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Encyclopedia > Modern world
See related article Modernity.

The concept Modern World is recognized by many historians as being the period of time commencing after the Middle Ages and the Early Modern period, after the mid-18th century. Other terms, such as Modern Period, modern times, the Modern Age, or the Modern Era, are commonly used. Some historians also use the terms New World or the Progressive Age to denote the recent period of time in history. Modernity is a term used to describe the condition of being Modern. Since the term Modern is used to describe a wide range of periods, modernity must be taken in context. ... Periodization is the attempt to categorize or divide historical time into discrete named blocks. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The early modern period is a term used by historians to refer to the period in Western Europe and its first colonies, between the Middle Ages and modern society. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ...

Contents


Beginning and ending

The beginning of this period is marked by the end of the European Renaissance. Its exact definition depends on the specific usage — for example a historian might be referring to the period 1650-, whilst a musician might be referring to music postdating the romantic era which would date the beginning of modernity to around 1900. World map showing Europe Europe is conventionally considered one of the seven continents which, in this case, is more a cultural and political distinction than a physiogeographic one. ... By region Italian Renaissance Spanish Renaissance Northern Renaissance English Renaissance French Renaissance German Renaissance Polish Renaissance The Renaissance, also known as Il Rinascimento (in Italian), was an influential cultural movement which brought about a period of scientific revolution, religious reform and artistic transformation, at the dawn of modern European history. ... // Events June 23 - Claimant King Charles II of England, Scotland and Ireland arrives in Scotland, the only of the three Kingdoms that has accepted him as ruler. ... Romanticism was an artistic and intellectual movement that originated in late 18th century Western Europe. ... Modernity is a term used to describe the condition of being Modern. Since the term Modern is used to describe a wide range of periods, modernity must be taken in context. ... 1900 (MCM) is a common year starting on Monday. ...


The modern age may be defined to extend to the present day or else to conclude postmodernism (which may be dated any time from the 1960s to the early 1980s), again depending on the usage. In the case where modern is used in a sense which means "before postmodernism", it may refer specifically to modernism. Another view is that postmodernism may, however, be considered as just the latest development of modernism itself. Postmodernism is a term describing a wide-ranging change in thinking beginning in the early 20th century. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969, inclusive. ... The 1980s decade refers to the years from 1980 to 1989, inclusive. ... Modernism is a cultural movement that generally includes progressive art and architecture, music and literature which emerged in the decades before 1914, as artists rebelled against late 19th century academic and historicist traditions. ...


Characteristics

The concept of the modern world as distinct from an ancient world of historical and outmoded artifacts rests on a sense that the modern world is primarily the product of relatively recent and revolutionary change. Advances in all areas of human activity -- politics, industry, society, economics, commerce, transport, communication, mechanization, automation, science, medicine, technology and culture -- appear to have transformed an "Old World" into the 'Modern or New World. In each case, the identification of a Revolutionary change can be used to demarcate the old and old-fashioned from the modern. Politics is a process by which collective decisions are made within groups. ... ... Economics (from the Greek οίκος [oikos], house, and νομος [nomos], rule, hence household management) is a social science that studies the production, distribution, trade and consumption of goods and services. ... Commerce is the trading of something of value between two entities. ... Communication is the process of exchanging information, usually via a common protocol. ... Mechanization refers to the use of powered machinery to help a human operator in some task. ... Automation (ancient Greek: = self dictated) or industrial automation or numerical control is the use of control systems (e. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Science For the scientific journal named Science, see Science (journal). ... Medicine is the branch of health science and the sector of public life concerned with maintaining human health or restoring it through the treatment of disease and injury. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... The Old World consists of those parts of Earth known to Europeans before the voyages of Christopher Columbus: Europe, Asia, and Africa (collectively known as Africa-Eurasia) and the surrounding islands. ...


Politics

In European politics, the transition from feudal institutions to modern institutions has been marked by a series of Revolutions and military conflicts, beginning with the Eighty Years' War, which resulted in Dutch independence, confirmed in the Peace of Westphalia. The Peace of Westphalia (1648) established the modern international system of independent nation-states, ending feudalism in international relations. The English Glorious Revolution (1688) marked the end of feudalism in Great Britain, creating a modern constitutional monarchy. The French Revolution of 1789 overthrew the Ancien Régime in France, and as a result of the Napoleonic Wars, served to introduce political modernity in much of Western Europe. The Eighty Years War, or Dutch Revolt, was the war of secession between the Netherlands and the Spanish king, that lasted from 1568 to 1648. ... The Ratification of the Treaty of Münster by Gerard Terborch (1648) Banquet of the Amsterdam Civic Guard in Celebration of the Peace of Münster by Bartholomeus van der Helst, 1648 The Peace of Westphalia, also known as the Treaties of Münster and Osnabrück, refers to the... // Events January 17 - Englands Long Parliament passes the Vote of No Address, breaking off negotiations with King Charles I and thereby setting the scene for the second phase of the English Civil War. ... // Events A high-powered conspiracy of notables, the Immortal Seven, invite William and Mary to depose James II of England. ... The French Revolution (1789-1799) was a period in the history of France. ... 1789 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Ancien Régime means Old Rule or Old Order in French; in English, the term refers primarily to the social and political system established in France under the Valois and Bourbon dynasties. ...


The American and French Revolutions limited the powers of the absolute monarchs. Henceforth the world would become a "Modern" place where Democracy, and Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity became the new standards of government and of the rules of society. Freedom - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Social equality is a social state of affairs in which certain different people have the same status in a certain respect. ... Brotherhood has multiple meanings: Siblings: The relationship between male offspring, Fraternity: Sodality, or people engaged in a particular occupation; the medical fraternity Brotherhood: The feeling that men should treat one another as brothers Labor union: Union, trade union, brotherhood, an organization of employees formed to bargain with an employer Brotherhood... ...


Men such as the Emperor Napoleon introduced new codes of law in Europe based on merit and achievement, rather than on a class system rooted in Feudalism. The modern political system of Liberalism (derived from the word "Liberty" which means "Freedom") empowered members of the disenfranchised Third Estate. The power of elected bodies supplanted traditional rule by royal decree. A new attachment to one's nation, culture and language produced the powerful forces of Nationalism. This in turn ultimately contributed to new ideologies such as the ideology of Fascism, Socialism and Communism. For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... World map showing Europe Europe is conventionally considered one of the seven continents which, in this case, is more a cultural and political distinction than a physiogeographic one. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Social class describes the relationships between people in hierarchical societies or cultures. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... This article discusses liberalism as a major political ideology as it developed and stands currently. ... In France of the ancien régime and the age of the French Revolution, the term Third Estate (tiers état) indicated the generality of people which were not part of the clergy (the First Estate) nor of the nobility (the Second Estate). ... An Order-in-Council is a type of legislation in the United Kingdom and certain Commonwealth countries which is formally made in the name of the Queen (or the Governor-General acting on her behalf) by the Privy Council or the Executive Council the Queen-in-Council or the Governor... One of the most influential doctrines in history is that all humans are divided into groups called nations. ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... // Nationalism is an ideology which holds that the nation, ethnicity or national identity is a fundamental unit of human social life, and makes certain cultural and political claims based upon that belief; in particular, the claim that the nation is the only legitimate basis for the state, and that each... An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Socialism is an ideology of a social and economic system where the means of production are collectively owned and administered by all of society. ... Communism refers to a conjectured future classless, stateless social organization based upon common ownership of the means of production, and can be classified as a branch of the broader socialist movement. ...


