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Encyclopedia > Modernism
Hans Hofmann, "The Gate", 1959–1960, collection: Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum.
Hans Hofmann, "The Gate", 1959–1960, collection: Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum.

Modernism describes an array of cultural movements rooted in the changes in Western society in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. The term covers a series of reforming movements in art, architecture, music, literature and the applied arts which emerged during this period. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Liberal Christianity, sometimes called... Illustration depicting Modernism as the descent from Christianity to atheism. ... American Modernism is an artistic and cultural movement in the USA starting at the turn of the 20th Century with its core period between World War I and World War II. Characteristically, Modernist art has a tendency to abstraction, is innovative, aesthetic, futuristic and self-referential. ... Modernity is a term used to describe the condition of being related to modernism. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Hans Hofmann (1880 - 1966) was an abstract expressionist painter. ... The front of the Guggenheim Museum from 5th Avenue This article refers to the Guggenheim Museum in the upper east side of Manhattan (New York). ... A cultural movement is a change in the way a number of different disciplines approach their work. ... For alternative meanings for The West in the United States, see the U.S. West and American West. ... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... Modern architecture is a broad term given to a number of building styles with similar characteristics, primarily the simplification of form and the elimination of ornament, that first arose around 1900. ... Modernism in musicis characterized by a desire for or belief in progressand science, surrealism, anti-romanticism, politicaladvocacy, general intellectualism, and/or a breaking with tradition or common practice. ... Modernist literature is the literary form of Modernism and especially High modernism; it should not be confused with modern literature, which is the history of the modern novel and modern poetry as one. ... € ...


It is a trend of thought that affirms the power of human beings to create, improve, and reshape their environment, with the aid of scientific knowledge, technology or practical experimentation.[1] Modernism encouraged the re-examination of every aspect of existence, from commerce to philosophy, with the goal of finding that which was 'holding back' progress, and replacing it with new, progressive and therefore better, ways of reaching the same end. Social progress is defined as a progress of society, which makes the society better in the general view of its members. ...


Embracing change and the present, modernism encompasses the works of thinkers who rebelled against nineteenth century academic and historicist traditions, believing the "traditional" forms of art, architecture, literature, religious faith, social organization and daily life were becoming outdated; they directly confronted the new economic, social and political conditions of an emerging fully industrialized world. Some divide the 20th Century into movements designated Modernism and Postmodernism, whereas others see them as two aspects of the same movement. For other uses, see Tradition (disambiguation). ... Postmodernism is a term applied to a wide-ranging set of developments in critical theory, philosophy, architecture, art, literature, and culture, which are generally characterized as either emerging from, in reaction to, or superseding, modernism. ...

Contents

History

The first half of the nineteenth century for Europe was marked by a number of wars and revolutions, which reveal the rise of the ideas and doctrines now identified as Romanticism: emphasis on individual subjective experience, the sublime, the supremacy of "Nature" as a subject for art, revolutionary or radical extensions of expression, and individual liberty. By mid-century, however, a synthesis of these ideas with stable governing forms had emerged, partly in reaction to the failed Romantic and democratic Revolutions of 1848. It was exemplified by Otto von Bismarck's Realpolitik and by "practical" philosophical ideas such as positivism. Called by various names—in Great Britain it is designated the "Victorian era"—this stabilizing synthesis was rooted in the idea that reality dominates over impressions that are subjective. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1241x1022, 171 KB) Same image in much smaller size is found at Image:Liberty Leading the People. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1241x1022, 171 KB) Same image in much smaller size is found at Image:Liberty Leading the People. ... Ferdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix (April 26, 1798 – August 13, 1863) was one of the most important of the French Romantic painters. ... Liberty Leading the People (French: ) is a painting by Eugène Delacroix commemorating the July Revolution of 1830, which toppled Charles X. A woman personifying Liberty leads the people forward over the bodies of the fallen, holding the tricolore flag of the French Revolution in one hand and brandishing a... Romantics redirects here. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Romantics redirects here. ... For the band, see Sublime (band), or their third album Sublime (album). ... The European Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations or the Year of Revolution, were a revolutionary wave which erupted in Sicily and then, further triggered by the revolutions of 1848 in France, soon spread to the rest of Europe and as far afield as... Bismarck redirects here. ... Realpolitik (German: real (realistic, practical or actual) and Politik (politics) refers to politics or diplomacy based primarily on practical considerations, rather than ideological notions. ... Positivism is a philosophy that states that the only authentic knowledge is scientific knowledge, and that such knowledge can only come from positive affirmation of theories through strict scientific method. ... The Victorian era of the United Kingdom marked the height of the British Industrial Revolution and the apex of the British Empire. ... This article is in need of attention. ...


Central to this synthesis were common assumptions and institutional frames of reference, including the religious norms found in Christianity, scientific norms found in classical physics, especially electromagnetism, and doctrines that asserted that the depiction of external reality from an objective standpoint was not only possible but desirable. Cultural critics and historians label this set of doctrines Realism, though this term is not universal. In philosophy, the rationalist, materialist and positivist movements established a primacy of reason and system. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... Classical physics is physics based on principles developed before the rise of quantum theory, usually including the special theory of relativity and general theory of relativity. ... For other uses of objectivity, see objectivity (disambiguation). ... Contemporary philosophical realism, also referred to as metaphysical realism, is the belief in a reality that is completely ontologically independent of our conceptual schemes, linguistic practices, beliefs, etc. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... This article is not about continental rationalism. ... This article primarily focuses on the general concepts of matter and existence. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Against the current ran a series of ideas, some of them direct continuations of Romantic schools of thought. Notable were the agrarian and revivalist movements in plastic arts and poetry (e.g. the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood and the philosopher John Ruskin). Rationalism also drew responses from the anti-rationalists in philosophy. In particular, Hegel's dialectic view of civilization and history drew responses from Friedrich Nietzsche and Søren Kierkegaard, who were major influences on Existentialism. All of these separate reactions together began to be seen as offering a challenge to any comfortable ideas of certainty derived by civilization, history, or pure reason. Agrarianism is a social and political philosophy. ... Plastic Arts are those visual arts that involve the use of materials that can be moulded or modulated in some way, often in three dimensions. ... This article is about the art form. ... Persephone, by Dante Gabriel Rossetti. ... Upper: Steel-plate engraving of Ruskin as a young man, made circa 1845, scanned from print made circa 1895. ... Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 - November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher born in Stuttgart, Württemberg, in present-day southwest Germany. ... In classical philosophy, dialectic (Greek: διαλεκτική) is controversy, Viz. ... Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 – August 25, 1900) (IPA: ) was a nineteenth-century German philologist and philosopher. ... Søren Aabye Kierkegaard (IPA: , but usually Anglicized as ;  ) 5 May 1813 – 11 November 1855) was a prolific 19th century Danish philosopher and theologian. ... Existentialism is a philosophical movement that posits that individuals create the meaning and essence of their lives, as opposed to deities or authorities creating it for them. ...


From the 1870s onward, the ideas that history and civilization were inherently progressive and that progress was always good came under increasing attack. Writers Wagner and Ibsen had been reviled for their own critiques of contemporary civilization and for their warnings that accelerating "progress" would lead to the creation of individuals detached from social norms and isolated from their fellow men. Arguments arose that the values of the artist and those of society were not merely different, but that Society was antithetical to Progress, and could not move forward in its present form. Philosophers called into question the previous optimism. The work of Schopenhauer was labelled "pessimistic" for its idea of the "negation of the will", an idea that would be both rejected and incorporated by later thinkers such as Nietzsche. Richard Wagner Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 1813 – 13 February 1883) was a German composer, conductor, music theorist, and essayist, primarily known for his operas (or music dramas as they were later called). ... Henrik Johan Ibsen (March 20, 1828–May 23, 1906) was an extremely influential Norwegian playwright who was largely responsible for the rise of the modern realistic drama. ... Arthur Schopenhauer Arthur Schopenhauer (February 22, 1788 – September 21, 1860) was a German philosopher born in Gdańsk (Danzig), Poland. ... Half empty or half full? Pessimists to respond with half empty Pessimism, from the Latin pessimus (worst), is the decision to evaluate something as a negative when it is uncommon to do so. ... Friedrich Nietzsche, 1882 Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 - August 25, 1900) was a highly influential German philosopher. ...


Two of the most disruptive thinkers of the period were, in biology, Charles Darwin and, in political science, Karl Marx. Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection undermined the religious certainty of the general public, and the sense of human uniqueness of the intelligentsia. The notion that human beings were driven by the same impulses as "lower animals" proved to be difficult to reconcile with the idea of an ennobling spirituality. Karl Marx seemed to present a political version of the same proposition: that problems with the economic order were not transient, the result of specific wrong doers or temporary conditions, but were fundamentally contradictions within the "capitalist" system. Both thinkers would spawn defenders and schools of thought that would become decisive in establishing modernism. For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 – March 14, 1883) was a 19th century philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... Spirituality, in a narrow sense, concerns itself with matters of the spirit. ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ...


Separately, in the arts and letters, two ideas originating in France would have particular impact. The first was Impressionism, a school of painting that initially focused on work done, not in studios, but outdoors (en plein air). Impressionist paintings demonstrated that human beings do not see objects, but instead see light itself. The school gathered adherents despite internal divisions among its leading practitioners, and became increasingly influential. Initially rejected from the most important commercial show of the time, the government-sponsored Paris Salon, the Impressionists organized yearly group exhibitions in commercial venues during the 1870s and 1880s, timing them to coincide with the official Salon. A significant event of 1863 was the Salon des Refusés, created by Emperor Napoleon III to display all of the paintings rejected by the Paris Salon. While most were in standard styles, but by inferior artists, the work of Manet attracted tremendous attention, and opened commercial doors to the movement. This article is about the art movement. ... For other uses , see Painting (disambiguation). ... Claude Monet Painting by the Edge of a Wood. ... Honoré Daumier satirized the bourgeoises scandalized by the Salons Venuses, 1864 The Paris Salon (French: Salon de Paris) is the official art exhibition of the Académie des beaux-arts in Paris, France. ... See also Impressionist (entertainment): A girl with a watering can by Renoir, 1876 Impressionism was a 19th century art movement, which began as a private association of Paris-based artists who exhibited publicly in 1874. ... The Salon des Refusés (Salon of the Rejected) was an art exhibition in Paris. ... This article is about the President of the French Republic and Emperor of the French. ... Édouard Manet - 19th century French painter Mobile_ad-hoc_network - A self configuring wireless network This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...

Odilon Redon, Guardian Spirit of the Waters, 1878, charcoal on paper, The Art Institute of Chicago.

The second school was Symbolism, marked by a belief that language is expressly symbolic in its nature and a portrayal of patriotism, and that poetry and writing should follow connections that the sheer sound and texture of the words create. The poet Stéphane Mallarmé would be of particular importance to what would occur afterwards. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (831x1028, 213 KB)Photograph of Guardian Spirit of the Waters, 1878, by Odilon Redon in the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (831x1028, 213 KB)Photograph of Guardian Spirit of the Waters, 1878, by Odilon Redon in the public domain. ... Self portrait, 1880, Musée dOrsay. ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... On the western edge of Grant Park in Chicago, Illinois, is the Art Institute of Chicago, one of the premier art museums and schools in the United States, known especially for the extensive collection of impressionist and American art in its museum. ... Portrait of Stéphane Mallarmé by Édouard Manet. ...


At the same time social, political, and economic forces were at work that would become the basis to argue for a radically different kind of art and thinking. Chief among these was steam-powered industrialization, which produced buildings that combined art and engineering in new industrial materials such as cast iron to produce railroad bridges and glass-and-iron train sheds—or the Eiffel Tower, which broke all previous limitations on how tall man-made objects could be—and at the same time offered a radically different environment in urban life. Industrialisation (or industrialization) or an industrial revolution (in general, with lowercase letters) is a process of social and economic change whereby a human society is transformed from a pre-industrial to an industrial state . ... Cast iron usually refers to grey cast iron, but can mean any of a group of iron-based alloys containing more than 2% carbon (alloys with less carbon are carbon steel by definition). ... The Eiffel Tower (French: , ) is an iron tower built on the Champ de Mars beside the Seine River in Paris. ...


The miseries of industrial urbanism, and the possibilities created by scientific examination of subjects brought changes that would shake a European civilization which had, until then, regarded itself as having a continuous and progressive line of development from the Renaissance. With the telegraph's harnessing of a new power, offering instant communication at a distance, the experience of time itself was altered. This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... Telegraphy (from the Greek words tele = far away and grapho = write) is the long distance transmission of written messages without physical transport of letters, originally over wire. ...


The breadth of the changes can be sensed in how many modern disciplines are described, in their pre-twentieth century form, as being "classical", including physics, economics, and arts such as ballet or architecture. A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... For other uses, see Ballet (disambiguation). ... This article is about building architecture. ...


The beginning of modernism, 1890–1910

Piet Mondrian, Composition No. 10, 1939-42, oil on canvas, 80 x 73 cm, private collection.
Piet Mondrian, Composition No. 10, 1939-42, oil on canvas, 80 x 73 cm, private collection.

William Everdell has argued that Modernism began with Richard Dedekind's division of the real number line in 1872 and Boltzmann's statistical thermodynamics in 1874; but Clement Greenberg wrote, "What can be safely called Modernism emerged in the middle of the last century—and rather locally, in France, with Baudelaire in literature and Manet in painting, and perhaps with Flaubert, too, in prose fiction. (It was a while later, and not so locally, that Modernism appeared in music and architecture)."[2] The "avant-garde" was what Modernism was called at first, and the term remained to describe movements which identify themselves as attempting to overthrow some aspect of tradition or the status quo. [3] Download high resolution version (882x968, 82 KB) 1939-42. ... Download high resolution version (882x968, 82 KB) 1939-42. ... Piet Mondrian, 1924 Pieter Cornelis (Piet) Mondriaan, after 1912 Mondrian, (pronounced: Dutch IPA: , later Pete Mon-dree-on, IPA: ) (b. ... William Romeyn Everdell is an American teacher and author. ... Richard Dedekind Julius Wilhelm Richard Dedekind (October 6, 1831 – February 12, 1916) was a German mathematician who did important work in abstract algebra and the foundations of the real numbers. ... In mathematics, a Dedekind cut, named after Richard Dedekind, in a totally ordered set S is a partition of it, (A, B), such that A is closed downwards (meaning that for all a in A, x ≤ a implies that x is in A as well) and B is closed upwards... In mathematics, the real numbers may be described informally as numbers that can be given by an infinite decimal representation, such as 2. ... Ludwig Boltzmann Ludwig Boltzmann (February 20, 1844 – September 5, Austrian physicist famous for the invention of statistical mechanics. ... Statistical mechanics is the application of statistics, which includes mathematical tools for dealing with large populations, to the field of mechanics, which is concerned with the motion of particles or objects when subjected to a force. ... Clement Greenberg (January 16, 1909 - May 7, 1994) was an influential American art critic closely associated with the abstract art movement in the United States. ... “Baudelaire” redirects here. ... “Manet” redirects here. ... Gustave Flaubert Gustave Flaubert (December 12, 1821 – May 8, 1880) was a French writer who is counted among the greatest Western novelists. ... A work similar to Marcel Duchamps Fountain Avant garde (written avant-garde) is a French phrase, one of many French phrases used by English speakers. ...


