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Encyclopedia > Modern Celts

This article concerns those peoples who consider themselves, or have been considered by others, to be Celts in modern times, ie post 1800. However, the term is generally used for a number of peoples in Europe sharing various cultural traits and speaking Indo-European languages with a common Proto-Celtic origin. Since the Enlightenment, the term "Celtic" has been applied to a wide variety of peoples and cultural traits present and past. Today, "Celtic" is often used in order to describe the people and their respective cultures and languages of several ethnic groups in Ireland, France, Wales, Scotland, Cornwall, parts of northern Spain and northern Portugal. For other uses, see Indo-European. ... The Proto-Celtic language, also called Common Celtic, is the putative ancestor of all the known Celtic languages. ... The Enlightenment (French: ; German: ; Italian: ; Portuguese: ) was an eighteenth century movement in European and American philosophy — some classifications also include 17th century philosophy (usually called the Age of Reason). ... This article is about the country. ... This article is about the country. ... For other uses, see Cornwall (disambiguation). ...

Contents

History of 'Celticity'

"Celt" has been adopted as a label of self-identification by a variety of peoples at different times. "Celticity" refers to the inferred links between them.


During the 19th century, French nationalists gave a privileged significance to their descent from the Gauls. The struggles of Vercingetorix were portrayed as a forerunner of the 19th-century struggles in defence of French nationalism, including the wars of both Napoleons (Napoleon I of France and Napoleon III of France). Basic French history textbooks could begin with the famous words "Nos ancêtres les Gaulois..." ("Our ancestors the Gauls..."). A similar use of "celticity" for 19th century nationalism was made in Switzerland, when the Swiss were seen to originate in the Celtic tribe of the Helvetii, a link still found in the official Latin name of Switzerland, Confœderatio Helvetica, the source of the nation code CH. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Gallia (in English Gaul) is the Latin name for the region of western Europe occupied by present-day France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... Statue of Vercingetorix by Bartholdi, on Place de Jaude, in Clermont-Ferrand Vercingetorix (pronounced in Gaulish) (died 46 BC), chieftain of the Arverni, originating from the Arvernian city of Gergovia, and known as the man who led the Gauls in their ultimately unsuccessful war against Roman rule under Julius Caesar. ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... This article is about the President of the French Republic and Emperor of the French. ... A map of Gaul showing the northern Alpine position of the Helvetii. ...


Before the advance of Indo-European studies, philologists established that there was a relationship between the Goidelic and Brythonic languages, as well as a relationship between these languages and the extinct Celtic languages such as Gaulish, spoken in classical times. The term "Celtic" therefore came to be widely applied in the 18th century (for the first time) to the Goidelic and Brythonic languages, and by extension to the peoples that spoke them. Indo-European studies is a field of linguistics, dealing with the Indo-European languages. ... Philology, etymologically, is the love of words. ... Goidelic is one of two major divisions of modern-day Celtic languages (the other being Brythonic). ... Brythonic is one of two major divisions of Insular Celtic languages (the other being Goidelic). ... Gaulish is name given to the now-extinct Celtic language that was spoken in Gaul before the Romans, the Franks and the British Celts invaded. ... Goidelic is one of two major divisions of modern-day Celtic languages (the other being Brythonic). ... Brythonic is one of two major divisions of Insular Celtic languages (the other being Goidelic). ...


At the same time, there was also a tendency to play up alternative heritages in the British Isles at certain times, partially as a rationale for non-English parts of the islands to fully participate in the British Empire. For example, in the Isle of Man, in the Victorian era, the "Viking" heritage was emphasised, and in Scotland, both Norse and Anglo-Saxon heritage was played up. This article describes the archipelago in north-western Europe. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... Queen Victoria (shown here on the morning of her accession to the Throne, 20 June 1837) gave her name to the historic era The Victorian era of the United Kingdom marked the height of the British Industrial Revolution and the apex of the British Empire. ... Viking, also called Norseman or Northman, refers to a member of the Scandinavian seafaring traders, warriors and pirates who raided and colonized wide areas of Europe from the 8th to the 11th century[1] and reached east to Russia and Constantinople, referred to as Varangians by the Byzantine sources and... For other uses, see Anglo-Saxon. ...


