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Encyclopedia > Modern evolutionary synthesis

The modern evolutionary synthesis refers to a set of ideas from several biological specialities that were brought together to form a unified theory of evolution accepted by the great majority of working biologists. This synthesis was produced over a period of about a decade (1936-1947) and was closely connected with the development from 1918 to 1932 of the discipline of population genetics, which integrated the theory of natural selection with Mendelian genetics. This article is about evolution in biology. ... Population genetics is the study of the distribution of and change in allele frequencies under the influence of the four evolutionary forces: natural selection, genetic drift, mutation, and migration. ... For other uses, see Natural selection (disambiguation). ... This article is about the general scientific term. ...


Julian Huxley invented the term, when he summarised the ideas in his book, Evolution: The Modern Synthesis in 1942. Though the 'Modern Synthesis' is the basis of current evolutionary thinking, it refers to a historical event that took place in the 1930s and 1940s. Major figures in the development of the modern synthesis include R. A. Fisher, Theodosius Dobzhansky, J.B.S. Haldane, Sewall Wright, Julian Huxley, Ernst Mayr, Bernhard Rensch, Sergei Chetverikov, George Gaylord Simpson, and G. Ledyard Stebbins. Sir Julian Sorell Huxley, FRS (June 22, 1887 – February 14, 1975) was a English biologist, author, Humanist and internationalist, known for his popularisations of science in books and lectures. ... Sir Ronald Fisher Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher, FRS (February 17, 1890 – July 29, 1962) was an evolutionary biologist, geneticist and statistician. ... Theodosius Grigorevich Dobzhansky (Russian — Феодосий Григорьевич Добржанский; sometimes anglicized to Theodore Dobzhansky; January 25, 1900 - December 18, 1975) was a noted geneticist and evolutionary biologist. ... John Burdon Sanderson Haldane (November 5, 1892 - December 1, 1964), who normally used J.B.S. as a first name, was a geneticist born in Scotland and educated at Eton and Oxford University. ... Sewall Green Wright ForMemRS (December 21, 1889 – March 3, 1988) was an American geneticist known for his influential work on evolutionary theory. ... Ernst Mayr Ernst Walter Mayr (July 5, 1904, Kempten, Germany – February 3, 2005, Bedford, Massachusetts U.S.), was one of the 20th centurys leading evolutionary biologists. ... Bernhard Rensch (21 January 1900–4 April 1990) was a German biologist, and one of the architects of the modern evolutionary synthesis, which he popularised in Germany. ... Sergei Sergeevich Chetverikov ( 1880-1959) was a Russian population geneticist. ... George Gaylord Simpson (June 16, 1902 - October 6, 1984) was an American paleontologist. ... G. Ledyard Stebbins George Ledyard Stebbins, Jr. ...


The modern synthesis solved difficulties and confusions caused by the specialisation and poor communication between biologists in the early years of the twentieth century. Discoveries of early geneticists were difficult to reconcile with gradual evolution and the mechanism of natural selection. The synthesis reconciled the two schools of thought, while providing evidence that studies of populations in the field were crucial to evolutionary theory. It drew together ideas from several branches of biology that had become separated, particularly genetics, cytology, systematics, botany, morphology, ecology and paleontology.


Modern evolutionary synthesis is also referred to as the new synthesis, the modern synthesis, and the evolutionary synthesis.

Part of the Biology series on
Evolution
Mechanisms and processes

Adaptation
Genetic drift
Gene flow
Mutation
Natural selection
Speciation Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, knowledge), also referred to as the biological sciences, is the study of living organisms utilizing the scientific method. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... Image File history File links Tree_of_life. ... The mechanisms and processes of evolutionary change includes natural selection, genetic drift, gene flow, mutation, adaptation and speciation. ... For other uses, see Adaptation (disambiguation). ... In population genetics, genetic drift is the statistical effect that results from the influence that chance has on the success of alleles (variants of a gene). ... In population genetics, gene flow (also known as gene migration) is the transfer of alleles of genes from one population to another. ... For linguistic mutation, see Apophony. ... For other uses, see Natural selection (disambiguation). ... Charles Darwins first sketch of an evolutionary tree from his First Notebook on Transmutation of Species (1837) Speciation is the evolutionary process by which new biological species arise. ...