In the 1890s a strand of thinking began to assert that it was necessary to push aside previous norms entirely, instead of merely revising past knowledge in light of current techniques. The growing movement in art paralleled such developments as the Theory of Relativity in physics; the increasing integration of the internal combustion engine and industrialization; and the increased role of the social sciences in public policy. It was argued that, if the nature of reality itself was in question, and if restrictions which had been in place around human activity were falling, then art, too, would have to radically change. Thus, in the first fifteen years of the twentieth century a series of writers, thinkers, and artists made the break with traditional means of organizing literature, painting, and music. Two-dimensional analogy of space-time curvature described in General Relativity. ... An internal combustion engine is an engine that is powered by the expansion of hot combustion products of fuel directly acting within an engine. ... Industrialisation (or industrialization) or an industrial revolution (in general, with lowercase letters) is a process of social and economic change whereby a human society is transformed from a pre-industrial to an industrial state . ... The social sciences are a group of academic disciplines that study human aspects of the world. ...


Sigmund Freud offered a view of subjective states involving an unconscious mind full of primal impulses and counterbalancing self-imposed restrictions, a view that Carl Jung would combine with a belief in natural essence to stipulate a collective unconscious that was full of basic typologies that the conscious mind fought or embraced. Jung's view suggested that people's impulses towards breaking social norms were not the product of childishness or ignorance, but were instead essential to the nature of the human animal, the ideas of Darwin having already introduced the concept of "man, the animal" to the public mind. Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Jung redirects here. ... Collective unconscious is a term of analytical psychology originally coined by Carl Jung. ...


Friedrich Nietzsche championed a philosophy in which forces, specifically the 'Will to power', were more important than facts or things. Similarly, the writings of Henri Bergson championed the vital 'life force' over static conceptions of reality. What united all these writers was a romantic distrust of the Victorian positivism and certainty. Instead they championed, or, in the case of Freud, attempted to explain, irrational thought processes through the lens of rationality and holism. This was connected with the century-long trend to thinking in terms of holistic ideas, which would include an increased interest in the occult, and "the vital force". Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 – August 25, 1900) (IPA: ) was a nineteenth-century German philologist and philosopher. ... Friedrich Nietzsche, 1882 Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 - August 25, 1900) was a highly influential German philosopher. ... Henri-Louis Bergson (October 18, 1859–January 4, 1941) was a major French philosopher, influential in the first half of the 20th century. ... Romantics redirects here. ...


Out of this collision of ideals derived from Romanticism, and an attempt to find a way for knowledge to explain that which was as yet unknown, came the first wave of works, which, while their authors considered them extensions of existing trends in art, broke the implicit contract that artists were the interpreters and representatives of bourgeois culture and ideas. These "modernist" landmarks include Arnold Schoenberg's atonal ending to his Second String Quartet in 1908, the expressionist paintings of Wassily Kandinsky starting in 1903 and culminating with his first abstract painting and the founding of the Blue Rider group in Munich in 1911, and the rise of cubism from the work of Picasso and Georges Braque in 1908. Arnold Schoenberg, Los Angeles, 1948 Arnold Schoenberg (pronounced [ˈaːrnɔlt ˈʃøːnbɛrk]) (13 September 1874 – 13 July 1951) was an Austrian and later American composer, associated with the expressionist movement in German poetry and art, and leader of the Second Viennese School. ... Atonality in a general sense describes music that departs from the system of tonal hierarchies that are said to characterized the sound of classical European music from the sixteenth through the nineteenth centuries. ... The Austrian composer Arnold Schönberg published four string quartets, distributed over his lifetime. ... Year 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Scream by Edvard Munch (1893) which inspired 20th century Expressionists Portrait of Eduard Kosmack by Egon Schiele Rehe im Walde by Franz Marc Elbe Bridge I by Rolf Nesch On White II by Wassily Kandinsky, 1923. ... Wassily Kandinsky (Russian: Василий Кандинский, first name pronounced as [vassi:li]) (December 16 [O.S. December 4] 1866 – December 13, 1944) was a Russian painter, printmaker and art theorist. ... Year 1903 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... Cover of Der Blaue Reiter almanac. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Pablo Picasso, Le guitariste, 1910 Juan Gris, Portrait of Picasso, 1912, oil on canvas Georges BraqueWoman with a guitar, 1913 Juan Gris, Still Life with Fruit Dish and Mandolin, 1919, oil on canvas Cubist villa in Prague, Czech Republic Cubist House of the Black Madonna, Prague, Czech Republic, 1912 Cubism... A young Pablo Picasso Pablo Picasso, formally Pablo Ruiz Picasso, (October 25, 1881 - April 8, 1973) was one of the recognized masters of 20th century art. ... Violin and Candlestick, Paris, spring 1910, San Francisco Museum of Modern Art Georges Braque (May 13, 1882 – August 31, 1963) was a major 20th century French painter and sculptor who, along with Pablo Picasso, developed the art movement known as cubism. ...


Powerfully influential in this wave of modernity were the theories of Sigmund Freud and Ernst Mach, who argued, beginning in the 1880s, that the mind had a basic and fundamental structure, and that subjective experience was based on the interplay of the parts of the mind. All subjective reality was based, according to Freud's ideas, on the play of basic drives and instincts, through which the outside world was perceived. Ernst Mach developed a well-known philosophy of science, often called "positivism," according to which the relations of objects in nature were not guaranteed but only known through a sort of mental shorthand. This represented a break with the past, in that previously it was believed that external and absolute reality could impress itself, as it was, on an individual, as, for example, in John Locke's empiricism, with the mind beginning as a tabula rasa. For other persons named John Locke, see John Locke (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tabula rasa (disambiguation). ...


This wave of the modern movement broke with the past in the first decade of the twentieth century, and tried to redefine various artforms in a radical manner. Leading lights within the literary wing of this movement (or, rather, these movements) include: For other uses, see Literature (disambiguation). ...

Composers such as Schoenberg, Stravinsky, and George Antheil represent modernism in music. Artists such as Gustav Klimt, Picasso, Matisse, Mondrian, and the movements Les Fauves, Cubism and the Surrealists represent various strains of Modernism in the visual arts, while architects and designers such as Le Corbusier, Walter Gropius, and Mies van der Rohe brought modernist ideas into everyday urban life. Several figures outside of artistic modernism were influenced by artistic ideas; for example, John Maynard Keynes was friends with Woolf and other writers of the Bloomsbury group. Rafael Alberti Rafael Alberti (El Puerto de Santa María,16 December 1902 - El Puerto de Santa María,28 October 1999) was a Spanish poet, a member of the Generation of 27. ... Gabriele dAnnunzio (12 March 1863, Pescara – 1 March 1938, Gardone Riviera, province of Brescia) was an Italian poet, writer, novelist, dramatist and daredevil, who went on to have a controversial role in politics as a precursor of the fascist movement. ... Guillaume Apollinaire Guillaume Apollinaire (August 26, 1880 – November 9, 1918) was a poet, writer, and art critic. ... Louis Aragon (October 3, 1897 - December 24, 1982), French historian, poet and novelist. ... Djuna Barnes, ca. ... Basil Cheesman Bunting (March 3, 1900 – April 17, 1985) was a British modernist poet. ... Mário de Sá-Carneiro (1890-1916) was a Portuguese novelist and poet. ... Constantine P. Cavafy, also known as Konstantin or Konstantinos Petrou Kavafis, or Kavaphes (Greek Κωνσταντίνος Π. Καβάφης) (April 29, 1863 – April 29, 1933) was a major Alexandrine poet who worked as a journalist and civil servant. ... Jean Maurice Eugène Clément Cocteau (5 July 1889 – 11 October 1963) was a French poet, novelist, dramatist, designer, boxing manager and filmmaker. ... // Joseph Conrad (born Józef Teodor Konrad Korzeniowski; 3 December 1857 – 3 August 1924) was a Polish-born English novelist. ... Thomas Stearns Eliot, OM (September 26, 1888 – January 4, 1965), was a poet, dramatist and literary critic. ... Paul Éluard was the nom de plume of Eugène Grindel (December 14, 1895 - November 18, 1952), a French poet. ... William Cuthbert Faulkner (born William Falkner), (September 25, 1897–July 6, 1962) was an American author. ... H.D. in the mid 1910s Hilda Doolitle(September 10, 1886, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, United States – September 27, 1961, Zürich, Switzerland), prominently known only by her initials H.D., was an American poet, novelist and memoirist. ... Hugo von Hofmannsthal Hugo von Hofmannsthal (February 1, 1874 – July 15, 1929), was an Austrian novelist, librettist, poet, dramatist, narrator, and essayist. ... In 1915, Max Jacob and Pablo Picasso Max Jacob (July 12, 1876 – March 5, 1944) was a French poet, painter, writer, and critic. ... This article is about the writer and poet. ... Kafka redirects here. ... David Herbert Richards Lawrence (11 September 1885 – 2 March 1930) was an English writer of the 20th century, whose prolific and diverse output included novels, short stories, poems, plays, essays, travel books, paintings, translations, literary criticism, and personal letters. ... Wyndham Lewis in 1916 Percy Wyndham Lewis (November 18, 1882 – March 7, 1957) was a Canadian-born British painter and author. ... Federico García Lorca Federico García Lorca (June 5, 1898 – August 19, 1936) was a Spanish poet and dramatist, also remembered as a painter, pianist, and composer. ... Marianne Moore photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1948 Marianne Moore (December 11, 1887 - February 5, 1972) was a Modernist American poet and writer. ... Robert Musil (November 6, 1880, Klagenfurt, Austria – April 15, 1942, Geneva, Switzerland) was an Austrian writer. ... Almada Negreiros São Tomé and Príncipe, April 7, 1893-Lisbon, July 15, 1970 was a Portuguese painter,poet and writer. ... Fernando Pessoa Fernando António Nogueira de Seabra Pessoa (pron. ... Ezra Pound in 1913. ... Proust redirects here. ... Pierre Reverdy (13 September 1889 - 17 June 1960) was a French poet associated with surrealism and cubism. ... Gertrude Stein (February 3, 1874 – July 27, 1946) was an American writer who became a catalyst in the development of modern art and literature. ... Wallace Stevens Wallace Stevens (October 2, 1879 – August 2, 1955) was a major American Modernist poet. ... Tristan Tzara () (April 16, 1896 – December 25, 1963) was a Romanian poet and essayist. ... For other people of the same name, see Valery. ... Robert Walser (April 15, 1878 near Biel/Bienne, Switzerland – December 25, 1956 near Herisau, Switzerland), was a German-speaking Swiss writer. ... William Carlos Williams Dr. William Carlos Williams (sometimes known as WCW) (September 17, 1883 – March 4, 1963), was an American poet closely associated with modernism and Imagism. ... For the American writer, see Virginia Euwer Wolff. ... Yeats redirects here. ... Arnold Schoenberg, Los Angeles, 1948 Arnold Schoenberg (pronounced [ˈaːrnÉ”lt ˈʃøːnbÉ›rk]) (13 September 1874 – 13 July 1951) was an Austrian and later American composer, associated with the expressionist movement in German poetry and art, and leader of the Second Viennese School. ... Igor Stravinsky. ... George Antheil (June 8, 1900 – February 12, 1959) was an American composer and pianist of German and Lutheran descent, born in Trenton, New Jersey. ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... Gustav Klimt (July 14, 1862 – February 6, 1918) was an Austrian Symbolist painter and one of the most prominent members of the Vienna Art Nouveau (Vienna Secession) movement. ... A young Pablo Picasso Pablo Picasso, formally Pablo Ruiz Picasso, (October 25, 1881 - April 8, 1973) was one of the recognized masters of 20th century art. ... Self-Portrait in a Striped T-shirt (1906). ... Piet Mondrian, 1924 Pieter Cornelis (Piet) Mondriaan, after 1912 Mondrian, (pronounced: Dutch IPA: , later Pete Mon-dree-on, IPA: ) (b. ... The Dessert: Harmony in Red (1908) by Henri Matisse Les Fauves (French for wild beasts), a short-lived movement of early Modernist art, emphasized paint itself and the use of deep color over the representational values retained by Impressionism, even with its focus on light and the moment. ... Pablo Picasso, Le guitariste, 1910 Juan Gris, Portrait of Picasso, 1912, oil on canvas Georges BraqueWoman with a guitar, 1913 Juan Gris, Still Life with Fruit Dish and Mandolin, 1919, oil on canvas Cubist villa in Prague, Czech Republic Cubist House of the Black Madonna, Prague, Czech Republic, 1912 Cubism... Max Ernst. ... The Mona Lisa is one of the most recognizable artistic paintings in the Western world. ... This article is about building architecture. ... All Saints Chapel in the Cathedral Basilica of St. ... Charles-Edouard Jeanneret, who chose to be known as Le Corbusier (October 6, 1887 – August 27, 1965), was a Swiss-born architect and writer, who is famous for his contributions to what now is called Modern Architecture. ... Walter Adolph Georg Gropius (May 18, 1883 – July 5, 1969) was a German architect and founder of Bauhaus. ... Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (born Maria Ludwig Michael Mies) (March 27, 1886 - August 17, 1969) was an architect and designer. ... For other uses, see City (disambiguation). ... Keynes redirects here. ... The Bloomsbury Group or Bloomsbury Set or just Bloomsbury, as its adherents would generally refer to it, was an English group of artists and scholars that existed from around 1905 until around World War II. // History The group began as an informal socialwe have been great to society assembly of...


The explosion of modernism 1910–1930

Pablo Picasso, Le guitariste, 1910, oil on canvas, 100 x 73 cm, Musée National d'Art Moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris.
Pablo Picasso, Le guitariste, 1910, oil on canvas, 100 x 73 cm, Musée National d'Art Moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris.