Taken to an extreme, the desire to demolish all vestiges of the past and create a classless society, resulted in the abuses of Communism following the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia, which executed the Tsar and his family, created the Soviet Union, transformed serfdom, and forcibly modernized Mother Russia. In Germany, once the Kaiser had abdicated in 1918, chaos ensued, paving the way for the rise of Adolf Hitler and Nazism. A social class is, at its most basic, a group of people that have similar status. ... Communism refers to a conjectured future classless, stateless social organization based upon common ownership of the means of production, and can be classified as a branch of the broader socialist movement. ... The October Revolution, also known as the Bolshevik Revolution, was the second phase of the Russian Revolution, the first having been instigated by the events around the February Revolution. ... Look up Tsar in Wiktionary, the free dictionary For the US community of Czar, see Czar, West Virginia. ... Costumes of Slaves or Serfs, from the Sixth to the Twelfth Centuries, collected by H. de Vielcastel, from original Documents in the great Libraries of Europe. ... The history of Russia is essentially that of its many nationalities, each with a separate history and complex origins. ... Kaiser is the German title meaning Emperor, derived from the Roman title of Caesar, as is the Slavic title of Tsar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... (help· info) (April 20, 1889 – April 30, 1945) was Chancellor of Germany from 1933 and Führer (Leader) of Germany from 1934 until his death. ... The term - National Socialism has been used in self-description by a number of different political groups and ideologies, some of which have no connection with the Nazis; see National socialism (disambiguation). ...


The new republic of the United States of America granted the vote to white, male citizens, and placed reins on government based on the new Constitution and created a system of checks and balances between the three different branches of government, the legislature, judiciary, and executive headed by a President who was elected via a national election. In a broad definition, a republic is a state whose political organization rests on the principle that the citizens or electorate constitute the ultimate root of legitimacy and sovereignty. ... Voting is a method of decision making wherein a group such as a meeting or an electorate attempts to gauge its opinion—usually as a final step following discussions or debates. ... The doctrine and practice of dispersing political power and creating mutual accountability between political entities such as the courts, the president or prime minister, the legislature, and the citizens. ... A legislature is a governmental deliberative assembly with the power to adopt laws. ... The judiciary, also referred to as the judicature, consists of the system of courts of law for the administration of justice and to its principals, the justices, judges and magistrates among other types of adjudicators. ... President is a title held by many leaders of organizations, companies, universities, and countries. ... An election is a decision making process whereby people vote for preferred political candidates or parties to act as representatives in government. ...


In Indian politics, Mughal (1526-1857) and British (1857-1947) invasion and skillful organization gradually brought unification for the first time to a subcontinent of separate states and kingdoms into a strongly united federalist system, and culminating in the world's largest democracy (1947-Present). The European Union is now beginning the equivalent process that the Indian Union has completed over the last 500 years, of a continent becoming a federalist union, with the difference being the willingness of the European states to unite, versus the union being imposed on the Indian states by invaders.


Science and technology

Revolutions in science and technology have been no less influential than political revolutions in changing the shape of the modern world. The Scientific revolution, beginning with the discoveries of Kepler and Galileo, and culminating with Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (1687), changed the way in which educated people looked at the natural world. In the history of science, the scientific revolution was the period that roughly began with the discoveries of Kepler, Galileo, and others at the dawn of the 17th century, and ended with the publication of the Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica in 1687 by Isaac Newton. ... Johannes Kepler (December 27, 1571 – November 15, 1630), a key figure in the scientific revolution, was a Lutheran mathematician, astrologer, and astronomer. ... Galileo can refer to: Galileo Galilei, astronomer, philosopher, and physicist (1564 - 1642) the Galileo spacecraft, a NASA space probe that visited Jupiter and its moons the Galileo positioning system Life of Galileo, a play by Bertolt Brecht Galileo (1975) - screen adaptation of the play Life of Galileo by Bertolt Brecht... Newtons own copy of his Principia, with hand written corrections for the second edition. ... Events March 19 - The men under explorer Robert Cavelier de La Salle murder him while searching for the mouth of the Mississippi River. ...


Inventions

The mechanical and scientific inventions that were discovered, studied and implemented changed the way in which goods were produced and marketed. For example, modern machines in Britain sped up the manufacture of commodities such as cloth and iron. The horse and ox were no longer needed as beasts of burden. The newly invented engine powered the car, train, ship, and eventually the plane, revolutionizing the way people traveled. Artificially created energy powered any motor that drove any machine that was invented. Raw goods could be transported in huge quantities over vast distances; products could be manufactured quickly and then marketed all over the world, a situation that Britain used to its advantage. The word mechanical can mean one of several things: A device or principle described as mechanical relates to a mechanism or machine, or the realm of Newtonian mechanics. ... For the scientific journal named Science, see Science (journal). ... Wind turbines A machine is any mechanical or organic device that transmits or modifies energy to perform or assist in the performance of tasks. ... The word commodity has a different meaning in business than in Marxian political economy. ... A variety of fabric. ... General Name, Symbol, Number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Atomic mass 55. ... An engine is something that produces some effect from a given input. ... A small variety of cars, the most popular kind of automobile. ... In rail transport, a train consists of a single or several connected rail vehicles that are capable of being moved together along a guideway to transport freight or passengers from one place to another along a planned route. ... Italian ship-rigged vessel Amerigo Vespucci in New York Harbor, 1976 A ship is a large, sea-going watercraft, sometimes with multiple decks. ... Fixed-wing aircraft is a generic term used to refer to what are more commonly known as airplanes in North American English and aeroplanes in Commonwealth English. ... A motor is a device that converts energy into mechanical power, and is often synonymous with engine. ... Wind turbines A machine is any mechanical or organic device that transmits or modifies energy to perform or assist in the performance of tasks. ...


Progress continued as Science saw so many new scientific discoveries. The telephone, radio, X-rays, microscopes, electricity all contributed to rapid changes in life-styles and societies. Discoveries of antibiotics such as penicillin brought new ways of combating diseases. Surgery and medications kept on making progressive improvements in medical care, hospitals, and nursing. New theories such as Evolution and Psychoanalysis changed humanity's "old fashioned" views of itself. Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Science For the scientific journal named Science, see Science (journal). ... For the scientific journal named Science, see Science (journal). ... The telephone or phone (Greek: tele = far away and phone = voice) is a telecommunications device which is used to transmit and receive sound (most commonly voice and speech) across distance. ... In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz... It has been suggested that microscopy be merged into this article or section. ... Lightning strikes during a night-time thunderstorm. ... An antibiotic is a drug that kills or slows the growth of bacteria. ... Penicillin nucleus Penicillin refers to a group of β-lactam antibiotics used in the treatment of bacterial infections caused by susceptible, usually Gram-positive, organisms. ... A typical modern surgical operation For other uses, see Surgery (disambiguation). ... A medication is a licenced drug taken to cure or reduce symptoms of an illness or medical condition. ... See drugs, medication, and pharmacology for substances that are used to treat patients. ... A physician visiting the sick in a hospital. ... Nursing is a discipline focused on assisting individuals, families and communities in attaining, re-attaining and maintaining optimal health and functioning. ... A speculative phylogenetic tree of all living things, based on rRNA gene data, showing the separation of the three domains, bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes. ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Industry

An Industrial Revolution initiated by mechanical automation of the manufacture of cotton cloth and the use of steam engines, commenced in the 18th century in Great Britain, followed in the 19th century by a later series of developments, which saw modern systems of communication and transportation introduced in the form of steamships, railroads and the telegraph. In the late 19th century, a Second Industrial Revolution, prompted by developments in the chemical, petroleum, steel and electrical industries, furthered transformed the modern world. The Industrial Revolution (more correctly, the First Industrial Revolution) was one of the major technological, socioeconomic and cultural changes in the late 18th and early 19th century resulting from the replacement of an economy based on manual labour to one dominated by industry and machine manufacture. ... The Second Industrial Revolution (1871-1914) involved significant developments for society and the world. ...


