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Encyclopedia > Modern warfare

Ramses II at the Battle of Kadesh (relief at Abu Simbel) The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... from Swedish Wikipedia The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Download high resolution version (819x768, 141 KB)A front view of an M1A1 Abrams, from www. ...

War
Military history
Eras

Prehistoric · Ancient · Medieval
Early Modern · Industrial · Modern For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ... Military history is composed of the events in the history of humanity that fall within the category of conflict. ... Prehistoric warfare is war conducted in the era before writing, and before the establishments of large social entities like states. ... Ancient warfare is war as conducted from the beginnings of recorded history to the end of the ancient period. ... Medieval warfare is the warfare of the Middle Ages. ... Early modern warfare is associated with the start of the widespread use of gunpowder and the development of suitable weapons to use the explosive. ...

Battlespaces

Air · Information · Land · Sea · Space Battlespace is the military theatre of operations, including air, ground, information, sea and space. ... Aerial warfare is the use of military aircraft and other flying machines in warfare, including military airlift of cargo to further the national interests as was demonstrated in the Berlin Airlift. ... Information warfare is the use and management of information in pursuit of a competitive advantage over an opponent. ... War is a state of widespread conflict between states, organisations, or relatively large groups of people, which is characterised by the use of lethal violence between combatants or upon civilians. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Space warfare is combat that takes place in outer space. ...

Weapons

Armor · Artillery · Biological · Cavalry
Chemical · Electronic · Infantry
Nuclear · Psychological For other uses, see Weapon (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Mechanized warfare be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ... For the use of biological agents by terrorists, see bioterrorism. ... Not to be confused with Golgotha, which was called Calvary. ... Chemical warfare is warfare (and associated military operations) using the toxic properties of chemical substances to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy. ... // Electronic warfare (EW) is the use of the electromagnetic spectrum to effectively deny the use of this phenomena by an adversary, while optimizing its use by friendly forces. ... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I Infantry or footmen are very highly disciplined and trained soldiers who fight primarily with small arms(rifles), but are trained to use everything from their bare hands to missle systems in order to neutralize... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... The U.S. Department of Defense defines psychological warfare (PSYWAR) as: The planned use of propaganda and other psychological actions having the primary purpose of influencing the opinions, emotions, attitudes, and behavior of hostile foreign groups in such a way as to support the achievement of national objectives. ...

Tactics

Attrition · Guerilla · Maneuver
Siege · Total war · Trench Military tactics (Greek: TaktikÄ“, the art of organizing an army) are the collective name for methods for engaging and defeating an enemy in battle. ... This article is about the military strategy. ... Guerrilla redirects here. ... Maneuver warfare, is the term used by military theorist for a concept of warfare that advocates attempting to defeat an adversary by incapacitating their decision-making through shock and disruption brought about by movement. ... A siege is a military blockade of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition, often accompanied by an assault. ... Total war is a military conflict in which nations mobilize all available resources in order to destroy another nations ability to engage in war. ... Trench warfare is a form of war in which both opposing armies have static lines of defense. ...

Strategy

Economic · Grand · Operational This article is about real and historical warfare. ... Economic warfare is the term for economic policies followed as a part of military operations during wartime. ... Grand strategy is military strategy considered at the level of the movement and use of an entire nation state or empires resources. ... Operational warfare is, within warfare and military doctrine, the level of command which coordinates the minute details of tactics with the overarching goals of strategy. ...

Organization

Formations · Ranks · Units The armed forces of a state are its government-sponsored defense and fighting forces and organizations used to further the objectives of the state. ... A formation is a high-level military organization, such as a Brigade, Division, Corps, Army or Army group. ... This article is about the use of the term rank. ... A military unit is an organisation within an armed force. ...

Logistics

Equipment · Materiel · Supply line Military logistics is the art and science of planning and carrying out the movement and maintenance of military forces. ... This article lists military technology items, devices and methods. ... Material (from the French matérial for equipment or hardware, related to the word material) is a term used in English to refer to the equipment and supplies in military and commercial supply chain management. ... Military supply chain management is a cross-functional approach to procuring, producing and delivering products and services. ...

Lists

Battles · Commanders · Operations
Sieges · Theorists · Wars
War crimes · Weapons · Writers This is a partial list of battles that have entries in Wikipedia. ... . ... This is a list of missions, operations, and projects. ... The 1453 Siege of Constantinople (painted 1499) A siege is a prolonged military assault and blockade on a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition. ... See also list of military writers. ... This is a list of lists of wars, sorted by country, date, region, and type of conflict. ... This article lists and summarizes War Crimes committed since the Hague Convention of 1907. ... There are a bewildering array of weapons, far more than would be useful in list form. ... This is a list of military writers, alphabetical by last name. ...

Modern warfare involves the widespread use of highly advanced technology. As a term, it is generally associated with technologically advanced weaponry and tactics. However, this is not to say that third world countries do not also engage in modern warfare, although they are more prone to the use of low-tech weaponry and guerrilla tactics. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... For the Jamaican reggae band, see Third World (band). ...