On the eve of the First World War a growing tension and unease with the social order, seen in the Russian Revolution of 1905 and the agitation of "radical" parties, also manifested itself in artistic works in every medium which radically simplified or rejected previous practice. In 1913, the year of Einstein's first paper on the General Theory of Relativity, Niels Bohr's quantized atom, Edmund Husserl's Ideas, Ezra Pound's founding of Imagism, and the New York Armory Show, famed Russian composer Igor Stravinsky, working for Sergei Diaghilev and the Ballets Russes, composed Rite of Spring for a ballet, choreographed by Vaslav Nijinsky that depicted human sacrifice, and young painters such as Pablo Picasso and Henri Matisse were causing a shock with their rejection of traditional perspective as the means of structuring paintings—a step that none of the Impressionists, not even Cézanne, had taken. Download high resolution version (786x1097, 182 KB)Le guitariste by Pablo Picasso (1910) The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States. ... Download high resolution version (786x1097, 182 KB)Le guitariste by Pablo Picasso (1910) The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States. ... Picasso redirects here. ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Musée National dArt Moderne is an art museum in Paris, France, located within the Centre Georges Pompidou. ... Centre Georges Pompidou (constructed 1971–1977 and known as the Pompidou Centre in English) is a complex in the Beaubourg area of the IVe arrondissement of Paris, near Les Halles and the Marais. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Einstein redirects here. ... Two-dimensional analogy of space-time curvature described in General Relativity. ... Niels Henrik David Bohr (October 7, 1885 – November 18, 1962) was a Danish physicist who made fundamental contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum mechanics, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922. ... Edmund Gustav Albrecht Husserl (IPA: ; April 8, 1859 – April 26, 1938) was a philosopher, known as the father of phenomenology. ... Ezra Pound in 1913. ... Ezra Pound was one of the prime movers of Imagism. ... Armory Show poster. ... A composer is a person who writes music. ... Igor Stravinsky. ... Portrait of Sergei Diaghilev by Valentin Serov (1904) Sergei Pavlovich Diaghilev (Russian: / Sergei Pavlovich Dyagilev), also referred to as Serge, (March 31, 1872 – August 19, 1929) was a Russian art critic, patron, ballet impresario and founder of the Ballets Russes from which many famous dancers and choreographers would later arise. ... Léon Bakst: Firebird, Ballerina, 1910 There was also the Ballet Russe de Monte Carlo from 1932 to 1963 The Ballets Russes was a ballet company established in 1909 by the Russian impresario Serge Diaghilev and resident first in the Théâtre Mogador and Théâtre du Châtelet, Paris... The Rite of Spring is a ballet with music by the Russian composer Igor Stravinsky. ... Vaslav Nijinsky as Vayou in Nikolai Legats revival of Marius Petipas The Talisman, St. ... Human sacrifice is the act of killing a human being for the purposes of making an offering to a deity or other, normally supernatural, power. ... Picasso redirects here. ... Henri Matisse (December 31, 1869 – November 3, 1954) was a French artist, noted for his use of color and his fluid, brilliant and original draughtsmanship. ... See also Impressionist (entertainment): A girl with a watering can by Renoir, 1876 Impressionism was a 19th century art movement, which began as a private association of Paris-based artists who exhibited publicly in 1874. ... Vase of Flowers (1876) Oil on canvas Paul Cézanne (January 19, 1839 – October 22, 1906) was a French painter who represents the bridge from impressionism to cubism. ...


These developments began to give a new meaning to what was termed 'Modernism': It embraced disruption, rejecting or moving beyond simple Realism in literature and art, and rejecting or dramatically altering tonality in music. This set modernists apart from 19th century artists, who had tended to believe in 'progress'. Writers like Dickens and Tolstoy, painters like Turner, and musicians like Brahms were not 'radicals' or 'Bohemians', but were instead valued members of society who produced art that added to society, even if it were, at times, critiquing less desirable aspects of it. Modernism, while it was still "progressive" increasingly saw traditional forms and traditional social arrangements as hindering progress, and therefore the artist was recast as a revolutionary, overthrowing rather than enlightening. For other uses, see Realism (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Literature (disambiguation). ... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... Dickens redirects here. ... Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy(Lyof, Lyoff) (September 9 [O.S. August 28] 1828 – November 20 [O.S. November 7] 1910) (Russian: , IPA:  ), commonly referred to in English as Leo Tolstoy, was a Russian writer – novelist, essayist, dramatist and philosopher – as well as pacifist Christian anarchist and educational reformer. ... Joseph Mallord William Turner (23 April 1775[1] – 19 December 1851) was an English Romantic landscape painter, watercolourist and printmaker, whose style can be said to have laid the foundation for Impressionism. ... Johannes Brahms Johannes Brahms (May 7, 1833 – April 3, 1897) was a German composer of the Romantic period. ...


Futurism exemplifies this trend. In 1909, F.T. Marinetti's first manifesto was published in the Parisian newspaper Le Figaro; soon afterward a group of painters (Giacomo Balla, Umberto Boccioni, Carlo Carrà, Luigi Russolo, and Gino Severini) co-signed the Futurist Manifesto. Modeled on the famous "Communist Manifesto" of the previous century, such manifestoes put forward ideas that were meant to provoke and to gather followers. Strongly influenced by Bergson and Nietzsche, Futurism was part of the general trend of Modernist rationalization of disruption. Futurism was a 20th century art movement. ... Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Le Figaro (English: ) is one of the leading French morning daily newspapers. ... Giacomo Balla (July 24, 1871 - March 1, 1958) was an Italian painter. ... Unique Forms of Continuity in Space (Museum of Modern Art, New York) Umberto Boccioni (October 19, 1882–August 16, 1916) was an Italian painter and sculptor and a member of the Futurist movement. ... Carlo Carrà Carlo Carrà (11 February 1881-13 April 1966) was an Italian painter, a leading figure of the futurist movement that flourished in Italy during the beginning of the 20th century. ... Luigi Russolo ca. ... Gino Severini (April 7, 1883 – February 26, 1966), was an Italian painter and a leading member of the Futurist movement. ... The Futurist Manifesto was written in 1909 by Filippo Tommaso Marinetti and issued to provide a concise collection of Futurists thoughts, beliefs and intentions, in a declaratory form. ... Malayalam editon of the Manifesto The Communist Manifesto, also known as The Manifesto of the Communist Party, first published on February 21, 1848 by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, is one of the worlds most historically influential political tracts. ...


Modernist philosophy and art were still viewed as being part, and only a part, of the larger social movement. Artists such as Klimt and Cézanne, and composers such as Mahler and Richard Strauss were "the terrible moderns"—those farther to the avant-garde were more heard of than heard. Polemics in favour of geometric or purely abstract painting were largely confined to 'little magazines' (like The New Age in the UK) with tiny circulations. Modernist primitivism and pessimism were controversial, but were not seen as representative of the Edwardian mainstream, which was more inclined towards a Victorian faith in progress and liberal optimism. Gustav Klimt (July 14, 1862 – February 6, 1918) was an Austrian Symbolist painter and one of the most prominent members of the Vienna Art Nouveau (Vienna Secession) movement. ... Cezanne redirects here. ... “Mahler” redirects here. ... This article is about the German composer of tone-poems and operas. ... The New Age was a British literary magazine, noted for its wide influence under the editorship from 1907 to 1922 of A. R. Orage. ...


However, the Great War and its subsequent events were the cataclysmic upheavals that late 19th century artists such as Brahms had worried about, and avant-gardists had embraced. First, the failure of the previous status quo seemed self-evident to a generation that had seen millions die fighting over scraps of earth—prior to the war, it had been argued that no one would fight such a war, since the cost was too high. Second, the birth of a machine age changed the conditions of life—machine warfare became a touchstone of the ultimate reality. Finally, the immensely traumatic nature of the experience dashed basic assumptions: Realism seemed to be bankrupt when faced with the fundamentally fantastic nature of trench warfare, as exemplified by books such as Erich Maria Remarque's All Quiet on the Western Front. Moreover, the view that mankind was making slow and steady moral progress came to seem ridiculous in the face of the senseless slaughter of the Great War. The First World War, at once, fused the harshly mechanical geometric rationality of technology with the nightmarish irrationality of myth. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Johannes Brahms Johannes Brahms (May 7, 1833 – April 3, 1897) was a German composer of the Romantic period. ... Erich Maria Remarque (June 22, 1898 – September 25, 1970) was the pseudonym of Erich Paul Remark, a German author. ... For the films, see All Quiet on the Western Front (1930 film) and All Quiet on the Western Front (1979 film). ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ...


Thus in the 1920s, modernism, which had been such a minority taste before the war, came to define the age. Modernism was seen in Europe in such critical movements as Dada, and then in constructive movements such as Surrealism, as well as in smaller movements such as the Bloomsbury Group. Each of these "modernisms", as some observers labelled them at the time, stressed new methods to produce new results. Again, Impressionism was a precursor: breaking with the idea of national schools, artists and writers adopted ideas of international movements. Surrealism, Cubism, Bauhaus, and Leninism are all examples of movements that rapidly found adopters far beyond their original geographic base. The 1920s they were sexy referred to as the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties, usually applied to America. ... DaDa is a concept album by Alice Cooper, released in 1983. ... Max Ernst. ... The Bloomsbury Group or Bloomsbury Set or just Bloomsbury, as its adherents would generally refer to it, was an English group of artists and scholars that existed from around 1905 until around World War II. // History The group began as an informal socialwe have been great to society assembly of... Pablo Picasso, Le guitariste, 1910 Juan Gris, Portrait of Picasso, 1912, oil on canvas Georges BraqueWoman with a guitar, 1913 Juan Gris, Still Life with Fruit Dish and Mandolin, 1919, oil on canvas Cubist villa in Prague, Czech Republic Cubist House of the Black Madonna, Prague, Czech Republic, 1912 Cubism... For information about British gothic rock band, see Bauhaus (band). ... Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism refers to various related political and economic theories elaborated by Bolshevik revolutionary leader Vladimir Lenin, and by other theorists who claim to be carrying on Lenins work. ...

Illustration of the Spirit of St. Louis
Illustration of the Spirit of St. Louis

Exhibitions, theatre, cinema, books and buildings all served to cement in the public view the perception that the world was changing. Hostile reaction often followed, as paintings were spat upon, riots organized at the opening of works, and political figures denounced modernism as unwholesome and immoral. At the same time, the 1920s were known as the "Jazz Age", and the public showed considerable enthusiasm for cars, air travel, the telephone, and other technological advances. Illustration of Spirit of St. ... Illustration of Spirit of St. ... For other uses, see The Spirit of St. ... The Jazz Age , 1929 movie poster: A Scathing Indictment of the Bewidered Children of Pleasure. ... Car redirects here. ... Aviation encompasses all the activities relating to airborne devices created by human ingenuity, generally known as aircraft. ... For other uses, see Telephone (disambiguation). ...


By 1930, modernism had won a place in the establishment, including the political and artistic establishment, although by this time modernism itself had changed. There was a general reaction in the 1920s against the pre-1918 modernism, which emphasized its continuity with a past while rebelling against it, and against the aspects of that period which seemed excessively mannered, irrational, and emotionalistic. The post-World War period, at first, veered either to systematization or nihilism and had, as perhaps its most paradigmatic movement, Dada. Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Paradigm (disambiguation). ... DaDa is a concept album by Alice Cooper, released in 1983. ...


While some writers attacked the madness of the new modernism, others described it as soulless and mechanistic. Among modernists there were disputes about the importance of the public, the relationship of art to audience, and the role of art in society. Modernism comprised a series of sometimes contradictory responses to the situation as it was understood, and the attempt to wrestle universal principles from it. In the end science and scientific rationality, often taking models from the 18th Century Enlightenment, came to be seen as the source of logic and stability, while the basic primitive sexual and unconscious drives, along with the seemingly counter-intuitive workings of the new machine age, were taken as the basic emotional substance. From these two poles, no matter how seemingly incompatible, modernists began to fashion a complete weltanschauung that could encompass every aspect of life. The Age of Enlightenment (French: ; Italian: ; German: ; Spanish: ; Swedish: ) was an eighteenth-century movement in Western philosophy. ... A world view, also spelled as worldview is a term calqued from the German word Weltanschauung (look onto the world). The German word is also in wide use in English, as well as the translated form world outlook. ...


Modernism's second generation (1930–1945)

By 1930, Modernism had entered popular culture. With the increasing urbanization of populations, it was beginning to be looked to as the source for ideas to deal with the challenges of the day. As modernism gained traction in academia, it was developing a self-conscious theory of its own importance. Popular culture, which was not derived from high culture but instead from its own realities (particularly mass production) fueled much modernist innovation. By 1930 The New Yorker magazine began publishing new and modern ideas by young writers and humorists like Dorothy Parker, Robert Benchley, E.B. White, S.J. Perelman, and James Thurber, amongst others. Modern ideas in art appeared in commercials and logos, the famous London Underground logo, designed by Edward Johnston in 1919, being an early example of the need for clear, easily recognizable and memorable visual symbols. Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Academia is a collective term for the scientific and cultural community engaged in higher education and research, taken as a whole. ... Popular culture (or pop culture) is the widespread cultural elements in any given society that are perpetuated through that societys vernacular language or lingua franca. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Mass production is the production of large amounts of standardised products on production lines. ... For other uses, see New Yorker. ... Dorothy Parker (August 22, 1893 – June 7, 1967) was an American writer and poet, best known for her caustic wit, wisecracks, and sharp eye for 20th century urban foibles. ... Robert Charles Benchley (September 15, 1889 – November 21, 1945) was an American humorist best known for his work as a newspaper columnist and film actor. ... Elwyn Brooks White (July 11, 1899–October 1, 1985) was an American essayist, author, and noted prose stylist. ... Sidney Joseph Perelman, almost always known as S. J. Perelman (February 1, 1904 – October 17, 1979), was a United States humorist, author, and screenwriter. ... James Grover Thurber (December 8, 1894–November 2, 1961) was a U.S. humorist and cartoonist. ... From the earliest days of the medium, television has been used as a vehicle for advertising in some countries. ... The London Underground is a rapid transit system that serves a large part of Greater London and some neighbouring areas of Essex, Hertfordshire and Buckinghamshire. ... For other uses, see Edward Johnston (disambiguation). ...


