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Encyclopedia > Mogadishu
Mogadishu Skyline, July 2007
Mogadishu Skyline, July 2007
Nickname: Xamar
Mogadishu's location in Somalia
Coordinates: 2°02′N 45°21′E / 2.033, 45.35
Country Somalia
Region Banadir
Government [1]
 - Mayor Mohamed Omar Habeb Dhere
 - Police chief Abdi Hasan Awale Qeybdiid
Population (2006)
 - Total 1,700,000
Time zone EAT (UTC+2)
 - Summer (DST) EAT (UTC+3)

Mogadishu (Somali: Muqdisho, popularly Xamar; Arabic: مقديشو Maqadīshū; Italian: Mogadiscio) is the largest city in Somalia, and its capital. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 530 pixelsFull resolution‎ (886 × 587 pixels, file size: 101 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The content of this image was reviewed by Astrojunta and afterwards uploaded by FlickrLickr. ... EXAMPLE:Laughbox,Blondie,BamBam,Pinkie,etc. ... Image File history File links Somalia&land_map. ... Mohamed Omar Habeb, also known as Mohamed Dhere, is a Somali warlord based out of the city of Jowhar. ... Abdi Hasan Awale or Abdi Qeybdiid (Somali: ) is a Somali militia leader, or warlord. ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Time zones of Africa: Striped colours indicate countries observing daylight saving East Africa Time, or EAT, is a time zone used in eastern Africa. ... Eastern European Time Central Africa Time Israel Standard Time South Africa Standard Time Central European Summer Time West Africa Summer Time Category: ... Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... Time zones of Africa: Striped colours indicate countries observing daylight saving East Africa Time, or EAT, is a time zone used in eastern Africa. ... -12 | -11 | -10 | -9:30 | -9 | -8 | -7 | -6 | -5 | -4 | -3:30 | -3 | -2:30 | -2 | -1 | -0:25 | UTC (0) | +0:20 | +0:30 | +1 | +2 | +3 | +3:30 | +4 | +4:30 | +4:51 | +5 | +5:30 | +5:40 | +5:45 | +6 | +6:30 | +7 | +7:20 | +7... Arabic redirects here. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ...

Mogadishu is in Benadir region on the Indian Ocean, and the city has served as an important regional port for centuries. Benadir is a coastal region of Somalia. ... For other uses, see Port (disambiguation). ...

With the 1991 collapse of central governance in Somalia, Mogadishu has seen 16 years of fighting by rival militias. Years of civil violence and uncontrolled warring insurgencies have led Mogadishu to the top as one of the most dangerous as well as one of the most lawless cities in the world. Estimates of the city's current population vary widely, with figures ranging from 1.5 million to 3 million. Lebanese Kataeb militia A Militia is an army composed of ordinary [1] citizens to provide defense, emergency or paramilitary service, or those engaged in such activity. ...



Main article: History of Mogadishu

Trade connected Somalis in the Mogadishu area to other communities along the Indian coast as early as the 1st century according to the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea. With Muslim traders from the Arabian Peninsula arriving in circa 900 AD, Mogadishu was well suited to become a regional centre for commerce. The northernmost of the East African city-states, Mogadishu prospered with trade with the interior, which spread Islam throughout Somalia. The Portuguese visited the city but never succeeded in taking it. In 1871 Barghash bin Said, the sultan of Zanzibar, occupied the city. Mogadishu (Somali: Muqdisho, popularly Xamar; Arabic: ; Italian: ), is the largest city in Somalia, and its capital. ... Names, routes and locations of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Arabia redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...  Eastern Africa (UN subregion)  East African Community  Central African Federation (defunct)  geographic, including above East Africa or Eastern Africa is the easternmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics. ... A city-state is a region controlled exclusively by a city. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Sayyid Barghash bin Said Al-Busaid (1837 - March 26, 1888) was the second Sultan of Zanzibar. ... For other uses, see Sultan (disambiguation). ... Map of Zanzibars main island Zanzibar is part of Tanzania Coordinates: , Country Tanzania Islands Unguja and Pemba Capital Zanzibar City Settled AD 1000 Government  - Type semi-autonomous part of Tanzania  - President Amani Abeid Karume Area  - Both Islands  637 sq mi (1,651 km²) Population (2004)  - Both Islands 1,070...

