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Encyclopedia > Mohammad Hatta
Mohammad Hatta
Mohammad Hatta

In office
18 August 1945 – 1 December 1956
President Soekarno
Preceded by Position established
Succeeded by Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX

Born August 12, 1902(1902-08-12)[1]
Bukittinggi
Died March 14, 1980 (aged 77)[1]
Jakarta
Political party PNI
Spouse Rahmi Rachim
Religion Islam

Mohammad Hatta (August 12, 1902 - March 14, 1980) was born in Bukittinggi, West Sumatra, Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia). He was Indonesia's first vice president, after being the country's Prime Minister. Known as "The Proclamator", he and a number of Indonesians, including the first president of Indonesia, Soekarno, fought for the independence of Indonesia from the Dutch East Indies. Despite his effort to gain Indonesian independence, he had studied in the Netherlands since 1921 until 1932. Moreover, since his early education, he studied in Netherlands-based school in Indonesia. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... List of Vice Presidents of Indonesia Dr. Mohammad Hatta (1945 - 1956) Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX (1973 -1978) Adam Malik (1978 - 1983) Umar Wirahadikusumah (1983 - 1988) Sudharmono (1988 - 1993) Try Sutrisno (1993 - 1998) B.J.Habibie (1998) Megawati Sukarnoputri (1999 - 2001) Hamzah Haz (2001 - 2004) Jusuf Kalla (2004 - 2009) See also... is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sukarno Sukarno (June 6, 1901 - June 21, 1970) was the first President of Indonesia. ... Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX was born in Sompilan, Ngasem, Yogyakarta in 12 April 1912. ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... City of Bukittinggi Bukittinggi (Indonesian for high hill) is one of the larger cities in West Sumatra, Indonesia, with a population of around 100,000 people. ... is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... Jakarta (also DKI Jakarta), formerly known as Sunda Kalapa, Jayakarta, Batavia and Djakarta is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. ... Indonesian National Party (Partai Nasional Indonesia/PNI) is the oldest political party in Indonesia, established on 4 July 1927. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... City of Bukittinggi Bukittinggi (Indonesian for high hill) is one of the larger cities in West Sumatra, Indonesia, with a population of around 100,000 people. ... Motto: Tuah Sakato. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... List of Vice Presidents of Indonesia Dr. Mohammad Hatta (1945 - 1956) Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX (1973 -1978) Adam Malik (1978 - 1983) Umar Wirahadikusumah (1983 - 1988) Sudharmono (1988 - 1993) Try Sutrisno (1993 - 1998) B.J.Habibie (1998) Megawati Sukarnoputri (1999 - 2001) Hamzah Haz (2001 - 2004) Jusuf Kalla (2004 - 2009) See also... Indonesia had the position of Prime Minister from 1945 until 1959. ... Sukarno Sukarno (June 6, 1901 - June 21, 1970) was the first President of Indonesia. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Mohammad Hatta's name often remembered as Bung Hatta ('Bung' is an affectionate title used to address colleagues, popular in the early 1900s and is still used by Indonesians).

Contents

Early life

Mohammad Hatta was born in Bukittinggi on 12 August 1902 into a prominent and strongly Islamic family. His grandfather was a respected ulema in Batu Hampar, near Payakumbuh. His father, Haji Mohammad Djamil, died when he was eight months old and he was left with his six sisters and his mother. As in the matrilineal society of Minangkabau tradition, he was then raised in his mother's family. His mother's family was a wealthy one that Hatta was able to study Dutch as well as finishing Qur'an after school.[2] City of Bukittinggi Bukittinggi (Indonesian for high hill) is one of the larger cities in West Sumatra, Indonesia, with a population of around 100,000 people. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Ulema (, transliteration: , singular: , transliteration: , scholar) (The people of Islamic Knowledge) refers to the educated class of Muslim legal scholars engaged in the several fields of Islamic studies. ... Location of Payakumbuh in Indonesia Coordinates: Area    - City 80. ... Matrilineality is a system in which one belongs to ones mothers lineage; it may also involve the inheritance of property or titles through the female line. ... Languages Minangkabau, Indonesian and Malay. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ...


He went to the Dutch language elementary school (ELS or Europeesche Lagere School) in Padang from 1913 to 1916 after he had finished Sekolah Melayu ('Malay School') in Bukittinggi. When he was thirteen, he passed an exam that entitled him to follow the Dutch secondary school (HBS or Hogere burgerschool) in Batavia (now Jakarta). However his mother asked him to stay in Padang because he was still too young to go to the capital alone. Hatta then entered junior secondary school or MULO (Meer Uitgebreid Lager Onderwijs). Primary or elementary education is the first years of formal, structured education that occurs during childhood. ... Padang is the capital and largest city of West Sumatra, Indonesia. ... Not to be confused with the Malayalam language, spoken in India. ... Secondary school is a term used to describe an institution where the final stage of compulsory schooling, known as secondary education, takes place. ... Jakarta (also DKI Jakarta), formerly known as Sunda Kalapa, Jayakarta, Batavia and Djakarta is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. ...