Research and history

Evidence
History
Modern synthesis
Social effect / Objections While on board HMS Beagle, Charles Darwin collected numerous specimens, many new to science, which supported his later theory of evolution by natural selection. ... Evolutionary thought has roots in antiquity as philosophical ideas conceived during the Ancient Greek and Roman eras, but until the 18th century, biological thought was dominated by essentialism, the idea that living forms are static and unchanging in time. ... The theory of transmutation had early origins in the speculations and hypotheses of Erasmus Darwin, and Jean-Baptiste Lamarck. ... There have been numerous objections to evolution since alternative evolutionary ideas came to be hotly debated around the start of the nineteenth century. ...

Evolutionary biology fields

Cladistics
Ecological genetics
Evolutionary development
Human evolution
Molecular evolution
Evolutionary history of life
Phylogenetics
Population genetics
It has been suggested that Clade be merged into this article or section. ... Ecological genetics is the study of genetics (itself a field of biology) from an ecological perspective. ... Evolutionary developmental biology (evolution of development or informally, evo-devo) is a field of biology that compares the developmental processes of different animals in an attempt to determine the ancestral relationship between organisms and how developmental processes evolved. ... For the history of humans on Earth, see History of the world. ... Molecular evolution is the process of the genetic material in populations of organisms changing over time. ... The evolutionary history of life and the origin of life are fields of ongoing geological and biological research. ... Phylogenetic groups, or taxa, can be monophyletic, paraphyletic, or polyphyletic. ... Population genetics is the study of the distribution of and change in allele frequencies under the influence of the four evolutionary forces: natural selection, genetic drift, mutation, and migration. ...

Biology Portal · v  d  e 

Contents

Developments leading up to the synthesis

See also: history of evolutionary thought

Evolutionary thought has roots in antiquity as philosophical ideas conceived during the Ancient Greek and Roman eras, but until the 18th century, biological thought was dominated by essentialism, the idea that living forms are static and unchanging in time. ...

1859-1899

The Origin of Species was successful in convincing most of the scientific community of the fact that evolution had occurred, but was much less successful in convincing naturalists that natural selection was its primary mechanism. In the 19th and early 20th centuries variations of Lamarckism, orthogenesis ("progressive" evolution), and saltationism (evolution by "jumps" or mutations) were discussed as alternatives.[1] Also, Darwin did not offer a precise explanation of how new species arise. As part of the disagreement about whether natural selection alone was sufficient to explain speciation, George Romanes coined the term "neo-Darwinism" to refer to the version of evolution advocated by Alfred Russel Wallace and August Weismann with its heavy dependence on natural selection.[2][3] Weismann and Wallace rejected the Lamarckian idea of inheritance of acquired characteristics, something that Darwin had not ruled out.[4] Lamarckism or Lamarckian evolution refers to the once widely accepted idea that an organism can pass on characteristics that it acquired during its lifetime to its offspring (also known as based on heritability of acquired characteristics or soft inheritance). It is named for the French biologist Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, who... Orthogenesis, orthogenetic evolution or autogenesis, is the hypothesis that life has an innate tendency to move in a unilinear fashion due to some internal or external driving force. The hypothesis is based on Essentialism, finalism and cosmic teleology and proposes an intrinsic drive which slowly transforms species. ... In biology, saltation (from Latin, saltus, leap) is a sudden change from one generation to the next, that is large, or very large, in comparison with the usual variation of an organism. ... A 19th century naturalist, George John Romanes (May 19, 1848 - May 23, 1894), coined the term, and laid the foundation of, comparative psychology, and postulated a similarity of cognitive processes and mechanisms between humans and animals. ... The modern evolutionary synthesis (often referred to simply as the modern synthesis), neo-Darwinian synthesis or neo-Darwinism, brings together Charles Darwins theory of the evolution of species by natural selection with Gregor Mendels theory of genetics as the basis for biological inheritance. ... For the Cornish painter, see Alfred Wallis. ... August Weismann Friedrich Leopold August Weismann (b. ...