Warfare

Warfare was changed with the advent of new varieties of rifle, cannon, gun, machine gun, armor, tank, plane, jet, and missile. Weapons such as the atomic bomb and the hydrogen bomb, known along with chemical weapons and biological weapons as weapons of mass destruction, actually made the devastation of the entire planet Earth possible in minutes. All these are among the markings of the Modern World. A rifle is a firearm that uses a spiral groove cut into the barrel to spin a projectile (usually a bullet), thus improving accuracy and range of the projectile. ... A small cast-iron cannon on a carriage A cannon is any large tubular firearm designed to fire a heavy projectile over a considerable distance. ... 155 mm M198 howitzer U.S. Army soldier with a compact M249 variant USS Iowa (BB-61) fires a full broadside of nine 16/50 and six 5/38 guns during a target exercise near Vieques Island, Puerto Rico, 1 July 1984. ... A machine gun is a fully-automatic firearm that is capable of firing bullets in rapid succession. ... Alternative meanings: vehicle armour, Armor (novel) A hoplite wearing a helmet, a breastplate and greaves (and nothing else). ... Fixed-wing aircraft is a generic term used to refer to what are more commonly known as airplanes in North American English and aeroplanes in Commonwealth English. ... A jet is a stream of fluid produced by discharge through an orifice into free space. ... A missile (CE pronunciation: ; AmE: ) is, in general, a projectile—that is, something thrown or otherwise propelled. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, in 1945 lifted nuclear fallout some 18 km (60,000 feet) above the epicenter. ... Early detection of chemical agents Sociopolitical climate of chemical warfare While the study of chemicals and their military uses was widespread in China, the use of toxic materials has historically been viewed with mixed emotions and some disdain in the West (especially when the enemy were doing it). ... Biological warfare, also known as germ warfare, is the use of any organism (bacteria, virus or other disease_causing organism) or toxin found in nature, as a weapon of war. ... Weapons of mass destruction (WMD) generally include nuclear, biological, chemical and, increasingly, radiological weapons. ... A planet is generally considered to be a relatively large mass of accreted matter in orbit around a star that is not a star itself. ... Earth is the third planet from the Sun, and the one we all live on. ...


Culture

New attitudes towards religion, with the church diminished, and a desire for personal freedoms, induced desires for sexual freedoms, which were ultimately accepted by large sectors of the Western World. Theories of "free love" and uninhibited sex were touted by radicals in the 1960s. A church building (or simply church) is a building used in Christian worship. ... Human sexuality is the expression of sexual feelings. ... The term Western world or the West can have multiple meanings depending on its context. ... Free love is an ideology that love and sexual activities should be shared amongst many rather than confined to monogamous relationships, and that notions such as marriage should be abolished altogether. ... Look up Sex in Wiktionary, the free dictionary This article is about biological sexes — male, female, etc. ...


Equality of the sexes in politics and economics, women's liberation movement, gay rights for homosexuals and the freedom afforded by contraception allowed for greater personal choices in these intimate areas of personal life. Feminism is a diverse collection of social theories, political movements, and moral philosophies, largely motivated by or concerning the experiences of women, especially in terms of their social, political, and economic situation. ... The gay rights movement is a collection of loosely aligned civil rights groups, human rights groups, support groups and political activists seeking acceptance, tolerance and equality for non-heterosexual, (homosexual, bisexual), and transgender people - despite the fact that it is typically referred to as the gay rights movement, members also... Since the first coinage, the word homosexuality has acquired multiple meanings. ...


In Indian culture, caste divisions continued, but lost its affiliation with occupations, as competitive exams became universal.


The Arts


The Modern Age, when used in reference to the arts, is the period from around the beginning of the 20th century, up to the present day. While some art may be described as post-modern, in reality this is just a continuation of the characteristics of modern art. Modern art is typified by self-awareness, and by the manipulation of form or medium as an integral part of the work itself. Whereas pre-modern art merely sought to represent a form of reality, modern art tends to encourage the audience to question its perceptions, and thereby the fundamental nature, of art itself. Key movements in modern art include cubist painting, typified by Pablo Picasso, modernist literature such as that written by James Joyce, Virginia Woolf and Gertrude Stein, and the 'new poetry' headed by Ezra Pound and T. S. Eliot. Young Pablo Picasso Pablo Ruiz Picasso (Full name) (October 25, 1881 in Málaga, Spain – April 8, 1973) was a Spanish painter and sculptor. ... James Augustine Aloysius Joyce (February 2, 1882 – January 13, 1941) was an expatriate Irish writer and poet, widely considered to be one of the most influential writers of the 20th century. ... Virginia Woolf (January 25, 1882 – March 28, 1941) was a British author and feminist, who is considered to be one of the foremost modernist literary figures of the twentieth century. ... Gertrude Stein, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1935 Gertrude Stein (February 3, 1874, in Pittsburgh - July 27, 1946) was an American writer, poet, feminist, playwright and catalyst in the development of modern art and literature, who spent most of her life in France. ... Ezra Pound in 1913. ... T.S. Eliot (by E.O. Hoppe, 1919) Thomas Stearns Eliot, OM (September 26, 1888 – January 4, 1965) was an American-born poet, dramatist, and literary critic, whose works, such as The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock, The Waste Land, and Four Quartets, are considered defining achievements of twentieth...


Modern music saw the beginning of a fusion movement of different styles and cultures. John Coltrane for example fused jazz with Carnatic music to develop his album India. Elvis Presley popularized rock and roll, fusing country-western and blues. Jazz fusion (sometimes referred to simply as fusion) is a musical genre that loosely encompasses the merging of jazz with other styles, particularly rock, funk, R&B, and world music. ... John Coltrane John William Coltrane (September 23, 1926 – July 17, 1967) was an American jazz saxophonist and composer. ... Jazz master Louis Armstrong remains one of the most loved and best known of all jazz musicians. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Elvis Aaron Presley (January 8, 1935 – August 16, 1977), also known as The King of Rock n Roll, was an American singer, song producer and actor. ... Rock and roll (also spelled Rock n Roll, especially in its first decade), also called rock, is a form of popular music, usually featuring vocals (often with vocal harmony), electric guitars and a strong back beat; other instruments, such as the saxophone, are common in some styles. ... Country music, once known as Country and Western music, is a popular musical form developed in the southern United States, with roots in traditional folk music, spirituals, and the blues. ... The blues is a vocal and instrumental form of music based on a pentatonic scale and a characteristic twelve-bar chord progression. ...


Famous people

Much of the Modern world replaced the Biblically-oriented value system, the monarchical government system, and the feudal economic system, with new democratic and liberal ideas in the areas of politics, science, psychology, sociology, and economics. These new ideas were derived from the writings of such people as: The Bible (Hebrew תנ״ך tanakh, Greek η Βίβλος [hē biblos] ) (sometimes The Holy Bible, The Book, Good Book, Word of God, The Word, or Scripture), from Greek (τα) βίβλια, (ta) biblia, (the) books, is the classical name for the Hebrew Bible of Judaism or the combination of the Old Testament and New Testament of Christianity... Democracy is a form of government under which the power to alter the laws and structures of government lies, ultimately, with the citizenry. ... Look up liberal on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Liberal may refer to: Politics: Liberalism American liberalism, a political trend in the USA Political progressivism, a political ideology that is for change, often associated with liberal movements Liberty, the condition of being free from control or restrictions Liberal Party, members of... Politics is a process by which collective decisions are made within groups. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Science For the scientific journal named Science, see Science (journal). ... Psychology (ancient Greek: psyche = soul or mind, logos/-ology = study of) is an academic and applied field involving the study of the mind and behavior, both human and nonhuman. ... Social interactions of people and their consequences are the subject of sociology studies. ... Economics (from the Greek οίκος [oikos], house, and νομος [nomos], rule, hence household management) is a social science that studies the production, distribution, trade and consumption of goods and services. ...


(Note: The list below is not comprehensive by any means. To name all the significant thinkers and personalities who helped shape the modern age would be a voluminous undertaking. This selection is meant as a profile of the way major thinkers contributed to the creation of the world as we know it today. They are listed chronologically by year of birth.)


