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Encyclopedia > Modern animation of the United States
History of animation
in the United States
The Silent Era
The Golden Age
The TV Era
The Renaissance

This article describes the history of animation in the United States of America from the late 1980s to the start of the 21st century. This period is sometimes referred to as the American animation renaissance, during which many large American entertainment companies reformed and reinvigorated their animation departments following general decline during the 1970s and 1980s. The first examples of trying to capture motion into a drawing can already be found in paleolithic cave paintings, where animals are depicted with multiple legs in superimposed positions, clearly attempting depicting a sense of motion. ... Felix the Cat in Felix Woos Whoopee (1930). ... The Golden Age of American animation is a period in American animation history that began with the advent of sound cartoons in 1928 and lasted into the 1960s when theatrical animated shorts slowly began losing to the new medium of television animation. ... // From the big screen to the small screen Cartoons were never just for children. ... MacGyver - 1980s hero The 1980s decade refers to the years from 1980 to 1989, inclusive. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... 12 frames per second is the typical rate for an animated cartoon. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1971 to 1980, inclusive. ... MacGyver - 1980s hero The 1980s decade refers to the years from 1980 to 1989, inclusive. ...

Contents


1988 to present

The Return of Disney

By the mid-1980s, the American animation industry had sunk to a decrepit state. Toy commercials masquerading as entertainment dominated the afternoon cartoon shows and Saturday morning cartoons, with the only experimentation and development in animation taking place in small, independent animated cartoons. Animated feature films still appeared occasionally in theaters, but the glory days of old had disappeared. Even animation goliath Disney, which barely fought off a corporate takeover attempt in the 1980s, was considering abandoning the production of feature-length animated films. MacGyver - 1980s hero The 1980s decade refers to the years from 1980 to 1989, inclusive. ... 12 frames per second is the typical rate for an animated cartoon. ... Saturday morning cartoon is the colloquial term for the animated television programming which was typically scheduled on Saturday mornings on the major American television networks from the 1960s to the 1990s. ... Independent animation is a term used to describe animated short cartoons and feature films produced outside the professional Hollywood animation industry. ... The Walt Disney Company (most commonly known as Disney) (NYSE: DIS) is one of the largest media and entertainment corporations in the world. ... A takeover in business refers to one company (the acquirer) purchasing another (the target). ...


Film fans, audiences, critics, and animators alike were all taken by surprise when the long-awaited renaissance of animation began with the most ancient, conservative, and mainstream cartoon producer: Disney.


Disney underwent a company shakeup in the 1980s, and new chairman Michael Eisner got the company back on its feet by returning the company to its roots and revitalizing its movie studios. With great fanfare, in 1988 the studio collaborated with Steven Spielberg and produced the animated feature film Who Framed Roger Rabbit, directed by Robert Zemeckis. The movie was a runaway box-office smash, and it provided the shot in the arm to the animation industry that was so desperately needed at the time. Not only did Roger Rabbit make a pile of money for Disney, it also sparked a popularization of classical animation that continues to the present day. The history of animation suddenly became a subject for serious scholarly inquiry (as well as animation fandom). Several aging legends in the business such as Chuck Jones and Friz Freleng suddenly found themselves the center of attention, receiving acclaim and accolades after decades of being virtually ignored by audiences and industry professionals alike. Michael Eisner Michael Dammann Eisner (born March 7, 1942) ran the The Walt Disney Company from 1984 to 2005. ... 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Steven Spielberg Steven Allan Spielberg, KBE (born December 18, 1946 in Cincinnati, Ohio) is an American film director. ... Who Framed Roger Rabbit is a 1988 film produced by Disney subsidiary Touchstone and Amblin Entertainment, that combines animation and live action. ... Director Robert Zemeckis Robert Lee Zemeckis (born May 14, 1952) is an American movie director, producer and writer. ... Fandom (from the noun fan and the affix -dom, as in kingdom, dukedom, etc. ... Charles Martin Chuck Jones (September 21, 1912–February 22, 2002) was an American animator, cartoon artist, screenwriter, producer, and director of animated films, most memorably of Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies shorts for the Warner Brothers cartoon studio. ... Isadore Friz Freleng (August 21, 1905–May 26, 1995) was an animator, cartoonist, director, and producer best known for his work on the Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies series of cartoons from Warner Bros. ...


Disney followed up Who Framed Roger Rabbit with The Little Mermaid, the first of a series of new animated feature films that seemed to re-capture the magic of the golden days of Walt Disney himself. The studio invested heavily in the new technology of computer animation to beef up its animation, producing animated extravaganzas such as Beauty and the Beast and Aladdin that drew in audiences of the sort not seen in decades, while providing a feast for the eyes unmatched since the 1940s. The peak of Disney's success was in 1994 when their film, The Lion King, surpassed the wildest hopes of the studio to become one of the most successful films of all time. The Little Mermaid is a Disney animated feature adaptation of the Hans Christian Andersen fairy tale The Little Mermaid. ... For the company founded by Disney, see The Walt Disney Company. ... Computer animation is the art of creating moving images via the use of computers. ... Beauty and the Beast is the thirtieth animated feature in the Disney animated features canon. ... Aladdin is the thirty-first animated feature in the Disney animated features canon, made and produced by Walt Disney Feature Animation, and released on November 25, 1992 by Walt Disney Pictures and Buena Vista Distribution. ... // Events and trends World War II was a truly global conflict with many facets: immense human suffering, fierce indoctrination, and the use of new, extremely devastating weapons such as the atomic bomb. ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated like the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal. // Events January Bill Clinton January 1 : North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) goes into effect. ... For the theatrical musical, see The Lion King (musical). ...