A romantic image of the Celt as noble savage was cultivated by the early William Butler Yeats, Lady Gregory, Lady Charlotte Guest, Lady Llanover, James Macpherson, Chateaubriand, Théodore Hersart de la Villemarqué and the many others influenced by them. This image coloured not only the English perception of their neighbours on the so-called "Celtic fringe" (compare the stage Irishman), but also Irish nationalism and its analogues in the other Celtic-speaking countries. Among the enduring products of this resurgence of interest in a romantic, pre-industrial, brooding, mystical Celticity are Gorseddau, the revival of the Cornish language, and the revival of the Gaelic Games. Romantics redirects here. ... A section of Benjamin Wests The Death of General Wolfe; Wests depiction of this Native American has been considered an idealization in the tradition of the Noble savage (Fryd, 75) In the 18th century culture of Primitivism the noble savage, uncorrupted by the influences of civilization was considered... William Butler Yeats, 1933. ... A photograph of Lady Gregory from her 1913 book Our Irish Theatre Isabella Augusta, Lady Gregory (15 March 1852–22 May 1932), née Isabella Augusta Persse, was an Irish dramatist and folklorist. ... Lady Charlotte Elizabeth Guest, (nee Bertie) (May 19, 1812 – January 15, 1895), was an important figure in the history of the study of Welsh literature and language. ... Lady Llanover (1802-1896), formerly Augusta Hall, was a Welsh heiress, best known as a patron of the arts. ... James Macpherson (October 27, 1736–February 17, 1796), was a Scottish poet, known as the translator of the Ossian cycle of poems (also known as the Oisín cycle). ... François-René de Chateaubriand, painting by Anne-Louis Girodet de Roussy-Trioson, beginning of 19th century. ... Théodore Claude Henri, vicomte Hersart de la Villemarqué (1815-1895), French philologist and man of letters, was born at Keransker, near Quimperlé, on 6 July 1815. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Celtic belt, also known as the Celtic Fringe, the Celt belt refers to a geographical area on the western and northern fringes of Europe, mainly the British Isles, but also including Brittany. ... Irish nationalism refers to political movements that desire greater autonomy or the independence of Ireland from Great Britain. ... A gorsedd (SAMPA /gO:rsED/), occasionally spelled gorseth, plural gorseddau, is a community of bards. ... For the Cornish-English dialect, see West Country dialects. ... Gaelic games are the native sports of Ireland: principally Hurling, Gaelic Football and Camogie. ...


In the decades leading up to World War II, the various meanings attributed to Celtic "race" were widely discussed in Europe. The so-called Alpine race was identified with the ancient Celts and their descendants, and classical sources were scoured for appropriate stereotypes to apply to this race. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... For other uses, see Race (disambiguation). ... Nordic supremacy theory (or Nordicism) was a theory of race prevalent in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. ... For other uses, see Stereotype (disambiguation). ...


Modern 'Celticity'

A map of Insular Celtic people showing modern borders.
A map of Insular Celtic people showing modern borders.

After World War II, "race" went out of fashion and "culture" took its place. Many of the same stereotypes and caricatures of Celticity once attributed to the Celtic or Alpine race, were thus recycled under the label of culture. But since the 1960s, Celticity has been put to a somewhat different use. The peoples of the "Celtic fringe" found in Celticity an explanation for their peripheral "otherness", as well as a source of pride which could galvanize them into demands for development and regeneration. Nationalists in Northern Ireland sought an end to endemic discrimination with the Civil Rights Movement. Breton regionalists participated in the May 1968 revolt under Breton flags and with the slogan Bretagne=Colonie. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 362 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (430 × 711 pixel, file size: 12 KB, MIME type: image/png) cy: Map y chwe chenedl Geltaidd pennaf. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 362 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (430 × 711 pixel, file size: 12 KB, MIME type: image/png) cy: Map y chwe chenedl Geltaidd pennaf. ... The Insular Celtic language hypothesis groups the Goidelic languages, which include Irish, Scottish Gaelic and the recently extinct Manx, together with the Brythonic languages, of which the modern ones are Welsh, Breton, and the moribund Cornish. ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... Irish nationalism refers to political movements that desire greater autonomy or the independence of Ireland from Great Britain. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... Historically, various popular movements struggling for social justice and democratic rights since the Second World War were known as civil rights movement, most famously the American civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s, which struggled for equal rights for African-Americans. ... A May 1968 poster: Be young and shut up, with the stereotypical silhouette of the General de Gaulle. ...


The "modern Celtic" groups' distinctiveness as national, as opposed to regional, minorities has been periodically recognised by major British papers. For example, a Guardian editorial in 1990 pointed to these differences, and said that they should be constitutionally recognised: The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ...

