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Encyclopedia > Model organism

A model organism is a species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms. This is possible because fundamental biological principles such as metabolic, regulatory, and developmental pathways, and the genes that code for them, are conserved through evolution. In biology, a species is the basic unit of biodiversity. ... Biology is a branch of science, dealing with the study of life. ... A phenomenon (plural: phenomena) is an observable event, especially something special (literally something that can be seen from the Greek word phainomenon = observable). ... Santorio Santorio (1561-1636) in his steelyard balance, from Ars de statica medecina, first published 1614 Metabolism (from μεταβολισμος (metabolismos)) is the biochemical modification of chemical compounds in living organisms anggjgjhnd cell (b). ... Developmental biology is the study of the process by which organisms grow and develop. ... This stylistic schematic diagram shows a gene in relation to the double helix structure of DNA and to a chromosome (right). ... A speculative phylogenetic tree of all living things, based on rRNA gene data, showing the separation of the three domains, bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes. ...


Often, model organisms are chosen on the basis that they are amenable to experimental manipulation. This usually will include characteristics such as; short life-cycle, techniques for genetic manipulation (inbred strains, stem cell lines, and transfection systems), and non-specialist living requirements. Sometimes, the genome arrangement facilitates the sequencing of the model organism's genome, for example, by being very compact or having a low proportion of junk DNA. Inbreeding is breeding between close relatives. ... Mouse embryonic stem cells. ... Introducing DNA into eukaryotic cells, such as animal cells, is called transfection. ... In molecular biology, junk DNA is a collective label for the portions of the DNA sequence of a chromosome or a genome for which no function has yet been identified. ...


There are many model organisms. One of the first model systems for molecular biology was the bacterium Escherichia coli a common constituent of the human digestive system. Several of the bacterial viruses (bacteriophage) that infect E. coli also have been very useful, for example phages Lambda and T4. Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level. ... Binomial name Escherichia coli T. Escherich, 1885 Escherichia coli (usually abbreviated to E. coli) is one of the main species of bacteria that live in the lower intestines of warm-blooded animals (including birds and mammals) and are necessary for the proper digestion of food. ... A phage (also called bacteriophage) (in Greek phageton = food/consumption) is a small virus that infects only bacteria. ... Binomial name Escherichia coli T. Escherich, 1885 Escherichia coli (usually abbreviated to E. coli) is one of the main species of bacteria that live in the lower intestines of warm-blooded animals (including birds and mammals) and are necessary for the proper digestion of food. ...


In eukaryotes, several yeasts, particularly Saccharomyces cerevisiae ("baker's" or "budding" yeast), have been widely studied, largely because they are quick and easy to grow. The cell cycle in a simple yeast is very similar to the cell cycle in humans, and regulated by homologous proteins. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster was studied, again because it was easy to grow for an animal. The roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans is studied because it has very defined development patterns involving fixed numbers of cells, and it can be rapidly assayed for abnormalities. Hi Im Jeremy Kingdoms Animalia - Animals Fungi Plantae - Plants Protista A eukaryote (IPA: ), also spelled eucaryote, is an organism with a complex cell or cells, in which the genetic material is organized into membrane-bound nucleus/nuclei. ... Binomial name Saccharomyces cerevisiae Meyen ex E.C. Hansen Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a species of budding yeast. ... The cell cycle, or cell division cycle, is the cycle of events in a eukaryotic cell from one cell division to the next. ... Closeup of yeast cells Yeasts are single-celled (unicellular) fungi, a few species of which are commonly used to leaven bread, ferment alcoholic beverages, and even drive experimental fuel cells. ... Trinomial name Homo sapiens sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 Humans, or human beings, are biologically classified as bipedal primates belonging to the mammalian species Homo sapiens (Latin for wise man or thinking man) under the family Hominidae (the great apes). ... In biology, two or more structures are said to be homologous if they are alike because of shared ancestry. ... Binomial name Drosophila melanogaster Meigen, 1830 Drosophila melanogaster Meigen , 1830 (Black-bellied Dew-lover) a dipteran (two-winged) insect, is the species of fruit fly that is commonly used in genetic experiments; it is among the most important model organisms. ... Classes Adenophorea    Subclass Enoplia    Subclass Chromadoria Secernentea    Subclass Rhabditia    Subclass Spiruria    Subclass Diplogasteria The roundworms or nematodes (Phylum Nematoda from Gr. ... Binomial name Caenorhabditis elegans Maupas, 1900 Caenorhabditis elegans (pronounced see-no-rab-DYE-tis) is a free-living nematode (one of the roundworms), about 1 mm in length, which lives in a temperate soil environment. ...


When researchers look for an organism to use in their studies, they look for several traits. Among these are size, generation time, accessibility, manipulation, genetics, conservation of mechanisms, and potential economic benefit. As comparative molecular biology has become more common, some researchers have sought model organisms that represent assorted lineages of life. Kinship and descent is one of the major concepts of cultural anthropology. ...

Contents


Important model organisms

Viruses

A common alternate meaning of virus is computer virus. ... Enterobacteria phage λ (lambda phage) is a temperate phage that lives in E. coli. ... The Phi-X174 phage was the first organism to have its genome sequenced. ... In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ... This stylistic schematic diagram shows a gene in relation to the double helix structure of DNA and to a chromosome (right). ... Headline text this website sucks your mothers dickIn molecular biology, two nucleotides on opposite complementary DNA or RNA strands that are connected via hydrogen bonds are called a base pair (often abbreviated bp). ...