15th century and 16th century

(14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Nicolaus Copernicus Nicolaus Copernicus (Polish: MikoÅ‚aj Kopernik, German: Nikolaus Kopernikus; February 19, 1473 – May 24, 1543) was a Polish polymath, now remembered as providing the first modern formulation of a heliocentric (Sun-centered) theory of the solar system. ... Events Ottoman sultan Mehmed II defeats the White Sheep Turkmens lead by Uzun Hasan at Otlukbeli Axayacatl, Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan invades the territory of neighboring Aztec city of Tlatelolco. ... // Events February 21 - Battle of Wayna Daga - A combined army of Ethiopian and Portuguese troops defeat the armies of Adal led by Ahmed Gragn. ... The geocentric model (in Greek: geo = earth and centron = centre) of the universe is a paradigm which places the Earth at its center. ... The Sun is the star at the center of our Solar system. ... The deepest visible-light image of the cosmos. ... Francisco de Vitoria (1492-1546) was a Renaissance theologian, founder of the tradition in philosophy known as the School of Salamanca, noted especially for his contributions to the theory of Just War. ... Events March 6 - Treaty of Toledo - Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain recognize African conquests of Afonso of Portugal and he cedes the Canary Islands to Spain Great standing on the Ugra river - Muscovy becomes independent from the Golden Horde. ... // Events Spanish conquest of Yucatan Peace between England and France Foundation of Trinity College, Cambridge by Henry VIII of England Katharina von Bora flees to Magdeburg Science Architecture Michelangelo Buonarroti is made chief architect of St. ... Theology is literally rational discourse concerning God (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογος, logos, rational discourse). By extension, it also refers to the study of other religious topics. ... The School of Salamanca is the renaissance of thought in diverse intellectual areas by Spanish theologians, rooted in the intellectual and pedagogical work of Francisco de Vitoria. ... Apianus on an 18th century engraving Petrus Apianus (April 16, 1495 – April 21, 1552; also known as Peter Apian) was a German humanist, famous for his works in mathematics, astronomy and cartography. ... 1495 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Spain is effectively bankrupt. ... An astronomer or astrophysicist is a scientist whose area of research is astronomy or astrophysics. ... In mathematics, the trigonometric functions are functions of an angle, important when studying triangles and modeling periodic phenomena. ... Tycho Brahe Tycho Brahe , born Tyge Ottesen Brahe (December 14, 1546 – October 24, 1601), was a Danish nobleman astronomer as well as an astrologer and alchemist. ... // Events Spanish conquest of Yucatan Peace between England and France Foundation of Trinity College, Cambridge by Henry VIII of England Katharina von Bora flees to Magdeburg Science Architecture Michelangelo Buonarroti is made chief architect of St. ... Events February 8 - Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, rebels against Elizabeth I of England - revolt is quickly crushed February 25 - Robert Devereux beheaded Jesuit Matteo Ricci arrives in China Bad harvest in Russia due to rainy summer Dutch troops drive Portuguese from Málaga Battle of Kinsale, Ireland Births... An astrological chart (or horoscope) _ Y2K Chart — This particular chart is calculated for January 1, 2000 at 12:01:00 A.M. Eastern Standard Time in New York City, New York, USA. (Longitude: 074W0023 - Latitude: 40N4251) Astrology (from Greek: αστρολογία = άστρον, astron, star + λόγος, logos, word) is... For other uses, see Alchemy (disambiguation). ... Tychonic system The Tychonic system (or Tychonian system) was an effort by Tycho Brahe to create a model of the solar system which would combine what he saw as the mathematical benefits of the Copernican system with the philosophical and physical benefits of the Ptolemaic system. ... The geocentric model The geocentric model (in Greek: geo = Earth and centron = center) of the universe is a disproven model which places the Earth at the center of the universe. ... Heliocentric Solar System In astronomy, heliocentrism is the theory that the Sun is at the center of the Universe and/or the Solar System. ... Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra (September 29, 1547 - April 23, 1616), was a Spanish author, best known for his novel Don Quixote de la Mancha. ... Events January 16 - Grand Duke Ivan IV of Muscovy becomes the first Tsar of Russia. ... Events October 25 — Dirk Hartog makes the second recorded landfall by a European on Australian soil, at an island off the Western Australian coast Pocahontas arrives in England War between Venice and Austria Collegium Musicum founded in Prague Nicolaus Copernicus De revolutionibus is placed on the Index of Forbidden Books... The term writer can apply to anyone who creates a written work, but the word more usually designates those who write creatively or professionally, or those who have written in many different forms. ... Don Quixote de la Mancha (now usually spelled Don Quijote by Spanish-speakers; Don Quixote is an archaic spelling) (IPA: ) is a novel by the Spanish author Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra. ...

17th century

(16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Galileo Galilei Galileo Galileii (Pisa, February 15, 1564 – Arcetri, January 8, 1642), was an Italian physicist, astronomer, and philosopher who is closely associated with the scientific revolution. ... colonizing the New World September 10 — The Battle of Kawanakajima Ottoman Turks invade Malta Modern pencil becomes common in England Conquistadors crossed the Pacific Spanish founded a colony in the Philippines Births February 15 - Galileo Galilei, Italian astronomer and physicist (died 1642) February 26 - Christopher Marlowe, English poet and dramatist... Events January 4 - Charles I attempts to arrest five leading members of the Long Parliament, but they escape. ... In astronomy, heliocentrism is the theory that the Sun is at the center of the Universe and/or the Solar System. ... 50 cm refracting telescope at Nice Observatory. ... A planet (from the Greek πλανήτης, planetes or wanderers) is a body of considerable mass that orbits a star and that produces very little or no energy through nuclear fusion. ... Crust composition Oxygen 43% Silicon 21% Aluminium 10% Calcium 9% Iron 9% Magnesium 5% Titanium 2% Nickel 0. ... 400 year sunspot history A sunspot is a region on the Suns surface (photosphere) that is marked by a lower temperature than its surroundings, and intense magnetic activity. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... For other things named Descartes, see Descartes (disambiguation). ... Events February 5 - 26 catholics crucified in Nagasaki, Japan. ... // Events June 23 - Claimant King Charles II of England, Scotland and Ireland arrives in Scotland, the only of the three Kingdoms that has accepted him as ruler. ... Meditations on First Philosophy (subtitled In which the existence of God and the real distinction of mind and body, are demonstrated), written by René Descartes (1596 - 1650) and first published in 1641, expands upon Descartes philosophical system, which he first introduced in his Discourse on Method (1637). ... The Discourse on Method is a philosophical and mathematical treatise published by René Descartes in 1637. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Scholastic redirects here. ... Rationalism, also known as the rationalist movement, is a philosophical doctrine that asserts that the truth can best be discovered by reason and factual analysis, rather than faith, dogma or religious teaching. ... Cartesian means relating to the French mathematician and philosopher Descartes, who, among other things, worked to merge algebra and Euclidean geometry. ... Benedictus de Spinoza (November 24, 1632 – February 21, 1677), was named Baruch Spinoza by his synagogue elders and known as Bento de Espinosa or Bento dEspiñoza in his native Amsterdam. ... See also: 1632 (novel) Events February 22 - Galileos Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems is published July 23 - 300 colonists for New France depart Dieppe November 8 - Wladyslaw IV Waza elected king of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth after Zygmunt III Waza death November 16 - Battle of Lützen... Events First performance of Racines tragedy, Phèdre Sarah Churchill marries John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough Battle of Cassel, Philippe I of Orléans defeats William of Orange Mary II of England marries William of Orange English Statute of frauds is passed into law Battle of Landskrona Elias... Pantheism literally means God is All and All is God. It is the view that everything is of an all-encompassing immanent God; or that the universe, or nature, and God are equivalent. ... Rationalism, also known as the rationalist movement, is a philosophical doctrine that asserts that the truth can best be discovered by reason and factual analysis, rather than faith, dogma or religious teaching. ... John Locke (August 29, 1632–October 28, 1704) was an influencial English philosopher and social contract theorist. ... See also: 1632 (novel) Events February 22 - Galileos Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems is published July 23 - 300 colonists for New France depart Dieppe November 8 - Wladyslaw IV Waza elected king of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth after Zygmunt III Waza death November 16 - Battle of Lützen... Events Building of the Students Monument in Aiud, Romania. ... The Divine Right of Kings is a European political and religious doctrine of political absolutism. ... The cross of the war memorial and a menorah for Hanukkah coexist in Oxford. ...