Another strong influence at this time was Marxism. After the generally primitivistic/irrationalist aspect of pre-World War One Modernism, which for many modernists precluded any attachment to merely political solutions, and the neoclassicism of the 1920s, as represented most famously by T. S. Eliot and Igor Stravinsky—which rejected popular solutions to modern problems—the rise of Fascism, the Great Depression, and the march to war helped to radicalise a generation. The Russian Revolution was the catalyst to fuse political radicalism and utopianism, with more expressly political stances. Bertolt Brecht, W. H. Auden, Andre Breton, Louis Aragon and the philosophers Gramsci and Walter Benjamin are perhaps the most famous exemplars of this Modernist Marxism. This move to the radical left, however, was neither universal, nor definitional, and there is no particular reason to associate Modernism, fundamentally, with 'the left'. Modernists explicitly of 'the right' include Wyndham Lewis, William Butler Yeats, T. S. Eliot, Ezra Pound, the Dutch author Menno ter Braak and many others. Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... Late Baroque classicizing: G. P. Pannini assembles the canon of Roman ruins and Roman sculpture into one vast imaginary gallery (1756) Neoclassicism (sometimes rendered as Neo-Classicism or Neo-classicism) is the name given to quite distinct movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that... The 1920s they were sexy referred to as the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties, usually applied to America. ... Thomas Stearns Eliot, OM (September 26, 1888 – January 4, 1965), was a poet, dramatist and literary critic. ... Fascist redirects here. ... For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ... {{dy justified his choice of form, and from about 1929 on he began to interpret its penchant for contradictions, much as had Eisenstein, in terms of the dialectic. ... Wystan Hugh Auden (21 February 1907 – 29 September 1973) IPA: ;[1], who signed his works W. H. Auden, was an Anglo-American poet, regarded by many as one of the greatest writers of the 20th century. ... Andr Breton (February 18, 1896 - September 28, 1966) was a French writer, poet, and Surrealist theoretician. ... Louis Aragon (October 3, 1897 - December 24, 1982), French historian, poet and novelist. ... Antonio Gramsci (IPA: ) (January 22, 1891 – April 27, 1937) was an Italian writer, politician and political theorist. ... Walter Bendix Schönflies Benjamin (July 15, 1892 – September 27, 1940) was a German Marxist literary critic, essayist, translator, and philosopher. ... Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... Wyndham Lewis in 1916 Percy Wyndham Lewis (November 18, 1882 – March 7, 1957) was a Canadian-born British painter and author. ... Yeats redirects here. ... Thomas Stearns Eliot, OM (September 26, 1888 – January 4, 1965), was a poet, dramatist and literary critic. ... Ezra Pound in 1913. ... Menno ter Braak as a student Menno ter Braak (January 26, 1902 – May 15, 1940) was a Dutch modernist author. ...


One of the most visible changes of this period is the adoption of objects of modern production into daily life. Electricity, the telephone, the automobile—and the need to work with them, repair them and live with them—created the need for new forms of manners, and social life. The kind of disruptive moment which only a few knew in the 1880s, became a common occurrence. The speed of communication reserved for the stock brokers of 1890 became part of family life.


Modernism as leading to social organization would produce inquiries into sex and the basic bondings of the nuclear, rather than extended, family. The Freudian tensions of infantile sexuality and the raising of children became more intense, because people had fewer children, and therefore a more specific relationship with each child: the theoretical, again, became the practical and even popular.


Modernism after World War II

The Post war period left the capitals of Europe in upheaval with an urgency to economically and physically rebuild and to politically regroup. In Paris (the former center of European culture and the former capital of the art world) the climate for art was a disaster. Important collectors, dealers, and modernist artists, writers, and poets had fled Europe for New York and America. The Surrealists, and modern artists from every cultural center of Europe had fled the onslaught of the Nazis for safe haven in the United States. Many of those that didn't flee perished. A few artists, notably Pablo Picasso, Henri Matisse, and Pierre Bonnard, remained in France and survived. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of France. ... This article is about the state. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... Surrealism is an artistic movement and an aesthetic philosophy that aims for the liberation of the mind by emphasizing the critical and imaginative powers of the subconscious. ... Picasso redirects here. ... Henri Matisse (December 31, 1869 – November 3, 1954) was a French artist, noted for his use of color and his fluid, brilliant and original draughtsmanship. ... The Dining Room in the Country Pierre Bonnard (October 3, 1867 – January 23, 1947) was a French painter and printmaker. ...


The 1940s in New York City heralded the triumph of American Abstract expressionism, a modernist movement that combined lessons learned from Henri Matisse, Pablo Picasso, Surrealism, Joan Miró, Cubism, Fauvism, and early Modernism via great teachers in America like Hans Hofmann and John D. Graham. American artists benefited from the presence of Piet Mondrian, Fernand Leger, Max Ernst and the Andre Breton group, Pierre Matisse's gallery, and Peggy Guggenheim's gallery The Art of This Century, as well as other factors. New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Jackson Pollock, No. ... Henri Matisse (December 31, 1869 – November 3, 1954) was a French artist, noted for his use of color and his fluid, brilliant and original draughtsmanship. ... Picasso redirects here. ... Max Ernst. ... Joan Miró i Ferrà (April 20, 1893 – December 25, 1983) was a Catalan (Spanish) painter, sculptor, and ceramist born in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain to the family of a goldsmith and watchmaker. ... Pablo Picasso, Le guitariste, 1910 Juan Gris, Portrait of Picasso, 1912, oil on canvas Georges BraqueWoman with a guitar, 1913 Juan Gris, Still Life with Fruit Dish and Mandolin, 1919, oil on canvas Cubist villa in Prague, Czech Republic Cubist House of the Black Madonna, Prague, Czech Republic, 1912 Cubism... Henri Matisse, Portrait of Madame Matisse (The green line), 1905, Statens Museum for Kunst, Copenhagen, Denmark Henri Matisse, La Danse (second version), 1909 Hermitage Museum, St. ... Hans Hofmann (1880 - 1966) was an abstract expressionist painter. ... John D. Graham (1886 – 1961) was a Russian-born American Modernist painter. ... Piet Mondrian, 1924 Pieter Cornelis (Piet) Mondriaan, after 1912 Mondrian, (pronounced: Dutch IPA: , later Pete Mon-dree-on, IPA: ) (b. ... Joseph Fernand Henri Léger (February 4, 1881 - August 17, 1955) was an artist. ... Max Ernst (2 April 1891 - 1 April 1976) was a German painter, sculptor, graphic artist, and poet, considered one of the chief representatives of Dadaism and Surrealism. ... Andr Breton (February 18, 1896 - September 28, 1966) was a French writer, poet, and Surrealist theoretician. ... Peggy Guggenheim (August 26, 1898 – December 23, 1979) was an American art collector. ... Peggy Guggenheim opened The Art of This Century Gallery at 30 W. 57th Street in New York City in October-November 1942. ...


Pollock and Abstract expressionism

Jackson Pollock, No. 5, 1948, oil on fiberboard, 244 x 122 cm. (96 x 48 in.), private collection
Jackson Pollock, No. 5, 1948, oil on fiberboard, 244 x 122 cm. (96 x 48 in.), private collection

During the late 1940s Jackson Pollock's radical approach to painting revolutionized the potential for all Contemporary art that followed him. To some extent Pollock realized that the journey toward making a work of art was as important as the work of art itself. Like Pablo Picasso's innovative reinventions of painting and sculpture near the turn of the century via Cubism and constructed sculpture, Pollock redefined the way art gets made. His move away from easel painting and conventionality was a liberating signal to the artists of his era and to all that came after. Artists realized that Jackson Pollock's process—the placing of unstretched raw canvas on the floor where it could be attacked from all four sides using artist materials and industrial materials; linear skeins of paint dripped and thrown; drawing, staining, brushing; imagery and non-imagery—essentially blasted artmaking beyond any prior boundary. Abstract expressionism in general expanded and developed the definitions and possibilities that artists had available for the creation of new works of art. Image File history File linksMetadata No. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No. ... Controversy swirls over the alleged sale of No. ... No. ... Fiberboard is a type of engineered wood product that is made out of wood fibers. ... Controversy swirls over the alleged sale of No. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Picasso redirects here. ... Pablo Picasso, Le guitariste, 1910 Juan Gris, Portrait of Picasso, 1912, oil on canvas Georges BraqueWoman with a guitar, 1913 Juan Gris, Still Life with Fruit Dish and Mandolin, 1919, oil on canvas Cubist villa in Prague, Czech Republic Cubist House of the Black Madonna, Prague, Czech Republic, 1912 Cubism... Look up Canvas in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The other Abstract expressionists followed Pollock's breakthrough with new breakthroughs of their own. In a sense the innovations of Jackson Pollock, Willem de Kooning, Franz Kline, Mark Rothko, Philip Guston, Hans Hofmann, Clyfford Still, Barnett Newman, Ad Reinhardt, Peter Voulkos and others opened the floodgates to the diversity and scope of all the art that followed them. Rereadings into abstract art, done by art historians such as Linda Nochlin,[4] Griselda Pollock [5] and Catherine de Zegher [6] critically shows, however, that pioneer women artists who have produced major innovations in modern art had been ignored by the official accounts of its history. American post-World War II art movement. ... Willem de Koonings Woman V (1952-53), National Gallery of Australia Willem de Kooning (April 24, 1904 – March 19, 1997) was an abstract expressionist painter, born in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. ... Franz Klines Painting Number 2, 1954 Franz Kline (May 23, 1910 - May 13, 1962) was an American painter mainly associated with the Abstract Expressionist group which was centered, geographically, around New York, and temporally, in the 1940s and 1950s; but not limited to that setting. ... Mark Rothkos painting 1957 # 20 (1957) Mark Rothko born Marcus Rothkowitz (September 25, 1903–February 25, 1970) was a Russian-born American painter and printmaker who is classified as an abstract expressionist, although he rejected not only the label but even being an abstract painter. ... Painting, Smoking Eating 1972 Oil on Canvas Philip Guston (July 27, 1913 – June 7, 1980) was a notable painter and printmaker in the New York School, which included many of the Abstract Expressionists, such as Jackson Pollock and Willem De Kooning. ... Clyfford Still (November 30, 1904 – June 23, 1980) was an American artist, a painter, and one of the leading figures in Abstract Expressionism. ... Barnett Newman (January 29, 1905 – July 4, 1970) was an American artist. ... Adolph Dietmar Friedrich Reinhardt (Ad Reinhardt) (December 24, 1913 – August 30, 1967) was a painter, writer, and pioneer of conceptual and minimal art. ... Peter Voulkos (January 29, 1924 – 2002) popular name of Panagiotis Voulkos, was an American artist of Greek descent. ...


Modernism in the 1960s after abstract expressionism

In abstract painting during the 1950s and 1960s several new directions like Hard-edge painting and other forms of Geometric abstraction, as a reaction against the subjectivism of Abstract expressionism began to appear in artist studios and in radical avant-garde circles. Clement Greenberg became the voice of Post-painterly abstraction; by curating an influential exhibition of new painting that toured important art museums throughout the United States in 1964. Color field painting, Hard-edge painting and Lyrical Abstraction[7] emerged as radical new directions. Post-painterly Abstraction is a term created by art critic, Clement Greenberg in the 1960s to distinguish his idea of pure art from the Abstract Expressionism movement of about the same time. ... Color Field is an art movement characterized by canvases being covered entirely by large fields of solid color. ... Lyrical Abstraction is an important American abstract art movement that emerged in New York City, Los Angeles, Washington DC and then Toronto and London during the 1960s - 1970s. ... The term Arte Povera (Italian for poor art) was introduced by the Italian art critic and curator, Germano Celant, in 1967. ... Process Art may be understood as an artistic movement as well as a creative sentiment and worldview where the end product of art and craft, the objet d’art, is not the principal focus. ... See also Western art, History of painting, History of art, Art history, Painting, Outline of painting history Jan Vermeer, Girl with a Pearl Earring, known as the Mona Lisa of the North 1665-1667 Édouard Manet, The Balcony 1868 The history of Western painting represents a continuous, though disrupted, tradition... Kazimir Malevich, Black square 1915 Abstract art is now generally understood to mean art that does not depict objects in the natural world, but instead uses color and form in a non-representational way. ... The Hard-edge painting style can be considered a subdivision of Post-Painterly Abstraction, which in turn emerged from Color Field painting. ... Geometric abstract art is a form of abstract art based on the use of simple geometric forms placed in non-illusionistic space and combined into non-objective compositions. ... A work similar to Marcel Duchamps Fountain Avant garde (written avant-garde) is a French phrase, one of many French phrases used by English speakers. ... Clement Greenberg (January 16, 1909 - May 7, 1994) was an influential American art critic closely associated with the abstract art movement in the United States. ... Color Field is an art movement characterized by canvases being covered entirely by large fields of solid color. ... The Hard-edge painting style can be considered a subdivision of Post-Painterly Abstraction, which in turn emerged from Color Field painting. ... Lyrical Abstraction is an important American abstract art movement that emerged in New York City, Los Angeles, Washington DC and then Toronto and London during the 1960s - 1970s. ...