"Smaller minorities also have equally proud visions of themselves as irreducibly Welsh, Irish, Manx or Cornish. These identities are distinctly national in ways which proud people from Yorkshire, much less proud people from Berkshire will never know. Any new constitutional settlement which ignores these factors will be built on uneven ground." [1]

The Republic of Ireland, on surpassing Britain's GDP per capita in the 1990s for the first time in centuries, was given the moniker "Celtic tiger". Thanks in part to agitation on the part of Cornish regionalists, Cornwall was able to obtain Objective One funding from the European Union. Scotland and Wales obtained agencies like the Welsh Development Agency, and Scottish and Welsh Nationalists have recently supported the institution of the Scottish Parliament and National Assembly for Wales. More broadly, a distinct identity in opposition to that of the metropolitan capitals has been forged and taken strong root. Look up Yorkshire in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Cartoon of the Celtic Tiger. ... For other uses, see Cornwall (disambiguation). ... Objective 1 regions are officially designated NUTS level 2 regions within the European Union where per capita GDP is less than 75% of that of the wider union; they also include certain very low population areas in Sweden and Finland and some outlying (i. ... The Welsh Development Agency (WDA) is a public sector quango or NGO funded by the British government for the purpose of encouraging business development and investment in Wales. ... For the national legislative body up to 1707, see Parliament of Scotland. ... Type Unicameral Presiding Officer Dafydd Elis-Thomas Members 60 Political groups Labour Plaid Cymru Conservative Liberal Democrats Last elections May 3, 2007 Meeting place Senedd, Cardiff, Wales Web site http://www. ...


These latter evolutions have proceeded hand in hand with the growth of an pan-Celtic or inter-Celtic dimension, seen in many organizations and festivals operating across various Celtic countries. Celtic studies departments at many universities in Europe and beyond, have studied the various ancient and modern Celtic languages and associated history and folklore under one roof. Pan-Celticism is the name given to a variety of movements that espouse greater contact between the various Celtic countries. ...


The Celtic link is also claimed to come mainly from:

  • language
  • music
  • art
  • sport

The roots revival, applied to Celtic music, has brought much inter-Celtic cross-fertilization, as, for instance, Welsh musicians have revived the use of the mediaeval Welsh bagpipe under the influence of the Breton binioù, Irish uillean pipes and famous Scottish pipes, or the Scots have revived the bodhran from Irish influence. Sports such as Hurling and Shinty are seen as being 'Celtic', whilst the Irish fleadh is seen as an equivalent to the Breton fest noz. A roots revival (folk revival) is a trend which includes young performers popularizing the traditional musical styles of their ancestors. ... Celtic music is a term utilized by artists, record companies, music stores and music magazines to describe a broad grouping of musical genres that evolved out of the folk musical traditions of the Celtic peoples of Northern Europe. ... A bagpipe performer in Amsterdam. ... For the Cornish sport, see Cornish Hurling. ... // A shinty game in progress Shinty (Scottish Gaelic camanachd or iomain) is a team sport played with sticks and a ball. ... A Fleadh is an event of Irish traditional music, many of which take place across Ireland and parts of Britain and the US each year. ... The Fest Noz (translation: Festival of the Night) is a Breton traditional festival, similar to a céilí. There is traditional music, dancing and drinking, particularly of chouchen, a traditional drink made from fermenting honey in water. ...


The USA has also taken part in discussions of modern Celticity. For example, recently elected Virginia Senator James H. Webb, in his 2004 book Born Fighting – How the Scots-Irish Shaped America, controversially asserts that the early "pioneering" immigrants to North America were of Scots-Irish origins. He goes on to argue that their distinct "Celtic traits" (loyalty to kin, mistrust of governmental authority, and military readiness), in contrast to the "Anglo-Saxon" settlers, helped construct the modern "American identity". Irish Americans also played an important role in the shaping of 19th-century Irish republicanism through the Fenian movement, the development of a discourse of the Great Hunger as a British atrocity, and so on. This article is about the U.S. state. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... James H. Webb, Jr. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... Scots-Irish (also called Ulster Scots) is a Scottish ethnic group that historically resided in Ireland which ultimately traces its roots back to settlers from Scotland, and to a lesser extent, England. ... For other uses, see Anglo-Saxon. ... Irish population density in the United States, 1872. ... Irish republicanism is an ideology based on the Irish nationalist belief that all of Ireland should be a single independent republic, whether as a unitary state, a federal state or as a confederal arrangement. ... Fenian is a term used since the 1850s for Irish nationalists (who oppose British rule in Ireland). ... Bridget ODonnell and her two children during the famine The Great Famine or the Great Hunger (Irish: An Gorta Mór or An Drochshaol), known more commonly outside of Ireland as the Irish Potato Famine, is the name given to a famine in Ireland between 1845 and 1849. ...


Celtic nations

The Six Nations considered the heartland of the modern Celts
The Six Nations considered the heartland of the modern Celts
Main article: Celtic nations

Six nations tend to be most associated with a modern Celtic identity, and are considered 'the Celtic nations'. These are: Image File history File links Celtic_Nations. ... Image File history File links Celtic_Nations. ... The Six Nations considered the heartland of the modern Celts Celtic nations are areas of Europe inhabited by members of Celtic cultures, specifically speakers of Celtic languages. ... For other uses, see Nation (disambiguation). ...