18th century

(17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Sir Isaac Newton, PRS, (4 January [O.S. 25 December 1642] 1643 – 31 March [O.S. 20 March] 1727) was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, alchemist, inventor and natural philosopher who is generally regarded as one of the most influential scientists in history. ... Events January 4 - Charles I attempts to arrest five leading members of the Long Parliament, but they escape. ... Events June 11 - George, Prince of Wales becomes King George II of Great Britain. ... Newtons own copy of his Principia, with hand written corrections for the second edition. ... Mathematics is often defined as the study of topics such as quantity, structure, space, and change. ... See also: List of optical topics Optics (appearance or look in ancient Greek) is a branch of physics that describes the behavior and properties of light and the interaction of light with matter. ... A Superconductor demonstrating the Meissner Effect Physics (from the Greek, φυσικός (physikos), natural, and φύσις (physis), nature) is the science of the natural world dealing with the fundamental constituents of the universe, the forces they exert on one another, and the results produced by these forces. ... For the scientific journal named Science, see Science (journal). ... The last of Voltaires statues by Jean-Antoine Houdon (1781). ... Events February 6 - The colony Quilombo dos Palmares is destroyed. ... 1778 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Candide, ou lOptimisme, (English: Candide, or Optimism) (1759) is a picaresque novel by the Enlightenment philosopher Voltaire. ... Metaphysics (Greek words meta = after/beyond and physics = nature) is a branch of philosophy concerned with the study of first principles and being (ontology). ... The French Revolution (1789-1799) was a period in the history of France. ... Benjamin Franklin by Jean-Baptiste Greuze 1777 Benjamin Franklin (January 17 [O.S. January 6] 1706 – April 17, 1790) was one of the most prominent of the Founders and early political figures and statesmen of the United States. ... Events March 27 - Concluding that Emperor Iyasus I of Ethiopia had abdicated by retiring to a monastery, a council of high officials appoint Tekle Haymanot I Emperor of Ethiopia May 23 - Battle of Ramillies September 7 - The Battle of Turin in the War of Spanish Succession - forces of Austria and... 1790 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Poor Richards Almanac (sometimes Almanack) was a yearly almanac published by Benjamin Franklin, who adopted the pseudonym of Poor Richard or Richard Saunders for the purpose of this work in the title. ... Liberty - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... A declaration of independence is a proclamation of the independence of an aspiring state or states. ... Jean-Jacques Rousseau Jean Jacques Rousseau (June 28, 1712 - July 2, 1778) was a Swiss-French philosopher, writer, political theorist, and self-taught composer of The Age of Enlightenment Biography of Rousseau The tomb of Rousseau in the crypt of the Panthéon, Paris Rousseau was born in Geneva, Switzerland... // Events Treaty of Aargau signed between Catholic and Protestants. ... 1778 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Social contract - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Freedom - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Social equality is a social state of affairs in which certain different people have the same status in a certain respect. ... For the direction right, see left and right or starboard. ... Citizenship is membership in a political community (originally a city but now a state), and carries with it rights to political participation; a person having such membership is a citizen. ... Adam Smith, FRSE (baptised June 5, 1723 – July 17, 1790) Is considered the father of economics. He was a Scottish political economist and moral philosopher. ... Events February 16 - Louis XV of France attains his majority Births February 24 - John Burgoyne, British general (d. ... 1790 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations is the magnum opus of Adam Smith, published in 1776. ... Classical economics is a school of economic thought whose major developers include William Petty, Adam Smith, David Ricardo, Thomas Malthus, and John Stuart Mill, and Johann Heinrich von Thünen. ... It has been suggested that Kantianism be merged into this article or section. ... Events January 14 - King Philip V of Spain abdicates the throne February 20 - The premiere of Giulio Cesare, an Italian opera by George Frideric Handel, takes place in London June 23 - Treaty of Constantinople signed. ... 1804 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The Critique of Pure Reason is widely regarded as the philosopher Immanuel Kants major work, first published in 1781, with a second edition in 1787. ... 1781 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Attributed to Immanuel Kant, the critical philosophy movement sees the primary task of philosophy as criticism rather than justification. ... Knowledge is information of which someone is aware. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards and appeal to a wider international audience, this article may require cleanup. ... Metaphysics (Greek words meta = after/beyond and physics = nature) is a branch of philosophy concerned with the study of first principles and being (ontology). ... Epistemology, from the Greek words episteme (knowledge) and logos (word/speech) is the branch of philosophy that deals with the nature, origin and scope of knowledge. ... Ethics (from Greek ethikos) is the branch of axiology – one of the four major branches of philosophy, alongside metaphysics, epistemology, and logic – which attempts to understand the nature of morality; to define that which is right from that which is wrong. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Edmund Burke The Right Honourable Edmund Burke (January 12, 1729 – July 9, 1797) was an Anglo-Irish statesman, author, orator and political philosopher, who served for many years in the British House of Commons as a member of the Whig party. ... Events July 30 - Baltimore, Maryland is founded. ... 1797 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... A fruit stand at a market. ... The term statesman is a respectful term used to refer to diplomats, politicians, and other notable figures of state. ...