Disney also made new inroads in the long-neglected area of TV animated series. With the success of its TV cartoon series The New Adventures of Winnie the Pooh and Gummi Bears, as well with Duck Tales the "new" Disney made its mark in TV cartoons. This was the first animated TV series to invest a lot of money and make it back through syndication and repeats, thus affording high-quality animation for TV. There followed a series of acclaimed syndicated series in the early to mid 1990s with some critics singling out Gargoyles as Disney's most ambitious and artistically successful TV animation project. An animated series or cartoon series is a television series produced by means of animation. ... Disneys Adventures of the Gummi Bears was an American-Japanese cartoon that aired in the United States and other countries in the mid-to-late-1980s. ... DuckTales is an animated series produced by The Walt Disney Company starring characters from the Scrooge McDuck universe as largely created by Carl Barks. ... In the television industry (as in radio), syndication is the sale of the right to broadcast programs to multiple stations, without going through a broadcast network. ... Gargoyles logo Gargoyles is an acclaimed animated series created and produced by Greg Weisman that aired from October 24, 1994 to 1997. ...


Spielberg and Warner Bros.

While Disney was bringing new life to the state of animation, Steven Spielberg was making his own inroads as well. A lifelong animation fan, Spielberg was also interested in producing high-quality animation, and he also worked with rival animation producer Don Bluth to produce An American Tail. The box-office success of this movie, and Bluth's subsequent follow up The Land Before Time made Hollywood realize that Disney did not have a monopoly on profitable animated feature films. The other Hollywood studios began producing their own animated feature films once again, though they still fell for the trap of trying to imitate Disney. Steven Spielberg Steven Allan Spielberg, KBE (born December 18, 1946 in Cincinnati, Ohio) is an American film director. ... Donald Virgil Bluth (born September 13, 1937) is a former Disney animator who, along with fellow animators Gary Goldman and John Pomeroy, set out on his own in 1979 to start his own animation studio, Don Bluth Productions. ... DVD cover An American Tail is an animated film produced by Steven Spielbergs Amblin Entertainment, and directed by Don Bluth. ...


Spielberg, meanwhile, turned to TV animation and worked with the Warner Bros. animation studio to produce Tiny Toon Adventures, a high-quality animated series that paid homage to the great Warner Bros. cartoons of Termite Terrace. Tiny Toon Adventures scored big with young TV viewers, inspiring Warner Bros. to resurrect its moribund animation studio and become a contender once again in the field of animated cartoons. Tiny Toon Adventures was followed by Steven Spielberg Presents Animaniacs and Batman: The Animated Series. Not only did these cartoons bring in new viewers to Warner Bros., they also captured the attention of older viewers (teenagers and adults). The WB Shield used from 2003 to present day Warner Bros. ... Steven Spielberg Presents Tiny Toon Adventures (a. ... Termite Terrace is the nickname for an old building on Sunset Boulevard, Hollywood, Los Angeles, California, USA where Looney Tunes were created frm 1935 to 1937. ... Steven Spielberg Presents Animaniacs was a popular American animated television series, distributed by Warner Bros. ... The animated Batman shoots his grappling gun from a rooftop in a scene from the episode, On Leather Wings. ...


Bakshi Returns

Ralph Bakshi, director of ground-breaking animated films like Fritz the Cat and the original Lord of the Rings film, returned to animation after taking a short break in the mid-1980s. In 1985, he teamed up with young Canadian-born-and-raised animator John Kricfalusi and the legendary British band the Rolling Stones to make a part-live-action, part-animated music video of The Harlem Shuffle, which was released in early 1986. Although the music video did not start a lot of talking, it built a production team at Bakshi Animation whose next project was the short-lived but well-loved TV series Mighty Mouse: The New Adventures. Bakshi and co. worked on several other projects in the late 1980s, but his biggest project was Cool World, which was released in 1992. The film's production went out of control, and ended up being panned by critics and forgotten by most of the world. Ralph Bakshi is a director of animated and occasionally live-action films. ... Fritz the Cat is a 1972 Animated film written and directed by Ralph Bakshi. ... J.R.R. Tolkiens The Lord of the Rings is the title of an animated film produced and directed by Ralph Bakshi, and released to theaters in 1978. ... John Kricfalusi John Kricfalusi (born Michael John Kricfalusi on September 9, 1955, in Chicoutimi, Quebec, Canada) is the animator better known as John K., creator of The Ren & Stimpy Show and The Ripping Friends cartoon series as well as the founder of animation studio Spümcø International. ... The Rolling Stones are a British rock band that rose to prominence during the British Invasion of the 1960s. ... 1992s Cool World marked Ralph Bakshis return to feature films after nine years and his last feature film to date. ...


Outsourcing Animation

The major reason for the increase in the quality of American animation was the ability to outsource the actual animation grunt work to cheaper animation houses in countries in South and South East Asia resulting in high frame rates at lower costs. Writing, character design, and storyboarding would be done in American offices. Storyboards, model sheets, and color guides would then be mailed overseas. This would sometimes cause troubles as none of the final product would be seen until the completed cells were mailed back to the states. While budget became much less of an issue, overseas production houses would be chosen on a per episode, or even per scene, basis depending on the amount of money that was available at the moment. This resulted in wildly different levels of quality from episode to episode. This was particularly noticeable in shows like Gargoyles and Batman: The Animated Series where, at times, characters would appear almost wildly off model much to the dismay of their directors. Gargoyles logo Gargoyles is an acclaimed animated series created and produced by Greg Weisman that aired from October 24, 1994 to 1997. ... The animated Batman shoots his grappling gun from a rooftop in a scene from the episode, On Leather Wings. ...