During his spare time, he worked as part time in a post office. Normally, no MULO students were allowed to work, but he could work there because of the HBS exam qualification.[2] Hatta was interested in football; he joined his school's football team. He was then made as the chairman of the football team. He broadened his contacts by using his position. Small-town post office and town hall in Lockhart, Alabama A post office is a facility (in most countries, a government one) where the public can purchase postage stamps for mailing correspondence or merchandise, and also drop off or pick up packages or other special-delivery items. ... Look up Football in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Hatta used to visit the office of the Sarikat Usaha (United Endeavor), led by Taher Marah Soetan. In the office, he read Dutch newspapers, particularly about political debates in the Volksraad (parliament) of the Dutch East Indies. It was at the age of sixteen that Hatta began interested in politics and national movements. He was chosen the treasurer of the branch of the Jong Sumatranen Bond (or youth association of Sumatra) which was first established in Padang in 1918.[2] A parliament is a legislature, especially in those countries whose system of government is based on the Westminster system modelled after that of the United Kingdom. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... Look up Treasurer in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Time in the Netherlands

In 1919, Hatta finally went to the HBS in Batavia. He completed his study with distinction in 1921,[2] which he was allowed to continue to study at the Rotterdam School of Commerce in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. He took economics as his major and earned doctorandus degree in 1932. The degree entitled him to follow a doctorate program. He then continued to pursue the doctorate degree, completed all requirements to get the degree, but his thesis had never been finished. Politics has immersed into Hatta's life. Erasmus University Rotterdam is a university in the Netherlands, located in Rotterdam. ... Nickname: Motto: Sterker door strijd (Stronger through Struggle) Location of Rotterdam Coordinates: , Country Netherlands Province South Holland Government  - Mayor Ivo Opstelten  - Aldermen Jeannette Baljeu Hamit Karakus Orhan Kaya Lucas Bolsius Jantine Kriens Dominic Schrijer Roelf de Boer Leonard Geluk Area [1]  - City 319 km²  (123. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... Doctorandus (Latin: he who should become a doctor) is a Dutch academic title according to the pre-bachelor-master system. ... This article is about the thesis in academia. ...


In the Netherlands, Hatta joined the Indische Vereniging (or the Netherlands Indies Union). In 1922, the organization changed its name into Indonesische Vereniging and changed again later into the Perhimpunan Indonesia (the same meaning but in Indonesian).[3] Hatta was the treasurer (1922—1925), and then the chairman (1926—1930).[2] On his inauguration, Hatta delivered a speech with the title of "The Structure of the Global Economy and the Conflict of Power", of which he supported the idea for Indonesia to be non-cooperative against the Dutch colonial government in order to gain its independence. Since then, Perhimpunan Indonesia was shifted from student organization into a political organization and had an unequivocal demand for Indonesia's independence. They expressed their voiced through the a magazine called Indonesia Merdeka (or Free Indonesia) of which Hatta was the editor.


To gain more supports from other nations, Hatta attended congresses all over Europe. He always made as the chairman of the Indonesian delegates. In 1926, Hatta and PI joined the International Democratic Cogress for Peace in Bierville, France. In February 1927, Hatta went to Brussels to attend a congress held by the League Against Imperialism and Colonial Oppression.[4] He met many other prominent nationalists there, including Jawaharlal Nehru from India, Hafiz Ramadan Bey from Egypt and Léopold Sédar Senghor from Africa. Later in the year, Hatta joined another congress held by the International Women's League for Peace and Freedom in Switzerland. In that occasion, Hatta delivered a speech with the title of "Indonesia and the Matter of Independence". For other places with the same name, see Brussels (disambiguation). ... Jawaharlal Nehru (Hindi: , IPA: , from Persian Javâher-e Laal, meaning Red Jewel) (November 14, 1889 – May 27, 1964) was a political leader of the Indian National Congress, a pivotal figure in the Indian independence movement and the first Prime Minister of Independent India. ... Léopold Sédar Senghor (October 9, 1906 – December 20, 2001) was a Senegalese poet and politician who served as the first president of Senegal (1960–1980). ...


