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Encyclopedia > Modern times

The term Modern Times is used by historians to loosely describe the period of time immediately following what is known as the Early Modern Times. It is to be distinguished from the term Modernity.
Periodization is the attempt to categorize or divide time into discrete named blocks. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Early Modern Europe. ... Modernity is a term used to describe the condition of being modern. Since the term modern is used to describe a wide range of periods, modernity must be understood in its context. ...

  1. The Early Modern Times lasted from the end of the 15th century to the end of the 18th century, circa 1450 to 1750.[1]
  2. Modern Times are the period from Enlightenment and the 18th century until today; the term "Late Modern" is not being used in English, albeit in other languages.[2] The history of this time is the Modern history.
  3. Postmodernity, Postindustrialism are theories to apply the art movement term of postmodernism (below) to social and cultural history, or to refer to the change of the industrial society during the past fifty years when the industry was no longer the most predominant basis of economy and society; the prefix "post-" implies a reaction to modernity and in that sense does not cover all contemporary history.[3]

Modernity on the other hand, describes large-scale developments of society (including literature and philosophy). Modernism describes an art movement. Neither applies to political, social, or series of events since either the fin de siècle or World War I in a strict sense. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Early Modern Europe. ... Modern history describes the history of the Modern Times, the era after the Middle Ages. ... Postmodernity (also called post-modernity or the postmodern condition) is a term used to describe the social and cultural implications of postmodernism. ... A post-industrial society is a society in which an economic transition as occurred from a manufacturing based economy to a service based economy, a diffusion of national and global capital, and mass privatization. ... Look up prefix in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Contemporary history describes the term of historical events, that are immediately relevant to the present time. ... Modernity is a term used to describe the condition of being modern. Since the term modern is used to describe a wide range of periods, modernity must be understood in its context. ... Young people interacting within a an ethnically diverse society. ... Old book bindings at the Merton College library. ... The philosopher Socrates about to take poison hemlock as ordered by the court. ... For Modernism in an American context, see American modernism. ... Fin de siècle is French for end of the century. The term turn-of-the-century is sometimes used as a synonym, but is more neutral (lacking some or most of the connotations described below), and can include the first years of a new century. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...

Contents

Terminology, Periodisation, and Early Modern

These terms are never to be used in strict terms, centuries are the most narrow time frame possible. In the English language, history was not a scientific subject until the Enlightenment (and the American and French Revolutions of that period, 1750-present (2007), so the "Modern Age" was their present time; that said, the term "modern" was coined shortly before 1585 to describe the beginning of a new era.[4] For that reason, there is no distinction into Early and "Late", as in eg. in German, whose periodisation "Ancient-Medieval-New" was constructed after the millenarianist book on world history by Christoph Cellarius in 1707, and Hegel, who continued the tradition. There, it led to the, literally, "Late Newer" Times (Späte Neuzeit), which is essentially Modern Age.[5] The term "Early Modern" was introduced in the English language during the Enlightenment to distinguish the time between what we call Middle Ages and time of the late Enlightenment (1800) (when the term Modern Ages was shaped in our contemporary form), a distinction that originated in the 1930s.[6] Periodization is the attempt to categorize or divide historical time into discrete named blocks. ... Millenarianism (sometimes spelled millenarism or millennarism) is the belief by a religious, social, or political group or movement in a coming major transformation of society after which all things will be changed in a positive (or sometimes negative or ambiguous) direction. ... Christoph Cellarius (1634 or 1638 - 1707) was a German classical scholar who held positions in Weimar and Halle. ... Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 - November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher born in Stuttgart, Württemberg, in present-day southwest Germany. ...


The similar terms Modern Period, ~ Age, or ~ Era, are also commonly (and synonymously) used. "Modern Times" and "Early Modern Times" refers to political or religious events like the English, the industrial, the American, and the French revolutions, while Modernity refers to the development of concepts like industrialisation and revolutions in the ways of thinking like individualism, democratic participation and nationalism. Still, both terms might often be used synonymously. Modernity is a term used to describe the condition of being modern. Since the term modern is used to describe a wide range of periods, modernity must be understood in its context. ... A factory in Ilmenau (Germany) around 1860 Industrialisation (also spelt Industrialization) or an Industrial Revolution is a process of social and economic change whereby a human society is transformed from a pre-industrial (an economy where the amount of capital accumulated per capita is low) to an industrial state (see... Individualism is a term used to describe a moral, political, or social outlook that stresses human independence and the importance of individual self-reliance and liberty. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution. ... Synonyms can be nouns, adverbs or adjectives, as long as both members of the pair are the same part of speech. ...


