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Encyclopedia > Modernity

Modernity is a term used to describe the condition of being related to modernism. Since the term "modern" is used to describe a wide range of periods, modernity must be understood in its context, the industrial age of the 19th century, and its role in sociology, which since its beginning in that era examined the leap from pre-industrial to industrial society, sometimes considering events of the 18th century as well. For the period since the Middle Ages, the term Modern Times is used. For Christian theological modernism, see Liberal Christianity and Modernism (Roman Catholicism). ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The term Modern Times is used by historians to loosely describe the period of time immediately following what is known as the Early Modern Times. ...

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Related Terminology

Modern can mean all of post-medieval European history, in the context of dividing history into three large epochs: ancient history, the Middle Ages, and Modern Times. In the context of contemporary history, politics and other subjects, it is also applied specifically to the period beginning somewhere between 1870 and 1910, through the present, and even more specifically to the early 20th century, though the late modern times would be marked by the late 18th century (Industrial, American, and French Revolutions). “Ancient” redirects here. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The term Modern Times is used by historians to loosely describe the period of time immediately following what is known as the Early Modern Times. ... Contemporary history describes the term of historical events, that are immediately relevant to the present time. ...


"Modernity" is a different term from modern times; it is derived from Modernism, a movement in art based on the consciousness that through the mechanical age of industrialism, humankind has evolved into something very new - what that would be, would have to be explored by art, and all previous concepts questioned. Darwin's Origin of Species and Lyell's Principles of Geology revolutionized the perception of time and race, and that of "mankind" in particular. The term Modern Times is used by historians to loosely describe the period of time immediately following what is known as the Early Modern Times. ... For Christian theological modernism, see Liberal Christianity and Modernism (Roman Catholicism). ... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... The 1859 edition of On the Origin of Species First published in 1859, The Origin of Species (full title On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life) by British naturalist Charles Darwin is one of the pivotal... Lyell may refer to: Charles Lyell (1797–1875), Scottish lawyer, geologist, and populariser of uniformitarianism. ...


Modern as post-medieval

One common use of the term is to describe the condition of Western History since the mid-1400s, or roughly the European development of moveable type and the printing press. The printing press is a mechanical device for printing many copies of a text on rectangular sheets of paper. ... The printing press is a mechanical device for printing many copies of a text on rectangular sheets of paper. ...

In this context the "modern" society is said to develop over many periods, and to be influenced by important events which represent breaks in the continuity: For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... Socialism is a broad array of ideologies and political movements with the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community for the purposes of increasing social and economic equality and cooperation. ... Representative democracy is a form of government founded on the principles of popular sovereignty by the peoples representatives. ... Individualism is a term used to describe a moral, political, or social outlook that stresses human independence and the importance of individual self-reliance and liberty. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... Social movements are broader political associations focussed on specific issues. ... The traditional definition of literacy is considered to be the ability to read and write, or the ability to use language to read, write, listen, and speak. ... The word proliferation can refer to: Nuclear proliferation Chemical weapon proliferation the spread in use of other weapons systems Cell proliferation According to Gloria Anzaldúa (1990), the difference between appropriation and proliferation is that the first steals and harms; the second helps heal breaches of knowledge. ... Popular press redirects here; note that the University of Wisconsin Press publishes under the imprint The Popular Press. Mass media is a term used to denote a section of the media specifically envisioned and designed to reach a very large audience such as the population of a nation state. ...


Particular ways of periodizing modernity include:

Important events in the development of modernity in this context include See also: Age of Sail and Afro-Asiatic age of discovery For the computer wargame, Age of Discovery, see Global Diplomacy. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... Reformation redirects here. ... The Counter-Reformation (also Catholic Reformation[1][2] or Catholic Revival[2]) denotes the period of Catholic revival from the pontificate of Pope Pius IV in 1560 to the close of the Thirty Years War, 1648. ... The Age of Reason is either Thomas Paines book The Age of Reason. ... ... Romantics redirects here. ... Victorianism is the name given to the attitudes, art, and culture of the later two-thirds of the 19th century. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... For Christian theological modernism, see Liberal Christianity and Modernism (Roman Catholicism). ... Postmodernism is a term applied to a wide-ranging set of developments in critical theory, philosophy, architecture, art, literature, and culture, which are generally characterized as either emerging from, in reaction to, or superseding, modernism. ... Postmodernity (also called post-modernity or the postmodern condition) is a term used to describe the social and cultural implications of postmodernism. ... Digitality is used to mean the condition of living in a digital culture, derived from Nicholas Negropontes book Being Digital in analogy with modernity and post-modernity. ...

It is usually suggested that some or most of these events led to the more complete realization of "modern" society in Europe. The printing press is a mechanical device for printing many copies of a text on rectangular sheets of paper. ... For other uses, see English Civil War (disambiguation). ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... The European Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations or the Year of Revolution, were a revolutionary wave which erupted in Sicily and then, further triggered by the revolutions of 1848 in France, soon spread to the rest of Europe and as far afield as... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ...


Change to Modernity in different Fields

Sociological thought

"At its simplest, modernity is a shorthand term for modern society or industrial civilization. Portrayed in more detail, it is associated with (1) a certain set of attitudes towards the world, the idea of the world as an open transformation by human intervention; (2)a complex of economic institutions, especially industrial production and a market economy; (3) a certain range of political institutions , including the nation-state and mass democracy. Largely as a result of these characteristics, modernity is vastly more dynamic than any previous type of social order. It is a society - more technically, a complex of institutions - which unlike any preceding cultures lives in the future rather than the past" Anthony Giddens This is a direct quote copied from Conversations with Anthony Giddens: Making Sense of Modernity 1998. pg.94 Image needed Anthony Giddens, Baron Giddens (born January 18, 1938) is a British sociologist who is renowned for his theory of structuration and his holistic view of modern societies. ...