By the middle of 1927, Perhimpunan Indonesia's activities had alarmed the Dutch authorities.[4] In June 1927, Dutch authorities raided the residence of the organization's leaders, searching through their rooms and putting Hatta and other four other Indonesian activities behind bars.[4] After spending nearly six months in prison, they were taken to trial in the Hague. They were permitted to explain themselves during the hearing, of which Hatta took to the opportunity to explain Indonesia's nationalist cause. He made a speech to the court explaining that Indonesia's interests are in conflict with those of the Dutch's and that was why they could not cooperate. Hatta advocated cooperation between Indonesia and the Netherlands but only if Indonesia is independent and treated as an equal partner, not inequally because of its status as a colony. The speech became famous and it is known as the Indonesia Vrij or Free Indonesia speech.[4] Arms of The Hague The Hague (with capital T; Dutch: Den Haag, or officially s-Gravenhage) is the administrative capital of the Netherlands, located in the west of the country, in the province South Holland of which it is also the capital. ...


In 1929, Hatta and other PI activities were released. After their release, they joined their activities with the Indonesian-based nationalist, Sukarno and his Indonesian National Party (PNI). Together, Hatta and Sukarno set up a cadre school to train people with nationalistic interests. In the school, potential cadres were trained in economics, the history of the nationalist movement and in the government administration. In July 1932, Hatta made his way home to Indonesia.[4] Sukarno (June 6, 1901 – June 21, 1970) was the first President of Indonesia. ... Indonesian National Party (Partai Nasional Indonesia/PNI) is the oldest political party in Indonesia, established on 4 July 1927. ... Look up cadre in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Independence Struggle

Struggle Against The Dutch Colonial Government

Hatta returned home to an Indonesia whose nationalist momentum had been slowed down by the arrest and the sentencing to prison of Sukarno. By the time Hatta had returned, most of the members of Sukarno's PNI had joined the Indonesian Party (Partindo) and more radical PNI members, together with the Dutch-educated Sutan Syahrir had banded together to form the New PNI. Although the initials were the same, the PNI in this case stood for the Indonesian National Education, showing that it will have focus on cadre training. In August 1932, after returning from the Netherlands, Hatta became the Chairman of the New PNI. Sutan Sjahrir (5 March 1909 — 9 April 1966) was the first prime minister of Indonesia, after a career as a key Indonesian nationalist organizer in the 1930s and 1940s. ...


In December 1932, Sukarno was finally released from prison and the attention now turned on which party will Sukarno choose. Sukarno, who had wanted one united front to gain Indonesia's independence was conflicted, thinking that in choosing one over the other, he would encourage division. In this, he was criticized by Hatta, who was more pragmatic about differences which in this case was the conflict between Partindo's radical and mass party approach versus New PNI's moderate and cadre party approach. Sukarno insisted on negotiations to unify Partindo and New PNI but after failing, chose to join Partindo.


Between 1932 and 1933, Hatta wrote articles on politics and economy for New PNI's newspaper the Daulat Rakyat (The People's Authority). These articles were aimed towards training new cadres for Indonesia's leadership.


Hatta seemed to be extremely critical of Sukarno at this point in time. In August 1933, with Sukarno once again arrested and facing trial he wrote an article called "Sukarno Is Arrested". This was followed by articles entitled "The Tragedy of Sukarno" (November 1933) and "The Stance of a Leader" (December 1933).


The Dutch Colonial Government gave Sukarno a harsh punishment, exiling him to the island of Ende at Flores in December 1933. With Sukarno in exile, the Dutch Colonial Government now turned their eyes to the New PNI and its leadership. In February 1934, they made their move and arrested its leaders from its Jakarta branch (which included Hatta) and its Bandung branch. For a year they were imprisoned at prisons in Cipinang and Glodok, with Hatta spending his time in Glodok. During his time in prison, Hatta wrote a book entitled "The Economical Crisis and Capitalism".


In January 1935, it was decided that Hatta and his fellow New PNI leaders (including Syahrir) would be exiled to Boven Digoel in Papua. When Hatta arrived there, he was told by the local authorities that he had two options. The first option was to work for the Dutch Colonial Government as a civil servant for 40 cents a day with the hope of returning from exile and the second option was being an exile, receiving food but having no hope of returning from exile. Hatta commented if he had decided to take a job as a civil servant in Jakarta, he would have earned a lot of money and knowing that, there was no need to go to Boven Digoel to be paid cheaply. In saying this, Hatta chose the second option. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


During his exile, Hatta continued to write articles, this time for the Newspaper Pemandangan (The View). He earned enough money from that to make ends meet at Boven Digoel and to support his colleagues who had financial troubles. Hatta also used his books (which filled 16 chests as it was packed to leave Jakarta) to give his colleagues lessons on economics, history, and philosophy. Later on these lessons would be made into books entitled "An Introduction on the Way to Knowledge" and "The Nature of Greek Thought" (four volumes). For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ...