The European Renaissance (about 1420-1630) is an important transition period beginning between the Late Middle Ages and Early Modern Times. World map showing the location of Europe. ... The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ... Dante by Michelino The Late Middle Ages is a term used by historians to describe European history in the period of the 14th to 16th centuries (AD 1300–1500). ...


"Postmodernism", coined 1949, on the other hand, would describe rather a movement in art than a period of history, and is usually applied to arts, but not to any events of the very recent history.[7] This changed, when postmodernity was coined to describe the major changes in the 1950s and 1960s in economy, society, culture, and philosophy. Postmodernist architecture of the Stata Center by Frank Gehry Sydney Opera House The term Postmodernism (sometimes referred to as Pomo, Po-Mo, or PoMo [1], [2], [3]) was coined in the early 1960s to describe a dissatisfaction with modern architecture, founding the postmodern architecture. ... The Bath, a painting by Mary Cassatt (1844-1926). ... Postmodernity (also called post-modernity or the postmodern condition) is a term used to describe the social and cultural implications of postmodernism. ...


It is important to note that these terms stem from European History; in worldwide usage, such as in China, India and Islam, the terms are applied in a very different way, but often in the context with their contact with European culture in the Age of Discoveries.[8] See also Age of Sail. ...


Characteristics

The concept of the modern world is distinct from an ancient or mediaeval world rests on a sense that the modern world is not just another era in history, but rather the result of a new type of change. This is usually conceived of as progress driven by deliberate human efforts to better their situation. Antarctica Oceania Africa Asia Europe North America South America Middle East Caribbean Central Asia East Asia North Asia South Asia Southeast Asia SW. Asia Australasia Melanesia Micronesia Polynesia Central America Latin America Northern America Americas C. Africa E. Africa N. Africa Southern Africa W. Africa C. Europe E. Europe N... Era may refer to: Era, a long period of history ERA Real Estate, also known as Electronic Realty Associates Inc. ... History studies the past in human terms. ...


Advances in all areas of human activity -- politics, industry, society, economics, commerce, transport, communication, mechanization, automation, science, medicine, technology and culture -- appear to have transformed an Old World into the Modern or New World. In each case, the identification of a Revolutionary change can be used to demarcate the old and old-fashioned from the modern. Politics is the process by which groups make decisions. ... Young people interacting within a an ethnically diverse society. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Communication allows people to exchange thoughts by one of several methods. ... Mechanization is the use of machines to replace manual labour or animals and can also refer to the use of powered machinery to help a human operator in some task. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ... medicines, see medication and pharmacology. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... Culture (from the Latin cultura stemming from colere, meaning to cultivate), generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance. ...


Much of the Modern world replaced the Biblically-oriented value system, revalued the monarchical government system, and abolished the feudal economic system, with new democratic and liberal ideas in the areas of politics, science, psychology, sociology, and economics. This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library of Congress. ... A value system refers to the order and priority an individual or society grants to ethical and ideological values. ... “Kingdom” redirects here. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste. ... Democracy is a form of government under which the power to alter the laws and structures of government lies, ultimately, with the citizenry. ... Look up liberal on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Liberal may refer to: Politics: Liberalism American liberalism, a political trend in the USA Political progressivism, a political ideology that is for change, often associated with liberal movements Liberty, the condition of being free from control or restrictions Liberal Party, members of... Politics is the process by which groups make decisions. ... Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ... Psychology (from Greek: ψυχή, psukhē, spirit, soul; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is an academic/ applied discipline involving the scientific study of mental processes and behavior. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ...


Events of Modern Times

Some events, though born out of context not entirely new, show a new way of perceiving the world. The concept of modernity interprets the general meaning of these events and seeks explanations for major developments; Historians analyse the events taking place in Modern Times, ie. since the so-called "Middle Ages" (that take their name from being in the middle between Modern and Ancient Times). The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The span of recorded history is roughly 5,000-5,500 years, with cuneiform possibly being the oldest form of writing. ...