By the late 1960s however, Postminimalism, Process Art and Arte Povera[8] also emerged as revolutionary concepts and movements that encompassed both painting and sculpture, via Lyrical Abstraction and the Postminimalist movement, and in early Conceptual Art.[9] Process art as inspired by Pollock enabled artists to experiment with and make use of a diverse encyclopedia of style, content, material, placement, sense of time, and plastic and real space. Nancy Graves, Ronald Davis, Howard Hodgkin, Larry Poons, Jannis Kounellis, Brice Marden, Bruce Nauman, Richard Tuttle, Alan Saret, Walter Darby Bannard, Lynda Benglis, Dan Christensen, Larry Zox, Ronnie Landfield, Eva Hesse, Keith Sonnier, Richard Serra, Sam Gilliam, Mario Merz, Peter Reginato were some of the younger artists who emerged during the era of late modernism that spawned the heyday of the art of the late 1960s.[10] Postminimalism is a term utilized in various artistic fields for work which is influenced by, or attempts to develop, the aesthetic of minimalism. ... Process Art may be understood as an artistic movement as well as a creative sentiment and worldview where the end product of art and craft, the objet d’art, is not the principal focus. ... The term Arte Povera (Italian for poor art) was introduced by the Italian art critic and curator, Germano Celant, in 1967. ... Lyrical Abstraction is an important American abstract art movement that emerged in New York City, Los Angeles, Washington DC and then Toronto and London during the 1960s - 1970s. ... Postminimalism is a term used in music referring to music influenced by so called minimalism or minimal music. ... Joseph Kosuth, One and Three Chairs (1965) Conceptual art is art in which the concept(s) or idea(s) involved in the work take precedence over traditional aesthetic and material concerns. ... Nancy Graves (1940-1995) was an American sculptor, painter, printmaker, and sometimes filmmaker known for her focus on natural phenomena like camels or maps of the moon. ... Ronald Davis (a. ... Sir Gordon Howard Eliot Hodgkin (born August 6, 1932) is a British painter and printmaker. ... Jannis Kounellis was born in 1936 in Piraeus, Greece. ... Brice Marden (born October 15, 1938), is an American abstract painter. ... Bruce Nauman (born December 6, 1941, in Fort Wayne, Indiana) is a contemporary American artist. ... Richard James Tuttle (born 12 July 1941 in Rahway, New Jersey) is an American minimalist artist known for his small, subtle, intimate works. ... Walter Darby Bannard (born September 23, 1934, New Haven, CT) is an American abstract painter. ... Benglis in her advertisement in the 1974 issue of Artforum Lynda Benglis (born October 25, 1941 in Lake Charles, Louisiana) is an American sculptor known for her wax paintings and poured latex sculptures. ... Dan Christensen, the American abstract painter, was born in Cozad, Nebraska on October 6, 1942, he died in Easthampton, New York on January 20, 2007. ... Larry Zox (born Lawrence Zox) (1936 is an American painter who is classified as an abstract expressionist, although he does not readily use that category for his work. ... Ronnie Landfield (born January 9, 1947 in The Bronx, New York) is an American abstract painter. ... Eva Hesse (January 11, 1936 - May 29, 1970), was a German-born American sculptor, known for her pioneering work in materials such as latex, fiberglass, and plastics. ... Keith Sonnier (born 1941, Mamou, Louisiana) is a minimalist, performance, video and light artist. ... Fulcrum 1987, 55 ft high free standing sculpture of Cor-ten steel near Liverpool Street station, London Richard Serra (born November 29, 1939) is an American minimalist sculptor and video artist known for working with large scale assemblies of sheet metal. ... Sam Gilliam (b. ... Since the early 1950s, Mario Merz has been a powerful force of Italian art throughout the world. ... Peter Reginato (born August 19, 1945 in Dallas, Texas) is an American abstract sculptor. ... Frank Stella La scienza della laziness (The Science of Laziness) 1984, oil, enamel and alkyd paint on canvas, etched magnesium, aluminum and fiberglass, National Gallery of Art Washington DC // Late Modernism, encompasses the overall production of most recent art made between the aftermath of World War II and the early...


Pop Art

Main articles: Pop Art and Western painting

In 1962 the Sidney Janis Gallery mounted The New Realists the first major Pop Art group exhibition in an uptown art gallery in New York City. Sidney Janis mounted the exhibition in a 57th Street storefront near his gallery at 15 E. 57th Street. The show sent shockwaves through the New York School and reverberated worldwide. Earlier in England in 1958 the term "Pop Art" was used by Lawrence Alloway to describe paintings that celebrated consumerism of the post World War II era. This movement rejected Abstract expressionism and its focus on the hermeneutic and psychological interior, in favor of art which depicted, and often celebrated material consumer culture, advertising, and iconography of the mass production age. The early works of David Hockney and the works of Richard Hamilton and Eduardo Paolozzi were considered seminal examples in the movement. While in the downtown scene in New York's East Village 10th Street galleries artists were formulating an American version of Pop Art. Claes Oldenburg had his storefront, and the Green Gallery on 57th Street began to show Tom Wesselmann and James Rosenquist. Later Leo Castelli exhibited other American artists, including Andy Warhol and Roy Lichtenstein for most of their careers. There is a connection between the radical works of Duchamp and Man Ray, the rebellious Dadaists with a sense of humor, and Pop Artists like Claes Oldenburg, Andy Warhol, and Roy Lichtenstein, whose paintings reproduce the look of Benday dots, a technique used in commercial reproduction. Just What Is It That Makes Today’s Homes So Different, So Appealing? (1956) is one of the earliest works to be considered pop art. ... See also Western art, History of painting, History of art, Art history, Painting, Outline of painting history Jan Vermeer, Girl with a Pearl Earring, known as the Mona Lisa of the North 1665-1667 Édouard Manet, The Balcony 1868 The history of Western painting represents a continuous, though disrupted, tradition... Image File history File links Roy_Lichtenstein_Whaam. ... Image File history File links Roy_Lichtenstein_Whaam. ... Roy Lichtenstein (27 October 1923–29 September 1997) was a prominent American pop artist, whose work borrowed heavily from popular advertising and comic book styles, which he himself described as being as artificial as possible. // Roy Lichtenstein was born on 27 October 1923 into an upper-middle-class family in... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... Sidney Janis (1896-1989) was a wealthy clothing manufacturer and art collector who opened an art gallery in New York in 1948. ... Just What Is It That Makes Today’s Homes So Different, So Appealing? (1956) is one of the earliest works to be considered pop art. ... Sidney Janis (1896-1989) was a wealthy clothing manufacturer and art collector who opened an art gallery in New York in 1948. ... The New York School (synonymous with abstract expressionist painting) was an informal group of American poets, painters, dancers, and musicians active in the 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s in New York City. ... Lawrence Alloway (London, 1926 - New York, January 2, 1990) was an English art critic and curator who worked in the United States from the 1960s. ... Hermeneutics (Hermeneutic means interpretive), is a branch of philosophy concerned with human understanding and the interpretation of texts. ... We Two Boys Together Clinging, 1961. ... Richard Hamilton (born February 24, 1922) is an English painter and collage artist. ... Paolozzis Newton, bronze (1995) in the courtyard of the British Library Paolozzi follows William Blakes 1795 print Newton in illustrating how Isaac Newtons equations changed our view of the world to being one determined by mathematical laws. ... This article is about the state. ... Looking south from 6th Street down Second Avenue, one of the main thoroughfares through the East Village. ... Claes Oldenburg (born January 28, 1929) is a sculptor, best known for his public art installations typically featuring very large replicas of everyday objects. ... Tom Wesselmann, Sunset Nude with Matisse Odalisque, oil on canvas, 2003 Tom Wesselmann, Still Life #20, mixed media, 1962, Albright-Knox Art Gallery Buffalo, New York Tom Wesselmann (February 23, 1931 - December 17, 2004) was an American pop artist who specialised in found art collages. ... James Rosenquist (born November 29, 1933) is an acclaimed American artist and one of the protagonists in the pop-art movement. ... Leo Castelli (1907–1999) was an Austro-Hungarian art dealer. ... Andrew Warhola (August 6, 1928 — February 22, 1987), better known as Andy Warhol, was an American artist who was a central figure in the movement known as Pop art. ... Roy Lichtenstein (27 October 1923–29 September 1997) was a prominent American pop artist, whose work borrowed heavily from popular advertising and comic book styles, which he himself described as being as artificial as possible. // Roy Lichtenstein was born on 27 October 1923 into an upper-middle-class family in... For other uses, see Man Ray (disambiguation). ... An example of the concept of Benday Dots The Benday Dots printing process is similar to pointilism but uses one primary color and is more spaced out (e. ...


Minimalism

Main articles: Minimalism and Western painting

By the early 1960s Minimalism emerged as an abstract movement in art (with roots in geometric abstraction via Malevich, the Bauhaus and Mondrian) which rejected the idea of relational, and subjective painting, the complexity of Abstract expressionist surfaces, and the emotional zeitgeist and polemics present in the arena of Action painting. Minimalism argued that extreme simplicity could capture all of the sublime representation needed in art. Associated with painters such as Frank Stella, minimalism in painting, as opposed to other areas, is a modernist movement. Depending on the context, minimalism might be construed as a precursor to the postmodern movement. Seen from the perspective of writers who sometimes classify it as a postmodern movement, early minimalism began and succeeded as a modernist movement to yield advanced works, but which partially abandoned this project when a few artists changed direction in favor of the anti-form movement. In the late 1960s the term Postminimalism was coined by Robert Pincus-Witten[11] to describe minimalist derived art which had content and contextual overtones which minimalism rejected, and was applied to the work of Eva Hesse, Keith Sonnier, Richard Serra and new work by former minimalists Robert Smithson, Robert Morris, and Sol Lewitt, and Barry Le Va, and others. Minimalists like Donald Judd, Dan Flavin, Carl Andre, Agnes Martin, John McCracken and others continued to produce their late modernist paintings and sculpture for the remainder of their careers. For other uses, see Minimalism (disambiguation). ... See also Western art, History of painting, History of art, Art history, Painting, Outline of painting history Jan Vermeer, Girl with a Pearl Earring, known as the Mona Lisa of the North 1665-1667 Édouard Manet, The Balcony 1868 The history of Western painting represents a continuous, though disrupted, tradition... Geometric abstract art is a form of abstract art based on the use of simple geometric forms placed in non-illusionistic space and combined into non-objective compositions. ... Self-portrait, 1933 Kazimir Severinovich Malevich (Казимир Северинович Малевич, Polish Malewicz, Ukrainian transliteration Malevych, German Kasimir Malewitsch), (February 12, 1878 – May 15, 1935) was a painter and art theoretician, pioneer of geometric abstract art and one of the most important members of the so-called Russian avantgarde. ... Alternate use: There is also a British rock band named Bauhaus. ... Mondrian can refer to: The artist, Piet Mondrian; A stimulus used in research into color perception, particularly color constancy. ... American post-World War II art movement. ... This article is about the German word. ... Pollocks Galaxy, a part of the Joslyn Art Museums permanent collection. ... Frank Stella La scienza della pigrizia (The Science of Laziness) 1984, oil, enamel and alkyd paint on canvas, etched magnesium, aluminum and fiberglass, National Gallery of Art Washington DC Frank Stella (born May 12, 1936) is an American painter and printmaker. ... Postminimalism is a term utilized in various artistic fields for work which is influenced by, or attempts to develop, the aesthetic of minimalism. ... Eva Hesse (January 11, 1936 - May 29, 1970), was a German-born American sculptor, known for her pioneering work in materials such as latex, fiberglass, and plastics. ... Keith Sonnier (born 1941, Mamou, Louisiana) is a minimalist, performance, video and light artist. ... Fulcrum 1987, 55 ft high free standing sculpture of Cor-ten steel near Liverpool Street station, London Richard Serra (born November 29, 1939) is an American minimalist sculptor and video artist known for working with large scale assemblies of sheet metal. ... Smithsons Spiral Jetty set in Great Salt Lake, Utah. ... Bronze Gate (2005) is a cor-ten steel work by Robert Morris. ... Four-Sided Pyramid, created by LeWitt in 1997, stands in the scupture garden of the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C. Sol LeWitt (born 1928 in Hartford, Connecticut) is a conceptual artist and painter. ... Untitled (Core Piece), 1969 Untitled sculpture from 1990 Donald Clarence Judd (June 3, 1928 - February 12, 1994) was a minimalist artist (a term he stridently disavowed) whose work sought autonomy and clarity for the constructed object and the space created by it, ultimately achieving a rigorously democratic presentation without compositional... Ohne Titel (to Bob and Pat Rohm), 1970. ... Carl Andre (born September 16, 1935) American minimalist artist. ... Agnes Martin (March 22, 1912 – December 16, 2004) was a Canadian-American painter, often referred to as a minimalist; Martin considered herself an abstract expressionist. ... John McCracken (b. ...


In the 1960s the work of the avant-garde Minimalist composers La Monte Young, Philip Glass, Steve Reich, and Terry Riley also became prominent in the New York art world. La Monte Young (born October 14, 1935) is an American composer whose eccentric and often hard-to-find works have been included among the most important post World War II avant-garde or experimental music. ... Philip Glass (born January 31, 1937) is a three-times Academy Award-nominated American composer. ... Stephen Michael Reich (born October 3, 1936) is an American composer. ... Terry Riley – (Portrait by Betty Freeman) Terry Riley (born 24 June 1935) is an American composer associated with the minimalist school. ...


Since this time, many artists have embraced minimal or Postminimal styles and the label postmodern, has been attached to them.


Collage, Assemblage, Installations

Main articles: Collage, Assemblage, and Installation art
Robert Rauschenberg Untitled Combine, 1963
Robert Rauschenberg Untitled Combine, 1963

Related to Abstract expressionism was the emergence of combined manufactured items, with artist materials, moving away from previous conventions of painting and sculpture. This trend in art is exemplified by the work of Robert Rauschenberg, whose "combines" in the 1950s were forerunners of Pop Art and Installation art, and made use of the assemblage of large physical objects, including stuffed animals, birds and commercial photography. Robert Rauschenberg, Jasper Johns, Larry Rivers, John Chamberlain, Claes Oldenburg, George Segal, Jim Dine, and Edward Kienholz among others were important pioneers of both abstraction and Pop Art; creating new conventions of art-making; they made acceptable in serious contemporary art circles the radical inclusion of unlikely materials as parts of their works of art. Another pioneer of Collage was Joseph Cornell whose more intimate scaled works were seen as radical; partially because of his personal iconography and partially because of his use of found objects. For other uses, see Collage (disambiguation). ... An assemblage is an archaeological term meaning a group of different artefacts found in association with one another, that is, in the same context. ... Installation art uses sculptural materials and other media to modify the way we experience a particular space. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Robert Rauschenberg, Canyon, 1959. ... Jackson Pollock, No. ... Installation art uses sculptural materials and other media to modify the way we experience a particular space. ... Robert Rauschenberg, Canyon, 1959. ... Jasper Johnss Map, 1961 Jasper Johnss Flag, Encaustic, oil and collage on fabric mounted on plywood,1954-55 Detail of Flag (1954-55). ... Larry Rivers (August 17, 1923 - August 14, 2002) was a Jewish American musician, artist and actor. ... John Angus Chamberlain (born April 16, 1927) is an American sculptor. ... Claes Oldenburg (born January 28, 1929) is a sculptor, best known for his public art installations typically featuring very large replicas of everyday objects. ... George Segal was originally a painter, who later moved into sculpture. ... Jim Dine (born June 16, 1935) is an American pop artist. ... Edward Kienholz (October 23, 1927 - June 10, 1994) was an American installation artist whose work was highly critical of several aspects of modern life. ... A photograph of Joseph Cornell Joseph Cornell Untitled (Dieppe) c. ... Found objects are materials found (such as pebbles, candy wrappers, or leaves) and not made (such as inks, paints, and crayons. ...