In January 1936, Hatta and Syahrir were transferred to the Bandaneira in Maluku. There they joined more Nationalists such as Iwa Kusumasumantri and Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo. Hatta and Syahrir were given more freedom and was able to interact with the locals. Hatta and Syahrir also gave lessons to the local children, teaching them about politics and history.


In February 1942, Hatta and Syahrir were transferred to Sukabumi in West Java. Sukabumi is a city and regency in the highlands of West Java, Indonesia, about 80 km (50 miles) south of Jakarta. ...


Japanese Occupation

By 1942, World War II was well under way and the Empire of Japan was fulfilling its imperial ambitions in East Asia and South East Asia. In March 1942, they began landing in Indonesia. Like their counterpart in Europe, the Dutch Colonial Government crumbled in the face of the invaders and by 9 March 1942, surrendered. On the 22 March 1942, Hatta and Syahrir were again transferred to Jakarta. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Anthem Kimi ga Yo Imperial Reign Capital Tokyo Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1868–1912 Emperor Meiji  - 1912–1926 Emperor Taishō  - 1926–1989 Emperor Shōwa Prime Minister (many other Prime Ministers preceded the below list)  - 1916–1918 Count Masatake Terauchi  - 1937-1939, 1940-1941 Prince Fumimaro Konoe  - 1941–1944 Hideki...


At Jakarta, Hatta met with Major General Harada, the Interim Head of Government. Harada asked Hatta to become an advisor for the occupational Government. Hatta accepted the job and then asked Harada if Japan was here to colonialize Indonesia. Harada assured Hatta that Japan would not do. In Hatta's eyes, an acknowledgement of an Indonesian Independence by Japan was extremely important. If Japan, with its ultra-nationalistic ideology was able to recognize Indonesia's Independence, it would put more pressure on the Allies (especially America and the United Kingdom) as representatives of democracy to do the same thing. Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... Look up ally in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In July 1942, Hatta was reunited with Sukarno who after Flores had been transferred to Sumatra before the Japanese arrived and had also asked for his service. Although they had left off on a bad note, Hatta and Sukarno now had the common goal of working with the Japanese and then trying to achieve Independence from them. Together with Ki Hadjar Dewantoro and Muhammadiyah Chairman, Kiai Haji Mas Mansur, Hatta and Sukarno formed a quattuorvirate of leaders tasked by the Japanese occupational Government as their intermediary with the Indonesian people. Muhammadiyah (full name: Persyarikatan Muhammadiyah) is a moderate Islamic organization in Indonesia. ...


Hatta together with the other members of the quattuorvirate worked with much fervor under the Japanese Government. They echoed Japanese propaganda and presented the Japanese Empire as the protector, leader, and the light of Asia. At the same time however, Hatta continued to promote Indonesia's desire for Independence. In a speech in December 1942, Hatta said that Indonesia has been freed from the Dutch Colonial Government, but if they were freed only to be colonized by another power, he would rather see Indonesia drown to the bottom of the ocean.


On 9 March 1943, the Japanese Occupational Government approved the formation of the Centre of People's Power (Putera) with Hatta and the other quattuorvirate as the co-Chairmen of the association. Sukarno thought that this would be a way from which they could gain support for independence, instead the Japanese used this to their own cause and to start their romusha (forced labour) regime in Indonesia. Romushas were Indonesian forced laborers during the Japanese occupation in World War II. The word is Japanese and (reportedly) translates to wood log, indicating the disposable nature of the Indonesian labor force. ...


In November 1943, Hatta and Sukarno's efforts in cooperating with the Japanese Occupational Government was recognized by Emperor Hirohito who decorated them with awards in Tokyo. Emperor Shōwa ) (April 29, 1901 – January 7, 1989) was the 124th emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from December 25, 1926 until his death in 1989. ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ...


As the tide of the war began to turn against the Japanese, the Japanese Occupational Government in Indonesia became desperate to maintain control. Putera was disbanded and replaced with Djawa Hokokai in March 1944. Although still Chaired by Sukarno, the Indonesians had less freedom of movement than they were in Putera. When defeat began looming on the horizon, Prime Minister Koiso announced in September 1944 that Japan will grant Indonesia its independence in the near future. A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ...


From then on, momentum began to gather for the independence of Indonesia, fuelled by the nationalist sentiments of Indonesians and supported by sympathizers from Japan such as Rear Admiral Maeda. In Maeda's case, he even set up a discussion forum called the Free Indonesia Centre and invited Hatta and Sukarno along to deliver lectures on Nationalism. This was followed in April 1945, by the formation of the Investigative Body for the Preparation of Indonesian Independence (BPUPKI). BPUPKI would meet over the next three months and would decide on things such as the constitution and which territories would be part of Indonesia. The term Rear Admiral originated from the days of Naval Sailing Squadrons, and can trace its origins to the British Royal Navy. ...