19th century

Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770–November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher born in Stuttgart, Württemberg, in present-day southwest Germany. ... 1770 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1831 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Hegels Elements of the Philosophy of Right (Grundlinien der Philosophie des Rechts) was published in 1820, though the books original title page dates it to 1821. ... 1821 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Broadly speaking, a dialectic (Greek: διαλεκτική) is an exchange of propositions (theses) and counter-propositions (antitheses) resulting in a disagreement. ... A thesis (literally: position from the Greek θέσις) is an intellectual proposition. ... Antithesis (Greek for setting opposite, from anti = against and thesis = position) means a direct contrast or exact opposition to something. ... Synthesis (from the Greek words syn = plus and thesis = position) is commonly understood to be an integration of two or more pre-existing elements which results in a new creation. ... Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770–November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher born in Stuttgart, Württemberg, in present-day southwest Germany. ... John Stuart Mill (May 20, 1806 – May 8, 1873), an English philosopher and political economist, was an influential classical liberal thinker of the 19th century. ... 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1873 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calaber). ... Wealth is an abundance of items of economic value, or the state of controlling or possessing such items, and encompasses money, real estate and personal property. ... In his lifetime Charles Darwin gained international fame as an influential scientist examining controversial topics. ... 1809 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The 1859 edition of On the Origin of Species First published in 1859, The Origin of Species (full title On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life) by British naturalist Charles Darwin is one of the pivotal... Natural selection is the metaphor Charles Darwin used in 1859 to name the process he postulated to drive the adaptation of organisms to their environments and the origin of new species. ... A speculative phylogenetic tree of all living things, based on rRNA gene data, showing the separation of the three domains, bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes. ... Human beings are defined variously in biological, spiritual, and cultural terms, or in combinations thereof. ... Naturalism refers to a number of different topics: Naturalism (philosophy): the view that nothing exists but the natural universe, either methodologically or ontologically — that there are no supernatural entities or at least no observations that show them to exist. ... Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 Trier, Germany – March 14, 1883 London) was an influential German philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary organizer of the International Workingmens Association. ... 1818 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... 1883 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Das Kapital (Capital) is a very large treatise of political economy written by Karl Marx in German. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Communism refers to a conjectured future classless, stateless social organization based upon common ownership of the means of production, and can be classified as a branch of the broader socialist movement. ... The proletariat (from Latin proles, offspring) is a term used to identify a lower social class; a member of such a class is proletarian. ... Louis Pasteur (December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French microbiologist and chemist. ... 1822 (MDCCCXXII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... In chemistry, a molecule is chiral if it is not superimposable on its mirror image regardless of how it is contorted. ... Germ is an informal term for a disease-causing organism, particularly bacteria (as in germ warfare). ... A microorganism or microbe is an organism that is so small that it is microscopic (invisible to the naked eye). ... Pasteurization (or pasteurisation) is the process of heating food for the purpose of killing harmful organisms such as bacteria, viruses, protozoa, molds, and yeasts. ... A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to produce active immunity to a disease, in order to prevent or ameliorate the effects of infection by any natural or wild strain of the organism. ... Gregor Johann Mendel (July 22, 1822 – January 6, 1884) was an Austrian monk who is often called the father of genetics for his study of the inheritance of traits in pea plants. ... 1822 (MDCCCXXII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) is a leap year starting on Tuesday (click on link to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... A Roman Catholic monk A monk is a person who practices monasticism, adopting a strict religious and ascetic lifestyle, usually in community with others following the same path. ... This stylistic schematic diagram shows a gene in relation to the double helix structure of DNA and to a chromosome (right). ... Mendelian inheritance (or Mendelian genetics or Mendelism) is a set of primary tenets, developed by Gregor Mendel in the latter part of the 19th century, that underlie much of genetics. ... Leo Tolstoy, pictured late in life Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy â–¶ (help· info) (Russian: Лев Никола́евич Толсто́й; commonly referred to in English as Leo Tolstoy) (September 9, 1828 – November 20, 1910, N.S.; August 28, 1828 – November 7, 1910, O.S.) was a Russian novelist, social reformer, pacifist, Christian anarchist, vegetarian, moral thinker and... 1828 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... -1... War and Peace (Russian: Война и мир, Vojna i mir; in original orthography: Война и миръ, Vojna i mir) is an epic novel by Leo Tolstoy, first published from 1865 to 1869, which tells the story of Russian society during the Napoleonic Era. ... In the realist theory of International Relations, the anarchical system that all states find themselves in is the lack of clear organisation of states into a hieracical order that is found within states. ... The nonexistence of God is a quintessential nihilistic concern. ... Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (IPA:) (October 15, 1844 – August 25, 1900) was a German philosopher, whose critiques of contemporary culture, religion, and philosophy centered around a basic question regarding the foundation of values and morality. ... 1844 was a leap year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1900 (MCM) is a common year starting on Monday. ... The cover for the first part of the first edition. ... Friedrich Nietzsche, 1882 Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 - August 25, 1900) was a highly influential German philosopher. ... Guilt is a word describing many concepts related to an emotion or condition caused by actions which are, or are believed to be, morally wrong. ... This page appears to have an unresolved commentary on itself presented as part of the text. ... Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (April 20, 1889 – April 30, 1945, standard German pronunciation in the IPA) was the Führer (leader) of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party) and of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Nazi party used a right-facing swastika as their symbol and the red and black colors were said to represent Blut und Boden (blood and soil). ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... Genocide is defined by the JERRFGGHH and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide]] (CPPCG) article 2 as any of the following acts part, a national, ethnic, racial or religious group, as such: Killing members of the group; Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group; Deliberately inflicting... Friedrich Ludwig Gottlob Frege (8 November 1848, Wismar – 26 July 1925, Bad Kleinen) was a German mathematician who evolved into a logician and philosopher. ... 1848 is a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... Mathematical logic is a discipline within mathematics, studying formal systems in relation to the way they encode intuitive concepts of proof and computation as part of the foundations of mathematics. ... Analytic philosophy is the dominant philosophical movement in University philosophy departments in English-speaking countries, although one of its founders, Gottlob Frege, was German, and many of its leading proponents, such as Ludwig Wittgenstein, Rudolf Carnap, Kurt Gödel and Karl Popper, were Austrian. ... Theodor Herzl, in his middle age. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... 1904 (MCMIV) is a leap year starting on a Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Der Judenstaat (The Jewish State) is a book written by Theodor Herzl and published in 1896. ... Poster promoting a film about Jewish settlement in Palestine, 1930s: Toward a New Life (in Romanian),The Promised Land (in Hungarian) 1844 Discourse on the Restoration of the Jews by Mordecai Noah, page one. ... The World Zionist Organization [WZO] was founded as the Zionist Organization [ZO] on September 3, 1897, at the First Zionist Congress held in Basel, Switzerland. ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Location within Switzerland Basel (English traditionally: Basle , German: Basel , French: Bâle , Italian: Basilea ) is Switzerlands third most populous city (166,563 inhabitants (2004); 690,000 inhabitants in the conurbation stretching across the immediate cantonal and national boundaries made Basel Switzerlands second-largest urban area as of 2003). ... The World Zionist Organization, or WZO, was founded as the Zionist Organization, or ZO, on September 3, 1897, at the First Zionist Congress held in Basel, Switzerland. ... Jews (Hebrew: יהודים, Yehudim) are followers of Judaism or, more generally, members of the Jewish people (also known as the Jewish nation, or the Children of Israel), an ethno-religious group descended from the ancient Israelites and converts who joined their religion at various times and locations. ...