With the advent of nuclear weapons, the concept of full-scale war carries the prospect of global annihilation, and as such conflicts since WWII have by definition been "low intensity" conflicts, typically in the form of proxy wars fought within local regional confines, using what are now referred to as "conventional weapons," typically combined with the use of asymmetric warfare tactics and applied use of intelligence. The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... The end of civilization or the end of the world are phrases used in reference to human extinction scenarios, doomsday events, and related hazards which occur on a global scale. ... A proxy war is a war where two powers use third parties as a supplement or a substitute for fighting each other directly. ... A conventional weapon is a weapon that does not incorporate chemical, biological or nuclear payloads. ... Asymmetric warfare originally referred to war between two or more actors or groups whose relative power differs significantly. ... For other uses, see Intelligence (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Aerial Warfare

Main article: Aerial warfare

Aerial warfare is the attempt to gain dominance of the skies. This dominance is important because it can be used to wear down the enemy tactically, strategically, physically and psychologically. This means that the enemy can be greatly weakened and demoralized from the relative safety of the skies. While every side has Anti-Aircraft Guns and Surface-to-air missiles they are limited by their location on the ground. Computers and radar is used to target and destroy the enemy aircraft. However modern air forces fight back using a variety of electronic countermeasures such as chaff, flares, decoys and jamming. Also used are physically destructive weapons such as HARM. The best way is ultimately to fight fire with fire, and jet fighters are the best defence. Aerial warfare is the use of military aircraft and other flying machines in warfare, including military airlift of cargo to further the national interests as was demonstrated in the Berlin Airlift. ... A surface-to-air missile (SAM) is a missile designed to be launched from the ground to destroy aircraft. ... Inspecting an AN/ALQ-184 Electronic Attack Pod Electronic countermeasures (ECM) are a subsection of electronic warfare which includes any sort of electrical or electronic device designed to fool radar, sonar, or other detection systems like IR (infrared) and Laser. ... Modern US Navy RR-129 and RR-124 chaff countermeasures and containers Chaff, originally called Window by the British, and Düppel by the WWII era German Luftwaffe, is a radar countermeasure in which aircraft or other targets spread a cloud of small, thin pieces of aluminium, metallised glass fibre... Bell bottoms are trousers that become more wide from the knees downwards. ... The term Jamming can refer to several things: Jamming as an electronic warfare (EW) - a technique to limit the effectiveness of an opponents communications and/or detection equipment, like Radio Jamming and Radar Jamming E-Mail Jamming- used by electronic political activists or hackers to disable e-mail systems... Harm can be defined as causing physical or psychological/emotional damage or injury to a person, animal or other entity. ...


There are three kinds of air control: air parity, air superiority and air supremacy. Air parity is the lowest and it means that you only have control of the air above friendly troop positions. Air superiority is the second highest and it means that you are in a more favorable position than the opponent. Air supremacy is the highest and it means complete and total control of the skies. A historical example of air supremacy can been seen in WWII: in 1941, Britain had only air parity over England, while Germany had air superiority over most of Western Europe. By 1944, however, the allies would have air supremacy over Western Europe. During the Vietnam War, America had only air superiority over North Vietnam as the NVA mounted an effective resistance despite heavy bombing. During the Gulf War and subsequent conflicts, America had air supremacy thanks to training and airplanes, both of which the enemy lacked. American tactical doctrine calls for air power to protect ground forces from airborne threats. This explains why America only uses 2 main types of SAM: the Stinger and the Patriot missile. By contrast, armies, such as that of Russia, have many types of long, medium, and short range SAM missiles. Air superiority is the dominance in the air power of one side air forces of another side during a military campaign. ... Air supremacy is the most favorable state of control of the air. ... NVA is a three-letter abbreviation for North Vietnamese Army (also known as the Peoples Army of Vietnam) Nationale Volksarmee, the National Peoples Army of the former German Democratic Republic (East Germany) Nieuw-Vlaamse Alliantie, Belgian political party. ...


Logistics aircraft are strategic and tactical transports, although they can only carry so much weight. In the first Gulf War most of the Abrams tanks were sent by ship instead of plane. Equally important are tanker aircraft such as the KC-135 which extend the range of combat aircraft. Special support planes like the A-10 Warthog and AC-130 Spectre Gunship provide close air support for troops. For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... The Boeing KC-135 Stratotanker is an aerial refueling tanker aircraft, first manufactured in 1956 and expected to remain in service into the 2020s. ... The A-10/OA-10 Thunderbolt II, often known as the Warthog, is the first US Air Force aircraft specifically designed for close air support of ground forces. ... The AC-130 Gunship is an armed variant of the Lockheed C-130 Hercules. ...