Animation for Adults

The 1990s saw the beginnings of a new wave of animated series targeted primarily to adults, after a lack of such a focus for over a decade. In 1989, The Simpsons, based on a short animated cartoon segment of The Tracey Ullman Show, became the first prime-time animated series since The Flintstones to capture a sizable viewing audience. It was the first major hit series for the fledgling Fox network, and it caused a minor sensation, entering popular culture and gaining wide acceptance. As of 2006, The Simpsons appears to show no signs of stopping, and at this rate may surpass Gunsmoke as the longest-running fictional program in American television history. The 1990s decade refers to the years from 1990 to 1999, inclusive. ... 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Simpsons is an American animated sitcom created by Matt Groening. ... the simpsons is on sky one and channel four ... The Flintstones, an American animated television series created by Hanna-Barbera Cartoons, is one of the most successful animated television series of all time, originally running in American prime time for six seasons, from 1960 to 1966, on the ABC network. ... The Fox Broadcasting Company is a television network in the United States. ... 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The cast of radios Gunsmoke: Howard McNear (Doc), William Conrad (Matt), Georgia Ellis (Kitty) and Parley Baer (Chester) Gunsmoke was a long-running old-time radio and television Western drama created by director Norman Macdonnell and writer John Meston. ...


In 1991, Nickelodeon introduced The Ren and Stimpy Show. Ren and Stimpy was a wild and off-beat series that violated all the restrictions of the traditional politically correct "Saturday morning" cartoon and instead favored the outrageous style of the shorts from the Golden Age period. Indeed, the series creator, John Kricfalusi, who had worked as an animator during the "Saturday morning slump", was largely influenced by the classic works of Bob Clampett. 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nickelodeon (Nick for short, launched April 1, 1979) is a cable TV network primarily for children and pre-teens, but also features shows for teenagers in TEENick. ... Ren and Stimpy are the eponymous characters of two cartoon television series created by Canadian animator John Kricfalusi. ... Ren and Stimpy are the eponymous characters of two cartoon television series created by Canadian animator John Kricfalusi. ... John Kricfalusi John Kricfalusi (born Michael John Kricfalusi on September 9, 1955, in Chicoutimi, Quebec, Canada) is the animator better known as John K., creator of The Ren & Stimpy Show and The Ripping Friends cartoon series as well as the founder of animation studio Spümcø International. ... Robert Emerson Bob Clampett (May 8, 1913–May 4, 1984) was an animator, producer, director, and puppeteer best known for his work on the Looney Tunes series of cartoons from Warner Bros. ...


Alongside the mainstream revival of animation in the 1990s there was a stranger and more experimental movement occurring. In 1989 a festival of animation shorts, organized by Craig "Spike" Decker and Mike Gribble (known as "Spike & Mike") and originally based in San Diego began showcasing a collection of short subject animations in regional movie theaters. The collections were largely made up of Oscar nominated shorts, student work from the California Institute of the Arts, and experimental work funded by the National Film Board of Canada. Early festivals included work by John Lasseter, Nick Park, and Mike Judge. Judge's piece, "Frog Baseball", marked the first appearance of his trademark characters Beavis and Butt-head. Independent animation is a term used to describe animated short cartoons and feature films produced outside the professional Hollywood animation industry. ... 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... San Diego County in the Southwest corner of California. ... The California Institute of the Arts, commonly known as CalArts, and located in Valencia, California, USA, grants degrees in visual and performing arts. ... The National Film Board of Canada (usually National Film Board or NFB) is a Canadian public filmmaking organization established to produce and distribute films that inform Canadians and promote Canada around the world. ... John A. Lasseter (born January 12, 1957) is a founding member of Pixar, where he currently serves as Executive Vice President, Creative. ... Nicholas Wulstan Park, CBE (b. ... Mike Judge as Stan in the motion picture Office Space (1999) Mike Judge (born October 17, 1962) is an animator, voice actor, writer, and producer, best-known as the creator and star of the hit animated television series Beavis and Butt-head (1993-1997) and King of the Hill (1997... Beavis and Butt-head is an American animated television series that originally aired on the cable television channel MTV from 1993 to 1997, and can now be seen in re-runs on MTV2. ...


The festival gradually turned into an exhibition for more "sick and twisted" flavors of animation, becoming an underground movement for adult humor and subject matter. As more edgy and disturbing underground animation came to light, it began to pull mainstream television animation towards more frenetic and perhaps scatological territory, as exemplified by The Tick and Duckman. The Tick The Tick is a comedic superhero, created by Ben Edlund in 1986. ... The cast of Duckman (left to right: Eric Duckman, Bernice, Ajax Duckman, Gecko Duckman, Charles and Mambo Duckman, Grand-Ma-Ma, Cornfed Willibald Fivel Pig) Duckman was an animated sitcom developed by Jeff Reno & Ron Osborn, based on characters created by Everett Peck in his Dark Horse comic. ...


Other TV networks also experimented with adult-oriented animation. MTV produced several animated series especially for its young adult audience, including Liquid Television and Beavis and Butt-head. Even USA Network found a cult following with its Duckman show. But the most successful adult-oriented animated series of the 1990s was South Park, which saw its beginnings in 1996 as a pirated Internet cartoon. This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... Liquid Television was an early-1990s animation showcase that appeared on MTV. The first season of Liquid Television originally aired on BBC-2. ... Beavis and Butt-head is an American animated television series that originally aired on the cable television channel MTV from 1993 to 1997, and can now be seen in re-runs on MTV2. ... The USA Network is a popular American cable TV network with about 89 million household subscribers as of 2005. ... The cast of Duckman (left to right: Eric Duckman, Bernice, Ajax Duckman, Gecko Duckman, Charles and Mambo Duckman, Grand-Ma-Ma, Cornfed Willibald Fivel Pig) Duckman was an animated sitcom developed by Jeff Reno & Ron Osborn, based on characters created by Everett Peck in his Dark Horse comic. ... South Park is an American animated television series created, written and voiced by Trey Parker and Matt Stone. ... 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ...