20th century

(19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... Sigmund Freud Sigmund Freud [] (May 6, 1856–September 23, 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of the psychoanalytic school of psychology, based on his theory that human development is best understood in terms of changing objects of sexual desire; that the unconscious often represses wishes (generally of a... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Dream interpretation is the art of determining the meaning (or alleged meaning) of the symbolic content of a dream. ... See drugs, medication, and pharmacology for substances that are used to treat patients. ... Neurology is the branch of medicine that deals with the nervous system and disorders affecting it. ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Subconscious may refer to: that which is subliminal to consciousness the underlying consciousness see subconsciousness. ... Libido in its common usage means sexual desire, however more technical definitions, such as found in the work of Carl Jung, are more general, referring to libido as the free creative, or psychic, energy an individual has to put toward personal development, or individuation. ... For the Freudian concept of Thanatos, see: Death instinct To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... In his theory of psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud sought to explain how the unconscious mind operates by proposing that it has a particular structure. ... It has been suggested that Personality psychology be merged into this article or section. ... Behavior (or behaviour in Commonwealth English) refers to the actions or reactions of an object or organism, usually in relation to the environment. ... In modern psychology, the term neurosis, also known as psychoneurosis or neurotic disorder, is a general term that refers to any mental imbalance that causes distress, but does not interfere with rational thought or an individuals ability to function in daily life. ... This article is about the mental state. ... A neurosis, in psychoanalytic theory, is an ineffectual coping strategy that Sigmund Freud suggested was caused by emotions from past experience overwhelming or interfering with present experience. ... Psychosis is a psychiatric classification for a mental state in which the perception of reality is distorted. ... A patient is the name given to any person who is ill or injured and is being treated by, or in need of treatment by, a physician or other medical professional. ... John Dewey (October 20, 1859 – June 1, 1952) was an American philosopher, psychologist, and educational reformer, whose thought has been greatly influential in the United States and around the world. ... 1859 is a common year starting on Saturday. ... 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1916 (MCMXVI) is a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar) // Events January-February January 1 - The Royal Army Medical Corps first successful blood transfusion using blood that had been stored and cooled. ... Pragmatism is a philosophy that insists on consequences, utility and practicality as vital components of meaning and truth. ... Social Darwinism is a term used to describe a style or trend in social theory which holds that Darwins theory of evolution of biological traits in a population by natural selection can also be applied to human social institutions. ... Maximilian Weber (April 21, 1864 – June 14, 1920) was a German political economist and sociologist who is considered one of the founders of the modern, antipositivistic study of sociology and public administration. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) // Events January January 7 - Forces of Russian White admiral Kolchak surrender in Krasnoyarsk. ... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1914 (MCMXIV) is a common year starting on Thursday. ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) is a common year starting on Saturday. ... Social interactions of people and their consequences are the subject of sociology studies. ... The social sciences are a group of academic disciplines that study the human aspects of the world. ... Social structure (also referred to as a social system) is a system in which people forming the society are organized by a patterns of prelationships. ... Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (Devanagari: गांधी; Gujarati: મોહનદાસ; October 2, 1869 – January 30, 1948) was a prominent political and spiritual leader of India and its struggle for independence from the British Empire. ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... A Hindu (archaic Hindoo), as per modern definition is an adherent of philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, the predominant religious, philosophical and cultural system of India (Bharat), Nepal, and the island of Bali. ... See Satyagraha (opera) for an account of the opera of that title by Philip Glass. ... The British Empire was, at one time, the foremost global power and the greatest empire in history. ... The Right Honourable Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, OM, FRS (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970), was an influential British logician, philosopher, and mathematician, working mostly in the 20th century. ... 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... 1970 (MCMLXX in Roman) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... Alfred North Whitehead, OM (February 15, 1861 – December 30, 1947) was a British mathematician who evolved into a philosopher. ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Principia Mathematica is a three-volume work on the foundations of mathematics, written by Alfred North Whitehead and Bertrand Russell and published in 1910-1913. ... This topic is considered to be an essential subject on Wikipedia. ... Plato Plato (Greek: Πλάτων, Plátōn) (c. ... The Problems of Philosophy (1912) is one of Bertrand Russells attempts to create a brief and accessible guide to the problems of philosophy. ... Why I Am Not a Christian is an essay by the British philosopher Bertrand Russell in which he explains why he is not a Christian. ... 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... A logician is a philosopher, mathematician, or other whose topic of scholarly study is logic. ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ... This article discusses liberalism as a major political ideology as it developed and stands currently. ... Activism, in a general sense, can be described as intentional action to bring about social or political change. ... Pacifism is the opposition to war or violence as a means of settling disputes. ... 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament logo In British politics, the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament has been at the forefront of the peace movement in the United Kingdom and claims to be Europes largest single-issue peace campaign. ... Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was a British politician, best known as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during the Second World War. ... 1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... History of the English Speaking Peoples cover A History of the English Speaking Peoples is a four-volume history of Britain and the English speaking nations, written by Winston Churchill, covering the period from the Norman Conquest of Britain (1066) to the beginning of World War I (1914). ... The term - National Socialism has been used in self-description by a number of different political groups and ideologies, some of which have no connection with the Nazis; see National socialism (disambiguation). ... NATO 2002 Summit The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), sometimes called North Atlantic Alliance, Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organisation for defence collaboration established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, DC, on April 4, 1949. ... Carl Gustav Jung (July 26, 1875 – June 6, 1961) (IPA:) was a Swiss psychiatrist and founder of Analytical Psychology. ... 1875 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... The word mythology (from the Greek μυολογία mythología, from μυολογειν mythologein to relate myths, from μυος mythos, meaning a narrative, and λογος logos, meaning speech or argument) literally means the (oral) retelling of myths – stories that a particular culture believes to be true and that use supernatural events or characters to explain the... Michelangelos depiction of God in the painting Creation of the Sun and Moon in the Sistine Chapel) This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and derived henotheistic forms. ... Psychology (ancient Greek: psyche = soul or mind, logos/-ology = study of) is an academic and applied field involving the study of the mind and behavior, both human and nonhuman. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1955 (MCMLV in Roman) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... It has been suggested that Principle of relativity be merged into this article or section. ... An example of 1000 simulated steps of Brownian motion in two dimensions. ... The photoelectric effect is the emission of electrons from a surface (usually metallic) upon exposure to, and absorption of, electromagnetic radiation (such as visible light and ultraviolet radiation) that is above the threshold frequency particular to each type of surface. ... A simple introduction to this subject is provided in Basics of quantum mechanics. ... The theoretical physics equation E = mc2 states a relationship between energy (E), in whatever form, and mass (m). ... Core of a nuclear reactor A nuclear reactor is a device in which nuclear chain reactions are initiated, controlled, and sustained at a steady rate (as opposed to a nuclear explosion, where the chain reaction occurs in a split second). ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, in 1945 lifted nuclear fallout some 18 km (60,000 feet) above the epicenter. ... The concept of peace ranks among the most controversial in our time. ... Nuclear explosions have a distinctive mushroom shaped cloud. ... Leon Trotsky (help· info) (Russian: Лев Давидович Троцкий; also transliterated Leo, Lev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij and Trotzky) (November 7 [O.S. October 26] 1879 – August 21, 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (Лев Давидович Бронштейн), was a Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist theorist. ... 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Leaders of the Bolshevik Party and the Communist International, a painting by Malcolm McAllister on the Pathfinder Mural in New York City and on the cover of the book Lenin’s Final Fight published by Pathfinder. ... Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky. ... John Maynard Keynes, 1st Baron Keynes of Tilton, CB, (pronounced kānz / kAnze), ) (June 5, 1883 – April 21, 1946) was an English economist, whose ideas had a major impact on modern economic and political theory as well as on American and British fiscal policies. ... 1883 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... The General Theory of Employment Interest and Money is generally considered to be the masterwork of the English economist John Maynard Keynes. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Employment is a contract between two parties, one being the employer and the other being the employee. ... The supply and demand model describes how prices vary as a result of a balance between product availability at each price (supply) and the desires of those with purchasing power at each price (demand). ... D. H. Lawrence David Herbert Lawrence (11 September 1885 - 2 March 1930) was one of the most important, certainly one of the most controversial, English writers of the 20th century, who wrote novels, short stories, poems, plays, essays, travel books, and letters. ... 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday. ... 1930 (MCMXXX) is a common year starting on Wednesday. ... Lady Chatterleys Lover is a novel by D. H. Lawrence written in 1928. ... Sons and Lovers is the third published novel of D.H. Lawrence, taken by many to be his earliest masterpiece. ... Eroticism is an aesthetic focused on sexual desire, especially the feelings of anticipation of sexual activity. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards and appeal to a wider international audience, this article may require cleanup. ... Pavonazzeto marble sculpture, see Erotic art in Pompeii Pornography (from Greek πορνογραφία pornographia — literally writing about or drawings of prostitutes) (also informally referred to as porn or porno) is the representation of the human body or human sexual behaviour with the goal of sexual arousal, similar to, but distinct from, erotica... Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882–April 12, 1945), 32nd President of the United States, the longest-serving holder of the office and the only man to be elected President more than twice, was one of the central figures of 20th century history. ... 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... The American Civil War was fought in the United States from 1861 until 1865 between the northern states, popularly referred to as the U.S., the Union, the North, or the Yankees; and the seceding southern states, commonly referred to as the Confederate States of America, the CSA, the Confederacy... Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865), sometimes called Abe Lincoln and nicknamed Honest Abe, the Rail Splitter, and the Great Emancipator, was the 16th President of the United States (1861 to 1865), and the first president from the Republican Party. ... Socioeconomics is the study of the social and economic impacts of any product or service offering, market intervention or other activity on an economy as a whole and on the companies, organization and individuals who are its main economic actors. ... Dorothea Langes Migrant Mother depicts destitute pea pickers in California, centering on Florence Owens Thompson, a mother of seven children, age thirty-two, in Nipomo, California, March 1936. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: New Deal The New Deal is the name given to the series of programs implemented under President Franklin D. Roosevelt with the goal of stabilizing, reforming and stimulating the United States economy during the Great Depression. ... Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... Thomas Stearns Eliot (September 26, 1888 - January 4, 1965), was a major Modernist Anglo-American poet, dramatist, and literary critic. ... 1888 is a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar). ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... T. S. Eliot (by E. O. Hoppe, 1919) The Waste Land is a highly influential 433-line modernist poem by T. S. Eliot. ... 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... Poet is a term applied to a person who composes poetry, including extended forms such as dramatic verse. ... For other uses, see Love (disambiguation). ... (help· info) (April 20, 1889 – April 30, 1945) was Chancellor of Germany from 1933 and Führer (Leader) of Germany from 1934 until his death. ... 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Cover of Mein Kampf Mein Kampf (German for My Struggle) is a book written by Adolf Hitler, combining elements of autobiography with an exposition of Hitlers political ideology of Nazism. ... 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... The term - National Socialism has been used in self-description by a number of different political groups and ideologies, some of which have no connection with the Nazis; see National socialism (disambiguation). ... Genocide is defined by the JERRFGGHH and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide]] (CPPCG) article 2 as any of the following acts part, a national, ethnic, racial or religious group, as such: Killing members of the group; Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group; Deliberately inflicting... Aryan is an English word derived from the Indian Vedic Sanskrit and Iranian Avestan terms ari-, arya-, ārya-, and/or the extended form aryāna-. The Sanskrit and Old Persian languages both pronounced the word as arya-. Beyond its use as the ethnic self-designation of the Proto-Indo-Iranians... Walter Elias Disney (December 5, 1901 – December 15, 1966), was an American film producer, director, screenwriter, voice actor, and animator. ... 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link goes to calendar) // Events January January 1 - In a coup, Colonel Jean-Bédel Bokassa ousts president David Dacko and takes over the Central African Republic. ... Animation refers to the process in which each frame of a film or movie is produced individually, whether generated as a computer graphic, or by photographing a drawn image, or by repeatedly making small changes to a model (see claymation and stop motion), and then photographing the result. ... Mickey Mouse. ... Donald Duck Donald Duck is an animated cartoon and comic-book character from Walt Disney Productions. ... Goofy Goofy is a fictional character from the Walt Disneys Mickey Mouse universe. ... Minnie Mouse Minnie Mouse is a fictional character of the Mickey Mouse universe featured in animated cartoons, comic strips and comic book by The Walt Disney Company. ... Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs is the first animated feature in the Disney animated features canon; the first animated feature in Technicolor. ... Popular culture, or pop culture, is the vernacular (peoples) culture that prevails in a modern society. ... George Orwell on Time Magazine cover from 1983. ... 1903 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Animal Farm book cover Animal Farm is a satirical novel (which can also be understood as a modern fable or allegory) by George Orwell, ostensibly about a group of animals who oust the humans from the farm they live on and run it themselves, only to have it corrupted into... 1984 (MCMLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Totalitarianism describes a form of government where the state exercises absolute political and social control over most or all aspects of public and private behavior, there is no regard for individualism, and political opposition is typically subject to violent or arbitrary repression. ... Big Brother as portrayed in the BBCs 1954 production of Nineteen Eighty-Four. ... Solzhenitsyn was exiled from the Soviet Union for his book The Gulag Archipelago. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... The Gulag Archipelago (Архипелаг ГУЛаг), probably the most powerful and famous book about the Soviet prison system, is a three-volume history written by Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn based on extensive research as well as his own experiences as a prisoner in the Gulag. ... Communism refers to a conjectured future classless, stateless social organization based upon common ownership of the means of production, and can be classified as a branch of the broader socialist movement. ... Elvis Aaron Presley (January 8, 1935 – August 16, 1977), also known as The King of Rock n Roll, was an American singer, song producer and actor. ... Rock and roll (also spelled Rock n Roll, especially in its first decade), also called rock, is a form of popular music, usually featuring vocals (often with vocal harmony), electric guitars and a strong back beat; other instruments, such as the saxophone, are common in some styles. ...