Political thought

Many contemporary political theorists agree that the first modern political thinker was Niccolò Machiavelli, who lived in the city-state of Florence, Italy, in the early 16th century. He is especially famed for his literary works, including his seminal Discourses on Livy, on the governance of republics and the cultivation of republican virtue, and his famous The Prince, on the efficient administration of monarchies. Both of these works contain features that are characteristic of modern political thought, including:[citation needed] Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli (May 3, 1469 – June 21, 1527) was an Italian political philosopher, musician, poet, and romantic comedic playwright. ... Florence (Italian, Firenze) is a city in the center of Tuscany, in central Italy, on the Arno River, with a population of around 400,000, plus a suburban population in excess of 200,000. ... Niccolò Machiavelli is primarily known as the author of The Prince. ... A republic in its basic sense, is constitutional government. ... Republicanism is the ideology of governing a nation as a republic, with an emphasis on liberty, rule by the people, and the civic virtue practiced by citizens. ... This article is about the book by Niccolò Machiavelli. ... For related meanings see also Monarch (disambiguation) A monarchy, (from the Greek monos archein, meaning one ruler) is a form of government that has a monarch as Head of State. ...

  1. A positive attitude towards change and attempts to make progress in technology, economics and military power, despite the dangers involved in revolutionary change.
  2. A positive attitude towards experimentation with new forms of government, including democracy or that of a republic, combined with a realistic attitude towards extant institutions, such as that of monarchies, assessing their strengths and weaknesses based on their record of accomplishments and failures.
  3. A positive attitude towards larger states, despite holding that small communities were superior in most respects.
  4. A realistic view towards the problems of the day, including the willingness to not idealize the present, but to state things as they were, not as they should be, perhaps best illustrated by Machiavelli's famous statement in The Prince that, for a sovereign, "...it is much safer to be feared than to be loved when one of the two must be lacking" (The Prince, chapter 17).

What is particularly interesting is the clarity with which Machiavelli makes his argument for this revolutionary approach, versus that of the classical political philosophers, such as Aristotle, who Machiavelli held in high regard. He believed that this change in thinking is necessary because of the unpleasant necessities of the times in which he lived, including those of religious strife, general war, invasion by outsiders, the rise of large, imperial powers, and technological innovation, including the development of gunpowder-based weaponry. (Gunpowder was first developed by the Chinese for fireworks, first used as a weapon by the Turks, who invented the cannon, and later, was first used as an infantry weapon in the arquebus, the forerunner of the rifle, by the Europeans.) Machiavelli surmised that, given these conditions, all political communities must take into account and minimize not only their traditional, internal, and parochial challenges, but also new, emergent, asymmetric threats, including those posed by large imperialist states, dangerous, disruptive, and/or game-changing technological innovations, arms races, and those challenges caused by external intervention. Thus, the controversial political theorist Leo Strauss held that this first type of modernism emerged out the fears of elites, rather than the desire for progress, and concerned itself with changing society from within before change was forced on society from outside. However, this elite-led process of internal change of traditional society in response to external threats had a few unintended consequences. Origins of theory According to Czech philosopher Radovan Richta, in his 1967 publication “Man and Technology in the Revolution of Our Day”, technology (which he defines as “a material entity created by the application of mental and physical effort to nature in order to achieve some value... For other uses, see Revolution (disambiguation). ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For related meanings see also Monarch (disambiguation) A monarchy, (from the Greek monos archein, meaning one ruler) is a form of government that has a monarch as Head of State. ... This article is about the book by Niccolò Machiavelli. ... Look up sovereign in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... This article is about the law definition of necessity. ... Gunpowder (also called black powder) is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture of sulfur, charcoal and potassium nitrate that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot solids and gases which can be used as a propellant in firearms and fireworks. ... Japanese arquebus of the Edo era (teppō) Example of an arquebus The arquebus (sometimes spelled harquebus, harkbus[1] or hackbut; from Dutch haakbus, meaning hook gun[2]) was a primitive firearm used in the 15th to 17th centuries. ... The term arms race in its original usage describes a competition between two or more parties for military supremacy. ... An Outside Context Problem or an OCP is any problem outside a given groups (organisation, society, culture or civilisation) experience, with an immediate, ubiquitous and lasting impact upon it. ... Leo Strauss (September 20, 1899 – October 18, 1973), was a German-born Jewish-American political philosopher who specialized in the study of classical political philosophy. ... For the Law of unintended consequences, see Unintended consequence Unintended Consequences by John Ross, 1996 Unintended Consequences is a novel by author John Ross, first published in 1996 by Accurate Press. ...


Many would agree that the first signs of modernity certainly appeared in Machiavelli's lifetime, which was also the time of Martin Luther, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, the Borgia popes, Amerigo Vespucci, Leonardo da Vinci, and the reigns of Henry VII of England and also Henry VIII. Machiavelli's political writings are surprisingly open in their criticism of the traditional division of power which existed in Europe, especially Italy, between the Roman Catholic Church and secular government, which was still centered around both the city-state and the Holy Roman Emperor, and are startling. His writings are startling in their encouragement to all parties to try to take control - including the Church, the Empire or even democratic reformists such as those found in his home, Florence and in Switzerland. Indeed, most commentators argue that Machiavelli harbored a marked preference for republics, as evidenced by his favorable treatment of them in the Discourses. Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... For the Carlist claimant King Carlos V, see Infante Carlos, Count of Molina. ... Borja (better known by the Italian spelling of the name, Borgia) was an influential Spanish family during the Renaissance. ... Amerigo Vespucci (March 9, 1454 - February 22, 1512) was an Italian merchant, explorer and cartographer. ... “Da Vinci” redirects here. ... Henry VII (January 28, 1457 – April 21, 1509), King of England, Lord of Ireland (August 22, 1485 – April 21, 1509), born Henry Tudor was the first monarch of the Tudor dynasty. ... Henry VIII redirects here. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ... A city-state is a region controlled exclusively by a city. ... The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ... This article is about the city in Italy. ... In semantics, discourses are linguistic units composed of several sentences - in other words, conversations, arguments or speeches. ...