Weismann's idea was that the relationship between the hereditary material, which he called the germ plasm, and the rest of the body (the soma) was a one-way relationship: the germ-plasm formed the body, but the body did not influence the germ-plasm, except indirectly in its participation in a population subject to natural selection. Weismann was translated into English, and though he was influential, it took many years for the full significance of his work to be appreciated.[5] Later, after the completion of the modern synthesis, the term neo-Darwinism would come to be associated with its core concept of evolution being driven by natural selection acting on variation produced by genetic mutation and crossing-over.[3] The germ plasm (or polar plasm) is a zone found in the the cytoplasm of the egg cells of some model organisms (such as C. elegans, Drosophila, Xenopus), which contains determinants that will give rise to the germ cell lineage. ... The term somatic refers to the body, as distinct from some other entity, such as the mind. ... Thomas Hunt Morgans illustration of crossing over (1916) Homologous Recombination is the process by which two chromosomes, paired up during prophase I of meiosis, exchange some distal portion of their DNA. Crossover occurs when two chromosomes, normally two homologous instances of the same chromosome, break and then reconnect but...


1900-1915

Gregor Mendel's work was re-discovered by Hugo de Vries and Carl Correns in 1900. News of this reached William Bateson in England, who reported on the paper during a presentation to the Royal Horticultural Society in May 1900.[6] It showed that the contributions of each parent retained their integrity rather than blending with the contribution of the other parent. However, the early Mendelians viewed hard inheritance as incompatible with natural selection and favored saltationism (large mutations or jumps) instead.[7] The biometric school, led by Karl Pearson and Walter Weldon, argued vigorously against it, saying that empirical evidence indicated that variation was continuous in most organisms not discrete as Mendelism predicted. The relevance of Mendelism to evolution was unclear and hotly debated, especially by Bateson, who opposed the biometric ideas of his former teacher Weldon. This debate between the biometricians and the Mendelians continued for some twenty years. “Mendel” redirects here. ... Hugo Marie de Vries (16th February 1848-21st May 1935), a Dutch biologist, was one of three men - see also Carl Correns and Erich von Tschermak - who in 1900 rediscovered Gregor Mendels work on genetics. ... Carl Erich Correns (September 10, 1864, in Munich - February 14, 1933) was a German botanist and geneticist, who is notable primarily for his independent discovery of the principles of heredity, and for his rediscovery of Gregor Mendels earlier paper on that subject, which he achieved simultaneously but independent of... William Bateson. ... Biostatistics or biometry is the application of statistics to a wide range of topics in biology. ... Karl Pearson FRS (March 27, 1857 – April 27, 1936) established the discipline of mathematical statistics. ... Walter Frank Raphael Weldon Walter Frank Raphael Weldon (15 March 1860 — 13 April 1906) was an English evolutionary zoologist and biometrician. ...


T. H. Morgan began his career in genetics as a saltationist, and started out trying to demonstrate that mutations could produce new species in fruit flies. However, the experimental work at his lab with Drosophila melanogaster, which helped establish the link between Mendelian genetics and the chromosomal theory of inheritance, demonstrated that rather than creating new species in a single step, mutations increased the genetic variation in the population.[8] Thomas Hunt Morgan (September 25, 1866 – December 4, 1945) was an American geneticist and embryologist. ... Binomial name Meigen, 1830[1] Drosophila melanogaster (from the Greek for black-bellied dew-lover) is a two-winged insect that belongs to the Diptera, the order of the flies. ...