In 1892, Ali bin Said leased the city to Italy. Italy purchased the city in 1905 and made Mogadiscio (Italian for Mogadishu) the capital of Italian Somaliland. The surrounding territory came under Italian control in 1936 after heavy resistance. British forces operating from Kenya during World War II captured and occupied Mogadishu. The capital of Italian Somaliland fell to the British forces on February 26, 1941. The British continued to rule until Italy returned in 1st April 1950 to administer their former Somali protectorate. Somalia achieved independence in 1960 with Mogadishu as its capital. Sayyid Ali bin Said Al-Busaid (1854 - March 5, 1893) was the fourth Sultan of Zanzibar. ... Italian Somaliland was an Italian colony that lasted, apart from a brief interlude of British rule, from the late 19th century until 1960 in the territory of the modern-day East African nation of Somalia. ... Somalia (Somali: Soomaaliya) is a coastal nation in East Africa, widely known as Horn of Africa. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... This article is about states protected and/or dominated by a foreign power. ...

Rebel forces entered and took the city in 1990, forcing President Mohamed Siad Barre to resign and flee in January 1991 to Lagos, Nigeria. One faction proclaimed Ali Mahdi Muhammad president, another Mohamed Farrah Aidid. A contingent of United States Marines landed near Mogadishu on December 9, 1992 to spearhead the United Nations peacekeeping forces during Operation Restore Hope. President is a title held by many leaders of organizations, companies, trade unions, universities, and countries. ... Mohamed Siad Barre (Somali: Maxamed Siyaad Barre) (1919 – January 2, 1995) was the Head of State of Somalia from 1969 to 1991. ... For other uses, see Lagos (disambiguation). ... Ali Mahdi Muhammad (born 1938) was president of Somalia from January (when Mohammed Farah Aidid removed the then president Mohamed Siad Barre) to November of 1991, but was not able in that time to exert control over the country. ... General Mohamed Farrah Aidid (Somali: ; December 15, 1934 – August 1, 1996) was a controversial Somali leader, often described as a warlord[1]. He was the chairman of United Somali Congress (USC) and later Somali National Alliance (SNA) who drove Mohamed Siad Barre’s dictatorial regime from the capital, Mogadishu and... The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the United States military responsible for providing power projection from the sea,[1] utilizing the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces. ... is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... Combatants United States United Nations Pakistan Malaysia Somalia Commanders Many Mohamed Farrah Aidid The United Nations intervention in Somalia (code-named Operation Restore Hope) was a United Nations–sanctioned United States military operation from 9 December 1992 to 4 May 1993. ...

Aerial view of a residential area of Mogadishu, with a U.S. Marine Corps helicopter in the foreground, December 1992.
Aerial view of a residential area of Mogadishu, with a U.S. Marine Corps helicopter in the foreground, December 1992.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1517x1006, 323 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mogadishu ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1517x1006, 323 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mogadishu ...


Mogadishu is located at 2° 4' North, 45° 22' East (2.06667, 45.36667). The Shebelle River (Webe Shabelle) rises in central Ethiopia and comes within 30 kilometers (19 mi) of the Indian Ocean near Mogadishu before turning southwestward. Usually dry during February and March, the river provides water essential for the cultivation of sugarcane, cotton, and bananas. The Shebelle River (with numerous spelling variations, including Shabele and Shabell, sometimes with Wabe or Webi prepended, Shabeelle in Somalia) begins in the highlands of Ethiopia, and then flows southeast into Somalia towards Mogadishu. ... Species Saccharum arundinaceum Saccharum bengalense Saccharum edule Saccharum officinarum Saccharum procerum Saccharum ravennae Saccharum robustum Saccharum sinense Saccharum spontaneum Sugarcane or Sugar cane (Saccharum) is a genus of 6 to 37 species (depending on taxonomic interpretation) of tall perennial grasses (family Poaceae, tribe Andropogoneae), native to warm temperate to tropical... For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Features of the city include the Hammawein Old Town, the Bakaara Market, and the former resort of Gezira Beach. The Bakaara Market (Somali: Suuqa Bakaaraha) is a Mogadishu open market and the largest in Somalia. ...