But, far from creating peace, the transition from feudal institutions to modern institutions was marked by a series of revolutions and military conflicts, beginning with the Thirty Years' War, which resulted in the utter destruction of much of Germany, Dutch independence, the rise of France as a great power, the decline of Spain], plenty of (the usual) Hapsburg drama, the emergence of historical figures such as Gustavus Adolphus, Cardinal Richelieu, and General Wallenstein. The Peace of Westphalia (1648) established the modern international system of independent nation-states, ending feudalism in international relations. After a first revolution which temporarily ended the monarchy in Britain and Ireland, creating a "Commonwealth" the English "Glorious" Revolution (1688) marked the final days of feudalism in Great Britain, establishing Parliamentary sovereignty and the beginning of modern constitutional monarchy. The French Revolution of 1789 overthrew the Ancien Régime in France, and as a result of the Napoleonic Wars, served to introduce political modernity in much of Western Europe. Combatants Sweden (from 1630)  Bohemia Denmark-Norway (1625-1629) Dutch Republic France Scotland England Saxony  Holy Roman Empire ( Catholic League) Spain Austria Bavaria Denmark-Norway (1643-1645) Commanders Frederick V Buckingham Leven Gustav II Adolf â€  Johan Baner Cardinal Richelieu Louis II de Bourbon Turenne Christian IV of Denmark Bernhard of... Habsburg (sometimes spelled Hapsburg, but never so in official use) was one of the major ruling houses of Europe. ... Gustav II Adolph Gustav II Adolph (December 9, 1594 - November 6, 1632) (also known as Gustav Adolph the Great, under the Latin name Gustavus Adolphus or the Swedish form Gustav II Adolf) was a King of Sweden. ... Armand Jean du Plessis de Richelieu, Cardinal-Duc de Richelieu (September 9, 1585 – December 4, 1642), was a French clergyman, noble, and statesman. ... Categories: 1583 births | 1634 deaths | Assassinated people ... 1648 (MDCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... The English Civil War (or Wars) refers to the series of armed conflicts and political machinations which took place between Parliamentarians and Royalists from 1642 until 1651, specifically to the first (1642–1645) and second (1648–1649) civil wars between the supporters of Charles I of England and... Motto: PAX QUÆRITUR BELLO (English: Peace is sought through war) Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Language(s) English Government Republic Lord Protector  - 1649-1658 Oliver Cromwell Legislature Rump Parliament Barebones Parliament History  - Declaration of Commonwealth May 19, 1649  - Declaration of Breda April 4, 1660 Area 130,395... The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (VII of Scotland) in 1688 by a union of Parliamentarians and the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau (William of Orange), who as a result ascended the English throne as William... // Events A high-powered conspiracy of notables, the Immortal Seven, invite William and Mary to depose James II of England. ... Parliamentary sovereignty, parliamentary supremacy, or legislative supremacy is a concept in constitutional law that applies to some parliamentary democracies. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Year 1789 (MDCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Ancien Régime, a French term meaning Former Regime, but rendered in English as Old Rule, Old Order, or simply Old Regime, refers primarily to the aristocratic social and political system established in France under the Valois and Bourbon dynasties. ...


Later, the American and French Revolutions led to the formation of the first republics to be founded on explicitly modern political theories. Leaders such as the Emperor Napoleon introduced new codes of law in Europe based on merit and achievement, rather than on a class system rooted in Feudalism. The modern political system of Liberalism (derived from the word "liberty" which means "freedom") empowered members of the disenfranchised Third Estate. In many nations, the power of elected bodies and leaders supplanted traditional rule by hereditary monarchs. Growing attachment to one's nation, culture and language produced new and powerful forces of nationalism, resulting in numerous nationalistic movements, which often had an impact in artistic and literary currents, or in setting the basis for recognition of new cultural, linguistic or even political status. This was smartly used by the emergent bourgeois to establish stable conditions for the formation of market economies, and their achievement of more comfortable and preeminent positions in society, as in Italian and German unification, and the Central and Southern American revolutions, caused by the bankruptcy of their parent states, and the subsequent collapse of their colonial empires. The bourgeoisie used their new and stronger positions to take the places of the nobility as a ruling class, either through revolution, as in Revolutionary France, or through gradual political reform, as in Great Britain. Where reform ending feudalism was stifled, such as in Czarist Russia, the situation would perhaps appear stable, for a time, but had the potential to--and often did--explode. Often, cases of unfulfilled desires of nationhood resulted in conflict with other nationalistic claims, such as in the case of Basque country in Spain, the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, the case of the Kurds and Armenians in Turkey, or the various and periodic wars and bloodlettings in the Balkans, which are still troubled with irredentist claims and counterclaims to this day. The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... A republic in its basic sense, is constitutional government. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Look up Merit in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Social class describes the relationships between people in hierarchical societies or cultures. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste Feudalism, a term first used in the early modern period (17th century), in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval European political system comprised of a set of reciprocal legal and military obligations among the... A political system is a system of politics and government. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... In France of the ancien régime and the age of the French Revolution, the term Third Estate (tiers état) indicated the generality of people which were not part of the clergy (the First Estate) nor of the nobility (the Second Estate). ... For other uses, see Nation (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... A market economy (aka free market economy and free enterprise economy) is an economic system in which the production and distribution of goods and services takes place through the mechanism of free markets guided by a free price system rather than by the state in a planned economy. ... Nobility is a traditional hereditary status (see hereditary titles) that exists today in many countries (mainly present or former monarchies). ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of Russian history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... Russian Revolution can refer to: Russian Revolution (1905), a series of strikes against Tsar Nicholas II Russian Revolution (1917) February Revolution, resulting in the abdication of Nicholas II of Russia October Revolution, the Bolshevik seizure of power Third Russian Revolution, the failed anarchist revolution against the Bolsheviks and the White... Pays Basque) see Northern Basque Country. ... Israel, with the West Bank, Gaza Strip and Golan Heights The Israeli-Palestinian conflict is an ongoing dispute between the State of Israel and Arab Palestinians. ... Kurds are one of the Iranian peoples and speak Kurdish, a north-Western Iranian language related to Persian. ... Balkan redirects here. ... Irredentism is claiming a right to territories belonging to another state on the grounds of common ethnicity and/or prior historical possession, actual or alleged. ...