The foundation of population genetics

The first step towards the synthesis was the development of population genetics. R.A. Fisher, J.B.S. Haldane, and Sewall Wright provided critical contributions. In 1918 Fisher produced the paper The Correlation Between Relatives on the Supposition of Mendelian Inheritance,[9] which showed how the continuous variation measured by the biometricians could be the result of the action of many discrete genetic loci. In this and subsequent papers culminating in his 1930 book Genetical Theory of Natural Selection Fisher was able to show how Mendelian genetics was consistent with the main elements of neo-Darwinism.[10] During the 1920s a series of papers by J.B.S. Haldane applied mathematical analysis to real world examples of natural selection such as the evolution of industrial melanism in peppered moths.[10] Haldane established that natural selection could work in the real world at a faster rate than even Fisher had assumed.[11] Population genetics is the study of the distribution of and change in allele frequencies under the influence of the four evolutionary forces: natural selection, genetic drift, mutation, and migration. ... Sir Ronald Fisher Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher, FRS (February 17, 1890–July 29, 1962) was an extraordinarily talented evolutionary biologist, geneticist and statistician. ... John Burdon Sanderson Haldane (November 5, 1892 - December 1, 1964), who normally used J.B.S. as a first name, was a geneticist born in Scotland and educated at Eton and Oxford University. ... Sewall Green Wright ForMemRS (December 21, 1889 – March 3, 1988) was an American geneticist known for his influential work on evolutionary theory. ... The Correlation Between Relatives on the Supposition of Mendelian Inheritance is a scientific paper by Ronald Fisher which was published in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh in 1918, (volume 52, pages 399—433). ... Short and long arms Chromosome. ... , the white-bodied peppered moth. ...


Sewall Wright focused on combinations of genes that interacted as complexes, and the effects of inbreeding on small relatively isolated populations, which could exhibit genetic drift. In a 1932 paper he introduced the concept of an adaptive landscape in which phenomena such as cross breeding and genetic drift in small populations could push them away from adaptive peaks, which would in turn allow natural selection to push them towards new adaptive peaks.[10] Wright's model would appeal to field naturalists such as Theodosius Dobzhansky and Ernst Mayr who were becoming aware of the importance of geographical isolation in real world populations.[11] The work of Fisher, Haldane and Wright founded the discipline of population genetics. This is the precursor of the modern synthesis, which is an even broader coalition of ideas.[11][10][12] In population genetics, genetic drift is the statistical effect that results from the influence that chance has on the success of alleles (variants of a gene). ... In evolutionary biology, fitness landscapes or adaptive landscapes are used to visualize the relationship between genotypes (or phenotypes) and reproductive success. ... For other uses, see Natural selection (disambiguation). ... Population genetics is the study of the distribution of and change in allele frequencies under the influence of the four evolutionary forces: natural selection, genetic drift, mutation, and migration. ...


The modern synthesis

Theodosius Dobzhansky, a Russian emigre who had been a postdoctoral worker in Morgan's fruit fly lab, was one of the first to apply genetics to natural populations. He worked mostly with Drosophila pseudoobscura. He says pointedly: "Russia has a variety of climates from the Arctic to sub-tropical... Exclusively laboratory workers who neither possess nor wish to have any knowledge of living beings in nature were and are in a minority".[13] Not surprisingly, there were other Russian geneticists with similar ideas, though for some time their work was known to only a few in the West. His 1937 work Genetics and the Origin of Species was a key step in bridging the gap between population geneticists and field naturalists. It presented the conclusions reached by Fisher, Haldane, and especially Wright in their highly mathematical papers in a form that was easily accessible to others. It also emphasized that real world populations had far more genetic variability than the early population geneticists had assumed in their models, and that genetically distinct sub-populations were important. Dobzhansky argued that natural selection worked to maintain genetic diversity as well as driving change. Dobzhansky had been influenced by his exposure in the 1920s to the work of a Russian geneticist named Sergei Chetverikov who had looked at the role of recessive genes in maintaining a reservoir of genetic variability in a population before his work was shut down by the rise of Lysenkoism in the Soviet Union.[11][10] Theodosius Grigorevich Dobzhansky (Russian — Феодосий Григорьевич Добржанский; sometimes anglicized to Theodore Dobzhansky; January 25, 1900 - December 18, 1975) was a noted geneticist and evolutionary biologist. ... Binomial name Frolova & Astaurov, 1929 [1] Drosophila pseudoobscura is a species of fruit fly, used extensively in lab studies of speciation. ... Genetics and the Origin of Species (ISBN 0231054750) is a 1937 book by the Ukrainian-American evolutionary biologist Theodosius Dobzhansky and one of the important books of the modern evolutionary synthesis. ... Sergei Sergeevich Chetverikov ( 1880-1959) was a Russian population geneticist. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...