Events of Early Modern Times (15th to 18th century)

Within the Early Modern Age, some events shaped the world immensely: World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World consisting of the continents of North America[1] and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... The Age of Discovery or Age of Exploration was a period from the early 15th century and continuing into the early 17th century, during which European ships traveled around the world to search for new trading routes and partners to feed burgeoning capitalism in Europe. ... Johannes Gensfleisch zur Laden zum Gutenberg (circa 1398 - February 3, 1468), a German metal-worker and inventor, achieved fame for his contributions to the technology of printing during about the 1450s, including a type metal alloy and oil-based inks, a mold for casting type accurately, and a new kind... The printing press is a mechanical device for printing many copies of a text on rectangular sheets of paper. ...

Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... October 31 is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 61 days remaining. ... Year 1517 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... The 95 Theses. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... Combatants England Dutch Republic Spain Portugal Commanders Charles Howard Francis Drake Duke of Medina Sidonia Strength 34 warships 163 merchant vessels 22 galleons 108 merchant vessels Casualties 50–100 dead[1] ~400 wounded 600 dead, 800 wounded,[2] 397 captured, 4 merchant ships sunk or captured The Spanish Armada (Old... August 8 is the 220th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (221st in leap years), with 145 days remaining. ... 1588 was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Central Europe The Alpine Countries and the Visegrád Group (Political map, 2004) Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... Ratification of the Treaty of Münster The Peace of Westphalia refers to the pair of treaties (the Treaty of Münster and the Treaty of Osnabrück) signed in October and May 1648 which ended both the Thirty Years War and the Eighty Years War. ... The Treaty of Utrecht comprised a series of peace treaties signed in Utrecht in March and April 1713 that helped end the War of the Spanish Succession. ... Louis XIV King of France and Navarre By Hyacinthe Rigaud (1701) Louis XIV (Louis-Dieudonné) (September 5, 1638–September 1, 1715) reigned as King of France and King of Navarre from May 14, 1643 until his death. ...

Events of Modern Times (18th to 21st century)

For a thorough article on this period, see Modern history.

Modern history describes the history of the Modern Times, the era after the Middle Ages. ... // The term steam engine may also refer to an entire railroad steam locomotive. ... Model of the spinning jenny in a museum in Wuppertal, Germany The spinning jenny is a multi-spool spinning wheel. ... Wanderer above the sea of fog by Caspar David Friedrich Romanticism is an artistic, literary and intellectual movement that originated in 18th century Western Europe during the industrial revolution. ... A copy of the 1823 William J. Stone reproduction of the Declaration of Independence The United States Declaration of Independence was an act of the Second Continental Congress, adopted on July 4, 1776, which declared that the Thirteen Colonies were independent of the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... The Bastille The Bastille ( ) was a fight in Paris, known formally as Bastille Saint-Antoine—Number 232, Rue Saint-Antoine—best known today because of the storming of the Bastille on July 14, 1789, which along with the Tennis Court Oath is considered the beginning of the French Revolution. ... 1789 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... Combatants French Empire Duchy of Warsaw Confederation of the Rhine[1] Austria Prussia Russia Sweden Commanders Napoleon I Jozef Antoni Poniatowski† Frederick Augustus of Saxony Barclay De Tolly Count Benningsen Prince of Schwarzenberg Gebhard von Blücher Prince Charles John of Sweden Strength 191,000 330,000 Casualties 38,000... Year 1813 (MDCCCXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...

See also

For Modernism in an American context, see American modernism. ... Modernity is a term used to describe the condition of being modern. Since the term modern is used to describe a wide range of periods, modernity must be understood in its context. ...

References

  1. ^ Encyclopaedia Britannica
  2. ^ see Terminology section
  3. ^ Encyclopaedia Britannica
  4. ^ http://www.bartleby.com/61/28/M0362800.html
  5. ^ Schulze, Introduction to Modern History, Stuttgart 2002
  6. ^ New Dictionary of the History of ideas, Volume 5, Detroit 2005. Modernism and Modern
  7. ^ http://m-w.com/dictionary/postmodern
  8. ^ http://www.nlm.nih.gov/exhibition/islamic_medical/islamic_14.html

External links


History of Europe
Prehistoric Europe | Classical antiquity | Late antiquity | Middle Ages | Renaissance | Early modern Europe | Modern Times | Contemporary history

The Treaty of Rome signing ceremony This article gives an account of the history of the continent of Europe. ... // Paleolithic Lower Paleolithic: Europe was populated by species of Homo since c. ... Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD... Late Antiquity is a rough periodization (c. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ... The early modern period is a term used by historians to refer to the period in Western Europe and its first colonies which spans the time between the Middle Ages and the Industrial Revolution that has created modern society. ... Contemporary history describes the term of historical events, that are immediately relevant to the present time. ...


 
 

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