The desire for equal rights, conditions, benefits, and outcomes for common workers within these increasingly industrialized societies led to the development of new ideologies such as Communism, Socialism or Anarchism. Various social movements sprung up around these ideologies, aspiring to see the working class control the means of production for the collective benefit of all. Repressive measures to force these workers back into their "place" led to protests, riots, and ultimately revolts and revolutions, which were hoped to lead to the creation of a free and democratic classless society, in theory. This was evidenced by events such as the Paris commune in 1871 in addition to the October Revolution in Russia, in 1917, which resulted in the execution of the Tsar and the royal family and the creation of the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic. This first communist state appeared to be run by the workers, until the devastation of the Russian Civil War caused its leaders to turn to increasingly repressive measures, and any hopes of popular democracy were finally crushed by Stalin, who turned the USSR into a bureaucratized, totalitarian regime, which continued until it collapsed of its own dead weight in 1991. This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... Socialism is a broad array of ideologies and political movements with the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community for the purposes of increasing social and economic equality and cooperation. ... Anarchist redirects here. ... A social class is, at its most basic, a group of people that have similar status. ... Le Père Duchesne looking at the statue of Napoleon I on top of the Vendome column: Eh ben ! bougre de canaille, on va donc te foutre en bas comme ta crapule de neveu !… (Well now! buggering rascal, we will knock you the fuck off just like your crook of... For other uses, see October Revolution (disambiguation). ... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Soviet republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ... Combatants Local Soviet powers led by Russian SFSR and Red Army Chinese mercenaries White Movement Central Powers (1917-1918): Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire German Empire Allied Intervention: (1918-1922) Japan Czechoslovakia Greece  United States  Canada Serbia Romania UK  France Foreign volunteers: Polish Italian Local nationalist movements, national states, and decentralist... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვი&#4314...


Extreme nationalism ultimately contributed to the rise of ideologies like fascism, militarism and Nazism, whose core concept of legitimacy was not based on popular consent, but projected a facade of being based on romanticized concepts of nationhood, ethnic superiority, and racial superiority. However, these claims to legitimacy have always been exposed as, in the end, really being based on their demagogic leaders' hubristic will to power. The rise of Hitler resulting in the Nazi seizure of power in Germany, combined with the machinations of fellow fascists in Fascist Italy, led by Mussolini, and the schemes of Militarist Japan, led to the Second World War, which was the bloodiest conflict in all of human history, leading to the deaths of tens of millions, including the outright genocide--the Holocaust--of at least 6 million people of the Jewish faith, by Hitler and the Nazis, solely because they were Jewish. Eventually, Imperial Japan, Fascist Italy, and Nazi Germany were eventually defeated by the combined efforts and forces of the United Nations, also known as the Allies, led by Great Britain, the USSR, and the United States of America, ending the Second World War. Fascism is an authoritarian political ideology (generally tied to a mass movement) that considers individual and other societal interests subordinate to the interests of the state. ... Militarism or militarist ideology is the doctrinal view of a society as being best served (or more efficient) when it is governed or guided by concepts embodied in the culture, doctrine, system, or people of the military. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... One of the most influential doctrines in history is that all humans are divided into groups called nations. ... This box:      Ethnocentrism is the tendency to look at the world primarily from the perspective of ones own culture. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... Hubris or hybris (Greek ), according to its modern usage, is exaggerated self pride or self-confidence (overbearing pride), often resulting in fatal retribution. ... Friedrich Nietzsche, 1882 Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 - August 25, 1900) was a highly influential German philosopher. ... Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (April 20, 1889 – April 30, 1945, standard German pronunciation in the IPA) was the Führer (leader) of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party) and of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... Anthem Marcia Reale dOrdinanza (Royal March of Ordinance)¹ The Kingdom of Italy at the height of its power in 1940. ... Benito Mussolini created a fascist state through the use of propaganda, total control of the media and disassembly of the working democratic government. ... The ensign of Imperial Japanese Navy was a prominent symbol of Imperial Japan. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Holocaust (disambiguation) and Shoah (disambiguation). ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... Look up ally in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In the present day, most societies subscribe to the modern ideologies of democracy, human rights, liberty, equality, and fraternity, which have become widespread standards expected by most people from governments. The first new republic of modernity, the United States of America initially granted the vote to all white, male citizens; eventually extending it to all citizens, allowing everyone a theoretically equal voice in politics. The US also developed a Constitution that created a system of checks and balances between the three branches of government, the legislative branch, the judicial branch, and the executive branch, and also separated power between government at the national level and government at the state (equivalent to province) level. Many individuals in the US and other democratic societies often aspire to material wealth, social approval and economically rewarding education. Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... For other uses, see Freedom. ... Social equality is a social state of affairs in which certain different people have the same status in a certain respect, minimally at least in voting rights, freedom of speech and assembly, and property rights. ... Look up brotherhood in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Voting is a method of decision making wherein a group such as a meeting or an electorate attempts to gauge its opinion—usually as a final step following discussions or debates. ... The doctrine and practice of dispersing political power and creating mutual accountability between political entities such as the courts, the president or prime minister, the legislature, and the citizens. ... In political science and constitutional law, the executive is the branch of government responsible for the day-to-day management of the state. ... Wealth usually refers to money and property. ...


Science and technology

One of the most important aspects of modernity is the encouragement of advance or progress in useful sciences and arts. Politically, this demanded an end to caution in allowing radical ideas to be made public, which radically changed religion and education in European society.


Revolutions in science and technology have been no less influential than political revolutions in changing the shape of the modern world. The Scientific revolution, beginning with the discoveries of Kepler and Galileo, and culminating with Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (1687), changed the way in which educated people looked at the natural world. This article is about the period or event in history. ... Kepler redirects here. ... Galileo can refer to: Galileo Galilei, astronomer, philosopher, and physicist (1564 - 1642) the Galileo spacecraft, a NASA space probe that visited Jupiter and its moons the Galileo positioning system Life of Galileo, a play by Bertolt Brecht Galileo (1975) - screen adaptation of the play Life of Galileo by Bertolt Brecht... Sir Isaac Newton FRS (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist. ... Newtons own copy of his Principia, with handwritten corrections for the second edition. ... Events March 19 - The men under explorer Robert Cavelier de La Salle murder him while searching for the mouth of the Mississippi River. ...


From the time of Newton, or perhaps even Descartes, many branches of modern science (perhaps the most extreme example being economics) have been increasingly accused of losing perspective due to their over-stretched efforts to find explanations of nature which are easily analysed in terms of easily measured and easily mathematicised terms. René Descartes René Descartes (IPA: , March 31, 1596 – February 11, 1650), also known as Cartesius, worked as a philosopher and mathematician. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ...


Inventions

What is now called technology is the most obvious success of modernity. Mechanical and scientific invention has changed human health and all aspects of human society: economic, religious, social, and theoretical. By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... For other uses, see Mechanic (disambiguation). ... For the scientific journal named Science, see Science (journal). ... For other uses, see Society (disambiguation). ... Economics (deriving from the Greek words οίκω [okos], house, and νέμω [nemo], rules hence household management) is the social science that studies the allocation of scarce resources to satisfy unlimited wants. ... Religious is a term with both a technical definition and folk use. ... Social refers to human society or its organization. ... In mathematics, theory is used informally to refer to a body of knowledge about mathematics. ...