Ernst Mayr's key contribution to the synthesis was Systematics and the Origin of Species, published in 1942. Mayr emphasized the importance of allopatric speciation, where geographically isolated sub-populations diverge so far that reproductive isolation occurs. He was sceptical of the reality of sympatric speciation believing that geographical isolation was a prerequisite for building up intrinsic (reproductive) isolating mechanisms.[11][10] Before he left Germany for the United States in 1930, Mayr had been influenced by the work of German biologist Bernhard Rensch. In the 1920s Rensch, who like Mayr did field work in Indonesia, analyzed the geographic distribution of polytypic species and complexes of closely related species paying particular attention to how variations between different populations correlated with local environmental factors such as differences in climate. In 1947 Rensch would write a book, eventually translated into English under the title Evoluton above the species level, that looked at how the same evolutionary mechanisms involved in speciation might be extended to explain the origins of the differences between the higher level taxa. His writings contributed to the rapid acceptance of the synthesis in Germany.[14][15] Ernst Mayr Ernst Walter Mayr (July 5, 1904, Kempten, Germany – February 3, 2005, Bedford, Massachusetts U.S.), was one of the 20th centurys leading evolutionary biologists. ... Systematics and the Origin of Species is a book written by zoologist and evolutionary biologist Ernst Mayr that was first published in 1942. ... Allopatric speciation, also known as geographic speciation, occurs when populations physically isolated by an extrinsic barrier evolve intrinsic (genetic) reproductive isolation such that if the barrier between the populations breaks down, individuals of the two populations can no longer interbreed. ... An important concept in evolutionary biology, reproductive isolation is a category of mechanisms that prevent two or more populations from exchanging genes. ... Comparison of allopatric, peripatric, parapatric and sympatric speciation. ... Bernhard Rensch (21 January 1900–4 April 1990) was a German biologist, and one of the architects of the modern evolutionary synthesis, which he popularised in Germany. ... Polytypic refers to a taxonomic group with more than one subgroup at the next (smaller) taxonomic level. ... A taxon (plural taxa) is an element of a taxonomy, e. ...


George Simpson was responsible for showing that the modern synthesis was compatible with paleontology in his book Tempo and Mode in Evolution published in 1944. Simpson's work was crucial because so many paleontologists had disagreed, in some cases vigorously, with the idea that natural selection was the main mechanism of evolution. It showed that the trends of linear progression (in for example the evolution of the horse) that earlier paleontologists had used as support for neo-Lamarckism and orthogenesis did not hold up under careful examination. Instead the fossil record was consistent with the irregular, branching, and non-directional pattern predicted by the modern synthesis.[11][10] George Simpson is the name of several people: George Simpson (politician) for Lord Simpson of Dunkeld. ... Tempo and Mode in Evolution is a 1944 book by the American paleontologist George Gaylord Simpson. ... Reconstruction, left forefoot skeleton (third digit emphasized yellow) and longitudinal section of molars of selected prehistoric horses The evolution of the horse involves the gradual development of the modern horse from the fox-sized, forest-dwelling Hyracotherium. ... Lamarckism or Lamarckian evolution refers to the once widely accepted idea that an organism can pass on characteristics that it acquired during its lifetime to its offspring (also known as based on heritability of acquired characteristics or soft inheritance). It is named for the French biologist Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, who... Orthogenesis, orthogenetic evolution or autogenesis, is the hypothesis that life has an innate tendency to move in a unilinear fashion due to some internal or external driving force. The hypothesis is based on Essentialism, finalism and cosmic teleology and proposes an intrinsic drive which slowly transforms species. ...


The botanist G. Ledyard Stebbins was another major contributor to the synthesis. His major work, Variation and Evolution in Plants, was published in 1950. It extended the synthesis to encompass botany including the important effects of hybridization and polyploidy in some kinds of plants.[10] G. Ledyard Stebbins George Ledyard Stebbins, Jr. ... Variation and Evolution in Plants is a book written by G. Ledyard Stebbins. ... Polyploidy refers to cells or organisms that contain more than two copies of each of their chromosomes. ...