Proclamation of Independence

By August 1945, Japan was on the eve of defeat. This month, the Japanese Government finally approved of Indonesian Independence and formed the Committee to Prepare Indonesian Independence (PPKI) to supervise it. On 8 August 1945, Hatta and Sukarno were summoned to Saigon, to meet with Marshal Terauchi, the Commander-in-Chief of the Japanese forces in South East Asia. Terauchi told Hatta and Sukarno that the PPKI will be formed on 18 August and that Indonesia will be independent with Japanese supervision. Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnamese: Thành Chí Minh) is the largest city in Vietnam, located near the delta of the Mekong River. ...


Hatta and Sukarno returned to Indonesia on 14 August. In Hatta's case, he had been waited on by Syahrir who had heard the news of the atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Syahrir told Hatta that they have to encourage Sukarno proclaim Indonesia's independence immediately, because in a couple of days the Japanese might not be there to provide supervision. Syahrir told Hatta not worry about the Japanese authorities because the people would be on their side. For other uses, see Hiroshima (disambiguation). ... Nagasaki ) ( ) is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture in Japan. ...


Syahrir and Hatta then went to see Sukarno, with Syahrir repeating his argument in front of Sukarno. Hatta then spoke out, saying that he was worried the Allies would see them as Japanese collaborators. Sukarno shared this sentiment and Syahrir left the meeting out of frustration.


The next day, on 15 August 1945, Japan surrendered to the Allies. In Indonesia, the news was only a rumor and had not been confirmed. Hatta and Sukarno then went to the office of the Japanese Occupational Government in Jakarta, only to find it empty. Hatta and Sukarno then to Maeda who confirmed that Japan had surrendered to the Allies. Hatta and Sukarno seemed shocked that Japan had surrendered. During the afternoon, Hatta and Sukarno were confronted by Indonesian Youths who wanted the Independence to be proclaimed as soon as possible. A heated exchange followed, with Sukarno telling the youths to have more patience. Hatta, who was aware of his and Sukarno's superiority in the exchange, sarcastically commented on the Youths' inability to proclaim independence without Sukarno.


On the morning of 16 August 1945, the Indonesian Youths kidnapped both Hatta and Sukarno and took them to the town of Rengasdengklok where they continued forcing Hatta and Sukarno to declare Independence without any success. In Jakarta, there was panic as PPKI was due to start meeting that day and had planned to elect Sukarno as Chairman and Hatta as Vice-Chairman. When knowledge of Hatta and Sukarno's whereabouts became available and the Japanese surrender confirmed, Achmad Subardjo, a PPKI representative went to Rengasdengklok to break the news to Hatta and Sukarno. That night, Hatta and Sukarno returned to Jakarta where at Maeda's house, they worked on the Proclamation of Independence.


Finally, on 17 August 1945, at Sukarno's residence, Indonesia's Independence was finally Proclaimed in a short statement on paper signed by both Hatta and Sukarno.


Vice Presidency

Election and First Months In Office

On 18 August 1945, Hatta was selected as Indonesia's first Vice President by PPKI to accompany Sukarno who had been elected as the Nation's first President.


As Vice President, Hatta quickly established himself as the day-to-day administrator of the Government with Sukarno setting the Government policy and then trying to win support for the said policy. Although they had different styles of Governing, many agree that the style difference complimented both men's talents perfectly. They were nicknamed the Duumvirate (Dwitunggal) and until today they were hailed by many as the best President and Vice President partnership in Indonesia's history.


Hatta would made three important decisions in the Republic's early days. In October, Hatta gave the Central National Committee of Indonesia (KNIP) legislative powers in addition to its advisory role to the President. During the same month, Hatta also authorized the formation of political parties in Indonesia. The next month, in November, Hatta also made the decision which took away the President's role as Head of Government and transferred it to a Prime Minister. Hatta was able to make these crucial decisions because Sukarno was unable to attend the meetings in question, leaving Hatta in charge. For his part, Sukarno did not seem to have to problem with Hatta's decisions, at least not during the War of Independence. A political party is a political organization subscribing to a certain ideology or formed around very special issues. ... The head of government is the chief officer of the executive branch of a government, often presiding over a cabinet. ...


National revolution

When the Dutch began sending their troops back to Indonesia, Hatta together with Syahrir and Sukarno all agreed that a diplomatic solution should be thought up. This caused tensions with more radical elements within the Government such as youth leaders Chaerul Saleh and Adam Malik. Adam Malik Adam Malik (born 1917, Pematang Siantar, North Sumatra; died 1984, Bandung, West Java) was Indonesias third vice president, after being the countrys Foreign Minister from 1966 to 1977. ...