Neo-Dada

Main article: Neo-Dada

In the early 20th century Marcel Duchamp exhibited a urinal as a sculpture. His professed point was to have people look at the urinal as if it were a work of art because he said it was a work of art. He referred to his work as "Readymades." Fountain, was a urinal signed with the pseudonym R. Mutt, that shocked the art world in 1917. This and Duchamp's other works are generally labelled as Dada. Duchamp can be seen as a precursor to conceptual art, other famous examples being John Cage's 4' 33", which is four minutes and thirty three seconds of silence, and Rauschenberg's Erased De Kooning Drawing. Many conceptual works take the position that art is created by the viewer viewing an object or act as art, not from the intrinsic qualites of the work itself. Thus, because Fountain was exhibited, it was a sculpture. Neo-Dada is a label applied primarily to the visual arts describing artwork that has similarities in method or intent to earlier Dada artwork. ... Marcel Duchamp (pronounced ) (July 28, 1887 – October 2, 1968) was a French artist (he became an American citizen in 1955) whose work and ideas had considerable influence on the development of post-World War II Western art, and whose advice to modern art collectors helped shape the tastes of the... Fountain 1917; 1964 artist-authorized replica made by the artists dealer, Arturo Schwartz, based on a photograph by Alfred Stieglitz. ... Fountain by Marcel Duchamp. ... For the Mortal Kombat character, see Johnny Cage. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ...


Marcel Duchamp famously gave up "art" in favor of chess.[1] Avant-garde composer David Tudor created a piece, Reunion (1968), written jointly with Lowell Cross that features a chess game, where each move triggers a lighting effect or projection. At the premiere, the game was played between John Cage and Marcel Duchamp.[2] David Eugene Tudor (January 20, 1926 - August 13, 1996) was a pianist and composer of experimental music. ... For the Mortal Kombat character, see Johnny Cage. ... Marcel Duchamp (pronounced ) (July 28, 1887 – October 2, 1968) was a French artist (he became an American citizen in 1955) whose work and ideas had considerable influence on the development of post-World War II Western art, and whose advice to modern art collectors helped shape the tastes of the...


Another trend in art which can be associated with the term Neo-Dada is the use of a number of different media together. Intermedia, a term coined by Dick Higgins and meant to convey new artforms along the lines of Fluxus, Concrete Poetry, Found objects, Performance art, and Computer art. Higgins was the publisher of the Something Else Press, a Concrete poet, married to artist Alison Knowles and an admirer of Marcel Duchamp. Neo-Dada is a label applied primarily to the visual arts describing artwork that has similarities in method or intent to earlier Dada artwork. ... For the hypertext system, see Intermedia (hypertext) Intermedia was a concept employed in the mid-sixties by Fluxus artist Dick Higgins to describe the ineffable, often confusing, inter-disciplinary activities that occur between genres that became prevalent in the 1960s. ... Dick Higgins (born Cambridge, England 1938, died Quebec, Canada 1998) was a poet and early Fluxus artist. ... Concrete poetry, pattern poetry or shape poetry is poetry in which the typographical arrangement of words is as important in conveying the intended effect as the conventional elements of the poem, such as meaning of words, rhythm, rhyme and so on. ... Found objects are materials found (such as pebbles, candy wrappers, or leaves) and not made (such as inks, paints, and crayons. ... This article is about Performance art. ... This computer generated image was created using the program Sterling Fractal, which uses a fractal to seed the colouring algorithms and filters. ... Something Else Press was founded by Dick Higgins in 1963. ... Alison Knowles (1933 - ) is an American artist who produced work in a number of forms. ...


Performance, and Happenings

Main articles: Performance and Happenings
Carolee Schneemann, performing her piece Interior Scroll

During the late 1950s and 1960s artists with a wide range of interests began to push the boundaries of Contemporary art. Yves Klein in France, and in New York City, Carolee Schneemann, Yayoi Kusama, Charlotte Moorman and Yoko Ono were pioneers of performance based works of art. Groups like The Living Theater with Julian Beck and Judith Malina collaborated with sculptors and painters creating environments; radically changing the relationship between audience and performer especially in their piece Paradise Now. The Judson Dance Theater located at the Judson Memorial Church, New York, and the Judson dancers, notably Yvonne Rainer, Trisha Brown, Elaine Summers, Sally Gross, Simonne Forti, Deborah Hay, Lucinda Childs, Steve Paxton and others collaborated with artists Robert Morris, Robert Whitman, John Cage, Robert Rauschenberg, and engineers like Billy Klüver. Park Place Gallery was a center for musical performances by electronic composers Steve Reich, Philip Glass and other notable performance artists including Joan Jonas. These performances were often designed to be the creation of a new art form, combining sculpture, dance, and music or sound, often with audience participation. The works were characterized by the reductive philosophies of minimalism, and the spontaneous improvisation, and expressivity of Abstract expressionism. Buskers perform in San Francisco A performance, in performing arts, generally comprises an event in which one group of people (the performer or performers) behave in a particular way for another group of people (the audience). ... Happenings has multiple meanings (besides the straightforward dictionary definition): The Happenings were a 1960s pop music group whose major hits were See You In September and a cover of I Got Rhythm updated for the nascent pop/rock era. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Carolee Schneemann (b. ... Yves Klein (28 April 1928 - 6 June 1962) was a French artist and is considered an important figure in post-war European neo-Dadaism. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Carolee Schneemann (b. ... Yayoi Kusama (草間弥生 ,born March 29, 1929) has been called Japans greatest living artist. ... Madeline Charlotte Moorman (November 18, 1933–November 8, 1991) was an American cellist and performance artist. ... Yoko Ono Lennon (小野 洋子 Ono Yōko), born February 18, 1933) is a Japanese-American artist and musician. ... The Living Theater Founded in 1947 by Julien Beck and Judith Molina, the Living Theater is a theatrical troupe whose mission is a dedication to the transference of power in all societies from competitive control to cooperative and communal expression. ... Julian Beck (May 31, 1925–September 14, 1985) was an American actor, director, poet, and painter. ... Judith Malina (born June 4, 1926) is an American theater and film actor, writer, and director, who is one of the founders and leaders of The Living Theatre. ... Judson Dance Theater located at the Judson Memorial Church, New York the group of artists that formed Judson Dance Theater are considered the founders of Postmodern dance. ... The Judson Memorial Church is located in Greenwich Village of Manhattan on the south side of Washington Square Park. ... Yvonne Rainer (born November 24, 1934) is an American choreographer and filmmaker. ... Trisha Brown (25 November 1936, Aberdeen, Washington, U.S.) is a postmodernist American choreographer and dancer. ... Elaine Summers is American choreographer, experimental filmmaker, and intermedia pioneer. ... Robert Whitman (born 1935 in New York City) is an outstanding American artist who is best known for his seminal and continuing work in creating new, non-narrative, imagistic theater pieces. ... For the Mortal Kombat character, see Johnny Cage. ... Robert Rauschenberg, Canyon, 1959. ... Billy Klüver (1927-2004) Johan Wilhelm (Billy) Klüver was born in Monaco, November 13, 1927, and grew up in Sweden. ... Park Place Gallery was a contemporary art gallery located in SoHo in Lower Manhattan, New York City, USA, during the mid to late 1960s. ... Stephen Michael Reich (born October 3, 1936) is an American composer. ... Philip Glass (born January 31, 1937) is a three-times Academy Award-nominated American composer. ... Born in 1936 in New York City, Joan Jonas is a pioneer of video and performance art and one of the most important female artists to emerge in the late 1960s and early 1970s. ...


During the same period—the late 1950s through the mid 1960s—various avant-garde artists created Happenings. Happenings were mysterious and often spontaneous and unscripted gatherings of artists and their friends and relatives in varied specified locations, often incorporating exercises in absurdity, physical exercise, costumes, spontaneous nudity, and various random and seemingly disconnected acts. Allan Kaprow, Claes Oldenburg, Jim Dine, Red Grooms, and Robert Whitman among others were notable creators of Happenings. Nude redirects here. ... Allan Kaprow (August 23, 1927 - April 5, 2006) helped to develop the Environment and Happening in the late 1950s and 1960s, as well as their theory. ... Claes Oldenburg (born January 28, 1929) is a sculptor, best known for his public art installations typically featuring very large replicas of everyday objects. ... Jim Dine (born June 16, 1935) is an American pop artist. ... Red Grooms (born Charles Rogers Grooms on June 7, 1937) is an American multimedia artist best known for his colorful pop-art constructions depicting frenetic scenes of modern urban life. ... Robert Whitman (born 1935 in New York City) is an outstanding American artist who is best known for his seminal and continuing work in creating new, non-narrative, imagistic theater pieces. ...


Fluxus

Main article: Fluxus

Fluxus was named and loosely organized in 1962 by George Maciunas (1931-78), a Lithuanian-born American artist. Fluxus traces its beginnings to John Cage's 1957 to 1959 Experimental Composition classes at the New School for Social Research in New York City. Many of his students were artists working in other media with little or no background in music. Cage's students included Fluxus founding members Jackson Mac Low, Al Hansen, George Brecht and Dick Higgins. Fluxus – a name taken from a Latin word meaning to flow – is an international network of artists, composers and designers noted for blending different artistic media and disciplines in the 1960s. ... George Maciunas (November 8, 1931-May 9, 1978) was a Lithuanian-American artist. ... For the Mortal Kombat character, see Johnny Cage. ... New School University is an institute of higher learning in New York City. ... Jackson Mac Low (September 12, 1922 - December 8, 2004) was an American poet, performance artist, composer and playwright, known to most readers of poetry as a practioneer of systematic chance operations and other non-intentional compositional methods in his work, which Mac Low first experienced in the musical work of... Al Hansen (1927, New York City - June 22, 1995. ... George Brecht (born Halfway, Oregon, United States 1924) was an early Fluxus artist. ... Dick Higgins (born Cambridge, England 1938, died Quebec, Canada 1998) was a poet and early Fluxus artist. ...


Fluxus encouraged a do it yourself aesthetic, and valued simplicity over complexity. Like Dada before it, Fluxus included a strong current of anti-commercialism and an anti-art sensibility, disparaging the conventional market-driven art world in favor of an artist-centered creative practice. Fluxus artists preferred to work with whatever materials were at hand, and either created their own work or collaborated in the creation process with their colleagues. DaDa is a concept album by Alice Cooper, released in 1983. ... Anti art is a work that is exhibited or delivered in a conventional context but makes fun of serious art or challenges the nature of art. ...


Late Modernism

Main article: Late Modernism

Artists from many disciplines continue to work in modernist styles into the 21st century. The continuation of Abstract expressionism, Color Field painting, Lyrical Abstraction, Geometric abstraction, Minimalism, Abstract Illusionism, Process Art, Pop Art, Postminimalism, and other late 20th century modernist movements in both painting and sculpture continue through the first decade of the 21st century. Frank Stella La scienza della laziness (The Science of Laziness) 1984, oil, enamel and alkyd paint on canvas, etched magnesium, aluminum and fiberglass, National Gallery of Art Washington DC // Late Modernism, encompasses the overall production of most recent art made between the aftermath of World War II and the early... Jackson Pollock, No. ... Color Field is an art movement characterized by canvases being covered entirely by large fields of solid color. ... Lyrical Abstraction is an important American abstract art movement that emerged in New York City, Los Angeles, Washington DC and then Toronto and London during the 1960s - 1970s. ... Geometric abstract art is a form of abstract art based on the use of simple geometric forms placed in non-illusionistic space and combined into non-objective compositions. ... For other uses, see Minimalism (disambiguation). ... Abstract illusionism coined by Louis K. Meisel is an artistic movement that came into prominence in the Unites States during the mid 1970s. ... Process Art may be understood as an artistic movement as well as a creative sentiment and worldview where the end product of art and craft, the objet d’art, is not the principal focus. ... Just What Is It That Makes Today’s Homes So Different, So Appealing? (1956) is one of the earliest works to be considered pop art. ... Postminimalism is a term utilized in various artistic fields for work which is influenced by, or attempts to develop, the aesthetic of minimalism. ...


At the turn of the 21st century, well-established artists such as Sir Anthony Caro, Lucian Freud, Cy Twombly, Robert Rauschenberg, Jasper Johns, Agnes Martin, Al Held, Ellsworth Kelly, Helen Frankenthaler, Frank Stella, Kenneth Noland, Jules Olitski, Claes Oldenburg, Jim Dine, James Rosenquist, Alex Katz, Philip Pearlstein, and younger artists like Brice Marden, Chuck Close, Sam Gilliam, Isaac Witkin, Sean Scully, Elizabeth Murray, Larry Poons, Richard Serra, Walter Darby Bannard, Larry Zox, Ronnie Landfield, Ronald Davis, Dan Christensen, Joel Shapiro, Tom Otterness, Joan Snyder, Ross Bleckner, Archie Rand, Susan Crile, and dozens of others continued to produce vital and influential paintings and sculpture. Sir Anthony Caro (born 8 March 1924) is an English, abstract sculptor whose work is characterised by assemblies of metal using found industrial objects. ... Lucian Michael Freud, OM, CH (born 8 December 1922) is a British painter and printmaker. ... Leda and The Swan 1962. ... Robert Rauschenberg, Canyon, 1959. ... Jasper Johnss Map, 1961 Jasper Johnss Flag, Encaustic, oil and collage on fabric mounted on plywood,1954-55 Detail of Flag (1954-55). ... Agnes Martin (March 22, 1912 – December 16, 2004) was a Canadian-American painter, often referred to as a minimalist; Martin considered herself an abstract expressionist. ... Al Held (October 12, 1928 - July 27, 2005) was an American Abstract painter. ... Ellsworth Kelly (b. ... Helen Frankenthaler (born December 12, 1928) is an American post-painterly abstraction artist. ... Frank Stella La scienza della pigrizia (The Science of Laziness) 1984, oil, enamel and alkyd paint on canvas, etched magnesium, aluminum and fiberglass, National Gallery of Art Washington DC Frank Stella (born May 12, 1936) is an American painter and printmaker. ... Kenneth Noland (born April 10, 1924) is an American painter. ... Jules Olitski is an American abstract painter and sculptor, born Jevel Demikovski in Snovsk, Russia, on March 27 1922, a few months after his father, a commissar, was executed by the Russian government. ... Claes Oldenburg (born January 28, 1929) is a sculptor, best known for his public art installations typically featuring very large replicas of everyday objects. ... Jim Dine (born June 16, 1935) is an American pop artist. ... James Rosenquist (born November 29, 1933) is an acclaimed American artist and one of the protagonists in the pop-art movement. ... Alex Katz (born July 24, 1927) is an American figural artist associated with the Pop Art movement. ... Philip Pearlstein (born May 24, 1924 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, is one of the most important and innovative artists of the contemporary Realist school. ... Brice Marden (born October 15, 1938), is an American abstract painter. ... Chuck Close (born Charles Thomas Close) July 5, 1940, Monroe, Washington)[1] is an American painter and photographer who achieved fame as a photorealist before a catastrophic blood clot left him severely paralyzed. ... Sam Gilliam (b. ... Isaac Witkin, internationally renowned modern sculptor, was born in Johannesburg, South Africa on May 10, 1936. ... Sean Scully (born 1945) is an Irish-born American painter and has twice been a Turner Prize nominee. ... Elizabeth Murray (born 1940) is an American artist. ... Fulcrum 1987, 55 ft high free standing sculpture of Cor-ten steel near Liverpool Street station, London Richard Serra (born November 29, 1939) is an American minimalist sculptor and video artist known for working with large scale assemblies of sheet metal. ... Walter Darby Bannard (born September 23, 1934, New Haven, CT) is an American abstract painter. ... Larry Zox (born Lawrence Zox) (1936 is an American painter who is classified as an abstract expressionist, although he does not readily use that category for his work. ... Ronnie Landfield (born January 9, 1947 in The Bronx, New York) is an American abstract painter. ... Ronald Davis (a. ... Dan Christensen, the American abstract painter, was born in Cozad, Nebraska on October 6, 1942, he died in Easthampton, New York on January 20, 2007. ... Joel Elias Shapiro (b. ... Tom Otterness (b. ... Ross Bleckner (born 1949) is an American artist from New York City. ... Archie Rand Archie Rand (born 1950) is an artist and academic from Brooklyn, New York, currently Presidential Professor of Art at Brooklyn College. ... Susan Crile (b. ...