Jet fighters have one big weakness. They can only land at airfields for fuel and ammo. These airfields are natural chokepoints and can easily be targeted for destruction. Therefore they must be defended and AEW and AWAC aircraft play a vital role in this. However this means that a successful bombing campaign can wipe out an air force in the air, before it has a chance to defend itself. Countermeasures such as armored hangers and underground airfields are successful depending in what situation they are used in. Precision guided munitions can defeat these but would mainly be used by the technological western powers. Eastern powers would normally focus on quantity over quality and may try to carpet bomb. An Airborne Early Warning (AEW) system is a radar system carried by an aircraft which is designed to detect other aircraft. ...


This weakness leads to the development of V/STOL aircraft such as the British Harrier. This allows them to rearm and refuel anywhere but at a cost of maneuverability and speed. This generally limits them to close air support missions. Since jets are very costly, most of them are multi-role like the F/A-18 which can dogfight, bomb, reconnoiter and provide close air support. Electronic Warfare is used a lot in aerial warfare, mainly in dogfighting. However bombers use EW as a penetration aid to suppress and/or destroy enemy air defences. This is usually undertaken by specialized SEAD and Wild Weasel aircraft. Such airplanes offer themselves as bait so that the enemy turns on its radars to target and destroy them. The airplane can then jam that frequency or destroy the radar using anti-radiation missiles. The SAM site then can try shooting it down. Most of the time a silent duel is held between the EW officer on the plane and the enemy one on the ground as anti-radiation missiles are held until needed. As the enemy cycles through radio frequencies to counter jamming and chaff, friendlies jam those frequencies, and so on and so forth. For more info see Radar jamming and deception Harrier can mean: Harrier vertical take-off and landing fighter/attack aircraft and derivatives: Hawker-Siddeley Harrier - 1st generation Harrier BAE Sea Harrier - Maritime strike/air defence fighter AV-8 Harrier II - 2nd generation Harrier BAE Harrier II - 2nd generation Harrier used by the UK Harrier (dog) Harrier (bird), several... // Electronic warfare (EW) is the use of the electromagnetic spectrum to effectively deny the use of this phenomena by an adversary, while optimizing its use by friendly forces. ... A dogfight or dog fight is a common term used to describe close-range aerial combat between military aircraft. ... AGM-88 HARM missile on a U.S. Navy aircraft SEAD (pronounced: see-add or seed), or Suppression of Enemy Air Defences, also known as Wild Weasels and Iron Hand, operations are military actions to suppress enemy surface-based air defences (Surface-to-air missiles (SAMs) and anti-aircraft artillery... An F-4G carrying the tools of the trade, from nearest to farthest, AGM-88 HARM, AGM-65 Maverick, ALQ-119 ECM pod, AGM-78 Standard ARM and AGM-45 Shrike, circa 1981. ... Jam from berries Jam (also known as jelly or preserves) is a type of sweet spread or condiment made with fruits or sometimes vegetables, sugar, and sometimes pectin if the fruits natural pectin content is insufficient to produce a thick product. ... Radar jamming and deception is the intentional emission of radio frequency signals to interfere with the operation of a radar by saturating its receiver with noise or false information. ...


Helicopters are a very important asset and while have been around since WWII, their full potential has not been realized until the Vietnam War. Their hovering ability eliminates the need for airfields. It also enables them to provide effective close air support. Modern armies use attack helicopters with maneuver units like tanks and armored personnel carriers to provide extra firepower. They also give a commander huge tactical flexibility as they can race to any weak spot under attack and reinforce it. Transport helicopters transport troops and supplies, often behind enemy lines. This leads to a maneuver called vertical envelopment. They can also be used for covert insertion of special forces and for reconnaissance. They play an important part in the asymmetrical and guerrilla style warfare in Vietnam. There the terrain helps the enemy but helicopters overcome this limitation. Since the war was asymmetrical helicopters roamed freely without aerial opposition. Without them resupply and movement have been all but impossible. Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... East German BRDMs on parade during celebrations of the 40th anniversary of East Germany in 1989 Armoured personnel carriers (APCs) are light armoured fighting vehicles for the transport of infantry. ...


Asymmetric warfare

Main article: Asymmetric warfare

A military situation in which two belligerents of unequal strength interact and take advantage of their respective strengths and weaknesses. This interaction often involves strategies and tactics outside the bounds of conventional warfare, often referred to as terrorism. Asymmetric warfare originally referred to war between two or more actors or groups whose relative power differs significantly. ...


Battlespace

Main article: Battlespace

Battlespace is a unified strategy to integrate and combine armed forces for the military theatre of operations, including air, information, land, sea and space. It includes the environment, factors and conditions that must be understood to successfully apply combat power, protect the force, or complete the mission. This includes enemy and friendly forces; facilities; weather; terrain; and the electromagnetic spectrum within the operational areas and areas of interest. Battlespace is the military theatre of operations, including air, ground, information, sea and space. ... Battlespace is the military theatre of operations, including air, ground, information, sea and space. ... Alternate cover US 1979 and 2002 reissue cover, also known as paint spatter cover For the military meaning, see Armed forces. ... In warfare, a theater or theatre is normally used to define a specific geographic area within which armed conflict occurs. ... Aerial warfare is the use of military aircraft and other flying machines in warfare, including military airlift of cargo to further the national interests as was demonstrated in the Berlin Airlift. ... Information warfare is the use and management of information in pursuit of a competitive advantage over an opponent. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Space warfare is combat that takes place in outer space. ... This article is about persons held as enemy combatants. ... Although some radiations are marked as N for no in the diagram, some waves do in fact penetrate the atmosphere, although extremely minimally compared to the other radiations The electromagnetic (EM) spectrum is the range of all possible electromagnetic radiation. ...


