (or khateeb) is an Islamic Arabic term used to describe a person who delivers the khutba, or sermon, during the Friday prayer or Eid prayers. ... Yazd or Yezd (In Persian: یزد), is the capital of Yazd province, one of the most ancient and historic cities in Iran and a centre of Zoroastrian culture. ... 1980 Iranian stamp commemorating the Islamic Revolution Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ...


Khatami's brother, Dr. Mohammad Reza Khatami was elected as Tehran's first member of parliament in the 6th term of Majlis, during which he served as deputy speaker of the parliament. He also served as the secretary-general of Islamic Iran Participation Front (Iran's largest reformist party) for several years. Mohammad Reza is married to Zahra Eshraghi, granddaughter of Ayatollah Khomeini (founder of the Islamic Republic of Iran) who is a feminist human rights activist. Mohammad Reza Khatami Seyyed Mohammad Reza Khatami (محمد رضا خاتمی), also known as Reza Khatami (born in 1959 in Ardakan), is a Persian politician. ... Majlis (مجلس) is an Arabic term used to describe various types of formal legislative assemblies in countries with linguistic or cultural connections to Islamic countries. ... The Islamic Iran Participation Front (Jebheye Mosharekate Iran-e Eslaami, جبهه مشارکت ایران اسلامی in Persian) is a reformist political party in Iran. ... Granddaughter of the late Supreme Ayatollah Khomeini, and wife of Mohammad Reza Khatami (since 1983), head of the Islamic Iran Participation Front, the main reformist party in the country. ... Ayatollah Khomeini founded the first modern Islamic republic Ayatollah Seyyed Ruhollah Khomeini (آیت‌الله روح‌الله خمینی in Persian) (May 17, 1900 – June 3, 1989) was an Iranian Shia cleric and the political...


Khatami's other brother, Ali Khatami, a businessman with a master's degree in Industrial Engineering from Brooklyn[3], served as the President's Chief of Staff during President Khatami's second term in office, where he kept an unusually low profile. Ali Khatami (born 1953) is the younger brother of former Iranian president, Mohammed Khatami, and served as his chief of staff. ... Industrial engineering is a branch in engineering that concerns the development, improvement, implementation and evaluation of integrated systems of people, knowledge, equipment, energy, material and process. ... Brooklyn (named after the Dutch city Breukelen) is one of the five boroughs of New York City. ...


Khatami's eldest sister, Fatemeh Khatami was elected as the first representative of the people of Ardakan (Khatami's hometown) in 1999 city council elections. Ardakan (اردکان in Persian) is the second major city of Yazd province of Iran. ... City and Village Councils (full title is: Provincial, City, District and Village Councils) are local councils which are elected by public vote in all cities and villages throughout Iran. ...


Mohammad Khatami speaks several languages including Persian, Arabic, English and German. Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Research field

Khatami's main research field is Political philosophy. One of Khatami's academic mentors was Javad Tabatabaei, a very influential Iranian political philosopher. Later on Khatami became a University lecturer at Tarbiat Modarres University where he taught Political philosophy. Khatami also published a book on political philosophy in 1999. The ground he covers is the same as that covered by Javad Tabatabaei: the Platonizing adaptation of Greek political philosophy by Farabi (d. 950), its synthesis of the "eternal wisdom" of Persian statecraft by Abu'l-Hasan Amiri (d. 991) and Mushkuya (miskawayh) Razi (d. 1030), the juristic theories of al-Mawardi and Ghazali, and Nizam al-Mulk's treatise on statecraft. He ends with a discussion of the revival of political philosophy in Safavid Isfahan in the second half of the 17th century. The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political philosophy is the study of fundamental questions about the state, government, politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law and the enforcement of a legal code by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what makes a government legitimate, what... Javad Tabatabaei is a Persian philosopher and a distinguished university professor. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political philosophy is the study of fundamental questions about the state, government, politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law and the enforcement of a legal code by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what makes a government legitimate, what... Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Tarkhan ibn Uzalagh al-Farabi (870–950 A.D.), also known in the West as Alpharabus, Alfarabi, or Farabi, was a Persian-Turkish (Encyclopedia Britannica) philosopher and scientist and one of the greatest scientists and philosophers of his time. ... The Safavids were a long-lasting Turkic-speaking Iranian dynasty that ruled from 1501 to 1736 and first established Shiite Islam as Persias official religion. ... Part of Shah Abbas large urban project in his new capital, the Chahār Bāgh Four Gardens, is a four-kilometer avenue in the city of Isfahan. ...


Further, Khatami shares with Tabatabaei the curious idea of the "decline" of Muslim political thought beginning at the very outset, after Farabi.