Mogadishu serves as a commercial and financial center. The economy had recovered somewhat from the worst civil unrest in the country although the Somali Civil War still presents many problems. The effective absence of government yields free trade without taxes or regulatory expenditures, making business relatively inexpensive. Businesses have hired armed militias to provide security against gunmen, leading to a gradual reduction in street violence. However, because of the absence of the state, extremely high levels of crime including frequent murders and occasional bombings are still rampant in the city. The Somali Civil War is an armed conflict in Somalia that started in 1988. ...

Principal industries include food and beverage processing and textiles, especially cotton ginning. The main market offers a variety of goods from food to electronic gadgets. A cotton gin is a machine that quickly and easily separates the cotton fibres from the seedpods and the sometimes sticky seeds. ...

Telcom a telecommunications network operator in Somalia has its headquarters in the city. Telcom is one of the largest leading telecommunications network operator in Somalia. ... A telephone company (or telco) provides telecommunications services such as telephony and data communications. ...



Roads link the city with many Somali locales and with Kenya and Ethiopia.


Private airlines service Mogadishu at various airports within and around the city; the intense fighting largely destroyed the old Mogadishu International Airport, which briefly reopened before the War in Somalia (2006-present). As of 2007, K50 Airport serves Mogadishu.[2] Mogadishu International Airport is the international airport of Mogadishu, the capital of Somalia. ... Combatants Islamic Courts Union Pro-Islamist militias Alleged:  Eritrea Foreign jihadists Puntland Galmudug Transitional Government of Somalia  Ethiopia[1] Commanders Hassan Aweys Hasan Hersi Adan Ayrow Barre Adan Shire Hirale Abdi Qeybdid Adde Musa (Puntland) Meles Zenawi Strength 10,000 – 30,000 soldiers 500 – 2000 technicals Heavy weapons including artillery... K50 Airport or Km N° 50 Airport is a commercial airport in Somalia. ...


Mogadishu leads Somalia in port traffic and still serves as a major seaport. International traders actively benefit from its de facto duty-free status. However, piracy is widespread around Somalia's coastal areas, making sea transport risky.[3][4] International trade is the exchange of goods and services across international boundaries or territories. ... In economics, a duty is a kind of tax, often associated with customs, a payment due to the revenue of a state, levied by force of law. ... This article is about maritime piracy. ...


Somali Institute of Management and Administration (SIMAD), 2006.

The Government have been unable to settle the instability in and around Mogadishu for many years. The city is mostly governed by clans, and factions; not the Somali government. Image File history File links Simad. ... Image File history File links Simad. ...


The Mogadishu University is a non-governmental university that is governed by the Board of Trustees and the University Council. The Somalia National University has been closed indefinitely due to extensive damage. Benadir University was started in 2002 with the intention to train doctors but has expanded into other fields. Somali Institute of Management and Administration Development (SIMAD) has given the priority to the areas of business administration, information technology and accountancy due to human capital shortage in the country's private sector management. Moqadishu University, The Mugadishu University Campus in Mogadishu, Somalia. ... Somalia National University is the national university of the African nation of Somalia, located in the capital Mogadishu. ...


The city is home to the Mogadiscio Stadium which has seen football (soccer) teams play in the Somalia League and the Somalia Cup. Mogadiscio Stadium is a multi-use stadium in Mogadiscio, Somalia. ... A player (wearing the red kit) has penetrated the defence (in the white kit) and is taking a shot at goal. ... Somalia League is the top football division in Somalia, it was created in 1967. ... The Somalia Cup is the top knockout tournament of the Somalia football. ...