Biological warfare

Main article: Biological warfare

Biological warfare, also known as germ warfare, is the use of any organism (bacteria, virus or other disease-causing organism) or toxin found in nature, as a weapon of war. It is meant to incapacitate or kill an adversary. It may also be defined as the employment of biological agents to produce casualties in man or animals and damage to plants or material; or defense against such employment. For the use of biological agents by terrorists, see bioterrorism. ...


Network-centric warfare

Network-centric warfare is essentially a new military doctrine made possible by the Information Age. Weapons platforms, sensors and command and control centers are being connected through high-speed communication networks. The doctrine is related to the Revolution in Military Affairs debate. Network-centric warfare (NCW), now commonly called Network-centric operations (NCO), is a new military doctrine or theory of war pioneered by the United States Department of Defense. ... Network-centric warfare (NCW), now commonly called Network-centric operations (NCO), is a new military doctrine or theory of war pioneered by the United States Department of Defense. ... Military doctrine is a level of military planning between national strategy and unit-level tactics, techniques, and procedures. ... A university computer lab containing many desktop PCs The transition of communication technology: Oral Culture, Manuscript Culture, Print Culture, and Information Age Information Age is a term that has been used to refer to the present economic era. ... A weapons platform is generally any structure or system on which a weapon can be mounted. ... Not to be confused with censure, censer, or censor. ... In the military: The exercise of authority and direction by a properly designated commander over assigned and attached forces in the accomplishment of the mission. ... The military concept of Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA) is a theory about the future of warfare, often connected to technological and organizational recommendations for change in the United States military and others. ...


The overall network which enables this strategy in the United States military is called the Global Information Grid. The United States Armed Forces are the military services of the United States. ... The U.S. Defense Information Systems Agency is one of the key agencies building the Global Information Grid The Global Information Grid (GIG) is defined as the globally interconnected, end-to-end set of information capabilities, associated processes, and personnel for collecting, processing, storing, disseminating, and managing information on demand...


Chemical warfare

Main article: Chemical warfare

Chemical warfare is warfare (and associated military operations) using the toxic properties of chemical substances to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy. Chemical warfare is warfare (and associated military operations) using the toxic properties of chemical substances to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy. ...


Electronic warfare

Main article: Electronic warfare

Electronic warfare refers to mainly non-violent practices used chiefly to support other areas of warfare. The term was originally coined to encompass the interception and decoding of enemy radio communications, and the communications technologies and cryptography methods used to counter such interception, as well as jamming, radio stealth and other related areas. Over the latter years of the twentieth century and early years of the twenty-first century this has expanded to cover a wide range of areas: the use of, detection of and avoidance of detection by Radar and Sonar systems, computer hacking, Space warfare etc. // Electronic warfare (EW) is the use of the electromagnetic spectrum to effectively deny the use of this phenomena by an adversary, while optimizing its use by friendly forces. ... // Electronic warfare (EW) is the use of the electromagnetic spectrum to effectively deny the use of this phenomena by an adversary, while optimizing its use by friendly forces. ... For other senses of the word code, see code (disambiguation). ... Radio transmition diagram and electromagnetic waves For other uses see: radio (disambiguation) Radio is a technology that allows the transmission of signals by modulation of electromagnetic waves with frequencies below those of light. ... The German Lorenz cipher machine, used in World War II for encryption of very high-level general staff messages Cryptography (or cryptology; derived from Greek κρυπτός kryptós hidden, and the verb γράφω gráfo write or λεγειν legein to speak) is the study of message secrecy. ... The term Jamming can refer to several things: Jamming as an electronic warfare (EW) - a technique to limit the effectiveness of an opponents communications and/or detection equipment, like Radio Jamming and Radar Jamming E-Mail Jamming- used by electronic political activists or hackers to disable e-mail systems... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... 20XX redirects here. ... For other uses, see Radar (disambiguation). ... This article is about underwater sound propagation. ... A hack in progress in Lobby 7 at MIT. Hack is a term in the slang of the technology culture which has come into existence over the past few decades. ... Space warfare is combat that takes place in outer space. ...