21st century

  • Osama bin Laden (1957- ) Infamous Islamic terrorist widely held responsible for the September 11, 2001, attacks on the World Trade Center and Pentagon.

The 21st century is the century that began on 1 January 2001 and will last to 31 December 2100. ... Osama bin Laden in a photo from the 1990s Usāmah bin Muhammad bin `Awad bin Lādin (Arabic: ) (born March 10, 1957), commonly known as Osama bin Laden, or Usama bin Laden, (Arabic: ) is an Islamic fundamentalist and the founder of the militant terrorist organization al-Qaeda. ... 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Partisan use of the term Worldwide

The phrase "Worldwide" has tremendous emotional appeal, and is used in various countries not only by persons from professional historians to self-taught curmudgeons but by political groups which want to impose their view of reality upon their countrymen and even the whole world. The easiest way to do this is to establish a benchmark year and leave the particulars to specialists.


Britain: The Glorious Revolution of 1688 established a king selected by parliament, ending the troubles in that country in the seventeenth century. This was primarily done by the faction called the Whigs, who used the term "modern" for generations thereafter to gain credit. Later generations and political parties did not consider this a sufficient change to merit the term. The term Glorious Revolution refers to the generally popular overthrow of James II of England in 1688 by a conspiracy between some parliamentarians and the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau. ... // Events A high-powered conspiracy of notables, the Immortal Seven, invite William and Mary to depose James II of England. ... Insert non-formatted text hereInsert non-formatted text here:This article is about the legislative institution. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... While the Whigs (along with the Tories) are often described as one of the two political parties in late 17th to mid 19th century Great Britain, it is more accurate to describe them as loose political groupings or tendencies. ...


France: Although the French still glory in the magnificence of King Louis XIV, the end of his reign in 1715 is considered by them as a handy spot from which to tout the next phase of French glory, the Enlightenment, which they call « l'Age des lumières ». In other words, what happened in Britain does not concern them. After the French Revolution of 1789, they declared that the modern age had been surpassed by the contemporary age. For the musical group of the same name, see Louis XIV (band). ... // Events July 24 - Spanish treasure fleet of ten ships under admiral Ubilla leave Havana, Cuba for Spain. ... The Age of Enlightenment refers to the 18th century in European philosophy, and is often thought of as part of a larger period which includes the Age of Reason. ... The French Revolution (1789-1799) was a period in the history of France. ... Contemporary is an adjective which in its basic form merely means that two individuals, events or movements overlapped in time. ...


Russia: It took some time for the European socialists to conceive that the next great revolution would start someplace other than in France. But the Russians have always compared themselves to the French. After the October revolution, the Communist party of the Soviet Union declared that the "modern age" began with Peter the Great and the "contemporary age" began with this Bolshevik revolution. The color red and particularly the red flag are traditional symbols of Socialism. ... The October Revolution, also known as the Bolshevik Revolution, was the second phase of the Russian Revolution of 1917, the first having been instigated by the events around the February Revolution. ... In modern usage, a communist party is a political party which promotes communism, the sociopolitical philosophy based on Marxism. ... Portrait of Peter by Paul Delaroche Peter I (Russian: Пётр I Алексеевич or Pyotr I Alexeyevich)(Peter Alexeyevich Romanov) (10 June 1672–8 February 1725 [30 May 1672– 28 January 1725 O.S.] ) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death. ... Leaders of the Bolshevik Party and the Communist International, a painting by Malcolm McAllister on the Pathfinder Mural in New York City and on the cover of the book Lenin’s Final Fight published by Pathfinder. ...


Other countries do not use the terms the same as the French and Russians, especially if their languages are non-Indo-European. The Japanese call the dynasties previous to the Tokugawa dynasty as medieval, and the Meiji Restoration of 1858 is considered equivalent to the French Revolution of 1789, but haven't assimilated a form of the word modern for Tokugawa. As for the Third World, the obvious benchmarks are colonization by European imperial powers and the subsequent decolonization in the twentieth century. But "modern" and "contemporary" are not used for this purpose. Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies Indo-European is originally a linguistic term, referring to the Indo-European language family. ... The Meiji Restoration (Japanese: 明治維新, Meiji-ishin), also known as the Sue jeong Lee, Revolution or Renewal, was a chain of events that led to a change in Japans political and social structure. ...


The United States of America: A seemingly natural dividing point as far as Spain and the new world are concerned is the voyage of Columbus in 1492. But the need for such an undertaking was underscored by the taking of Constantinople by the Ottoman Empire of the Turks in 1453, so historians once took this as their benchmark. Many contemporary historians, however, use a less-specific date, such as 1500, to avoid reference to a specific event that was not as important everywhere in the world. Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, c. ... Christopher Columbus (October 30, 1451? – 20 May 1506) was an explorer and trader who crossed the Atlantic Ocean and reached the Americas on October 12, 1492 under the flag of Castile. ... 1492 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Map of Constantinople. ... Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (the Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power (1683) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Sogut (1299-1326), Bursa (1326-1365), Edirne (1365-1453), İstanbul (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah of the Osmanli Dynasty... Events May 29 - Fall of Constantinople to Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II the Conqueror, marking the end of the Byzantine Empire (Eastern Roman Empire). ... 1500 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


See also

  • Modern Europe

This article is confusing for some readers, and needs to be edited for clarity. ...

External links

  • China and Europe

  Results from FactBites:
 
USC-MSA Compendium of Muslim Texts (1717 words)
While the world of Islam has entered into the modern world in the form of national states, continuous attempts are made to create closer cooperation within the Islamic world as a whole and to bring about greater unity.
In seeking to live successfully in the modern world, in independence and according to Islamic principles, Muslim countries have been emphasizing a great deal the significance of the role of education and the importance of mastering Western science and technology.
In various parts of the Islamic world there is, however, a sense that educational institutions must be expanded and also have their standards improved to the level of the best institutions in the world in various fields of learning especially science and technology.
Modern Times (history) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2190 words)
The concept of the modern world as distinct from an ancient world rests on a sense that the modern world is not just another era in history, but rather the result of a new type of change, usually conceived of as progress driven by deliberate human efforts to better their situation.
Modern art is typified by self-awareness, and by the manipulation of form or medium as an integral part of the work itself.
As for the Third World, the obvious benchmarks are colonization by European imperial powers during the "New Imperialism" and the subsequent decolonization in the twentieth century.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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