In January 1946, Hatta and Sukarno moved to Yogyakarta, leaving Syahrir (who was by then Prime Minister) to head negotiations in Jakarta. The Special Region of Yogyakarta (Indonesian: Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta, or DIY), is a province of Indonesia on the island of Java. ...


By the end of 1946, the diplomatic solution which Hatta and Sukarno had been looking for seemed to have been found. The Linggadjati Agreement, signed in November 1946 called for Dutch recognition of the Republic of Indonesia. However, territorial recognition would only be over Java, Sumatra, and Madura. In addition, this Republic would be part of a United States of Indonesia with the Queen of the Netherlands acting as the Head of State. However, before the agreement was finally ratified by the Dutch House of Representatives, some compromises were made without the consent of the Republic. In turn, Indonesia refused to implement its part of the deal, resulting in the first Police Action in July 1947. The Linggadjati Agreement was a political accord concluded on November 15, 1946 by the Dutch administration and the unilaterally declared Republic of Indonesia. ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ...


During this time, Hatta was sent out of the country to look for support for Indonesia. One country that he went to was India, the homeland of his old friend, Nehru. Disguised as an airplane co-pilot, Hatta sneaked out of the country to ask for assistance. There he asked Nehru and Mahatma Gandhi for help. Nehru assured him that India will support Indonesia and will make the support known at international forums such as the United Nations (UN). “Gandhi” redirects here. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ...


In December 1947, negotiations were held aboard USS Renville and an agreement was signed in January 1948. This agreement was more favorable towards the Dutch and called for the Republic to recognize the territories which the Dutch had took during the first Police Action. The agreement caused outrage and caused Amir Syarifuddin to resign from his position as Prime Minister. Amir Sjarifuddin (27 April 1907 - 19 December 1948) was a socialist politician and one of the Indonesian Republics first leaders, becoming Prime Minister during the countrys National Revolution. ...


To replace Syarifuddin, Sukarno appointed Hatta as Prime Minister and declared that the cabinet will be an emergency one and will be answerable to the President instead of the KNIP. Hatta also took on the position of Minister of Defense.


As Prime Minister, Hatta had to make an unpopular decision. In August 1948, with the Republic struggling to pay its TNI troops, Hatta was forced to demobilize some troops. TNI stands for: Transnational Institute Tentara Nasional Indonesia (Indonesian); see Military of Indonesia. ...


In December 1948, the Dutch launched its second Police Action and focused their attack on the Yogyakarta. Hatta and Sukarno, instead of running away to fight guerilla warfare chose to remain in the city and was arrested. Sukarno transferred authority to the Emergency Government of the Republic of Indonesia (PDRI), before going into exile with all the other Republican leaders. Hatta was sent to Bangka. Guerrilla (also called a partisan) is a term borrowed from Spanish (from guerra meaning war) used to describe small combat groups. ... The Emergency Government of the Republic of Indonesia (Indonesian:Pemerintahan Darurat Republik Indonesia), (PDRI) was established by Indonesian Republicans after the Netherlands occupied Yogyakarta in Central Java the location of the temporary Republican capital. ...


Resistance continued under General Sudirman and TNI troops who fought guerilla warfare against the Dutch. In March, Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX organized the 1 March General Offensive and played an important role in causing international pressure to be put on the Netherlands. In May 1949, the Roem-Royem agreement was signed and the Netherlands promised to return the leaders of the Republican Government. In July 1949, Hatta and Sukarno made their return to Yogyakarta. For other uses, see Sudirman (disambiguation). ... ...


In August 1949, Hatta headed a delegation to the Hague for a Round Table conference. In November 1949, the formation of the United States of Indonesia was finally agreed. It was to be a federation consisting of the Republic and 15 States which the Dutch had created during the National Revolution. The Queen of the Netherlands would continue to become the symbolic Head of State while Sukarno and Hatta would continue as President and Vice President. On 27 December 1949, the Dutch authorities finally recognized the sovereignty. The Round Table Conference was held in the Hague from August 23 - November 2, 1949 between representatives of the Netherlands, Indonesia and the various states the Dutch had created in the Indonesian archipelago. ... Motto: Bhinneka Tunggal Ika (Old Javanese/Kawi: Unity in Diversity) National ideology: Pancasila Anthem: Indonesia Raya Capital Jakarta Largest city Jakarta Official language(s) Indonesian (Bahasa Indonesia, a standardized dialect of the Malay language) Government President Republic Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono Independence - Declared - Recognised From Netherlands 17 August 1945 27 December...