However by the early 1980s the Postmodern movement in art and architecture began to establish its position through various Conceptual and Intermedia formats. Postmodernism in music and literature began to take hold even earlier, some say by the 1950s. While postmodernism implies an end to modernism many theorists and scholars realize that late modernism continues into the 21st century. Postmodernity (also called post-modernity or the postmodern condition) is a term used by philosophers, social scientists, art critics and social critics to refer to aspects of contemporary art, culture, economics and social conditions that are the result of the unique features of late 20th century and early 21st century... A concept is an abstract, universal psychical entity that serves to designate a category or class of entities, events or relations. ... For the hypertext system, see Intermedia (hypertext) Intermedia was a concept employed in the mid-sixties by Fluxus artist Dick Higgins to describe the ineffable, often confusing, inter-disciplinary activities that occur between genres that became prevalent in the 1960s. ... Postmodernism is a term applied to a wide-ranging set of developments in critical theory, philosophy, architecture, art, literature, and culture, which are generally characterized as either emerging from, in reaction to, or superseding, modernism. ...


Modernism's goals

The 'Glass Palace' (1935) in the Netherlands - functional and open
The 'Glass Palace' (1935) in the Netherlands - functional and open

Many modernists believed that by rejecting tradition they could discover radically new ways of making art. Arnold Schoenberg believed that by rejecting traditional tonal harmony, the hierarchical system of organizing works of music which had guided music making for at least a century and a half, and perhaps longer, he had discovered a wholly new way of organizing sound, based in the use of twelve-note rows (See Twelve-tone technique). Abstract artists, taking as their examples the Impressionists, as well as Paul Cézanne and Edvard Munch, began with the assumption that color and shape formed the essential characteristics of art, not the depiction of the natural world. Wassily Kandinsky, Piet Mondrian, and Kazimir Malevich all believed in redefining art as the arrangement of pure color. The use of photography, which had rendered much of the representational function of visual art obsolete, strongly affected this aspect of modernism. However, these artists also believed that by rejecting the depiction of material objects they helped art move from a materialist to a spiritualist phase of development. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2592x1944, 183 KB) Summary Photograph made and uploaded by Dirk van der Made The front (northwest) side of the Glaspaleis Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2592x1944, 183 KB) Summary Photograph made and uploaded by Dirk van der Made The front (northwest) side of the Glaspaleis Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the... The Glaspaleis as seen from the market square (Bongerd) The mezzanine and ground floor The pillars and ventilation system The Glaspaleis (in English: Glass Palace or Crystal Palace) is the name of former fashion house and department store Schunck in Heerlen, The Netherlands, built in 1935, which is now the... Arnold Schoenberg, Los Angeles, 1948 Arnold Schoenberg (pronounced [ˈaːrnÉ”lt ˈʃøːnbÉ›rk]) (13 September 1874 – 13 July 1951) was an Austrian and later American composer, associated with the expressionist movement in German poetry and art, and leader of the Second Viennese School. ... The adjective tonal can refer to: tonality in music a tonal language the opposite of Nagual, in the specific context of Carlos Castaneda, the tonal is what makes the world. ... Twelve-tone technique (also dodecaphony) is a method of musical composition devised by Arnold Schoenberg. ... Cezanne redirects here. ... The Scream. ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... Look up shape in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Wassily Kandinsky (Russian: Василий Кандинский, first name pronounced as [vassi:li]) (December 16 [O.S. December 4] 1866 – December 13, 1944) was a Russian painter, printmaker and art theorist. ... Piet Mondrian, 1924 Pieter Cornelis (Piet) Mondriaan, after 1912 Mondrian, (pronounced: Dutch IPA: , later Pete Mon-dree-on, IPA: ) (b. ... Kazimir Severinovich Malevich (Russian: , Polish: , Ukrainian Казимір Северинович Малевич, German: ), (February 23, 1878 – May 15, 1935) was a painter and art theoretician, pioneer of geometric abstract art and one of the most important members of the Russian avant-garde. ... Photography [fÓ™tÉ‘grÓ™fi:],[foÊŠtÉ‘grÓ™fi:] is the process of recording pictures by means of capturing light on a light-sensitive medium, such as a film or electronic sensor. ... In philosophy, materialism is that form of physicalism which holds that the only thing that can truly be said to exist is matter; that fundamentally, all things are composed of material and all phenomena are the result of material interactions; that matter is the only substance. ...

Ludwig Mies van der Rohe's 330 North Wabash (formerly IBM Plaza) in Chicago
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe's 330 North Wabash (formerly IBM Plaza) in Chicago

Other modernists, especially those involved in design, had more pragmatic views. Modernist architects and designers believed that new technology rendered old styles of building obsolete. Le Corbusier thought that buildings should function as "machines for living in", analogous to cars, which he saw as machines for traveling in. Just as cars had replaced the horse, so modernist design should reject the old styles and structures inherited from Ancient Greece or from the Middle Ages. Following this machine aesthetic, modernist designers typically reject decorative motifs in design, preferring to emphasize the materials used and pure geometrical forms. The skyscraper, such as Ludwig Mies van der Rohe's Seagram Building in New York (19561958), became the archetypal modernist building. Modernist design of houses and furniture also typically emphasized simplicity and clarity of form, open-plan interiors, and the absence of clutter. Modernism reversed the 19th century relationship of public and private: in the 19th century, public buildings were horizontally expansive for a variety of technical reasons, and private buildings emphasized verticality—to fit more private space on more and more limited land. Conversely, in the 20th century, public buildings became vertically oriented, and private buildings became organized horizontally. Many aspects of modernist design still persist within the mainstream of contemporary architecture today, though its previous dogmatism has given way to a more playful use of decoration, historical quotation, and spatial drama. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 338 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1580 × 2800 pixel, file size: 533 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Ludwig Mies van... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 338 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1580 × 2800 pixel, file size: 533 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Ludwig Mies van... 330 North Wabash (formerly IBM Plaza) is a skyscraper in downtown Chicago, Illinois, at 330 North Wabash Avenue, designed by famed architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. ... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... The Weissenhof Estate in Stuttgart, Germany (1927) The Weissenhof Estate in Stuttgart, Germany (1930) The International style was a major architectural style of the 1920s and 1930s. ... Charles-Edouard Jeanneret, who chose to be known as Le Corbusier (October 6, 1887 – August 27, 1965), was a Swiss-born architect and writer, who is famous for his contributions to what now is called Modern Architecture. ... This article is about devices that perform tasks. ... Car redirects here. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... For other uses, see Skyscraper (disambiguation). ... Ludwig Mies van der Rohe born Maria Ludwig Michael Mies (March 27, 1886 – August 17, 1969) was a German architect. ... The Seagram Building is a skyscraper in New York City, located at 375 Park Avenue, between 52nd Street and 53rd Street in Midtown Manhattan. ... This article is about the state. ... A car from 1956 Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ...

In other arts such pragmatic considerations were less important. In literature and visual art some modernists sought to defy expectations mainly in order to make their art more vivid, or to force the audience to take the trouble to question their own preconceptions. This aspect of modernism has often seemed a reaction to consumer culture, which developed in Europe and North America in the late 19th century. Whereas most manufacturers try to make products that will be marketable by appealing to preferences and prejudices, high modernists rejected such consumerist attitudes in order to undermine conventional thinking. The art critic Clement Greenberg expounded this theory of modernism in his essay Avant-Garde and Kitsch.[12] Greenberg labelled the products of consumer culture "kitsch", because their design aimed simply to have maximum appeal, with any difficult features removed. For Greenberg, modernism thus formed a reaction against the development of such examples of modern consumer culture as commercial popular music, Hollywood, and advertising. Greenberg associated this with the revolutionary rejection of capitalism. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (776x728, 85 KB) Summary Computer graphic of famous chair designed by Marcel Breuer Own work, 16th July 2006, Borowski Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Bauhaus... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (776x728, 85 KB) Summary Computer graphic of famous chair designed by Marcel Breuer Own work, 16th July 2006, Borowski Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Bauhaus... Wassily chair by Marcel Breuer The Wassily Chair, also known as the Model B3 chair, was designed by Marcel Breuer in 1925-26 while he was the head of the cabinet-making workshop at the Bauhaus, in Dessau, Germany. ... Consumerist redirects here. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... North American redirects here. ... High modernism is a particular instance of modernism, coined towards the end of modernism. ... Clement Greenberg (January 16, 1909 - May 7, 1994) was an influential American art critic closely associated with the abstract art movement in the United States. ... Avant-Garde and Kitsch is the title of a 1939 essay by Clement Greenberg in which he claimed that avant-garde and modernist art was a means to resist the dumbing down of culture caused by consumerism. ... Kitsch is a term of German origin that has been used to categorize art that is considered an inferior copy of an existing style. ... For the music genre, see Pop music. ... This article is about motion pictures. ... // Advert redirects here. ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ...


Some modernists did see themselves as part of a revolutionary culture—one that included political revolution. Others rejected conventional politics as well as artistic conventions, believing that a revolution of political consciousness had greater importance than a change in political structures. Many modernists saw themselves as apolitical. Others, such as T. S. Eliot, rejected mass popular culture from a conservative position. Indeed, one could argue that modernism in literature and art functioned to sustain an elite culture which excluded the majority of the population. For other uses, see Revolution (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... // Consciousness typically refers to the idea of a being who is self-aware. ... Thomas Stearns Eliot, OM (September 26, 1888 – January 4, 1965), was a poet, dramatist and literary critic. ... Popular culture (or pop culture) is the widespread cultural elements in any given society that are perpetuated through that societys vernacular language or lingua franca. ... Conservatism is a term used to describe political philosophies that favor tradition and gradual change, where tradition refers to religious, cultural, or nationally defined beliefs and customs. ... Elitism is the belief or attitude that the people who are considered to be the elite — a selected group of persons with outstanding personal abilities, wealth, specialised training or experience, or other distinctive attributes — are the people whose views on a matter are to be taken the most seriously, or...


Modernism's reception and controversy

Franz Marc, The fate of the animals, 1913, oil on canvas. Displayed at the exhibition of Entartete Kunst in Munich, Nazi Germany, 1937.
Franz Marc, The fate of the animals, 1913, oil on canvas. Displayed at the exhibition of Entartete Kunst in Munich, Nazi Germany, 1937.

The most controversial aspect of the modern movement was, and remains, its rejection of tradition. Modernism's stress on freedom of expression, experimentation, radicalism, and primitivism disregards conventional expectations. In many art forms this often meant startling and alienating audiences with bizarre and unpredictable effects: the strange and disturbing combinations of motifs in Surrealism, or the use of extreme dissonance and atonality in modernist music. In literature this often involved the rejection of intelligible plots or characterisation in novels, or the creation of poetry that defied clear interpretation. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1080x794, 135 KB) Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Modernism Franz Marc Degenerate art ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1080x794, 135 KB) Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Modernism Franz Marc Degenerate art ... Franz Marc (February 8, 1880 – March 4, 1916) was one of the principal painters and printmakers of the German Expressionist movement. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Joseph Goebbels, Adolf Hitler and Adolf Ziegler visit the entartete Kunst exhibition. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Freedom of speech is the right to freely say what one pleases, as well as the related right to hear what others have stated. ... The term Radical (latin radix meaning root) was used from the late 18th century for proponents of the Radical Movement and has since been used as a label in political science for those favouring or trying to produce thoroughgoing political reforms which can include changes to the social order to... Primitivism is an artistic movement which originated as a reaction to the Enlightenment. ... Max Ernst. ... In music, a consonance (Latin consonare, sounding together) is a harmony, chord, or interval considered stable, as opposed to a dissonance, which is considered unstable. ... Atonality describes music not conforming to the system of tonal hierarchies, which characterizes the sound of classical European music between the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries. ...


The Soviet Communist government rejected modernism after the rise of Stalin on the grounds of alleged elitism, although it had previously endorsed Futurism and Constructivism; and the Nazi government in Germany deemed it narcissistic and nonsensical, as well as "Jewish" and "Negro" (see Anti-semitism). The Nazis exhibited modernist paintings alongside works by the mentally ill in an exhibition entitled Degenerate art (Louis A. Sass (Bauer 2004) compares madness, specifically schizophrenia, and modernism in a less fascist manner by noting their shared disjunctive narratives, surreal images, and incoherence). Accusations of "formalism" could lead to the end of a career, or worse. For this reason many modernists of the post-war generation felt that they were the most important bulwark against totalitarianism, the "canary in the coal mine", whose repression by a government or other group with supposed authority represented a warning that individual liberties were being threatened. CCCP redirects here. ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვილი; see Other names section) (December 21, 1879[1] – March 5, 1953) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and leader of the Soviet Union. ... El Lissitzkys poster for a post-revolutionary production of the Victory Over the Sun. ... Tatlin Tower. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... This article is about narcissism as a word in common use. ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... A mental illness or mental disorder refers to one of many mental health conditions characterized by distress, impaired cognitive functioning, atypical behavior, emotional dysregulation, and/or maladaptive behavior. ... Joseph Goebbels, Adolf Hitler and Adolf Ziegler visit the entartete Kunst exhibition. ... Binomial name Serinus canaria (Linnaeus, 1758) The Canary (Serinus canaria) sometimes called the Island Canary, Wild Canary or Atlantic Canary, is a small bird in the finch family. ...