For example, modern machines in Britain sped up the manufacture of cloth and iron. The horse and ox were no longer needed as beasts of burden. The newly invented engine powered the car, train, ship, and eventually the plane, revolutionizing the way people travelled. Newly discovered energy sources such as petroleum and nuclear power could power the new machines. Raw goods could be transported in huge quantities over vast distances; products could be manufactured quickly and then marketed all over the world, a situation that Britain, and later the US, Europe and Japan all used to their advantage. This article is about devices that perform tasks. ... It has been suggested that Textile be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Engine (disambiguation). ... “Car” and “Cars” redirect here. ... For other uses, see Train (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ship (disambiguation). ... Airplane and Aeroplane redirect here. ... Petro redirects here. ... This article is about applications of nuclear fission reactors as power sources. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


Progress continued as science saw many new scientific discoveries. The telephone, radio, X-rays, microscopes, electricity all contributed to rapid changes in life-styles and societies. Discoveries of antibiotics such as penicillin brought new ways of combating diseases. Surgery and various medications made further progress in medical care, hospitals, and nursing. New theories such as evolution and psychoanalysis changed humanity's "old fashioned" views of itself. A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... For the scientific journal named Science, see Science (journal). ... For other uses, see Telephone (disambiguation). ... In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz... Robert Hookes microscope (1665) - an engineered device used to study living systems. ... Electricity (from New Latin Ä“lectricus, amberlike) is a general term for a variety of phenomena resulting from the presence and flow of electric charge. ... Staphylococcus aureus - Antibiotics test plate. ... For the Japanese rock band, see Penicillin (band). ... “Surgeon” redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... See drugs, medication, and pharmacology for substances that are used to treat patients. ... For the town in the Republic of Ireland, see Hospital, County Limerick. ... Nursing is a profession focused on assisting individuals, families, and communities in attaining, re-attaining, and maintaining optimal health and functioning. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... Today psychoanalysis comprises several interlocking theories concerning the functioning of the mind. ...


Industry

An Industrial Revolution initiated by mechanical automation of the manufacture of cotton cloth and the use of steam engines, commenced in the 18th century in Great Britain, followed in the 19th century by a later series of developments, which saw modern systems of communication and transportation introduced in the form of steamships, railroads and the telegraph. In the late 19th century, a Second Industrial Revolution, prompted by developments in the chemical, petroleum, steel and electrical industries, furthered transformed the modern world. A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... The Second Industrial Revolution (1865–1900) is a phrase used by some historians to describe an assumed second phase of the Industrial Revolution. ...


Warfare

Warfare was changed with the advent of new varieties of rifle, cannon, gun, machine gun, armor, tank, plane, jet, and missile. Weapons such as the atomic bomb and the hydrogen bomb, known along with chemical weapons and biological weapons as weapons of mass destruction, actually made the devastation of the entire planet possible in minutes. All these are among the markings of the Modern World. For other uses, see Rifle (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cannon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the video game. ... A machine gun is a fully-automatic firearm that is capable of firing bullets in rapid succession. ... Armor or armour (see spelling differences) is protective clothing intended to defend its wearer from intentional harm in combat and military engagements, typically associated with soldiers. ... Airplane and Aeroplane redirect here. ... A Pratt and Whitney turbofan engine for the F-15 Eagle is tested at Robins Air Force Base, Georgia, USA. The tunnel behind the engine muffles noise and allows exhaust to escape. ... For other uses, see Missile (disambiguation). ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, in 1945 lifted nuclear fallout some 18 km (60,000 feet) above the epicenter. ... Early detection of chemical agents Sociopolitical climate of chemical warfare While the study of chemicals and their military uses was widespread in China, the use of toxic materials has historically been viewed with mixed emotions and some disdain in the West (especially when the enemy were doing it). ... Biological Weapons: Friend or Foe? By Dom Harris There is great debate about whether biological weapons are good or bad, and whether the world should be concerned about their development. ... For the Xzibit album, see Weapons of Mass Destruction (album). ... This article is about the astronomical term. ...


Culture

New attitudes towards religion, with the church diminished, and a desire for personal freedoms, induced desires for sexual freedoms, which were ultimately accepted by large sectors of the Western World. Theories of "free love" and uninhibited sexual freedom were advanced only later in the 1960s. For the architectural structure, see Church (building). ... Human sexuality is the expression of sexual feelings. ... Occident redirects here. ... The term free love has been used since at least the nineteenth century to describe a social movement that rejects marriage, which is seen as a form of social bondage, especially for women. ...


Equality of the sexes in politics and economics, women's liberation movement, gay rights (Oscar Wilde, Virginia Woolf) and the freedom afforded by contraception allowed for greater personal choices in these intimate areas of personal life. Feminists redirects here. ... The gay rights movement is a collection of loosely aligned civil rights groups, human rights groups, support groups and political activists seeking acceptance, tolerance and equality for non-heterosexual, (homosexual, bisexual), and transgender people - despite the fact that it is typically referred to as the gay rights movement, members also... Oscar Fingal OFlahertie Wills Wilde (October 16, 1854 – November 30, 1900) was an Irish playwright, novelist, poet, and author of short stories. ... For the American writer, see Virginia Euwer Wolff. ...


The Arts

Main article: Modern art Dejeuner sur lHerbe by Pablo Picasso At the Moulin Rouge: Two Women Waltzing by Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, 1892 The Scream by Edvard Munch, 1893 I and the Village by Marc Chagall, 1911 Fountain by Marcel Duchamp, 1917 Campbells Soup Cans 1962 Synthetic polymer paint on thirty-two...