It is these 'Six Nations' that (alone) are considered Celtic by the Celtic League and the Celtic Congress amongst others. These organizations ascribe to a definition of Celticity based mainly upon language. In the aforementioned six regions, Celtic languages have survived and continue to be used to varying degrees in Ireland, Scotland, Wales, and Brittany.[1] Image File history File links Flag_of_Brittany. ... Historical province of Brittany, showing the main areas with their name in Breton language The traditional flag of Brittany (the Gwenn-ha-du), formerly a Breton nationalist symbol but today used as a general civic flag in the region. ... Image File history File links Four_Provinces_Flag. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Scotland. ... This article is about the country. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Wales_2. ... This article is about the country. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cornwall. ... For other uses, see Cornwall (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_isle_of_man. ... The Celtic League is a political and cultural organisation in the modern Celtic nations of Ireland, Scotland, Wales, Brittany, Cornwall and the Isle of Man. ... The International Celtic Congress is a cultural organisation that seeks to promote the Celtic languagues of the nations of Ireland, Scotland, Wales, Brittany, Cornwall and the Isle of Man. ...


A number of activists on behalf of other regions/nations have also sought recognition as modern Celts, reflecting the wide diffusion of ancient Celts across Europe. Of these, the following regions are prominent:


In neither Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Galicia nor Asturias has a Celtic language survived, and as such the three fall outside of the litmus test used by the Celtic League, and the Celtic Congress. Nevertheless, many organizations organized around Celticity consider that both Galicia and Asturias can claim a Celtic cultural or historic heritage[2]. These claims to Celticity are rooted in the historical existence of Celtic traditions in these regions[3][4] and also from the fact that numerous Celtic tribes settled in the Iberian Peninsula (see Celtiberians) and left their mark, culturally and genetically. Consequently, similarities in both the cultural (music, dance, folklore) and genetic aspects [5] [6] can be found among the nations of the Northern Spain and other Celtic Nations [7] [8]. Image File history File links Flag_of_Galicia. ... Galicia (Spain) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Asturias. ... Anthem: Asturias, patria querida Capital Oviedo Official language(s) Spanish; Asturian has special status Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 10th  10,604 km²  2. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... A litmus test is a question asked of a potential candidate for high office, the answer to which would determine whether the nominating official would choose to proceed with the appointment or nomination. ... The Celtic League is a political and cultural organisation in the modern Celtic nations of Ireland, Scotland, Wales, Brittany, Cornwall and the Isle of Man. ... The International Celtic Congress is a cultural organisation that seeks to promote the Celtic languagues of the nations of Ireland, Scotland, Wales, Brittany, Cornwall and the Isle of Man. ... Main language areas in Iberia circa 200 BC. The Celtiberians (or Celt-Iberians)[1] were a Celtic people of late La Tène culture living in the Iberian Peninsula, chiefly in what is now north central Spain and northern Portugal, before and during the Roman Empire. ... The Six Nations considered the heartland of the modern Celts Celtic nations are areas of Europe inhabited by members of Celtic cultures, specifically speakers of Celtic languages. ...


Elements of Celtic music, dance, and folklore can be found within England, and the Cumbric language survived until the collapse of the Kingdom of Strathclyde in about 1018.[2] England as a whole comprises many distinct regions, and some of these regions, such as Cumbria[3], Lancashire, and Devon [citation needed], claim more Celtic heritage than others. Notably, although modern Cumbria has similar borders to the older kingdom of Rheged, it is an amalgation of Cumberland, Westmorland, Lancashire and part of the West Riding of Yorkshire, and many Cumbrians still identify first with these older counties. [9]. Northumbria has taken the "Border check/tartan" also known as the "Shepherd's Tartan", [10], and rebranded it as "Northumbrian tartan". It is in fact known from the trans-Border region, and the earliest known example is from Falkirk and is known as the "Falkirk sett". Northumbria is also known for its melodic pipes. For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Cumbric was the Brythonic Celtic language spoken in England in Cumbria, Lancashire, some parts of Northumbria and Yorkshire and in southern Lowland Scotland, i. ... Strathclyde (Welsh: Ystrad Clud) was one of the kingdoms of ancient Scotland in the post-Roman period. ... // Team# 1018 Pike High School Robotics Team Team #1018 FIRST Logo Check Out Our FIRST WIKI Page Events Bulgaria becomes part of the Byzantine Empire. ... Cumbria (IPA: ), is a shire county in the extreme North West of England. ... Lancashire is a non-metropolitan county of historic origin in the North West of England, bounded to the west by the Irish Sea. ... Part of the seafront of Torquay, south Devon, at high tide Devon is a large county in South West England, bordered by Cornwall to the west, and Dorset and Somerset to the east. ... Entrance to the Rheged Discovery Centre Rheged was a Brythonic nation of Sub-Roman Britain, where the natives spoke Cumbric. ... Cumberland is one of the 39 traditional counties of England. ... Westmorland (formerly also spelt Westmoreland, an even older spelling is Westmerland) is an area of north west England and one of the 39 historic counties of England. ... Lancashire is a non-metropolitan county of historic origin in the North West of England, bounded to the west by the Irish Sea. ... The West Riding as an administrative county prior to its abolition in 1974. ... Falkirk (An Eaglais Bhreac, the Variagated [or Speckled] Church [presumably referring to a church building built of many-coloured stones]) in Scottish Gaelic, La Chapelle de Fayerie in French) is a town in central Scotland lying to the north west and north east of the cities of Edinburgh and Glasgow...