Fourth generation warfare

Fourth generation warfare (4GW) is a concept defined by William S. Lind and expanded by Thomas X. Hammes, used to describe the decentralized nature of modern warfare. The simplest definition includes any war in which one of the major participants is not a state but rather a violent ideological network. Fourth Generation wars are characterized by a blurring of the lines between war and politics, soldier and civilian, peace and conflict, battlefield and safety. While this term is similar to terrorism and asymmetric warfare, it is much narrower. Classical insurgencies and the Indian Wars are examples of Pre-Modern War, not 4GW. Fourth generation warfare usually has the insurgency group or non-state side trying to implement their own government or reestablish an old government over the one currently running the territory. The blurring of lines between state and non-state is further complicated in a democracy by the power of the media. Fourth generation warfare (4GW) is a concept in American military doctrine defined in 1989 by a team of American analysts, including William S. Lind, used to describe warfares return to a decentralized form. ... Fourth generation warfare (4GW) is a concept in American military doctrine defined in 1989 by a team of American analysts, including William S. Lind, used to describe warfares return to a decentralized form. ... William S. Lind is an American expert on military affairs and a pundit on cultural conservatism. ... Thomas X. Hammes is a retired Marine Colonel. ... Decentralisation (or decentralization) is any of various means of more widely distributing decision-making to bring it closer to the point of service or action. ...


Ground warfare

Main article: Ground warfare

Ground warfare involves three distinct types of combat units, Infantry, Armor and Artillery. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I Infantry or footmen are very highly disciplined and trained soldiers who fight primarily with small arms(rifles), but are trained to use everything from their bare hands to missle systems in order to neutralize... Armor or armour (see spelling differences) is protective clothing intended to defend its wearer from intentional harm in combat and military engagements, typically associated with soldiers. ... For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ...


Infantry in modern times would entail Mechanized infantry and Airborne forces. Usually wielding a type of rifle or sub-machine gun, an infantryman is the basic unit of an army. Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I Infantry or footmen are very highly disciplined and trained soldiers who fight primarily with small arms(rifles), but are trained to use everything from their bare hands to missle systems in order to neutralize... Mechanized infantry are infantry equipped with armored personnel carriers (APCs), or infantry fighting vehicles (IFVs) for transport and combat (see also mechanized force). ... Airborne Military parachuting form of insertion. ...


Armored warfare in modern times involves a variety of Armored fighting vehicles for the purpose of battle and support. Tanks or other armored vehicles (such as armored personal carriers or tank destroyers) are slower, yet stronger hunks of metal. They are invulnerable to enemy machine gun fire but prone to rocket infantry, mines, and aircraft so are usually accompanied by infantry. In urban areas, because of smaller space, an armored vehicle is exposed to hidden enemy infantry but can extinguish a large area or building so is effective in its ways. In rural areas, an armored vehicle does not have to worry about hidden units though rough terrain and long-distances have always been a factor of weakness for Armored tanks and vehicles. They are also still prone to mines and artillery as well Armoured warfare in modern warfare is understood to be the use of armoured fighting vehicles as a central component of the methods of war. ... An armoured fighting vehicle (AFV) is a military vehicle, equipped with protection against hostile attacks and often mounted weapons. ...


Artillery in contemporary times, is distinguished by its large calibre, firing an explosive shell or rocket, and being of such a size and weight as to require a specialized mount for firing and transport. Weapons covered by this term include "tube" artillery such as the howitzer, cannon, mortar, and field gun and "rocket" artillery. The term "artillery" has traditionally not been used for projectiles with internal guidance systems, even though some artillery units employ surface-to-surface missiles. Recent advances in terminal guidance systems for small munitions has allowed large calibre shells to be fitted with precision guidance fuses, blurring this distinction. For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ... This article is concerned solely with chemical explosives. ... Shells of WWI. From left to right: 90 mm fragmentation shell - 120 mm pig iron incendiary shell 77/14 model - 75 mm high explosive shell model 16 - 75 mm fragmentation shell A shell is a payload-carrying projectile, which, as opposed to a bullet, contains an explosive or other filling... This article is about vehicles powered by rocket engines. ... 19th century 12 pounder (5 kg) mountain howitzer displayed by the National Park Service at Fort Laramie in Wyoming, USA A howitzer is a type of artillery piece that is characterized by a relatively short barrel and the use of comparatively small explosive charges to propel projectiles at trajectories with... For other uses, see Cannon (disambiguation). ... US soldier loading a M224 60-mm mortar. ... A field gun is an artillery piece. ... A guidance system is a device or group of devices used to navigate a ship, aircraft, missile, rocket, satellite, or other craft. ... For other uses, see Missile (disambiguation). ...


Guerrilla warfare

Main article: Guerrilla warfare

Guerrilla warfare is defined as fighting by groups of irregular troops (guerrillas) within areas occupied by the enemy. When guerrillas obey the laws of conventional warfare they are entitled, if captured, to be treated as ordinary prisoners of war; however, they are often executed by their captors. The tactics of guerrilla warfare stress deception and ambush, as opposed to mass confrontation, and succeed best in an irregular, rugged, terrain and with a sympathetic populace, whom guerrillas often seek to win over by propaganda, reform, and terrorism. Guerrilla warfare has played a significant role in modern history, especially when waged by Communist liberation movements in Southeast Asia and elsewhere. Guerrilla warfare was also the primary tactic of Americans in their revolutionary war. Guerrilla redirects here. ... Guerrilla redirects here. ... Irregular soldiers in Beauharnois, Quebec, 19th century. ... Terrorist redirects here. ...