The Modern Age, when used in reference to the arts, reflects a tendency extant during the period from around the beginning of the 20th century up through the present day. Modern art may be typified by self-awareness, and by the manipulation of form or medium as an integral part of the work itself. It contrasts pre-modern Western art, which often sought only to represent a form of reality. Key movements in modern art include cubist painting, typified by Pablo Picasso, modernist literature such as that written by James Joyce, Virginia Woolf and Gertrude Stein, and the 'new poetry' headed by Ezra Pound and T. S. Eliot. Picasso redirects here. ... This article is about the writer and poet. ... For the American writer, see Virginia Euwer Wolff. ... Gertrude Stein (February 3, 1874 – July 27, 1946) was an American writer who became a catalyst in the development of modern art and literature. ... Ezra Pound in 1913. ... Thomas Stearns Eliot, OM (September 26, 1888 – January 4, 1965), was a poet, dramatist and literary critic. ...


Modern music saw the beginning of a fusion movement of different styles and cultures. John Coltrane for example fused jazz with Carnatic music to develop his album India. Elvis Presley popularized rock and roll, fusing country-western and blues. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Coltrane redirects here. ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... Carnatic music, also known as is one of the two styles of Indian classical music, the other being Hindustani music. ... Elvis redirects here. ... Rock and roll (also spelled Rock n Roll, especially in its first decade), also called rock, is a form of popular music, usually featuring vocals (often with vocal harmony), electric guitars and a strong back beat; other instruments, such as the saxophone, are common in some styles. ... Country music, once known as Country and Western music, is a popular musical form developed in the southern United States, with roots in traditional folk music, spirituals, and the blues. ... Blues music redirects here. ...


See also Postmodern art Postmodern art is a term used to describe art which is thought to be in contradiction to some aspect of modernism, or to have emerged or developed in its aftermath. ...


Universality

The partisan use of the term "worldwide" gives tremendous emotional appeal, and is used in various countries not only by persons from professional historians to self-taught curmudgeons but by political groups which want to impose their view of reality upon their countrymen and even the whole world. The easiest way to do this is to establish a benchmark year and leave the particulars to specialists.


England: The Glorious Revolution of 1688 established a king selected by parliament, ending the troubles in that country in the seventeenth century. This was primarily done by the faction called the Whigs, who used the term "modern" for generations thereafter to gain credit. Later generations and political parties did not consider this a sufficient change to merit the term. Motto Dieu et mon droit(French) God and my right Territory of the Kingdom of England Capital Winchester; London from 11th century Language(s) Old English (de facto, until 1066) Anglo-Norman language (de jure, 1066 - 15th century) English (de facto, gradually replaced French from late 13th century) Government Monarchy... The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (VII of Scotland) in 1688 by a union of Parliamentarians and the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau (William of Orange), who as a result ascended the English throne as William... // Events A high-powered conspiracy of notables, the Immortal Seven, invite William and Mary to depose James II of England. ... The House of Representatives Chamber of the Parliament of Australia in Canberra. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... The Whigs (with the Tories) are often described as one of two political parties in England and later the United Kingdom from the late 17th to the mid 19th centuries. ...


France: Although the French still glory in the magnificence of King Louis XIV, the end of his reign in 1715 is considered by them as a handy spot from which to tout the next phase of French glory, the Enlightenment, which they call « l'Age des lumières ». In other words, what happened in Britain does not concern them. After the French Revolution of 1789, they declared that the modern age had been surpassed by the contemporary age. Louis XIV redirects here. ... Year 1715 (MDCCXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Age of Enlightenment refers to the 18th century in European philosophy, and is often thought of as part of a larger period which includes the Age of Reason. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Look up contemporary in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Russia: It took some time for the European socialists to conceive that the next great revolution would start someplace other than in France. But the Russians have always compared themselves to the French. After the October revolution, the Communist party of the Soviet Union declared that the "modern age" began with Peter the Great and the "contemporary age" began with this Bolshevik revolution. Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ... For other uses, see October Revolution (disambiguation). ... In modern usage, the term communist party is generally used to identify any political party which has adopted communist ideology. ... Peter the Great or Pyotr Alexeyevich Romanov (Russian: Пётр I Алексеевич Pyotr I Alekse`yevich, Пётр Великий Pyotr Veli`kiy) (9 June 1672 – 8 February 1725 [30 May 1672–28 January 1725 O.S.][1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his... For other uses, see Bolshevik (disambiguation). ...


Japan: The Japanese call the dynasties previous to the Tokugawa dynasty as medieval, and the Meiji Restoration of 1866-1869 is considered equivalent to the French Revolution of 1789, but haven't assimilated a form of the word modern for Tokugawa. The Tokugawa shogunate or Tokugawa bakufu (徳川幕府) (also known as the Edo bakufu) was a feudal military dictatorship of Japan established in 1603 by Tokugawa Ieyasu and ruled by the shoguns of the Tokugawa family until 1868. ... The Meiji Restoration ), also known as the Meiji Ishin, Revolution, or Renewal, was a chain of events that led to enormous changes in Japans political and social structure. ... Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu The Tokugawa clan crest This is a Japanese name; the family name is Tokugawa Tokugawa Ieyasu (previously spelled Iyeyasu) January 31, 1543 – June 1, 1616) was the founder and first shogun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan which ruled from the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600 until...


As for the Third World, the obvious benchmarks are colonization by European imperial powers during the "New Imperialism" and the subsequent decolonization in the twentieth century. But "modern" and "contemporary" are not used for this purpose. For the Jamaican reggae band, see Third World (band). ... {{}} // The term imperialism was used from the third quarter of the nineteenth century to describe various forms of political control by a greater power over less powerful territories or nationalities, although analytically the phenomena which it denotes may differ greatly from each other and from the New imperialism. ... Colonialism in 1945 Decolonization refers to the undoing of colonialism, the establishment of governance or authority through the creation of settlements by another country or jurisdiction. ...


The United States of America: A seemingly natural dividing point as far as Spain and the new world are concerned is the voyage of Columbus in 1492. But the need for such an undertaking was underscored by the taking of Constantinople by the Ottoman Empire of the Turks in 1453, so historians once took this as their benchmark. Frontispiece of Peter Martyr dAnghieras De orbe novo (On the New World). Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, 1722. ... Christopher Columbus (1451 – May 20, 1506) was a navigator, colonizer, and explorer and one of the first Europeans to explore the Americas after the Vikings. ... Also film, 1492: Conquest of Paradise. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Ottoman redirects here. ... April 2 - Mehmed II begins his siege of Constantinople (İstanbul). ...