In fact, modernism flourished mainly in consumer/capitalist societies, despite the fact that its proponents often rejected consumerism itself. However, high modernism began to merge with consumer culture after World War II, especially during the 1960s. In Britain, a youth sub-culture even called itself "modernists", though usually shortened to Mods, following such representative music groups as The Who and The Kinks. The likes of Bob Dylan, Serge Gainsbourg and The Rolling Stones combined popular musical traditions with modernist verse, adopting literary devices derived from James Joyce, Samuel Beckett, James Thurber, T. S. Eliot, Guillaume Apollinaire, Allen Ginsberg, and others. The Beatles developed along similar lines, creating various modernist musical effects on several albums, while musicians such as Frank Zappa, Syd Barrett and Captain Beefheart proved even more experimental. Modernist devices also started to appear in popular cinema, and later on in music videos. Modernist design also began to enter the mainstream of popular culture, as simplified and stylized forms became popular, often associated with dreams of a space age high-tech future. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969. ... In biology, a subculture in a population of a microorganism is when one microbe colony in such a population is transferred onto blank growth medium and allowed to freely reproduce. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Who are a British rock band that first formed in 1964, and grew to be considered one of the greatest[1] and most influential[2] bands in the world. ... The Kinks were an English rock group formed in 1963 by lead singer-songwriter Ray Davies, his brother, lead guitarist and vocalist Dave Davies, and bassist Pete Quaife. ... This article is about the recording artist. ... Serge Gainsbourg (April 2, 1928 – March 2, 1991) was a French poet, singer-songwriter, actor and director. ... Rolling Stones redirects here. ... This article is about the writer and poet. ... Samuel Barclay Beckett (13 April 1906 – 22 December 1989) was an Irish dramatist, novelist and poet. ... James Grover Thurber (December 8, 1894–November 2, 1961) was a U.S. humorist and cartoonist. ... Thomas Stearns Eliot, OM (September 26, 1888 – January 4, 1965), was a poet, dramatist and literary critic. ... Guillaume Apollinaire Guillaume Apollinaire (August 26, 1880 – November 9, 1918) was a poet, writer, and art critic. ... Irwin Allen Ginsberg (IPA: ) (June 3, 1926 – April 5, 1997) was an American poet. ... The White Album, see The Beatles (album). ... Frank Vincent Zappa[1] (December 21, 1940 – December 4, 1993) was an American composer, musician, and film director. ... Roger Keith Syd Barrett (6 January 1946 – 7 July 2006) was an English singer, songwriter, guitarist, and artist. ... Don Van Vliet (born Don Glen Vliet on January 15, 1941, in Glendale, California, U.S.) is a musician and visual artist, best known by the pseudonym Captain Beefheart. ... A music video is a short film or video that accompanies a complete piece of music, most commonly a song. ... The Space Shuttle takes off on a manned mission to space. ...


This merging of consumer and high versions of modernist culture led to a radical transformation of the meaning of "modernism". Firstly, it implied that a movement based on the rejection of tradition had become a tradition of its own. Secondly, it demonstrated that the distinction between elite modernist and mass consumerist culture had lost its precision. Some writers declared that modernism had become so institutionalized that it was now "post avant-garde", indicating that it had lost its power as a revolutionary movement. Many have interpreted this transformation as the beginning of the phase that became known as Postmodernism. For others, such as, for example, art critic Robert Hughes, postmodernism represents an extension of modernism. Postmodernism is a term applied to a wide-ranging set of developments in critical theory, philosophy, architecture, art, literature, and culture, which are generally characterized as either emerging from, in reaction to, or superseding, modernism. ... Robert Studley Forrest Hughes (born July 28, 1938), usually known simply as Robert Hughes, OA is an Australian art critic, writer, documentary broadcaster and republican (anti-monarchist). ...


"Anti-modern" or "counter-modern" movements seek to emphasize holism, connection and spirituality as being remedies or antidotes to modernism. Such movements see Modernism as reductionist, and therefore subject to the failure to see systemic and emergent effects. Many Modernists came to this viewpoint, for example Paul Hindemith in his late turn towards mysticism. Writers such as Paul H. Ray and Sherry Ruth Anderson, in The Cultural Creatives (2000), Fredrick Turner in A Culture of Hope and Lester Brown in Plan B, have articulated a critique of the basic idea of modernism itself — that individual creative expression should conform to the realities of technology. Instead, they argue, individual creativity should make everyday life more emotionally acceptable. The Earth seen from Apollo 17. ... Spirituality, in a narrow sense, concerns itself with matters of the spirit. ... ... Paul Hindemith aged 28. ...


In some fields the effects of modernism have remained stronger and more persistent than in others. Visual art has made the most complete break with its past. Most major capital cities have museums devoted to 'Modern Art' as distinct from post-Renaissance art (circa 1400 to circa 1900). Examples include the Museum of Modern Art in New York, the Tate Modern in London, and the Centre Pompidou in Paris. These galleries make no distinction between modernist and postmodernist phases, seeing both as developments within 'Modern Art'. This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... Events Henry IV quells baron rebellion and executes The Earls of Kent, Huntingdon and Salisbury for their attempt to have Richard II of England restored as King Jean Froissart writes the Chronicles Medici family becomes powerful in Florence, Italy Births December 25 - John Sutton, 1st Baron Dudley, Lord Lieutenant of... Äž: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ... This article is about the museum in New York City. ... This article is about the state. ... Tate Modern from the Millennium Bridge Tate Modern from St Pauls Cathedral. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The Pompidou Centres famous external skeleton of service pipes. ... This article is about the capital of France. ...


See also

Modern architecture, not to be confused with contemporary architecture, is a term given to a number of building styles with similar characteristics, primarily the simplification of form and the elimination of ornament. ... a poem, The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock, which brought him to prominence. ... Medium specificity is a principle in aesthetics and art criticism that developed during the period in art history called Modernism. ... The Weissenhof Estate in Stuttgart, Germany (1927) The Weissenhof Estate in Stuttgart, Germany (1930) The International style was a major architectural style of the 1920s and 1930s. ... Frank Stella La scienza della laziness (The Science of Laziness) 1984, oil, enamel and alkyd paint on canvas, etched magnesium, aluminum and fiberglass, National Gallery of Art Washington DC // Late Modernism, encompasses the overall production of most recent art made between the aftermath of World War II and the early... Postmodern art is a term used to describe art which is thought to be in contradiction to some aspect of modernism, or to have emerged or developed in its aftermath. ...

References

  1. ^ "In the twentieth century, the social processes that bring this maelstrom into being, and keep it in a state of perpetual becoming, have come to be called 'modernization'. These world-historical processes have nourished an amazing variety of visions and ideas that aim to make men and women the subjects as well as the objects of modernization, to give them the power to change the world that is changing them, to make their way through the maelstrom and make it their own. Over the past century, these visions and values have come to be loosely grouped together under the name of 'modernism'" (Berman 1988, 16).
  2. ^ Clement Greenberg: Modernism and Postmodernism, seventh paragraph of the essay. URL accessed on June 15, 2006
  3. ^ Fred Orton and Griselda Pollock, Avant-Gardes and Partisans Reviewed. Manchester University, 1996.
  4. ^ Nochlin, Linda, Ch.1 in: Women Artists at the Millennium (edited by C. Armstrong and C. de Zegher) MIT Press, 2006.
  5. ^ Pollock, Griselda, Encounters in the Virtual Feminist Museum: Time, Space and the Archive. Routledge, 2007.
  6. ^ De Zegher, Catherine, and Teicher, Hendel (eds.), 3 X Abstraction. New Haven: Yale University Press. 2005.
  7. ^ Aldrich, Larry. Young Lyrical Painters, Art in America, v.57, n6, November-December 1969, pp.104-113.
  8. ^ Movers and Shakers, New York, "Leaving C&M", by Sarah Douglas, Art and Auction, March 2007, V.XXXNo7.
  9. ^ Movers and Shakers, New York, "Leaving C&M", by Sarah Douglas, Art and Auction, March 2007, V.XXXNo7.
  10. ^ Martin, Ann Ray, and Howard Junker. The New Art: It's Way, Way Out, Newsweek 29 July 1968: pp.3,55-63.
  11. ^ Movers and Shakers, New York, "Leaving C&M", by Sarah Douglas, Art and Auction, March 2007, V.XXXNo7.
  12. ^ Clement Greenberg, Art and Culture, Beacon Press, 1961

is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Clement Greenberg (January 16, 1909 - May 7, 1994) was an influential American art critic closely associated with the abstract art movement in the United States. ...

Sources

  • Armstrong, Carol and de Zegher, Catherine (eds.), Women Artists as the Millennium, Cambridge Massachusetts: October Books, MIT Press, 2006. ISBN 978-0-262-01226-3.
  • Aspray, William & Philip Kitcher, eds., History and Philosophy of Modern Mathematics, Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science vol XI, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1988
  • Baker, Houston A., Jr., Modernism and the Harlem Renaissance, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987
  • Berman, Marshall, All That Is Solid Melts Into Air: The Experience of Modernity. Second ed. London: Penguin, 1988. ISBN 0140109625.
  • Bradbury, Malcolm, & James McFarlane (eds.), Modernism: A Guide to European Literature 1890–1930 (Penguin "Penguin Literary Criticism" series, 1978, ISBN 0-14-013832-3).
  • Brush, Stephen G., The History of Modern Science: A Guide to the Second Scientific Revolution, 1800-1950, Ames, IO: Iowa State U.P., 1988
  • Centre George Pompidou, Face a l'Histoire, 1933-1996. Flammarion, 1996. ISBN 2-85850-898-4.
  • Crouch, Christopher, Modernism in art design and architecture, New York: St. Martins Press, 2000
  • Everdell, William R., The First Moderns: Profiles in the Origins of Twentieth Century Thought, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997
  • Eysteinsson, Astradur, The Concept of Modernism, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1992
  • Hughes, Robert, The Shock of the New: Art and the Century of Change (Gardners Books, 1991, ISBN 0-500-27582-3).
  • Kenner, Hugh, The Pound Era (1971), Berkeley, CA: U. of California Press, 1973
  • Kern, Stephen, The Culture of Time and Space, Cambridge, MA: Harvard U.P., 1983
  • Kolocotroni, Vassiliki et al, ed.,Modernism: An Anthology of Sources and Documents (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1998).
  • Levenson, Michael (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Modernism (Cambridge University Press, "Cambridge Companions to Literature" series, 1999, ISBN 0-521-49866-X).
  • Lewis, Pericles. The Cambridge Introduction to Modernism (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007).
  • Nicholls, Peter, Modernisms: A Literary Guide (Hampshire and London: Macmillan, 1995).
  • Pevsner, Nikolaus, Pioneers of Modern Design: From William Morris to Walter Gropius (Yale University Press, 2005, ISBN 0-300-10571-1).
  • —, The Sources of Modern Architecture and Design (Thames & Hudson, "World of Art" series, 1985, ISBN 0-500-20072-6).
  • Pollock, Griselda, Generations and Geographies in the Visual Arts. (Routledge, London, 1996. ISBN 0-415-14128-1)
  • Pollock, Griselda, and Florence, Penny, Looking Back to the Future: Essays by Griselda Pollock from the 1990s. (New York: G&B New Arts Press, 2001. ISBN 90-5701-132-8)
  • Sass, Louis A. (1992). Madness and Modernism: Insanity in the Light of Modern Art, Literature, and Thought. New York: Basic Books. Cited in Bauer, Amy (2004). "Cognition, Constraints, and Conceptual Blends in Modernist Music", in The Pleasure of Modernist Music. ISBN 1-58046-143-3.
  • Schwartz, Sanford, The Matrix of Modernism: Pound, Eliot, and Early Twentieth Century Thought, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1985
  • Van Loo, Sofie (ed.), Gorge(l). Royal Museum of Fine Art, Antwerp, 2006. ISBN
  • Weston, Richard, Modernism (Phaidon Press, 2001, ISBN 0-7148-4099-8).
  • de Zegher, Catherine, Inside the Visible. (MIT Press, 1996).

Modern genera Aptenodytes Eudyptes Eudyptula Megadyptes Pygoscelis Spheniscus For prehistoric genera, see Systematics Some penguins are curious. ... William Romeyn Everdell is an American teacher and author. ... Gardners Books is the largest book wholesaler in the United Kingdom. ... The headquarters of the Cambridge University Press, in Trumpington Street, Cambridge. ... Sir Nikolaus Pevsner CBE (January 30, 1902 – August 18, 1983) was a German-born British historian of art and, especially, architecture. ... Yale University Press is a book publisher founded in 1908. ... Thames & Hudson (also Thames and Hudson and sometimes T&H for brevity) are a publisher, especially of art and illustrated books, founded in 1949 by Walter and Eva Neurath. ... World of Art is a well-known and long established series of art books from the publisher Thames & Hudson. ... The Phaidon Press is one of the leading publishers of books on the visual arts, including art, architecture, photography, and design worldwide. ...

External links

Look up Modernism in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
  • http://www.mastersofmodernism.com/?page=Modernism
  • J.G. Ballard on Modernism
  • Modernism: back when it meant something by John Haber
  • Modernism/Modernity, official publication of the Modernist Studies Association
  • [1], Pope St. Pius X's encyclical Pascendi, in which he defines Modernism as "the synthesis of all heresies".

Modernity is a term used to describe the condition of being related to modernism. ... Modern history describes the history of the Modern Times, the era after the Middle Ages. ... Modernism in musicis characterized by a desire for or belief in progressand science, surrealism, anti-romanticism, politicaladvocacy, general intellectualism, and/or a breaking with tradition or common practice. ... Modernist literature is the literary form of Modernism and especially High modernism; it should not be confused with modern literature, which is the history of the modern novel and modern poetry as one. ... Mountebanks ... Dejeuner sur lHerbe by Pablo Picasso At the Moulin Rouge: Two Women Waltzing by Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, 1892 The Scream by Edvard Munch, 1893 I and the Village by Marc Chagall, 1911 Fountain by Marcel Duchamp, 1917 Campbells Soup Cans 1962 Synthetic polymer paint on thirty-two... Modern dance is often performed in bare feet. ... Modern architecture, not to be confused with contemporary architecture, is a term given to a number of building styles with similar characteristics, primarily the simplification of form and the elimination of ornament. ... Romantics redirects here. ... Postmodernism is a term applied to a wide-ranging set of developments in critical theory, philosophy, architecture, art, literature, and culture, which are generally characterized as either emerging from, in reaction to, or superseding, modernism. ...


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