Hatta continued on as the Prime Minister of the United States of Indonesia and presided over the transition of the federal state to the unitary state, which was made official on 17 August 1950. Motto: Bhinneka Tunggal Ika (Old Javanese/Kawi: Unity in Diversity) National ideology: Pancasila Anthem: Indonesia Raya Capital Jakarta Largest city Jakarta Official language(s) Indonesian (Bahasa Indonesia, a standardized dialect of the Malay language) Government President Republic Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono Independence - Declared - Recognised From Netherlands 17 August 1945 27 December...


Intellectual Pursuits and Cooperatives

Indonesia soon adopted a constitution which advocated Parliamentary Democracy and reduced the President to the role of a ceremonial Head of State. That left Hatta with little to do as Vice President, especially since his term as Prime Minister was not renewed.


For his remaining time as Vice President, Hatta was regularly invited to deliver lectures in universities. Hatta also engaged in intellectual pursuits, writing essays and books about topics such as the economy and cooperatives. The idea of cooperatives being an integral part of economy would become a pet project for Hatta and he would become an enthusiastic promoter of the idea. In July 1951, on the occasion of Cooperatives Day, Hatta went on the radio to deliver a speech on cooperatives. In 1953, Hatta's contribution towards promoting cooperatives was recognized and he was given the title "Father of Indonesian Cooperatives" at the Indonesian Cooperative Congress.


Setting Indonesia's Foreign Policy Doctrine

Aside from Cooperatives, Hatta's other main contribution to the running of Indonesia is the setting of the Nation's Foreign Policy doctrine.


In 1948, Hatta delivered a speech called "Rowing Between Two Rocks". In the speech Hatta referred to the Cold War and the conflict between the United States and the USSR. Hatta said that Indonesian foreign policy has to look after its own interest first, not that of the US and the USSR. In saying this, Hatta wanted Indonesia to be independent in deciding its stance during the Cold War. Hatta also added that Indonesia should be an active participant in world politics so that once again, it would be Indonesia's interests that comes first. For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...


This doctrine, which would become known as the "Independent and Active" doctrine, continues to be the basis


Retirement from the Vice Presidency

In 1955, Hatta announced that when the new People's Representative Council (DPR) as well as the Constituante (A Government body commissioned to create a new constitution) was formed as a result of the year's Legislative Election, he would retire from the Vice Presidency. He announced this intention in a letter to Sukarno. The Peoples Representative Council is the lower house of the legislature of Indonesia. ...


On the surface, it seemed as if Hatta was retiring for practical reasons. Because the Presidency was a ceremonial role, this made the office of Vice President pointless and Hatta thought that the country was wasting a lot of money paying his wages. There were also personal reasons, however. As a man who believed in democracy, Hatta was beginning to feel disillusioned with Sukarno's increasing autocracy and authoritarianism. Hatta had continued to advise Sukarno against taking this road but he was ignored. Hatta finally gave up and thought that he could no longer work with Sukarno.


On 1 December 1956, Hatta resigned from the Vice Presidency.


Post Vice Presidency

Impact of Retirement

Hatta's retirement caused shockwaves all around Indonesia, especially for those of non-Javanese ethnicity. In the eyes of non-Javanese people, Hatta was their main representative in a Javanese dominated Government.


The impact of Hatta's retirement was evident in the Revolutionary Government of the Republic of Indonesia (PRRI) rebellion which wanted to break feree from Indonesia and the Universal Struggle (Permesta) movement which asked for decentralization. In negotiations with the Central Government, both PRRI and Permesta listed the reunification of the Sukarno/Hatta leadership as one of the concessions that they asked from the Central Government.


Government Critic

Now outside of the Government, Hatta began to openly criticize Sukarno.


One of Hatta's criticism was Sukarno's lack of commitment towards national development. Hatta said that the revolution ended with the Dutch recognition of Indonesian sovereignty and that the Government's focus should be on Development. Sukarno outright rejected this idea and responded to it during his 1959 Independence Day speech by saying that the Revolution is not over.


In 1960, Hatta wrote a book called "Our Democracy". In it, he criticized Sukarno's Guided Democracy as another form of dictatorship. Sukarno immediately banned the books.


Transition from Old Order to New Order

During the tumultous time which saw the Presidency change hands from Sukarno to General Suharto, Hatta remained in the background. However, Hatta would break his silence in June 1970, just a week before Sukarno died. In a letter to Suharto, Hatta said that he was disappointed that Sukarno was put on house arrest instead of being taken in front of a trial. Hatta's reason for this was not malicious however, he just wanted things on G30S to be cleared up and give Sukarno a chance to defend himself because there are many who believed that he was not guilty. Suharto GCB (born June 8, 1921) is a former Indonesian military and political leader. ...