Defining characteristics of modernity

There have been numerous ways of understanding what modernity is, particularly in the field of sociology. A wide variety of terms are used to describe the society, social life, driving force, symptomatic mentality, or some other defining aspects of modernity. They include: bureaucracy, disenchantment of the world, rationalization, secularization, alienation, commodification, decontextualization, individualism, subjectivism, linear progression, objectivism, universalism, reductionism, chaos, mass society, industrial society, homogenization, unification, hybridization, diversification, democratization, centralization, hierarchical organization, mechanization, totalitarianism, and so on. Sociology (from Latin: socius, companion; and the suffix -ology, the study of, from Greek λόγος, lógos, knowledge [1]) is the systematic and scientific study of society, including patterns of social relationships, social action, and culture[2]. Areas studied in sociology can range from the analysis of brief contacts between anonymous... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article is about the sociological concept. ... Look up Rationalization on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Rationalization can refer to more than one thing: In psychology, rationalization is the process of constructing a logical justification for a decision that was originally arrived at through a different mental process. ... Secularization or secularisation is a process of transformation as a society slowly migrates from close identification with the local institutions of religion to a more clearly separated relationship. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Commodification is the transformation of what is normally a non-commodity into a commodity, to assign economic value to something that traditionally would not be considered in economic terms, for example, an idea, identity, gender. ... Individualism is a term used to describe a moral, political, or social outlook that stresses human independence and the importance of individual self-reliance and liberty. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Objectivism is the philosophy developed by Russian-born American philosopher and author Ayn Rand. ... Universalism refers to any concept or doctrine that applies to all persons and/or all things for all times and in all situations, and may mean different things depending on the field: see Universalism For Universal truth, see Universality (philosophy) For Universal ethic, see Universal ethic, Moral universalism or Moral... Descartes held that non-human animals could be reductively explained as automata — De homines 1622. ... For other uses, see Chaos (disambiguation). ... Mass society is a society in which the concerns of the majority – the lower social classes – play a prominent role, characterized by extension of voting rights, an improved standard of living for the lower classes and mass education. ... In sociology, industrial society refers to a society with a modern societal structure. ... Democratization (British English: Democratisation) is the transition from an authoritarian or a semi-authoritarian political system to a democratic political system. ... A hierarchy (in Greek: , derived from — hieros, sacred, and — arkho, rule) is a system of ranking and organizing things or people, where each element of the system (except for the top element) is a subordinate to a single other element. ... Totalitarianism is a term employed by some political scientists, especially those in the field of comparative politics, to describe modern regimes in which the state regulates nearly every aspect of public and private behavior. ...


Modernity may be considered "marked and defined by an obsession with 'evidence'", visuality, and visibility (Leppert 2004, p.19). This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Visual culture is a field of study that generally includes some combination of cultural studies, art history, and anthropology, by focusing on aspects of culture that rely on visual images. ...


Modernity is often characterized by comparing modern societies to premodern or postmodern ones; To an extent, it is reasonable to doubt the very possibility of a descriptive concept that can adequately capture diverse realities of societies of various historical contexts, especially non-European ones, let alone a three-stage model of social evolution from premodernity to postmodernity. In an historical context, Premodernity is the period in Western civilization that came after Ancient history and before Modernity, which is usually recognized to have begun in the mid-1400s, marked by the invention of movable type and the printing press. ... Postmodernity (also called post-modernity or the postmodern condition) is a term used to describe the social and cultural implications of postmodernism. ...


However, in terms of social structure, many of the defining events and characteristics listed above stem from a transition from relatively isolated local communities to a more integrated large-scale society. Understood this way, modernization might be a general, abstract process which can be found in many different parts of histories, rather than a unique event in Europe.


In general, large-scale integration involves:

  • Increased movement of goods, capital, people, and information among formerly separate areas, and increased influence that reaches beyond a local area.
  • Increased formalization of those mobile elements, development of 'circuits' on which those elements and influences travel, and standardization of many aspects of the society in general that is conducive to the mobility.
  • Increased specialization of different segments of society, such as the division of labor, and interdependency among areas.

Seemingly contradictory characteristics ascribed to modernity are often different aspects of this process. For example, unique local culture is invaded and lost by the increased mobility of cultural elements, such as recipes, folktales, and hit songs, resulting in a cultural homogenization across localities, but the repertoire of available recipes and songs increases within an area because of the increased interlocal movement, resulting in a diversification within each locality. (This is manifest especially in large metropolises where there are many mobile elements). Centralized bureaucracy and hierarchical organization of governments and firms grows in scale and power in an unprecedented manner, leading some to lament the stifling, cold, rationalist or totalitarian nature of modern society. Yet individuals, often as replaceable components, may be able to move in those social subsystems, creating a sense of liberty, dynamic competition and individualism for others. This is especially the case when a modern society is compared with premodern societies, in which the family and social class one is born into shapes one's lifecourse to a greater extent. Not to be confused with capitol. ... Division of labour is the breakdown of labour into specific, circumscribed tasks for maximum efficiency of output in the context of manufacturing. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up Family in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions between individuals or groups in societies or cultures. ...


These social changes are somewhat common to many different levels of social integration, and not limited to what happened to the West European societies in a specific time period. For example, these changes might happen when formerly separate virtual communities merge. Similarly, when two human beings develop a close relationship, communication, convention, and increased division of roles tend to emerge. Another example can be found in ongoing globalization - the increased international flows changing the landscape for many. In other words, while modernity has been characterized in many seemingly contradictory ways, many of those characterizations can be reduced to a relatively simple set of concepts of social change.


At the same time, however, such an understanding of modernity is certainly not satisfactory to many, because it fails to explain the global influence of West European and American societies since the Renaissance. Mere large-scale integration of local communities, seen in the Macedon of Alexander the Great or the Mongolia of the Khans, would not necessarily result in the same magnitude of influence as the West European modernization. What has made Western Europe so special? Ancient Macedons regions and towns Macedon or Macedonia (Greek ) was the name of an ancient kingdom in the northern-most part of ancient Greece, bordered by the kingdom of Epirus to the west and the region of Thrace to the east. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... This article is about the title. ...


There have been two major answers to this question. First, an internal factor is that only in Europe, through the Renaissance humanists and early modern philosophers and scientists, rational thinking came to replace many intellectual activities that had been under heavy influence of convention, superstition, and religion. This line of answer is most frequently associated with Max Weber, a sociologist who is known to have pursued the answer to the above question. For the politician, see Max Weber (politician). ...