Guerrilla fighters gravitate toward weapons which are easily accessible, low in technology and low in cost. A typical arsenal of the modern guerrilla would include the AK-47, RPGs and Improvised explosive devices. The guerrilla doctrines' main disadvantage is the inability to access more advanced equipment due to economic, influence, and accessibility issues. They must rely on small unit tactics involving hit and run. This situation leads to low intensity warfare and asymmetrical warfare. Avtomat Kalashnikova model 1947 g. ... An RPG-7 captured by the US Army RPG, or Rocket propelled grenade is a loose term describing hand-held, shoulder-launched anti-tank weapons capable of firing an unguided rocket equipped with an explosive warhead. ... Munitions rigged for an IED discovered by Iraqi police in Baghdad, November 2005. ...


Information warfare

Main article: Information warfare

Information warfare is a kind of warfare where information and attacks on information and its system are used as a tool of warfare. Some examples of this type of warfare are electronic "sniffers" which disrupt international fund-transfer networks as well as the signals of television and radio stations. Jamming such signals can allow participants in the war to use the stations for a misinformation campaign. Information warfare is the use and management of information in pursuit of a competitive advantage over an opponent. ... Information warfare is the use and management of information in pursuit of a competitive advantage over an opponent. ... The ASCII codes for the word Wikipedia represented in binary, the numeral system most commonly used for encoding computer information. ... For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ... An advertising campaign is a series of advertisement messages that share a single idea and theme which make up an integrated marketing communication (IMC). ...


Naval warfare

Naval warfare takes place on the high seas (blue water navy). Usually, only large, powerful nations have competent blue water or deep water navies. Modern navies primarily use aircraft carriers, submarines, frigates, and destroyers for combat. This provides a versatile array of attacks, capable of hitting ground targets, air targets, or other seafaring vessels. Most modern navies also have a large air support contingent, deployed from aircraft carriers. In World War II, small craft (motor torpedo boats variously called PT boats, MTBs, MGBs, Schnellbooten, or MAS-boats) fought near shore. This developed in the Vietnam War into riverine warfare (brown water navy), in intertidal and river areas. Irregular warfare makes this sort of combat more likely in the future. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... It is tempting to regard modern naval combat as the purest expression of tactics. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Two aircraft carriers, USS (left), and HMS Illustrious (right), showing the difference in size between a supercarrier and a light V/STOL aircraft carrier. ... USS Los Angeles A submarine is a specialized watercraft that can operate underwater. ... Sailing frigates were 4th, 5th, or 6th-rated ships in the rating system of the Royal Navy. ... USS Lassen, an Arleigh Burke-class destroyer In naval terminology, a destroyer is a fast and maneuverable yet long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet or battle group and defend them against smaller, short-range attackers (originally torpedo boats, later submarines and aircraft). ... Two aircraft carriers, USS (left), and HMS Illustrious (right), showing the difference in size between a supercarrier and a light V/STOL aircraft carrier. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Motor Torpedo Boat (MTB) was the name given to fast torpedo boats by the US and Royal Navies. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000...


Nuclear warfare

Main article: Nuclear warfare

Nuclear war is a type of warfare which relies on nuclear weapons. There are actually two types of warfare in this category. In a limited nuclear war, a small number of weapons are used in a tactical exchange aimed primarily at opposing military forces. In a full-scale nuclear war, large numbers of weapons are used in an attack aimed at entire countries. This type of warfare would target both military bases and civilians. The Titan II ICBM carried a 9 Mt W53 warhead, making it one of the most powerful nuclear weapons fielded by the United States during the Cold War. ... The Titan II ICBM carried a 9 Mt W53 warhead, making it one of the most powerful nuclear weapons fielded by the United States during the Cold War. ...


Psychological warfare

Main article: Psychological warfare

Psychological warfare is the planned use of propaganda and other psychological actions having the primary purpose of influencing the opinions, emotions, attitudes, and behavior of hostile foreign groups in such a way as to support the achievement of national objectives. The U.S. Department of Defense defines psychological warfare (PSYWAR) as: The planned use of propaganda and other psychological actions having the primary purpose of influencing the opinions, emotions, attitudes, and behavior of hostile foreign groups in such a way as to support the achievement of national objectives. ... The U.S. Department of Defense defines psychological warfare (PSYWAR) as: The planned use of propaganda and other psychological actions having the primary purpose of influencing the opinions, emotions, attitudes, and behavior of hostile foreign groups in such a way as to support the achievement of national objectives. ... For other uses, see Propaganda (disambiguation). ... Psychology (ancient Greek: psyche = soul and logos = word) is the study of mind, thought, and behaviour. ...