Tenets of the modern synthesis

According to the modern synthesis as established in the 1930s and 1940s, genetic variation in populations arises by chance through mutation (this is now known to be sometimes caused by mistakes in DNA replication) and recombination (crossing over of homologous chromosomes during meiosis). Evolution consists primarily of changes in the frequencies of alleles between one generation and another as a result of genetic drift, gene flow, and natural selection. Speciation occurs gradually when populations are reproductively isolated, for example by geographical barriers. The 1930s (years from 1930–1939) were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known as the World Depression. ... The 1940s decade ran from 1940 to 1949. ... For linguistic mutation, see Apophony. ... DNA replication. ... Genetic recombination is the process by which a strand of DNA is broken and then joined to the end of a different DNA molecule. ... Figure 1: A representation of a condensed eukaryotic chromosome, as seen during cell division. ... For the figure of speech, see meiosis (figure of speech). ... Allele frequency is a measure of the relative frequency of an allele on a genetic locus in a population. ... In population genetics, genetic drift is the statistical effect that results from the influence that chance has on the success of alleles (variants of a gene). ... In population genetics, gene flow (also known as gene migration) is the transfer of alleles of genes from one population to another. ... For other uses, see Natural selection (disambiguation). ... Charles Darwins first sketch of an evolutionary tree from his First Notebook on Transmutation of Species (1837) Speciation is the evolutionary process by which new biological species arise. ...


Further advances

The modern evolutionary synthesis continued to be developed and refined after the initial establishment in the 1930s and 1940s. The work of W. D. Hamilton, George C. Williams, John Maynard Smith and others led to the development of a gene-centric view of evolution in the 1960s. The synthesis as it exists now has extended the scope of the Darwinian idea of natural selection to include subsequent scientific discoveries and concepts unknown to Darwin, such as DNA and genetics, which allow rigorous, in many cases mathematical, analyses of phenomena such as kin selection, altruism, and speciation. W. D. Hamilton William Donald Bill Hamilton, F.R.S. (1 August 1936 — 7 March 2000) was a British evolutionary biologist, considered one of the greatest evolutionary theorists of the 20th century. ... George Williams Professor George Christopher Williams (b. ... Professor John Maynard Smith[1], F.R.S. (6 January 1920 – 19 April 2004) was a British evolutionary biologist and geneticist. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ... In evolutionary biology, kin selection refers to changes in gene frequency across generations that are driven at least in part by interactions between related individuals, and this forms much of the conceptual basis of the theory of social evolution. ... For the ethical doctrine, see Altruism (ethics). ... Charles Darwins first sketch of an evolutionary tree from his First Notebook on Transmutation of Species (1837) Speciation is the evolutionary process by which new biological species arise. ...


A particular interpretation most commonly associated with Richard Dawkins, author of The Selfish Gene, asserts that the gene is the only true unit of selection.[16] Dawkins further extended the Darwinian idea to include non-biological systems exhibiting the same type of selective behavior of the 'fittest' such as memes in culture. Clinton Richard Dawkins, FRS (born March 26, 1941) is a British ethologist, evolutionary biologist and popular science writer who holds the Charles Simonyi Chair for the Public Understanding of Science at the University of Oxford. ... Original book cover from the painting The Expectant Valley by zoologist Desmond Morris The Selfish Gene is a very popular and somewhat controversial book on evolutionary theory by Richard Dawkins, published in 1976. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Meme (disambiguation). ...