Migration from Celtic countries

No treatment of modern Celticity would be complete without mentioning the migrations of people from Celtic countries. A very large portion of the populations of the United States, Canada, Australia and New Zealand is composed of people from Ireland, Britain, Brittany and the Isle of Man; and Jamaica, Barbados, Montserrat, Saint-Barthélemy, Venezuela, Argentina, Brazil and Chile have also experienced large-scale migration from these lands at various times. Anthem For Sweden - The Land of The Incredible Biffs Capital (and largest city) Gustavia Official languages Swedish Government  -  Prime Minister of Sweden Nick XII Bonaparte  -  Prefect Per af Biffsläkt  -  President of the Territorial Council none yet; however Henning is the mayor of Saint-Barthelemy Overseas Collectivity of Sweden   -  Swedish...


There are three areas outside Europe with communities of traditional Celtic language speakers: the province of Chubut in Patagonia with Welsh-speaking Argentinians (known as Y Wladfa), Cape Breton Island in Nova Scotia with Scottish Gaelic-speaking Canadians, and southeast Newfoundland with Irish-speaking Canadians. Categories: Argentina geography stubs | Argentine provinces | Chubut ... Patagonia, as most commonly defined (in orange). ... For other uses, see Argentina (disambiguation). ... The Welsh settlement in Argentina began in the 19th century. ... For other uses, see Cape Breton. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit(Latin) One defends and the other conquers Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English, Canadian Gaelic Government - Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis - Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 11 - Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867... Canadian Gaelic (Gaelic: Gàidhlig Canadanach, locally just Gaelic or The Gaelic) is the dialect of Scots Gaelic that has been spoken continuously for more than 200 years on Cape Breton Island and in isolated enclaves on the Nova Scotia mainland. ... This article is about the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ...


While no Celtic-identified immigrant group is currently pursuing independence or other nationalist goals, Celtic-identified people have played critical roles in each societies movements for independence from the larger empires to which they were formerly attached – for example, the most common mother-tongue amongst the Fathers of Confederation which saw the formation of Canada was Gaelic.[4] Today, Celticity throughout the world is generally presented as a cultural identity (as opposed to a nationalist or racial one), and is experiencing a major revival. There is a movement in Cape Breton for a separate province in Canada, as espoused by the Cape Breton Labour Party and others. Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ... Empires is currently a Half-Life 2 modification that saw its first public release for the HL2 source engine on March 4, 2006. ... Canadian Confederation, or the Confederation of Canada, was the process that ultimately brought together a union among the provinces, colonies and territories of British North America to form a Dominion of the British Empire, which today is a federal nation state simply known as Canada. ... The Goidelic languages (also sometimes called, particularly in colloquial situations, the Gaelic languages or collectively Gaelic) have historically been part of a dialect continuum stretching from the south of Ireland, the Isle of Man, to the north of Scotland. ... The word culture, from the Latin colo, -ere, with its root meaning to cultivate, generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance. ... Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ... This article is about race as an intraspecies classification. ... For other uses, see Cape Breton. ... The Cape Breton Labour Party was a social democratic provincial political party in Nova Scotia, Canada that advocated separate provincial status for Cape Breton[1] , which is the northern part of the Province of Nova Scotia. ...