New Order

Hatta's involvement with Suharto's Government came at the beginning of 1970 when protests were made on corruption within the Government. In January 1970, Suharto appointed Hatta, along with three others as members of a commission to investigate corruption within the Government. The results of the commission's investigation was never revealed to public until it was leaked in July 1970. It was then became apparent that the suspicion of the protesters were correct, there was widespread corruption within the Government. Controversially however, in August 1970, Suharto would disband the commission and allow for only two cases of corruption to be looked at by the Government.


In July 1978, together with Abdul Haris Nasution, Hatta set up the Institute for Constitutional Awareness Foundation (YLKB). An institution designed as a forum for critics of Suharto's regime. Suharto's Government moved quickly and did not allow YLKB to conduct its first meeting in January 1979. The YLKB did not give up. In August 1979 managed to hold a meeting in which DPR members included. Perhaps significantly, ABRI members attended the meeting. During the meeting, Nasution criticized the New Order for not fully implementing Pancasila and the 1945 Constitution. Abdul Haris Nasution Abdul Haris Nasution (born Kotanopan 3 December 1918 - died Jakarta 5 September 2000) is an Indonesian general who escaped an assassination attempt during the military coup in 1965. ...


Publications

  • Mohammad Hatta (1957). The Co-operative Movement in Indonesia. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press. 
  • Mohammad Hatta (1961). "Colonialism and the Danger of War". Asian Survey 1 (9): 10–14. 
  • Mohammad Hatta (1965). "One Indonesian View of the Malaysia Issue". Asian Survey 3 (5): 139–143. 

Miscellaneous

  • His daughter, Meutia Farida Hatta currently serves as Minister for Female Empowerment in Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono's Cabinet.
  • Hatta did not want to get married until Indonesia was independent.[citation needed]
  • Was post-humously awarded the title of "Proclamation Heroes" together with Sukarno in 1986.
  • Soekarno-Hatta International Airport is named in his honor.

General (ret. ... Inside Soekarno-Hatta International Airport Soekarno-Hatta International Airport (Indonesian: ) (IATA: CGK, ICAO: WIII) is the main airport serving the greater Jakarta area on the island of Java, Indonesia. ...

See also

Indonesia Portal

Image File history File links Portal. ... List of Vice Presidents of Indonesia Dr. Mohammad Hatta (1945 - 1956) Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX (1973 -1978) Adam Malik (1978 - 1983) Umar Wirahadikusumah (1983 - 1988) Sudharmono (1988 - 1993) Try Sutrisno (1993 - 1998) B.J.Habibie (1998) Megawati Sukarnoputri (1999 - 2001) Hamzah Haz (2001 - 2004) Jusuf Kalla (2004 - 2009) See also...

Notes

  1. ^ a b Moh. Hatta (in Indonesian). Secretary of Vice President of Republic of Indonesia. Retrieved on 2006-10-25.
  2. ^ a b c d e Kahin (1980), p.113.
  3. ^ Sang Proklamator (Indonesian) 1—2. Tokoh Indonesia. Retrieved on 2007-08-21.
  4. ^ a b c d e Kahin (1980), p.114.

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • George Mc. T Kahin (1980). "In Memoriam: Mohammad Hatta (1902-1980)". Indonesia: p.113–120. 

Further reading

  • Anderson, Ben (1972). Java in a Time of Revolution: Occupation and Resistance, 1944-1946. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-0687-0. 
Preceded by
none
Vice President of Indonesia
1945–1956
Succeeded by
Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX
Preceded by
Amir Sjarifoeddin
Prime Minister of Indonesia
1948–1950
Succeeded by
Abdul Halim

  Results from FactBites:
 
Mohammad Hatta Biography | Encyclopedia of World Biography (857 words)
Mohammad Hatta (1902-1980), one of the foremost intellectuals in the Afro-Asian anticolonial movement, was a leader of the Indonesian nationalist movement leading to its independence in 1945.
Mohammad Hatta was born in Bukittinggi, West Sumatra, Indonesia, on August 12, 1902.
Mohammad Hatta remained in the background of Indonesian politics throughout the 1970s except for a brief period in 1978 when he agreed to serve as general chairman of the Foundation for the Institute of Constitutional Awareness.
Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Mohammad Hatta (4605 words)
Hatta also used his books (which filled 16 chests as it was packed to leave Jakarta) to give his colleagues lessons on economics, history, and philosophy.
Hatta and Sukarno, instead of running away to fight guerilla warfare chose to remain in the city and was arrested.
Hatta continued on as the Prime Minister of the United States of Indonesia and presided over the transition of the federal state to the unitary state, which was made official on 17th August 1950.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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