In 1994, Cartoon Network gave the nod to a new series titled Space Ghost: Coast to Coast. In a particularly postmodern twist, this show featured live action celebrity interviews mixed with animation from the original Space Ghost cartoon. The series opened the vaults of Hanna-Barbera Productions, now owned by Cartoon Network. It was the beginning of the now common practice of using old stale Hanna-Barbera cartoon characters for new edgier productions. Such as the surealistic Sealab 2021, based on the early 1970s short lived environmentally themed cartoon, Sealab 2020. Also, Harvey Birdman, Attorney at Law, about a lackluster superhero, Birdman who was originally the star of Birdman and the Galaxy Trio, who has become a lawyer. His clientele, as well as most of the other characters on the show are made up entirely of old Hanna-Barbera characters. 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated like the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal. // Events January Bill Clinton January 1 : North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) goes into effect. ... Cartoon Network is a cable television network created by Turner Broadcasting and dedicated to showing animated programming. ... Space Ghost at his desk Space Ghost: Coast to Coast is a spoof talk show on the cable TV channel, Cartoon Network. ... The title card from an episode of Space Ghost Space Ghost was one-half of the animated television series Space Ghost and Dino Boy created by Hanna-Barbera Productions; it first aired on September 10, 1966 on CBS. In the series, the hero, Space Ghost, battled villains in outer space. ... Sealab 2021 was an American comedy animated television series shown on Cartoon Networks adult-oriented programming block, Adult Swim. ... Sealab 2020 was a short-lived cartoon, produced by Hanna-Barbera. ... Harvey Birdman, Attorney at Law is a comedic American animated television series that airs on Cartoon Network during its Adult Swim late night programming block. ... Birdman and the Galaxy Trio was a science fiction animated series created by Alex Toth for Hanna-Barbera which had its debut on NBC in 1967. ...


In addition to the deep archives of old and cheap animation, independent animation has also begun to benefit from newer digital technologies. An artist with sufficient technical skills can explore new styles and forms with much greater freedom. The traditional animation skills of drawing and inking have given way to pilfering and digital manipulation to produce new and more aggressive forms of animation. Independent animation is a term used to describe animated short cartoons and feature films produced outside the professional Hollywood animation industry. ...


In addition to these new programs, American audiences—particularly those in geographic areas influenced by the intermixing of Pacific Rim cultures—began to embrace Japanese cartoons, or anime, sometime in the 1980s. This growing anime home video market catered to the teenage and college crowd, with a large number of Japanese animated series being translated into English. Initially access to the videos was limited, but as anime became more mainstream it found its way into the larger video stores all across the US. Because animation occupies a somewhat different place in Japanese culture, it includes a range of subject material not often addressed by American animation. (see also: manga) Anime ) is a medium of animated cartoons originating in Japan, with distinctive character and background aesthetics that visually set it apart from other forms of animation. ... For other uses, see Manga (disambiguation). ...


Today, Adult Swim, a scheduling block of adult-oriented cartoons appearing on Cartoon Network beginning after primetime, leads the way in adult-oriented and cutting-edge animation. Adult Swim, which was originally on Sunday nights, now remains on the air until 5:00 AM ET, and is now broadcast every night of the week except Friday. The series produced exclusively for Adult Swim, such as The Brak Show, Aqua Teen Hunger Force, and Tom Goes to the Mayor, tend to be surrealistic and bizarre, but are also considered fresh and original. Adult Swim also reruns short lived cartoon series such as Futurama, and played a significant role in reviving Family Guy from cancellation. In addition to comedy cartoons, Adult Swim also runs several popular Anime series such as FLCL, Lupin the 3rd, and InuYasha. The Adult Swim logo Adult Swim, usually rendered [adult swim] on bumps and frequently abreviated either [AS] or [as], is the name for the adult-oriented television programming block on Cartoon Network. ... Cartoon Network is a cable television network created by Turner Broadcasting and dedicated to showing animated programming. ... Cover of The Brak Show DVD The Brak Show is one of Cartoon Networks 15-minute animated series that airs during Adult Swim. ... Aqua Teen Hunger Force (also known as ATHF or simply Aqua Teen) is an American animated television series shown on Cartoon Network as part of its Adult Swim late-night programming block. ... Tom Goes to the Mayor is an American animated television series on Cartoon Networks Adult Swim, which aired for the first time on November 14, 2004. ... Futurama is an American animated television series created by Matt Groening (creator of The Simpsons) and David X. Cohen (also a writer for The Simpsons). ... Family Guy is an American animated sitcom created by Seth MacFarlane for FOX in 1999. ... FLCL , pronounced and officially romanized as Fooly Cooly) is a six episode Japanese animation OVA series, the brainchild of director Kazuya Tsurumaki of Gainax and released by Gainax and Production I.G. The series has been broadcast on Cartoon Networks Adult Swim block numerous times. ... Lupin III or Lupin the 3rd (ルパン三世, Lupin the 3rd, not Lupin 3) is an anime and manga series originally created by manga artist Kazuhiko Katō (加藤一彦) under the pen name Monkey Punch (モンキーパンチ) in 1967 as a part of Weekly Manga Action . ... InuYasha )[1] is a popular shōnen manga and anime series created by Rumiko Takahashi. ...