Since the 1960s, there has been a very considerable growth of interest and enthusiasm in their Celtic heritage on the part of such people. Certain areas outside of the identified Celtic nations have particularly strong associations with these various identities: the Yorke Peninsula, South Australia, with Cornish Australians; Liverpool and Manchester with the Welsh and Irish people in England; Jesus College, Oxford with Welsh students; South Boston or the South Side of Chicago with Irish Americans; and certain arrondissements of Paris with Breton Parisians. The Yorke Peninsula is a peninsula located north-west and west of Adelaide in South Australia, Australia, between Spencer Gulf on the west and Gulf St. ... Capital Adelaide Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Marjorie Jackson-Nelson Premier Mike Rann (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 11  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $59,819 (5th)  - Product per capita  $38,838/person (7th) Population (End of September 2006)  - Population  1,558,200 (5th)  - Density  1. ... For other uses, see Liverpool (disambiguation). ... This article is about the City of Manchester in England. ... and of the Jesus College College name Jesus College in the University of Oxford of Queen Elizabeths Foundation Named after Jesus Christ Established 1571 Sister college Jesus College, Cambridge Principal The Lord Krebs JCR President Paolo Wyatt Undergraduates 340 MCR President Jahan Zahid Graduates 160 Location Turl Street, Oxford... South Boston is a heavily populated neighborhood in Boston, Massachusetts, located south of the Fort Point Channel and abutting Dorchester Bay. ... Nickname: City on the Hill, Beantown, The Hub (of the Universe)1, Athens of America, The Cradle of Revolution, Puritan City, Americas Walking City Location in Massachusetts, USA Counties Suffolk County Mayor Thomas M. Menino(D) Area    - City 232. ... South Side Irish is the term that refers to the large Irish-American community on the South Side of Chicago, Illinois. ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs in Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country State Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City  234. ... An arrondissement is an administrative division in some French or Dutch-speaking countries: // Main article: Municipal arrondissement in France Main article: Arrondissements of Paris Paris, capital city of France, is divided into 20 arrondissements. ... This article is about the capital of France. ...


Simultaneously, in some former British colonies, or particular regions within them, the term Anglo-Celtic has emerged as a descriptor of an ethnic grouping. In particular, Anglo-Celtic Australian is a term commonly used in academic circles in Australia; it refers to at least 80% of the population.[5] "Anglo-Celtic" can be interpreted as either an affirmation of both Celtic and Anglo-Saxon cultures, or a rejection of the notion that they are separate and distinct. It is not necessarily accepted by all of the people to which it is applied. Anglo-Celtic is a macro-cultural term[1] used to collectively describe the cultures native to the British Isles, and the significant diasporas located in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, South Africa and the United States. ... Anglo-Celtic Australian is an ethnic or cultural category, used to describe the majority of Australians of North West European descent. ...


Criticism of modern Celticism

There have been critics of the modern valorization of Celticity. It has been seen, for example, as firing some of the negative aspects of Irish nationalism. Continental European groups claiming Celtic identity have been particularly vulnerable to claims that they are using ethnic divisions for political gain. For example, the Italian Lega Nord have been accused of appropriating Celtic culture to pursue a racist and exclusionary agenda. Similar accusations have been made towards claims of Celtic ethnology in Austria.[11] Irish nationalism refers to political movements that desire greater autonomy or the independence of Ireland from Great Britain. ... The Lega Nord (Northern League, LN), whose complete name is Lega Nord for the Independence of Padania, is an Italian political party founded in 1991 as a federation of several regional parties in northern Italy, most of which had arisen, and all of which had expanded their share of the... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial...


Indeed, John Collis of the University of Sheffield has argued that the idea of a 'Celtic' culture in the British Isles was invented entirely by early modern authors, primarily by Edward Lhuyd, and then re-born by modern day nationalists. This is seen as an extreme critique of the situation; however, in Ireland, it has been shown that only around a quarter of the island contains significant archaeological evidence of the Iron Age culture typically identified as 'Celtic'.[12] ... The University of Sheffield is a research university, located in Sheffield in South Yorkshire, England. ... This article describes the archipelago in north-western Europe. ... Edward Llwyd (also spelt Lhuyd) ( 1660 - June 30, 1709) was a Welsh naturalist, botanist, linguist, geographer and antiquary. ...


Among Atlantic Celtic groups, the main line of attack is that – while there is strong evidence for linkages between Atlantic and Continental Celts – earlier assumptions that the Atlantic Celts must be the descendants of Continental Celts have largely been proven false. This finding has led some, including Richard Wagner of the Irish Institute, to assert that the Atlantic Celts are not Celts at all.[13] He thinks that the Celts were "warrior-adventurers whose influence and effect far outweighed their numbers, but who are most unlikely to have a significant or measurable effect on the Irish gene pool". The Insular Celtic hypothesis concerns the origin of the Celtic languages. ... The Continental Celtic languages are those Celtic languages that are neither Goidelic nor Brythonic. ...


Defenders of Celtic identity counter that the term has long referred to both Continental and Atlantic groups and is not dependent on any association between the two, so while revelations that the Atlantic Celts are an indigenous (ie largely Mesolithic) and not an immigrant group are of profound academic interest they are not particularly relevant to debates around the ethnic identifications of the modern Celtic nations.