Aristotle's Politics became available in Persian to Khatami's generation only in a translation by the late Hamid Enayat (d. 1982). Like Tabatabaei, Khatami brings in the sharply contrasting Aristotelian view of politics to highlight the shortcomings of Muslim political thought. Khatami's explanations of the decline in Muslim political thought in terms of the transition from political philosophy to royal policy (siyasat-i shahi) and its imputation to the prevalence of "forceful domination" (taghallub) in Islamic history carries little conviction.[4] Aristotle (Greek: Aristotélēs) (384 BC – March 7, 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ...


Khatami highlights the contradiction between the Western notion of "liberty" and the Islamic concept of "salvation". The Western concept of liberty refers to emancipation from outside bonds and aims at social, political, and civil freedom. Its positive achievements are having humans determine their own fate while governments serve the people and are accountable to them. A negative consequence of this school of thought, according to Khatami, is unbridled individualism and the belief that humans and their needs and desires are of central importance at all times. The Islamic notion of salvation, on the other hand, refers to emancipation from internal bonds, such as carnal desires, lust, and worldliness. Khatami believes that both viewpoints are incomplete. Salvation neglects humans’ social and political freedom.[5] Individualism is a term used to describe a moral, political, or social outlook that stresses human independence and the importance of individual self-reliance and liberty. ...


In his address at Washington National Cathedral, Khatami, a philosopher and scholar who specialized in German and Western philosophical trends in modern and post-modern eras, provided a historical overview of Western thought from the Renaissance to the current post-modern age. The West is driven by intellectuals who emphasize individuality, he pointed out, and who have turned human beings into a new religion: Westerners believe that man can successfully dominate the world and nature, and have turned to aggression, domination and colonialism. In Khatami’s opinion, Western thinkers propagated the views of "survival of the fittest" and "might is right". The West went on to build aggressive social and political systems, and dominate both nature and weak societies. The Eastern spiritual beliefs of the three Abrahamic faiths, based on the principles of truth and justice, have suffered as a result. With the advance of Western civilization, the West either dominated or integrated other "civilizations into a unified Western one", Khatami said. Western philosophers and politicians now expect "older civilizations" to give in and accept Western ideals, just as "agricultural civilizations physically gave in to the industrial and post-industrial civilizations."[6] Washington National Cathedral has been the site of three presidential state funerals: for Dwight D. Eisenhower, Ronald W. Reagan, Gerald R. Ford and a presidential burial in the cathedral: Woodrow Wilson. ... The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ... Galunggung in 1982, showing a combination of natural events. ... It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ... An Abrahamic religion (also referred to as desert monotheism) is any religion derived from an ancient Semitic tradition attributed to Abraham, a great patriarch described in the Torah, the Bible and the Quran. ...


In his "Letter for Tomorrow", he wrote: "This government is proud to announce that it heralded the era where the sanctity of power has been turned into the legitimacy of critique and criticism of that power, which is in the trust of the people who have been delegated with power to function as representatives through franchise. So such power, once considered Divine Grace has now been reduced to an earthly power that can be criticized and evaluated by earthly beings. Instances show that although due to some traces of despotic mode of background we have not even been a fair critique of those in power, however, it is deemed upon the society, and the elite and the intellectuals in particular, not to remain indifferent at the dawn of democracy and allow freedom to be hijacked."


Post-presidential career

  • On September 28, 2005, Mohammad Khatami retires, after 29 years of service in the government. [13]
  • On November 14, 2005, Mohammad Khatami urges all religious leaders to fight for the abolishment of atomic and chemical weapons. [14] [15]
  • On January 30, 2006, Mohammad Khatami officially inaugurates the office of "International Center of Dialogue Among Civilizations". An NGO with offices in Iran and Europe that he will be heading, after his retirement from the government. [16]
  • On February 15, 2006, during a press interview Mohammad Khatami announces the formal registration of the European office of his Institute for Dialogue among Civilizations in Geneva.
  • On February 28, 2006, while attending a conference of the Alliance of Civilizations at Doha, Qatar, he states that "The holocaust is a historical fact." However, he adds that Israel has "made a bad use of this historic fact with the persecution of the Palestinian people." [17]