Propaganda

Main article: Propaganda

Propaganda is a concerted set of messages aimed at influencing the opinions or behavior of large numbers of people. Instead of impartially providing information, propaganda in its most basic sense presents information in order to influence its audience. The most effective propaganda is often completely truthful, but some propaganda presents facts selectively to encourage a particular synthesis, or gives loaded messages in order to produce an emotional rather than rational response to the information presented. The desired result is a change of the cognitive narrative of the subject in the target audience. For other uses, see Propaganda (disambiguation). ...


Space warfare

Main article: Space warfare

Space warfare is warfare that occurs outside the Earth's atmosphere. The weapons would include Orbital weaponry and Space weapons. High value outer space targets would include satellites and weapon platforms. Notably no real weapons exist in space yet. Space warfare is combat that takes place in outer space. ... Space warfare is combat that takes place in outer space. ... Air redirects here. ... Orbital weaponry is any weapon that is in orbit around a large body such as a planet or moon. ... Space weapons are weapons that (1) can attack and negate the capability of space systems in orbit (anti-satellite weapon); (2) can attack targets on the earth (ex. ... Layers of Atmosphere - not to scale (NOAA)[1] Outer space, sometimes simply called space, refers to the relatively empty regions of the universe outside the atmospheres of celestial bodies. ... For other uses, see Satellite (disambiguation). ... A weapons platform is generally any structure or system on which a weapon can be mounted. ...


Total war

Main article: Total war

Total war is a 20th century term to describe a war in which countries or nations use all of their resources to destroy another organized country's or nation's ability to engage in war. The practice of total war has been in use for centuries, but it was only in the middle to late nineteenth century that total war was recognized as a separate class of warfare. Total war is a military conflict in which nations mobilize all available resources in order to destroy another nations ability to engage in war. ... Total war is a military conflict in which nations mobilize all available resources in order to destroy another nations ability to engage in war. ...


The most identifiable consequence of total war in modern times has been the inclusion of civilians and civilian infrastructure as targets in destroying a country's ability to engage in war. The targeting of civilians developed from two distinct theories. The first theory was that if enough civilians were killed, factories could not function. The second theory was that if civilians were killed, the country would be so demoralized that it would have no ability to wage further war. In times of armed conflict a civilian is any person who is not a combatant. ... The word theory has a number of distinct meanings in different fields of knowledge, depending on their methodologies and the context of discussion. ...


Modern wars

Geographic areas where armed conflict is ongoing.

Lists

Main article: List of wars
  • List of wars 1945–1989
  • List of wars 1990–2002
  • List of wars 2003–current
  • Ongoing wars

This is a list of lists of wars, sorted by country, date, region, and type of conflict. ... // 1945-1949 Chinese Civil War 1945-1949 Indonesian War of Independence 1946-1949 Greek Civil War 1946-1954 First Indochina War 1947 Paraguayan Civil War 1947-1949 Indo-Pakistani War of 1947 1948 Costa Rica Civil War 1948-1949 First Arab-Israeli War 1948-1960 Malayan Emergency 1949-1959 Chinese... 1990-1991 Gulf War 1990-1994 Rwandan Civil War 1990-1998 Tuareg Rebellion 1991-2002 Algerian Civil War 1991-2001 Yugoslav Wars 1991 Slovenian War 1991-1995 Croatian War of Independence 1992-1995 Bosnian War 1998-1999 Kosovo War 1991-1993 Georgian Civil War 1991-1992 Georgian-Ossetian Conflict 1992... 2003-present Balochistan conflict, Pakistan 2003-present Central African War 2003-present Darfur conflict, Sudan 2004-present Central African Republic Civil War, Central African War 2005-present Chad-Sudan conflict 2003-present Second Gulf War 2006-present Iraqi Civil War 2004-2006 Waziristan War 2004 Haiti rebellion 2004-present Sa... Geographic areas where armed conflict is ongoing. ...