Notable Mogadishans

Iman (born July 25, 1955 in Mogadishu, Somalia as Iman Abdulmajid, Somali: Iimaan Cabdimajiid) is a supermodel based in the United States. ... Knaan (Keynaan, meaning traveler in Somali, born 1978)[1] is a Canadian] poet and hip-hop artist from the Hawiye clan in Somalia clan. ...

See also

Combatants USSOF, UNOSOM II, Frontier Force Regiment Somali National Alliance-affiliated militias Commanders William F. Garrison Mohamed Farrah Aidid Strength 160 5,000-10,000 Casualties U.S. 18 killed 73 wounded 1 captured Malaysia 1 killed 7 wounded Pakistan 2 wounded Militia and civilians At least 3,000[1... Combatants Alliance for the Restoration of Peace and Counter-Terrorism Islamic Court Union Commanders Mohamed Qanyare, Muse Sudi, Nuur Daqle Sheikh Sharif Ahmed Strength unknown unknown Casualties Over 350 deaths[1] The Second Battle of Mogadishu was a battle fought for control of Mogadishu, the capital city of Somalia. ... Combatants Islamic Courts Union Pro-Islamist Militias Foreign fighters Transitional Federal Government Ethiopia[1][2] The Fall of Mogadishu began on December 27, 2006, when the militaries of Somalias United Nations-approved Transitional Federal Government and Ethiopia surrounded the Somalian capital of Mogadishu after a swift string of TFG... Combatants Hizbul Shabaab Hawiye clan militiamen  Ethiopia Transitional Federal Government Casualties Unknown 9 Ethiopian soldiers killed[1]2 TFG soldiers killed[2] 80 killed[3] The November 2007 Battle of Mogadishu begun when dragging of mutilated bodies of Ethiopian soldiers through the streets of Mogadishu provoked a fierce and furious...


  1. ^ Mayor of Mogadishu bans weapons. Retrieved on 2007-05-04.
  2. ^ Schmitz, Sebastain (2007). "By Ilyushin 18 to Mogadishu". Airways 14 (7): pp. 12-17. ISSN 1074-4320. 
  3. ^ Bureau of Consular Affairs (2006-06-05). Travel Warning: Somalia (HTML) (English). International Travel Information. United States Department of State. Retrieved on 2007-08-01. “Merchant vessels, fishing boats and recreational craft all risk seizure by pirates and having their crews held for ransom, especially in the waters off the Horn of Africa.”
  4. ^ Mohammed Adow. "Piracy cuts off Somalia aid" (HTML), Aljazeera.net, Al Jazeera, 2007-06-02. Retrieved on 2007-08-01. (English) “Piracy has become an almost daily occurence off Somalia….” 

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... The mission of the Bureau of Consular Affairs (CA) is to administer laws, formulate regulations and implement policies relating to the broad range of consular services and immigration. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Department of State redirects here. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Coordinates: 02°04′N, 045°22′E Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
At Least 20 Killed In Mogadishu Battles - washingtonpost.com (542 words)
Mogadishu's war-weary residents ran for cover as rival groups fired machine guns and pounded each other with mortar rounds near an area that had been a pocket of warlord resistance to the Islamic militiamen.
Staff members at one of Mogadishu's main hospitals said victims were pouring in on the back of pickup trucks in scenes reminiscent of battles earlier this year when Islamic fighters took over the city.
Most of the warlords who had run Mogadishu since the 1991 ouster of military dictator Mohamed Siad Barre surrendered or fled after their defeat in last month's battles, in which 350 people were killed, but pockets of fighters loyal to them hung on.
Mogadishu travel guide (296 words)
One of the earliest Arab settlements on the East African coast, the city was a leading commercial port by the 13th century; it went into a period of decline by the 16th century.
The port was under the control of the sultan of Zanzibar, and of the Italian government in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
From 1992 to 1995 Mogadishu became the center of a United Nations (UN) operation intended to restore government and to ease famine caused in part by Somalia's civil war.
  More results at FactBites »



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