September 2 is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Kofi Atta Annan (born April 8, 1938) is a Ghanaian born diplomat who served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1, 1997 to December 31, 2006, serving two five-year terms. ... The Alliance of Civilizations is a United Nations Secretary-General initiative intended to galvanize collective action across diverse societies in order to combat extremism, and overcome cultural and social barriers between mainly the Western and predominantly Muslim worlds. ... September 28 is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 14 is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 47 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 30 is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... February 15 is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Hunters a cool hobo For other uses, see Geneva (disambiguation). ... February 28 is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The Alliance of Civilizations is a United Nations Secretary-General initiative intended to galvanize collective action across diverse societies in order to combat extremism, and overcome cultural and social barriers between mainly the Western and predominantly Muslim worlds. ... Doha (Arabic: ‎, translit: or ), population 400,051 (2005 census), is the capital of Qatar and is at , on the Persian Gulf. ... September 7 is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Nickname: Motto: Justitia Omnibus (=Justice for All) Location of Washington, D.C., in relation to the states Maryland and Virginia Coordinates: Country United States Federal District District of Columbia Government  - Mayor Adrian M. Fenty (D)  - City Council Chairperson: Vincent C. Gray (D) Ward 1: Jim Graham (D) Ward 2: Jack... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini era. ... Davos viewed from air Davos is a town in eastern Switzerland, in the canton of Graubünden, on the Landwasser River. ...   (IPA: ) (born in Hamburg, Germany, on July 17, 1954, as Angela Dorothea Kasner), is the Chancellor of Germany. ... For other people of the same name, see Tony Blair (disambiguation) Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born May 6, 1953)[1] is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service, Leader of the Labour Party, and Member of Parliament for the constituency... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... Hillary Clinton Hillary Diane Rodham Clinton (born October 26, 1947), was First Lady of the United States from 1993 to 2001, as the wife of President Bill Clinton. ... Albert Arnold Gore, Jr. ... Richard Bruce Dick Cheney (born January 30, 1941), is the 46th and current Vice President of the United States, serving under President George W. Bush. ... Madeleine Korbel Albright (born Marie Jana Korbelová, IPA: , on May 15, 1937) was the first woman to become United States Secretary of State. ... General Colin Luther Powell, United States Army (Ret. ... Al Gore (born December 11, 1943) is a Vietnam Veteran and the junior United States Senator from Massachusetts. ...

The Man with the Chocolate Robe

Original caption reads: "Someone certainly looks happy!". Khatami on the stage standing next to Pegah Ahangarani (left), a popular Iranian actress who was a presenter of the event, and Baran Kowsari (right), during Chelcheragh's "A Night with The Man with the Chocolate Robe"

On December 22, 2005, a few months after the end of Khatami's presidency, the monthly magazine Chelcheragh with a group of young Iranian artists and activists organized a ceremony in honor of Mr. Khatami. The ceremony was held on Yalda night at Tehran's Bahman Farhangsara Hall. The ceremony, titled A Night with: The Man with the Chocolate Robe by the organizers, was widely attended by teenagers and younger adults. One of the presenters and organizers of the ceremony was Pegah Ahangarani, a popular young Iranian actress. The event did not get a lot of advance publicity, but it drew a huge amount of attention afterwards. In addition to formal reports on the event by the BBC, IRNA, and other major news agencies, googling the term "مردی با عبای شکلاتی" ("The Man with the Chocolate Robe" in Persian) shows thousands of results of mainly young Iranians' weblogs mentioning the event. The significance of this event was that it was arguably the first time in the history of Iran that an event in such fashion was held in honor of a head of government. Some weblog reports of the evening described the general atmosphere of the event as "similar to a concert!", and some reported that "Khatami was treated like a pop star" among the youth and teenagers in attendance during the ceremony. Many bloggers also pointed out the disappoinment of many of his supporters because of his failure to carry out his plans for a more democratic, tolerant, and open society after his 8 years of presidency. The event itself, and the enormous amount of weblog and internet discussions that were sparked by it, are considered by many to be indicative of the strong feelings still evoked in Iran's youth by Mr. Khatami and the reform program he was associated with. Image File history File links Khatamihappy. ... Image File history File links Khatamihappy. ... Pegah Ahangarani Pegah Ahangarani, born in 1984, is an Iranian actress. ... Baran Kowsari is an Iranian actress. ... Chelcheragh is the name of a monthly social magazine printed in Iran. ... A Night with: The Man with the Chocolate Robe was the title of an event held in December 22 2005 in honor of former Iranian president, Mohammad Khatami after the end of his last term in office. ... Chelcheragh is the name of a monthly social magazine printed in Iran. ... A variety of foodstuff that are consumed on Yalda Yaldā also known as Shab-e Cheleh is celebrated on the eve of the first day of the winter (December 21) in the Iranian calendar, which falls on the Winter Solstice. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Pegah Ahangarani Pegah Ahangarani, born in 1984, is an Iranian actress. ...

  • [18] BBC News: The Man with the Chocolate Robe
  • [19] Photo report of the ceremony

Primary sources

Publications

Khatami has written a number of books in Persian, Arabic and English: Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...

Video clips of M. Khatami
Clash with Students I
Clash with Students II
Democracy
On G.W. Bush & bin Laden
America Root of Terror
On Hezbollah.