Major Modern Wars

Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Israel Egypt Syria Jordan Iraq Commanders Yitzhak Rabin, Moshe Dayan, Uzi Narkiss, Israel Tal, Mordechai Hod, Ariel Sharon Abdel Hakim Amer, Abdul Munim Riad, Zaid ibn Shaker, Hafez al-Assad Strength 264,000 (incl. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... (Redirected from 1970 War of Attrition) This is about the Israeli-Egyptian War of Attrition For the military strategy, see war of attrition. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Bangladesh Liberation War. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... (Redirected from 1973 Yom Kippur War) The Yom Kippur War (also known as the 1973 Arab-Israeli War, the October War and Ramadan War), was fought from October 6 (the day of Yom Kippur) to October 22/24, 1973, between Israel and a coalition of Egypt and Syria. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Belligerents DRA USSR Mujahideen of Afghanistan al-Qaeda supported by[1] United States United Kingdom Pakistan Saudi Arabia Commanders Soviet forces: Sergei Sokolov Valentin Varennikov Boris Gromov DRA: Babrak Karmal Mohammad Najibullah Abdul Rashid Dostum Abdul Haq Jalaluddin Haqqani Gulbuddin Hekmatyar Ismail Khan Ahmad Shah Massoud Strength Soviet forces: 80... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... Combatants  Iran Patriotic Union of Kurdistan Iraq Peoples Mujahedin of Iran Commanders Ruhollah Khomeini Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani Ali Shamkhani Mostafa Chamran â€  Saddam Hussein Ali Hassan al-Majid Strength 305,000 soldiers 500,000 Pasdaran and Basij militia 900 tanks 1,000 armored vehicles 3,000 artillery pieces 470 aircraft... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... Combatants Israel South Lebanon Army LF (nominally neutral) PLO Syria Amal (switched sides) LCP Commanders Menachem Begin (Prime Minister) Ariel Sharon, (Ministry of Defence) Rafael Eitan, (CoS) Yasser Arafat Strength Israel: 76,000 troops 800 tanks 1,500 APCs 634 aircraft Syria: 22,000 troops 352 tanks 300 APCs 450... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... Belligerents Argentina United Kingdom Commanders President Leopoldo Galtieri Vice-Admiral Juan Lombardo Brigadier-General Ernesto Crespo Brigade-General Mario Menéndez Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher Admiral Sir John Fieldhouse Rear-Admiral John “Sandy” Woodward Major-General Jeremy Moore Casualties and losses 649 killed 1,068 wounded 11,313 taken prisoner... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... Combatants  Israel Unified National Leadership ot the Uprising Commanders Yitzhak Shamir Yasser Arafat Casualties 160 (5 children) 1,162 (241 children) The First Intifada (1987 - 1993) (also intifada and war of the stones) was a mass Palestinian uprising against Israeli rule[1] that began in Jabalia refugee camp and quickly... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... Combatants Republic of Nagorno-Karabakh1 Republic of Armenia 2 CIS mercenaries Republic of Azerbaijan Afghan Mujahideen 3 Chechen Volunteers 4 CIS mercenaries Commanders Samvel Babayan, Hemayag Haroyan, Monte Melkonian, Vazgen Sargsyan, Arkady Ter-Tatevosyan Ä°sgandar Hamidov, Suret Huseynov, Rahim Gaziev, Shamil Basayev Casualties 6,000 dead, 25,000 wounded 17... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... The Somali Civil War is an armed conflict in Somalia that started in 1988. ... This article is about the year. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... Combatants FAR. Also elements of the Zairean DSP (1990-1991) and elements of parachute regiments of the French Army (1990-1993) RPF Commanders Juvénal Habyarimana† Col. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... Combatants Russian Federation Chechen Republic of Ichkeria Commanders Pavel Grachev Anatoly Kulikov Konstantin Pulikovsky Anatoliy Romanov Vyacheslav Tikhomirov Gennady Troshev Dzhokhar Dudayev  â€  Aslan Maskhadov Strength (December 11, 1994) Up to 50,000 soldiers and Interior Ministry (MVD) (December 11, 1994) 3,000 to 15,000[1] Casualties Military: At least... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... Combatants AFDL, Uganda, Rwanda Zaire Commanders Laurent-Désiré Kabila Mobutu Sésé Seko Casualties Civilians killed: 200,000+ The First Congo War was a conflict from late 1996 to 1997 in which Zairean President Mobutu Sésé Seko was overthrown by rebel forces backed by foreign powers such as... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... The term Kosovo War or Kosovo Conflict is often used to describe two sequential and at times parallel armed conflicts (a civil war followed by an international war) in the southern Serbian province called Kosovo (officially Kosovo and Metohia), part of the former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Combatants Democratic Republic of the Congo, Namibia, Zimbabwe, Angola, Chad, Mai-Mai, Hutu-aligned forces Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Movement for the Liberation of Congo Congolese Rally for Democracy Tutsi-aligned forces Commanders Laurent-Désiré Kabila (Congo), Joseph Kabila (Congo), Sam Nujoma Robert Mugabe José Eduardo dos Santos Idriss D... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... Belligerents Russian Federation Chechen loyalists Chechen separatists Caucasian Front Foreign Mujahideen Commanders Vladimir Putin Gennady Troshev Alexander Baranov Valentin Korabelnikov Akhmad Kadyrov â€  Ramzan Kadyrov Dzabrail Yamadayev â€  Sulim Yamadayev Said-Magomed Kakiyev Aslan Maskhadov â€  Sheikh Abdul Halim â€  Dokka Umarov Ruslan Gelayev â€  Shamil Basayev â€  Akhmed Yevloyev Khattab â€  Abu al-Walid â€  Abu Hafs... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... For other uses, see al-Aqsa (disambiguation). ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... For other uses of War in Afghanistan, see War in Afghanistan (disambiguation). ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Lebanon, Hezbollah, PLO Israel, SLA Israel-Lebanon conflict describes a series of related military clashes involving Israel, Lebanon, and various non-state militias acting from within Lebanon. ...

Literature

Image File history File links Question_book-3. ...

See also

Sir Rupert Smith (born 1943) was a general in the British Army until his retirement in 2002. ... War is a state of widespread conflict between states, organisations, or relatively large groups of people, which is characterised by the use of lethal violence between combatants or upon civilians. ...

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