Second, an external factor triggering the later modernity is that colonization, starting as early as the Age of Discovery, created exploitative relations between European countries and their colonies. This view has notably been explored by the world systems theory of Immanuel Wallerstein. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Colonialism. ... See also: Age of Sail and Afro-Asiatic age of discovery For the computer wargame, Age of Discovery, see Global Diplomacy. ... Immanuel Maurice Wallerstein (born 28 September 1930, New York City) is a U.S. sociologist by credentials, but a historical social scientist, or world-systems analyst by trade. ...


It is also notable that such commonly-observed features of many modern societies as the nuclear family, slavery, gender roles, and nation states do not necessarily fit well with the idea of rational social organization in which components such as people are treated equally. While many of these features have been dissolving, histories seem to suggest those features may not be mere exceptions to the essential characteristics of modernization, but necessary parts of it. The term nuclear family developed in the western world to distinguish the family group consisting of parents (usually a father and mother) and their children, from what is known as an extended family. ... Slave redirects here. ... A bagpiper in Scottish military clan-uniform. ... The term nation-state, while often used interchangeably with the terms unitary state and independent state, refers properly to the parallel occurence of a state and a nation. ...


The paradox of modernity

Modernization brought a series of seemingly indisputable benefits to people. Lower infant mortality rate, decreased death from starvation, eradication of some of the fatal diseases, more equal treatment of people with different backgrounds and incomes, and so on. To some, this is an indication of the potential of modernity, perhaps yet to be fully realized. In general, rational, scientific approach to problems and the pursuit of economic wealth seems still to many a reasonable way of understanding good social development. This article is about extreme malnutrition. ...


At the same time, some sociologists hold that modernity also has negative characteristics.


Technological development occurred not only in the medical and agricultural fields, but also in the military. The atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki during World War II, and the following nuclear arms race in the post-war era, were considered by some to be negative developments associated with modernity. The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, in 1945 lifted nuclear fallout some 18km (60,000 feet) above the epicenter. ... For other uses, see Hiroshima (disambiguation). ... Nagasaki ) ( ) is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture in Japan. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... U.S. and USSR/Russian nuclear weapons stockpiles, 1945-2006. ...


Some critics of modernity consider Stalin's Great Purges and the Holocaust (or Shoah) to be examples of outcomes naturally arrived at under modernity (mass killings with the purpose of "purifying" a nation as a homogenous mass society), and argue that a truly 'rational' organization of society might involve exclusion, or extermination, of non-standard elements, and thus criticize modernity on the grounds that these outcomes would generally be considered abhorrent. Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... The Great Purge is the name given to campaigns of repression in the Soviet Union during the late 1930s which included a purge of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. ... For other uses, see Holocaust (disambiguation) and Shoah (disambiguation). ...


Some critics argue that modernity is not necessarily sustainable. Pollution is perhaps the least controversial of these, but one may include decreasing biodiversity and climate change as results of development. The development of biotechnology and genetic engineering are creating what some consider to be unknown risks. Air pollution Pollution is the introduction of pollutants (whether chemical substances, or energy such as noise, heat, or light) into the environment to such a point that its effects become harmful to human health, other living organisms, or the environment. ... Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of taxonomic life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 450,000 years For current global climate change, see Global warming. ... The structure of insulin Biotechnology is technology based on biology, especially when used in agriculture, food science, and medicine. ... Kenyans examining insect-resistant transgenic Bt corn. ...


Other critics emphasize what they believe to be psychological and moral hazards of modern life - alienation, feeling of rootlessness, loss of strong bonds and common values, hedonism, etc. This is often accompanied by a re-evaluation of pre-modern communities. This article does not cite any sources. ...


Modernity and the contemporary society

There is an ongoing debate about the relationship between modernity and present societies. The debate has two dimensions. First, there is an empirical question of whether some of the present societies can be understood as a developmental continuation of modernity (see late modernity), a variation of modernity (see hypermodernity), or as a distinctive type (see postmodernity). Second, there is a judgement of whether modernization has been, and is, desirable for a society. Seemingly new phenomena such as globalization, the end of the Cold War, ethnic conflicts, and the proliferation of information technologies are taken by some as reasons to adopt a new vision to navigate social development. However modernity came with a structure of self-determination which is greatly seen in contemporary societies Late modernity (or liquid modernity) is a term for the concept that some present highly developed societies are continuing developments of modernity. ... Hypermodernity is a type, mode, or stage of society that reflects a deepening or intensification of modernity. ... Postmodernity (also called post-modernity or the postmodern condition) is a term used to describe the social and cultural implications of postmodernism. ... The rise of multinational corporations and outsourcing have played a crucial part in globalization. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... An ethnic war is a war between ethnic groups often as a result of ethnic nationalism. ... Information and communication technology spending in 2005 Information technology (IT), as defined by the Information Technology Association of America (ITAA), is the study, design, development, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware. ...


See also

Behavioral modernity is a term used in anthropology and archeology to refer to an important milestone in the evolution of humans. ... Postmodernity (also called post-modernity or the postmodern condition) is a term used to describe the social and cultural implications of postmodernism. ...

Source

  • Leppert, Richard (2005). "The Social Discipline of Listening" in Aural Cultures, edited by Jim Drobnick, 19-35. Toronto: YYZ Books, 2004.

Further reading

  • Michael Thomas Carroll. "Popular Modernity in America: Experience, Technology, Mythohistory", Albany, NY: SUNY Press, 2000.
  • Bruno Latour. "We Have Never Been Modern", Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1993.
  • Berman, Marshall. "All that is solid melts into air. The experience of modernity." London: Verso, 1993.
  • Mark Jarzombek. "The Psychologizing of Modernity: Art, Architecture, History." Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.

Bruno Latour Bruno Latour (born June 1947, Beaune, France) is a French sociologist of science best known for his books We Have Never Been Modern, Laboratory Life, and Science in Action, describing the process of scientific research from the perspective of social construction based on field observations of working scientists. ... Mark Jarzombek is a US-born author and architectural historian, and (since 1995) Director of the History Theory Criticism Section of the Department of Architecture at MIT, Cambridge MA, USA. Jarzombek received his architectural training at the ETH Zurich, where he graduated in 1980. ...

External links

  • The Telegraph (India) - Newsarticle arguing that Asians are more modern than the inventors of modernity

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