The Decline of Saturday Morning

After being nearly comatose for over two decades, the American animation industry experienced a sudden surge of growth in the 1990s. A number of new, risk-taking animation studios arose, and they found a wide number of markets to peddle their talents to. In addition to animated TV series, animation of all sorts was used in TV commercials, video games, and music videos. Newer, smaller animation studios arose to challenge the dominance of Hanna-Barbera Productions for the TV animation market. The 1990s decade refers to the years from 1990 to 1999, inclusive. ... A television commercial (often called an advert in the United Kingdom) is a form of advertising in which goods, services, organizations, ideas, etc. ... A computer game is a game composed of a computer-controlled virtual universe that players interact with in order to achieve a defined goal or set of goals. ... A music video (also promo) is a short film or video that accompanies a complete piece of music, most commonly a song. ... Cartoon Network Studios, formerly known as Hanna-Barbera Cartoons, Inc. ...


Indeed, Hanna-Barbera found itself unable to compete in the new, varied market for cartoons. During the days when they had dominated the entire spectrum of Saturday morning cartoons, Hanna-Barbera had virtually no competition; this caused the quality of their series in general to deteriorate. Now in the 90s, the studio could only offer retreads such as A Pup Named Scooby-Doo and Tom and Jerry Kids to compete with the Fox Kids Network shows and Warner Bros.' new WB Network. Hanna-Barbera lagged behind, and found itself being bought outright by Turner Broadcasting. Saturday morning cartoon is the colloquial term for the animated television programming which was typically scheduled on Saturday mornings on the major American television networks from the 1960s to the 1990s. ... A Pup Named Scooby-Doo was the eighth incarnation of the long-running Hanna-Barbera Saturday morning cartoon Scooby-Doo. ... Tom & Jerry title card from the 1940s Tom and Jerry were an animated cat (Tom) and mouse (Jerry) team who formed the basis of a massively successful series of theatrical short cartoons created, written, and directed by animators William Hanna and Joseph Barbera (later of Hanna-Barbera fame), and produced... The Fox Kids Logo circa. ... The WB Television Network is a television network in the United States, founded as a joint venture between the Warner Bros. ... Categories: Stub | Time Warner subsidiaries ...


Not only did Hanna-Barbera have trouble adapting to the changes sweeping across television. The "Big Three" networks (ABC, NBC, and CBS) all found their once-loyal audiences being eroded by competition from the newer networks, including newer cable TV networks such as Nickelodeon, the Disney Channel, and the Cartoon Network. Video games and movies available on video also helped to change the market, to the point where for a while NBC abandoned showing cartoons completely. ABC was purchased by Disney, and Disney transformed its Saturday schedule into a series of Disney-produced animated cartoons. Coaxial cable is often used to transmit cable television into the house. ... Nickelodeon (Nick for short, launched April 1, 1979) is a cable TV network primarily for children and pre-teens, but also features shows for teenagers in TEENick. ... Disney Channel is a cable television network run by The Walt Disney Company. ... Cartoon Network is a cable television network created by Turner Broadcasting and dedicated to showing animated programming. ... A computer game is a game composed of a computer-controlled virtual universe that players interact with in order to achieve a defined goal or set of goals. ... The National Broadcasting Company or NBC is an American television broadcasting company based in New York Citys Rockefeller Center. ... The American Broadcasting Company (ABC) is a television and radio network in the United States. ...


While animated series on the major networks seemed lackluster, the cable television cartoons gave rise to a number of hits. Nickelodeon gave birth to the cult hits such as Rugrats, The Ren and Stimpy Show, Rocko's Modern Life, and SpongeBob SquarePants. Meanwhile, Hanna-Barbera's new owner Time Warner focused the studio on the creation of new cartoons for the Cartoon Network. Hanna-Barbera saw an infusion of new blood, and a new generation of Hanna-Barbera cartoons was born with such cartoons as Dexter's Laboratory, Johnny Bravo, Cow and Chicken, The Powerpuff Girls, and Courage the Cowardly Dog. Rugrats is an American animated series, produced by Klasky-Csupo, Inc. ... Ren and Stimpy are the eponymous characters of two American animated television series created by Canadian animator John Kricfalusi. ... Rockos Modern Life was an American animated television series whose four seasons aired from 1993 to 1996. ... SpongeBob SquarePants is a popular American animated television series shown on Nickelodeon, YTV, and Nicktoons Network created by marine biologist and animator, Stephen Hillenburg. ... Dexters Laboratory (Dexters Lab for short) is an American animated television series created by Genndy Tartakovsky. ... Johnny Bravo is an American animated television series about the boorish, skirt-chasing title character who constantly searches for a woman willing to date him, but even when he seems to find one, something goes wrong. ... Cow and Chicken is an American animated television series, created by David Feiss, first broadcast on the Cartoon Network from 1997 to 2001. ... The Powerpuff Girls is an American animated television series about three little girls born with superpowers who have dedicated their lives to fighting crime and the forces of evil. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ...


Still, not every new piece of animation struck gold. Disney's animated feature films began to suffer in quality in the late 1990s, after producer Jeff Katzenberg left the studio and teamed up with Steven Spielberg and David Geffen to form the Dreamworks studio. Likewise, a number of animated feature films released during the 1990s tried to imitate the success of Disney, but just as in the 1930s and 1940s, the animated feature offerings from 20th Century Fox and Warner Bros. failed to capture a sizable segment of Disney's feature film dominance of the market. Warner Bros., in particular, had a string of failures as its animated features Cats Don't Dance, Quest for Camelot and The Iron Giant (the last being praised by critics and audiences, but virtually ignored by the public at large) died at the box office. Warner Bros. also tried to re-create Roger Rabbit's success with Space Jam, an attempt to combine the popularity of Bugs Bunny with basketball superstar Michael Jordan. The 1990s decade refers to the years from 1990 to 1999, inclusive. ... Jeffrey Katzenberg (born December 21, 1950 in New York City) is a film producer and co-founder of DreamWorks SKG. He is most famous for producing the movie Shrek (2001). ... David Lawrence Geffen (born February 21, 1943) is a record executive, film and theatrical producer, and philanthropist. ... DreamWorks, L.L.C., doing business as DreamWorks SKG, is a Big Ten studio in the United States of America which develops, produces, and distributes films, video games, and television programming. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... // Events and trends World War II was a truly global conflict with many facets: immense human suffering, fierce indoctrination, and the use of new, extremely devastating weapons such as the atomic bomb. ... 20th Century Fox logo Fox Plaza, the company headquarters. ... The WB Shield used from 2003 to present day Warner Bros. ... Cats Dont Dance is a 1997 animated feature; the only animated feature produced by the short-lived Turner Entertainment animation unit. ... Quest for Camelot is an animated feature from Warner Bros. ... The Iron Giant is a 1999 animated science fiction film, directed by Brad Bird, produced by Warner Bros. ... Bugs Bunny and Michael Jordan Space Jam is a 1996 American animated/live-action film starring Michael Jordan opposite Bugs Bunny (voiced by Billy West) and the rest of the Looney Tunes characters. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Michael Jeffrey Jordan (born February 17, 1963 in Brooklyn, New York) is an American former basketball player, and is considered by many to be the greatest of all time. ...