See also

This article is about evolution in biology. ... Charles Darwins Origin of Species (publ. ... Evolutionary thought has roots in antiquity as philosophical ideas conceived during the Ancient Greek and Roman eras, but until the 18th century, biological thought was dominated by essentialism, the idea that living forms are static and unchanging in time. ... The gene-centered view of evolution, gene selection theory or selfish gene theory holds that natural selection acts through differential survival of competing genes, increasing the frequency of those alleles whose phenotypic effects successfully promote their own propagation. ... Population genetics is the study of the distribution of and change in allele frequencies under the influence of the four evolutionary forces: natural selection, genetic drift, mutation, and migration. ... Symbiogenesis refers to the merging of two separate organisms to form a single new organism. ... In biology the developmental systems theory (DST) is a collection of models of biological development and evolution that argue that the emphasis neo-Darwinism places on genes and natural selection as explanation of living structures and processes is inadequate. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Bowler Evolution:The History of an Idea pp.236-256
  2. ^ Kutschera U, Niklas KJ (2004). "The modern theory of biological evolution: an expanded synthesis". Naturwissenschaften 91 (6): 255–76. doi:10.1007/s00114-004-0515-y. PMID 15241603. 
  3. ^ a b Gould The Structure of Evolutionary Theory p. 216
  4. ^ Larson p. 86
  5. ^ Bowler pp. 253-256
  6. ^ Mike Ambrose. Mendel's Peas. Genetic Resources Unit, John Innes Centre, Norwich, UK. Retrieved on 2007-09-22.
  7. ^ Larson pp. 157-166
  8. ^ Bowler pp. 271-272
  9. ^ Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 52:399-433
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h Larson Evolution: The Remarkable History of a Scientific Theory pp. 221-243
  11. ^ a b c d e f Bowler Evolution:The history of an Idea pp. 325-339
  12. ^ Gould The Structure of Evolutionary Theory pp. 503-518
  13. ^ Mayr & Provine 1998 p. 231
  14. ^ Smith, Charles H.. Rensch, Bernhard (Carl Emmanuel) (Germany 1900-1990). Western Kentucky University. Retrieved on 2007-09-22.
  15. ^ Mayr and Provine 1998 pp. 298-299, 416
  16. ^ Bowler p.361

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Western Kentucky University (WKU) is a public university in Bowling Green, Kentucky. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Allen, Garland. Thomas Hunt Morgan: The Man and His Science, Princeton University Press, 1978 ISBN 0-691-08200-6
  • Bowler, Peter J. (2003). Evolution:The History of an Idea. University of California Press. ISBN 0-52023693-9. 
  • Dawkins, Richard. The Blind Watchmaker, W.W. Norton and Company, Reissue Edition 1996 ISBN 0-393-31570-3
  • Dobzhansky, T. Genetics and the Origin of Species, Columbia University Press, 1937 ISBN 0-231-05475-0
  • Fisher, R. A. The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection, Clarendon Press, 1930 ISBN 0-19-850440-3
  • Futuyma, D.J. Evolutionary Biology, Sinauer Associates, 1986, p. 12 0-87-893189-9
  • Gould, Stephen Jay (2002). The Structure of Evolutionary Theory. Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-00613-5. 
  • Haldane, J. B. S. The Causes of Evolution, Longman, Green and Co., 1932; Princeton University Press reprint, ISBN 0-691-02442-1
  • Huxley, J. S., ed. The New Systematics, Oxford University Press, 1940 ISBN 0-403-01786-6
  • Huxley, J. S. Evolution: The Modern Synthesis, Allen and Unwin, 1942 ISBN 0-02-846800-7
  • Larson, Edward J. (2004). Evolution:The Remarkable History of Scientific Theory. Modern Library. ISBN 0-679-64288-9. 
  • Margulis, Lynn and Dorion Sagan. "Acquiring Genomes: A Theory of the Origins of Species", Perseus Books Group, 2002 ISBN 0-465-04391-7
  • Mayr, E. Systematics and the Origin of Species, Columbia University Press, 1942; Harvard University Press reprint ISBN 0-674-86250-3
  • Mayr, E. and W. B. Provine, eds. The Evolutionary Synthesis: Perspectives on the Unification of Biology, Harvard University Press, 1998 ISBN 0-674-27225-0
  • Simpson, G. G. Tempo and Mode in Evolution, Columbia University Press, 1944 ISBN 0-231-05847-0
  • Smocovitis, V. Betty. Unifying Biology: The Evolutionary Synthesis and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University Press, 1996 ISBN 0-691-27226-9
  • Wright, S. 1931. "Evolution in Mendelian populations". Genetics 16: 97-159.

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