Recent genetic evidence seems to indicate that the populations of Ireland, Scotland, England, Wales, Brittany, Cornwall, the Isle of Man, Asturias, Galicia and Northern Portugal may be closely linked and have been remarkably stable for at least 6,000 years.[14] Multiple genetic markers "indicate a shared ancestry throughout the Atlantic zone, from northern Iberia to western Scandinavia, that dates back to the end of the last Ice age."[6] This would mean that their shared culture actually pre-dates the La Tène and Hallstatt Celtic cultures. This does not necessarily mean that these peoples are not 'Celts', however. Rather it means that the historical understanding of who the Celts were and are may need to be revised.[15] The La Tène culture was an Iron Age culture named after the archaeological site of La Tène on the north side of Lake Neuchatel in Switzerland, where a rich trove of artifacts was discovered by Hansli Kopp in 1857. ... The Hallstatt culture was the predominant Central European culture during the local Bronze Age, and introduced the Iron Age. ...


In any case, the usage of 'Celtic' identity as a marker of indigenist, autonomist, and/or nationalist movements within the modern 'Celtic nations' is deeply ingrained and unlikely to change any time soon.


Religion

Modern Celts are divided fairly evenly between Protestants and Roman Catholics. About 75% of the population of the island of Ireland is Roman Catholic, as are nearly all Bretons, but the majority of the Scots, Welsh, Cornish and Manx are Protestant. In Scotland, there is a substantial Roman Catholic minority, not only in areas with recent Irish immigration, but also in the north east, and Gaelic speaking areas such as South Uist and Barra. The Archbishop of Canterbury (and Primate of All England), Dr Rowan Williams, is a Welsh speaking Welshman, whilst the Cardinal Archbishop of Westminster, Cormac Murphy O'Connor, is of Irish parentage. It is notable however that Wales is primarily Christian or Atheist due to its close links with England, especially in Southern Wales. The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Location of South Uist South Uist (Scottish Gaelic: Uibhist a Deas) is an island of the Outer Hebrides in Scotland. ... Castlebay, Barra Traigh Eaig beach This article is about the island of Barra in Scotland. ... The Archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Church of England, recognized by convention as the head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... For the English boxer, see Rowan Anthony Williams. ... For other uses, see Cardinal (disambiguation). ... The standard of the Archbishop of Westminster The Archbishop of Westminster heads the Catholic Archdiocese of Westminster, England. ... His Eminence Cormac Cardinal Murphy-OConnor (born 24 August 1932 in Reading, Berkshire) is a bishop of the Roman Catholic Church. ... This article is about the country. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... For information about the band, see Atheist (band). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