In addition, the kiddie-marketing trend continued throughout the 1990s, even if it wasn't quite as pervasive as it had been a decade earlier. Two major toy phenomena dominated most of the weekday-afternoon kid-oriented TV programming: Mighty Morphin Power Rangers in the mid-1990s, and Pokémon in the later half of the decade and into the present day. Even as animation underwent a new rebirth in this decade, a great deal of attention (and consumer dollars) continued to be funneled into merchandising. This article covers a period during the first years of the show. ... Pokémon (ポケモン Pokemon, pronounced //, although frequently, and even intentionally mispronounced //), is a multi-billion dollar media franchise[1] created by Satoshi Tajiri in 1996 (it celebrated its tenth anniversary on February 27, 2006). ...


The rise of computer animation

Yet another wild card was added to this crowded, competitive atmosphere with the rise of a new wave of computer animation. The decade of the 1990s saw exponential improvement in the use of computer technology to enhance both animated sequences and live-action special effects, allowing lavish computer-animated sequences to dominate both. This new form of animation soon dominated the world of Hollywood special effects (the movies Terminator 2: Judgment Day and Jurassic Park included stunning computer-animated sequences), and it was only a matter of time before a full-length feature film would be produced entirely with computers. Computer animation is the art of creating moving images via the use of computers. ... In mathematics, a quantity that grows exponentially (or geometrically) is one that grows at a rate proportional to its size. ... ... Special effects (abbreviated SPFX or SFX) are used in the film, television, and entertainment industry to create effects that cannot be achieved by normal means, such as depicting travel to other star systems. ... Terminator 2: Judgment Day (commonly abbreviated T2) is a 1991 movie directed by James Cameron and starring Arnold Schwarzenegger, Linda Hamilton, and Robert Patrick. ... This article is about the 1993 film. ...


Once again it was Disney that led the pack in this area. Disney animators had quietly introduced computer-generated sequences into their movies as early as 1991's Beauty and the Beast. A computer-generated magic carpet played a significant role in Aladdin (1992). In 1995, Disney partnered with Pixar to produce Toy Story, the first completely computer-generated feature film. The movie was a phenomenal success, and it created a wild Hollywood bandwagon, as other studios looked into producing their own computer-animated (or CGI) films. Beauty and the Beast is the thirtieth animated feature in the Disney animated features canon. ... Aladdin is the thirty-first animated feature in the Disney animated features canon, made and produced by Walt Disney Feature Animation, and released on November 25, 1992 by Walt Disney Pictures and Buena Vista Distribution. ... 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Pixar Animation Studios is an award-winning American computer-generated imagery (CGI) animation firm based in Emeryville, California (USA). ... Toy Story is a computer-generated imagery (CGI) animation film produced by Pixar Animation Studios and released by Walt Disney Pictures and Buena Vista Distribution in the United States on November 22, 1995, and the United Kingdom on 22 March 1996. ... The pseudopod in The Abyss marked CGIs acceptance in the visual effects industry. ...


Perhaps because it was developed first as a new method for creating special effects, computer animation was not seen primarily as a form of "children's entertainment." After decades of existing as related but separate industries, the barrier between "animation" and "special effects" was shattered by the popularization of computerized special effects, to the point where computer enhancement of Hollywood feature films became second-nature. The best special effects were often so subtle that they were completely unnoticed. The Academy Award-winning Forrest Gump (1994) depended heavily on computerized special effects to create the illusion of realism, even to the point where actor Tom Hanks was seen shaking hands with President John F. Kennedy. The film Titanic used computer imagery to enhance nearly every scene in its three-hour length, and this produced a level of realism that helped propel the film to become the biggest box-office smash of all time. Special effects (abbreviated SPFX or SFX) are used in the film, television, and entertainment industry to create effects that cannot be achieved by normal means, such as depicting travel to other star systems. ... Academy Award The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are the most prominent film awards in the United States and most watched awards ceremony in the world. ... Forrest Gump is a 1985 novel by Winston Groom, a 1994 film adaptation, and the name of the titular character of both. ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated like the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal. // Events January Bill Clinton January 1 : North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) goes into effect. ... Thomas Jeffrey Hanks (born July 9, 1956) is a two-time Academy Award-winning American actor who starred in family-friendly comedies before achieving notable success as a dramatic actor. ... John Fitzgerald Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), often referred to as John F. Kennedy, JFK or Jack Kennedy, was the 35th President of the United States. ... Titanic is an Academy Award winning 1997 dramatic film released by 20th Century Fox and Paramount Pictures. ...