Books in Persian

  • Fear of the Wave (بیم موج)
  • From the World of the Polis to the Polis of the World (از دنیای شهر تا شهر دنیا)
  • Faith and Thought Trapped by Despotism (آیین و اندیشه در دام خودکامگی)
  • Democracy (مردم سالاری)
  • Dialogue Among Civilizations (گفتگوی تمدنها)
  • A Letter for Tomorrow (نامه ای برای فردا)
  • Islam, The Clergy, and The Islamic Revolution (اسلام، روحانیت و انقلاب اسلامی)
  • Political Development, Economic Development, and Security (توسعه سیاسی، توسعه اقتصادی و امنیت)
  • Women and the Youth (زنان و جوانان)
  • Political Parties and the Councils (احزاب و شوراها)
  • Reviver of the Truth of Religion [title roughly translated from Persian] (احیاگر حقیقت دین)

Books in English

  • Islam, Liberty and Development[11] ISBN 978-1883058838

Books in Arabic

  • A Study of Religion, Islam and Time [title roughly translated from Arabic] (مطالعات فی الدین و الاسلام و العصر)
  • City of Politics [title roughly translated from Arabic] (مدینة السیاسة)

A full list of his publications is available at his official personal web site (see below).


Trivia

  • President Khatami is not related to Ahmad Khatami, a hardliner cleric and Friday Pray Imam of Tehran.

Ahmad Khatami is one of the Iranian hardliner clerics who has very strong ties with the supreme leader. ...

Awards and honors

Islam, Liberty and Development by Mohammad Khatami

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The National and Kapodistrian University of Athens (Greek: Εθνικόν και Καποδιστριακόν Πανεπιστήμιον Αθηνών), usually referred to simply as the University of Athens, is the oldest university in the region of the eastern Mediterranean and has been in continuous operation since its establishment in 1837. ... Moscow State University campus M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University (Московский Государственный Университет име&#1085... Tokyo Institute of Technology Tokyo Institute of Technology (東京工業大学; Tōkyō Kōgyō Daigaku), often called Tokyo Tech or Tōkōdai (東工大) for short, is the largest institution of higher learning in Japan dedicated to science and technology. ... University of Delhi,New Delhi The University of Delhi is a university in India. ... St Marys College Bute Medical School St Leonards College[5][6] Affiliations 1994 Group Website http://www. ...

See also

This is a List of national leaders, showing heads of state and heads of government where different, mainly in parliamentary systems; it should be noted that often a leader is both in presidential systems or dictatorships. ... Iranian presidential election of 1997 took place on May 23, 1997, which resulted in an unpredicted win for the reformist candidate Mohammad Khatami. ... Iranian presidential election of 2001 took place on June 8, 2001, and resulted in Mohammad Khatami being elected as the President of Iran for his second term. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Second of Khordad Movement refers to a movement started by 6th presidental election in Iran. ... There are many new trends in Islamic Philosophy and meanwhile some traditional schools are still very alive and active. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

References and notes

  1. ^ Iran reformists' protest continues. CNN (2006-01-12). Retrieved on 2007-01-01.
  2. ^ [1]
  3. ^ Sciolino, Elaine (2001). Persian Mirrors: The Elusive Face of Iran. Simon and Schuster, 79-80. ISBN 0743217799. 
  4. ^ [2]
  5. ^ [3]
  6. ^ [4]
  7. ^ Iran's Khatami calls for US talks. BBC News (2006-09-08). Retrieved on 2006-09-08.
  8. ^ [5]
  9. ^ Khatami & Kerry: A Common Denominator
  10. ^ Kerry confirmed Khatami's remarks in his address (ISNA)
  11. ^ [6]

The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini era. ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... Jean-François Millet Le Semeur (The Sower) Simon & Schuster logo, circa 1961. ... The current BBC News logo BBC News and Current Affairs is a major arm of the BBC responsible for the corporations newsgathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 8 is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years). ...

Further reading

  • Clawson, Patrick. Eternal Iran. 2005. ISBN 1-4039-6276-6 Palgrave Macmillan Publishers

External links

  • (Persian) Official website of Mohammad Khatami
  • Biography in I.R.I.B. Archive
  • Biography in Encyclopedia Britannica
  • Web site of the International Center for Dialogue Among Civilizations
  • UNESCO: Dialogue among civilizations speech by HE Mr. Mohammad Khatami
  • (Persian) Biography
  • Khatami; from the presidency of Islamic Center in Hamburg to the presidency of Islamic Republic of Iran
  • CNN: Transcript of Interview with Iranian President Mohammad Khatami
  • Iran's ex-leader sees new Islam
  • Iranian Economy in Six Snapshots
  • Address of H.E Seyed Mohammad Khatami at the Islamic Society of North America (ISNA) Sept 2, 2006
  • Khatami 'from material that makes for great leaders'
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Mohammad Khatami
Preceded by
Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani
President of Iran
19972005
Succeeded by
Mahmoud Ahmadinejad

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