See also

  • Anglo-Celtic

Anglo-Celtic is a macro-cultural term[1] used to collectively describe the cultures native to the British Isles, and the significant diasporas located in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, South Africa and the United States. ... Celts, normally pronounced // (see article on pronunciation), is widely used to refer to the members of any of the peoples in Europe using the Celtic languages or descended from those who did. ... Muiredacha Cross. ... The term Celtic Astrology is used to refer to the tree calendar invented by Robert Graves, freely based on the historical Ogham script, described in The White Goddess (1952). ... The term Celtic calendar is used to refer to a variety of calendars used by Celtic-speaking peoples at different times in history. ... Celtic Christianity, or Insular Christianity (sometimes commonly called the Celtic Church) broadly refers to the Early Medieval Christian practice that developed around the Irish Sea in the fifth and sixth centuries: that is, among Celtic/British peoples such as the Irish, Scottish, Welsh, Cornish, Manx (the inhabitants of the British... For the band, see Celtic Cross (band). ... A classic Celtic knot pattern Celtic knots are a variety of (endless) knots and stylized graphical representations of knots used for decoration, first known to have been used by the Celts. ... Celtic Law The social structure of Iron Age Celtic society was highly developed. ... Celtic music is a term utilized by artists, record companies, music stores and music magazines to describe a broad grouping of musical genres that evolved out of the folk musical traditions of the Celtic peoples of Northern Europe. ... Celtic mythology is the mythology of Celtic polytheism, apparently the religion of the Iron Age Celts. ... The Six Nations considered the heartland of the modern Celts Celtic nations are areas of Europe inhabited by members of Celtic cultures, specifically speakers of Celtic languages. ... Celtic polytheism refers to the religious beliefs and practices of ancient Celts until the Christianization of Celtic-speaking lands. ... Celtic Studies is the academic discipline occupied with the study of any sort of cultural output relating to a Celtic people. ... The pronunciation of the words Celt and Celtic in their various meanings has been surrounded by some confusion: the initial, <c> can be realised either as /k/ or as /s/. Both can be justified philologically and both are correct in terms of English prescriptive usage. ... Pan-Celticism is the name given to a variety of movements that espouse greater contact between the various Celtic countries. ... For other uses, see Druid (disambiguation). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 605 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1373 × 1361 pixel, file size: 672 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Dessin celtique de forme ronde, contours tracé en noir et blanc, représentant des chiens entrelacés. ... The Brythonic languages (or Brittonic languages) form one of the two branches of the Insular Celtic language family. ... Celtiberian (also Hispano-Celtic) is an extinct Celtic language spoken by the Celtiberians in northern Spain before and during the Roman Empire. ... Galatian is an extinct Celtic language once spoken in Galatia in Asia Minor (modern Turkey) from the 3rd century BC up to the 4th century AD. Of the language only a few glosses and brief comments in classical writers and scattered names on inscriptions survive. ... Gaulish is the name given to the Celtic language that was spoken in Gaul before the Vulgar Latin of the late Roman Empire became dominant in Roman Gaul. ... The Goidelic languages (also sometimes called, particularly in colloquial situations, the Gaelic languages or collectively Gaelic) have historically been part of a dialect continuum stretching from the south of Ireland, the Isle of Man, to the north of Scotland. ... Lepontic is an extinct Celtic language that was once spoken in Northern Italy between 700 BCE and 400 BCE. The language is only known from a few inscriptions discovered that were written in a variety of the Northern Italic alphabet, which was related to the Old Italic alphabet. ... Noric language was the ancient Celtic language spoken in the Roman province of Noricum. ... See: list of Scots list of Irish people list of Welsh people list of English people list of Breton people Celt Category: Lists of people by ancestry ... This is a list of Celtic tribes and associated celtic peoples with their geographical localization. ... A map of Gaul showing the relative position of the tribes. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Ireland This page aims to list articles related to the island of Ireland. ... This is a list of topics related to Cornwall, UK. The Cornwall category contains a more comprehensive selection of Cornish articles. ... The gods and goddesses of Celtic mythology are known from a variety of sources. ... Ancient Britain was a period in the human occupation of Great Britain that extended throughout prehistory, ending with the Roman invasion of Britain in AD 43. ... The International Celtic Congress is a cultural organisation that seeks to promote the Celtic languagues of the nations of Ireland, Scotland, Wales, Brittany, Cornwall and the Isle of Man. ... The Celtic League is a political and cultural organisation in the modern Celtic nations of Ireland, Scotland, Wales, Brittany, Cornwall and the Isle of Man. ... The introduction of this article does not provide enough context for readers unfamiliar with the subject. ...

Notes

  1. ^ The Guardian, editorial, 8th May 1990
  2. ^ Fischer, S. R., History of Language, Reaktion Books, 2004, p. 118
  3. ^ http://www.celticcumbria.co.uk
  4. ^ Ministry of Canadian Heritage. Gaelic most common mother-tongue among Fathers of Confederation. URL accessed 26/04/2006.
  5. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2003, "Population characteristics: Ancestry of Australia's population" (from Australian Social Trends, 2003). Retrieved 01 September 2006.
  6. ^ The Longue Durée of Genetic Ancestry: Multiple Genetic Marker Systems and Celtic Origins on the Atlantic Facade of Europe, American Journal of Human Genetics.

The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ...

References

Peter Berresford Ellis (born 10 March 1943) is a historian, literary biographer and novelist who has published over 50 books to date under his own name and that of his pseudonym Peter Tremayne. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Celtic mythology is the mythology of Celtic polytheism, apparently the religion of the Iron Age Celts. ... The University of Oxford, located in the city of Oxford in England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... Norman Davies, Warsaw (Poland), October 7, 2004 Norman Davies (born June 8, 1939 in Bolton, Lancashire) is an English historian of Welsh descent, noted for his publications on the history of Poland, Europe and the British Isles. ... This article is about the year. ... The University of Oxford, located in the city of Oxford in England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Tempus is a Latin word meaning time. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Celts 3 - Crystalinks (0 words)
In some regards the Atlantic Celts were conservative, for example they still used chariots in combat long after they had been reduced to ceremonial roles by the Greeks and Romans, though when faced with the Romans, and in the Atlantic islands their chariot tactics defeated the invasion attempted by Julius Caesar.
It is also a common practice for modern day Celtic groups to employ various symbols, such as the Crescent and V-Rod, the Switch, the Two Worlds etc, as part of their Celtic regalia and ritual but, once again, these ancient symbols are not Celtic they are Pictish.
The suggestion that the Celt wore heavy bracelets in battle has to be questioned, as it is hard to understand how they would stay on his arm whilst he wielded his sword.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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