Computer animation also made inroads into television. The Saturday morning animated series ReBoot won a large cult following among adults, and this was the first of a number of CGI-generated animated series, including Transformers, War Planets, and Roughnecks. The quality of the computer animation improved considerably with each successive series. Many live-action TV series (especially science fiction TV series such as Babylon 5) invested heavily in CGI production, producing high-quality special effects that their predecessors could only dream of for a relatively low price. ReBoot poster. ... Various Transformers toys. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... Babylon 5 is an epic science fiction television series created, produced, and largely written by J. Michael Straczynski. ...


Other studios besides Disney tried their hand with computer animated feature films, and here they found what appeared to be a chink in the armor of Disney's near-monopoly on animated box office success. While Dreamworks' Antz and Small Soldiers paled in comparison with the Disney-Pixar releases A Bug's Life and Toy Story 2, they finally succeeded in scoring big with Shrek in 2001. Shrek was a gigantic box-office hit, pulling in audiences and overpowering Disney's summer release for that year, Atlantis. Even 20th Century Fox struck gold when it released a CGI animated feature in early 2002 entitled Ice Age. Not all studios had box-office success with computer animation, however. Paramount's Jimmy Neutron: Boy Genius, released in 2001, did not do that well in the box-office, but it did recieve an Academy Award nomination and later found success as a television series which premiered the next year. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Small Soldiers (1998) is an action/science-fiction film, directed by Joe Dante. ... A Bugs Life is a computer animated film produced by Pixar Animation Studios and released by Walt Disney Pictures and Buena Vista Distribution in the United States on November 14, 1998, and in the United Kingdom on 5 February 1999. ... Toy Story 2 is a CGI animation film and the sequel to Toy Story, which featured the adventures of a group of toys that come to life when no one is around to see them. ... Shrek is a computer-animated film adaptation of William Steigs 1990 fairy tale picture-book of the same name. ... 2001: A Space Odyssey. ... Milo trying to convince scholars of Atlantis existence. ... 20th Century Fox logo Fox Plaza, the company headquarters. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... DVD cover This article is about a film. ... Look up Paramount on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Paramount can refer to: Paramount, California, a city in Los Angeles County Paramount Pictures, a motion picture company Paramount Records, a record label United Paramount Network (UPN), a television network in the United States, owned by Viacom Inc. ... Categories: Stub | 2001 films | Computer-animated films ... 2001: A Space Odyssey. ... The Adventures of Jimmy Neutron: Boy Genius is a spin-off of the Oscar-nominated computer-animated movie; Jimmy Neutron: Boy Genius, first officially aired in September 2002. ...


But the true star of the CGI revolution seemed to be Pixar. Even before Toy Story, the studio had made a name for itself by producing stunning computer-animated short films (their short Tin Toy won an Oscar); and when Disney tried to create a CGI feature film of its own without Pixar (Dinosaur), the result was noticeably lackluster. Pixar Animation Studios is an award-winning American computer-generated imagery (CGI) animation firm based in Emeryville, California (USA). ... Tin Toy is a 1988 Pixar Animation Studios film using computer animation. ... Academy Award The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are the most prominent film awards in the United States and most watched awards ceremony in the world. ... DVD cover Dinosaur is a feature film released in 2000 by The Walt Disney Company. ...


In spite of all its success, computer animation still relies on cartoony and stylized characters. 2001 saw the first attempt to create a fully animated world using photorealistic human actors in Final Fantasy: The Spirits Within, which met with moderate critical success but was a dissapointment at the box office. 2001: A Space Odyssey. ... Final Fantasy: The Spirits Within is a science fiction movie by Hironobu Sakaguchi, the creator of the Final Fantasy series of video games. ...


CGI special effects increased to the point where the 2002 science fiction film Star Wars: Attack of the Clones was considered by its director, George Lucas, to be primarily an animated film that used real-life actors. Indeed, CGI effects had become so lifelike that it was difficult to tell computer animation from real life. A growing number of family-oriented films began to use entirely computer-generated characters that interacted on the screen with live-action counterparts, such as Jar-Jar Binks in Star Wars: The Phantom Menace, Gollum in The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers and the title character of Hulk. While computer generated characters have become acceptable to moviegoers, fully animated films featuring virtual human actors, or "synthespians", appear to be a few years away. For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... Film poster for Star Wars Episode II: Attack of the Clones Star Wars Episode II: Attack of the Clones (2002) is the fifth Star Wars science fiction movie released and the second part of the prequel trilogy which began with Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace. ... George Lucas at the German premiere of Star Wars Episode III in Berlin George Walton Lucas, Jr. ... Film poster for Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace is a 1999 film by George Lucas starring Liam Neeson, Ewan McGregor, Natalie Portman, and Jake Lloyd. ... Gollum is a fictional character from J. R. R. Tolkiens universe of Middle-earth. ... Hulk (2003) is a movie based on the comic book series The Incredible Hulk published by Marvel Comics. ...


Disney seemed poised to lead the pack in cutting back on hand-drawn animation; despite the box office success of Lilo & Stitch, the holiday failure of their much-hyped Treasure Planet seemed to ensure that there would be major cutbacks at Disney's animation studio. Disney's loss was further undercut when the 2002 Oscar for Animated Feature Film went to the hand-drawn Hayao Miyazaki's Spirited Away, giving Disney its second loss in a row at the Academy Awards. Lilo & Stitch is a 2002 animated film and the forty-first film in the Disney animated features canon. ... Treasure Planet is the 42nd film in the Disney animated feature canon. ... Hayao Miyazaki (宮崎 駿 Miyazaki Hayao) (born January 5, 1941) is one of the most famous and respected creators of Anime, or Japanese animated films. ... Spirited Away, or The Spiriting Away of Sen and Chihiro ) is a 2001 movie by the Japanese anime studio Studio Ghibli, directed by famed animator Hayao Miyazaki. ...


Disney has recently sold off all their custom animation desks and Dreamworks also announced that they will be abandoning traditionally drawn animation and will focus exclusively on computer-generated features from 2003 on. While traditional cel animation is likely to remain a mainstay of TV cartoons and TV commercials for the foreseeable future, scholars of animation history believe the era of classically drawn American animated features which began with Walt Disney's Snow White is about to come to a close. Others disagree, pointing to the moderate success of the cel animated film, Brother Bear, and the fact that Pixar has announced that it will produce cel animated films in its own attempt to revive the artform. DreamWorks, L.L.C., doing business as DreamWorks SKG, is a Big Ten studio in the United States of America which develops, produces, and distributes films, video games, and television programming. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... From the earliest days of the medium, television has been used as a vehicle for advertising in some countries. ... Snow White in her coffin, Theodor Hosemann, 1867. ... ‹ The template below has been proposed for deletion. ...


In 2004, the movie Sky Captain and the World of Tomorrow was released. It is notable for being filmed entirely in front of a bluescreen with the background being completely computer generated and only the actors and some props being real. Robert Zemeckis' film The Polar Express starring Tom Hanks in five roles is completely CGI animation but uses performance capture technology to animate the characters. 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sky Captain and the World of Tomorrow is a film released on September 17, 2004 in the United States. ... The bluescreen setup The final image Bluescreen (known in television as chroma key) is a term for the filmmaking technique of shooting foreground action against an evenly-lit monochomatic background for the purpose of removing the background from the scene and replacing it with a different image or scene. ... Director Robert Zemeckis Robert Lee Zemeckis (born May 14, 1952) is an American movie director, producer and writer. ... The Polar Express is a 1985 childrens book (ISBN 0862641438) written and illustrated by Chris Van Allsburg, a former professor at the Rhode Island School of Design. ... Thomas Jeffrey Hanks (born July 9, 1956) is a two-time Academy Award-winning American actor who starred in family-friendly comedies before achieving notable success as a dramatic actor. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Motion capture. ...


In July 2005, Disney announced it was closing DisneyToon Studios Australia in 2006. That studio, responsible for direct-to-video sequels such as The Lion King 1 1/2, is Disney's last bastion of hand-drawn animation. A film that is released direct-to-video (also straight-to-video) is one which has been released to the public on home video formats first rather than first being released in movie theaters. ... The Lion King 1½ (also known as The Lion King 3: Hakuna Matata in some countries) is an animated film, the sidestory to The Lion King made by The Walt Disney Company. ...


Animation accolades

Animation had become so widely accepted by the beginning of the 21st century that in 2001, the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences introduced a new Academy Award for Best Animated Feature. The two major contenders for first honoree in this award were both CGI feature films: Shrek, by Dreamworks, and Monsters, Inc., by Disney and Pixar. The award that year went to Shrek. However, there were complaints that the award seemed to be oriented to family films since a relatively minor, albeit praised, animated film, Jimmy Neutron: Boy Genius, was the third nominee and not the acclaimed innovative adult oriented film Waking Life, nor the visually ground breaking Final Fantasy: The Spirits Within. Hayao Miyazaki's critically acclaimed Spirited Away triumphed in 2002 as described earlier, and Disney/Pixar's Finding Nemo received the 2003 award and defeated nominees The Triplets of Belleville and Brother Bear. This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... 2001: A Space Odyssey. ... Founded on May 11, 1927 in California, the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS) is a professional honorary organization dedicated to the advancement of the arts and sciences of motion pictures. ... The Academy Awards are the oldest awards given to achievements in film; the Academy Award for Best Animated Feature was given the first time for the 2001 film year. ... Shrek is a computer-animated film adaptation of William Steigs 1990 fairy tale picture-book of the same name. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Categories: Stub | 2001 films | Computer-animated films ... Waking Life is a digitally rotoscoped and animated film, directed by Richard Linklater and made in 2001. ... Final Fantasy: The Spirits Within is a science fiction movie by Hironobu Sakaguchi, the creator of the Final Fantasy series of video games. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Tereki Tsutomu. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... Finding Nemo is a Academy Award-winning computer-animated film produced by Pixar Animation Studios and released to theatres by Walt Disney Pictures and Buena Vista Distribution in the United States on May 30, 2003 and in Australia on August 28, 2003. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Les Triplettes de Belleville (aka Belleville Rendez-vous; The Triplets of Belleville in English) is a 2003 French-Canadian animated feature film directed and written by Sylvain Chomet. ...


The Annie Awards are handed out by "The International Animated Film Society", association internationale du film d'animation-Hollywood (ASIFA-Hollywood) every February for achievements in the fields of Film and Television animation in the US. For more information, the official site is http://www.annieawards.org/ .


  Results from FactBites:
 
Animation - MSN Encarta (2652 words)
Animation has been a part of cinema history from the time the first motion pictures were made in the late 1800s.
Experiments with electronic animation began in the 1930s, but it was not until the late 1970s that computer animation became viable beyond scientific and government applications, particularly for use by the entertainment industry.
The increasing significance of new technologies in the animation industry is exemplified in the work of American animator John Lasseter, who in 1986 began working for Pixar, one of the leading computer animation studios in the United States.
Modern animation of the United States - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3736 words)
This article describes the history of animation in the United States of America from the late 1980s to the start of the 21st century.
While traditional cel animation is likely to remain a mainstay of TV cartoons and TV commercials for the foreseeable future, scholars of animation history believe the era of classically drawn American animated features which began with Walt Disney's Snow White is about to come to a close.
Animation had become so widely accepted by the beginning of the 21st century that in 2001, the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences introduced a new Academy Award for Best Animated Feature.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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