Prokaryotes

Prokaryotes are unicellular (in rare cases, multicellular) organisms without a nucleus. ... Binomial name Escherichia coli T. Escherich, 1885 E. coli at 10,000x magnification Escherichia coli, usually abbreviated to E. coli, discovered by Theodor Escherich, a pediatrician and bacteriologist, is one of the main species of bacteria that live in the lower intestines of warm-blooded animals, including birds and mammals. ... Binomial name Bacillus subtilis (Ehrenberg 1835) Cohn 1872 Bacillus subtilis is a catalase-positive bacterium that is commonly found in soil, belonging to the genus Bacillus. ... Binomial name Mycoplasma genitalium Mycoplasma genitalium is a parasitic bacterium which lives in the primate genital and respiratory tracts. ... Binomial name Vibrio fischeri Vibrio fischeri is a rod-shaped bacterium found globally in the marine environments. ... Quorum sensing is the ability of bacteria to communicate and coordinate behavior via signaling molecules. ... Bioluminescence is the production and emission of light by a living organism as the result of a chemical reaction during which chemical energy is converted to light energy. ... Common Clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris) in their magnificent sea anemone (Heteractis magnifica) home. ... Orders The taxonomy of the Cyanobacteria is currently under revision. ... Leaf. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...

Eukaryotes

Kingdoms Eukaryotes are organisms with complex cells, in which the genetic material is organized into membrane-bound nuclei. ...

Protists

Typical phyla Rhodophyta (red algae) Chromista Heterokontophyta (heterokonts) Haptophyta Cryptophyta (cryptomonads) Alveolates Pyrrhophyta (dinoflagellates) Apicomplexa Ciliophora (ciliates) Excavates Euglenozoa Percolozoa Metamonada Rhizaria Radiolaria Foraminifera Cercozoa Amoebozoa Choanozoa Many others; classification varies The Kingdom Protista or Protoctista is one of the commonly recognized biological kingdoms, including all the eukaryotes except for... Binomial name Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Chlamydomonas reinhardtii or Green yeast is a single celled green alga about 10 micrometres in diameter which swims with two flagella. ... Divisions Chlorophyta Charophyta Streptophytina (Subdivision) The green algae are the large group of algae from which the embryophytes (higher plants) emerged. ... Leaf. ... A flagellum (plural, flagella) is a whip-like organelle that many unicellular organisms, and some multicellular ones, use to move about. ... Motility is the ability to move spontaneously and independently. ... Santorio Santorio (1561-1636) in his steelyard balance, from Ars de statica medecina, first published 1614 Metabolism (from μεταβολισμος (metabolismos)) is the biochemical modification of chemical compounds in living organisms anggjgjhnd cell (b). ... Cellular adhesion is the binding of a cell to another cell or to a surface or matrix. ... Starvation is a severe reduction in vitamin, nutrient, and energy intake, and is the most extreme form of malnutrition. ... Duke Chapel Duke University is a private, coeducational, research university located in Durham, North Carolina, USA. Although founded in 1924, Duke traces its roots back to 1838. ... A growth medium is an object in which microorganisms or cells in experience growth. ... Species T hegewischi Tetrahymena are ciliate protozoa, common in aquatic habitats. ... Classes & Subclasses Class Karyorelictea Class Heterotrichea (e. ... Protozoa (in Greek protos = first and zoon = animal) are single-celled creatures with nuclei that show some characteristics usually associated with animals, most notably mobility and heterotrophy. ...

Fungi

Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota The Fungi (singular: fungus) are a large group of organisms ranked as a kingdom within the Domain Eukaryota. ... Binomial name Aspergillus nidulans G Winter 1884 One of many species of filamentous fungi in the phylum Ascomycota, Aspergillus nidulans has been an important research organism for studying eukaryotic cell biology[1] as well as Aspergillus metabolism. ... Binomial name Neurospora crassa Shear & B.O. Dodge Neurospora crassa is a type of red bread mold of the phylum Ascomycota. ... Moldy Bread Molds, or mould, are various fungi that cover surfaces in the form of fluffy mycelia and usually produce masses of spores (most commonly asexual spores but sometimes sexual). ... Binomial name Saccharomyces cerevisiae Meyen ex E.C. Hansen Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a species of budding yeast. ... Closeup of yeast cells Yeasts are single-celled (unicellular) fungi, a few species of which are commonly used to leaven bread, ferment alcoholic beverages, and even drive experimental fuel cells. ... Binomial name Schizosaccharomyces pombe Schizosaccharomyces pombe, also called fission yeast, is a species of yeast. ...

Plants

u fuck in ua ... Binomial name Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. ... Orders see text Dicotyledons or dicots are flowering plants whose seed contains two embryonic leaves or cotyledons. ... In some Christian churches (particularly the Anglican Communion), one server is appointed to carry the churchs cross during processions at the beginning and end of the service. ... Species See text The mustards are several plant species in the genus Brassica whose proverbially tiny mustard seeds are used as a spice and, by grinding and mixing them with water, vinegar or other liquids, are turned into a condiment also known as mustard. ... In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ... DNA sequencing is the process of determining the nucleotide order of a given DNA fragment, called the DNA sequence. ... In botany, plant physiology is the study of the function, or physiology of plants. ... Developmental biology is the study of the process by which organisms grow and develop. ... Molecular genetics is the field of biology which studies the structure and function of genes at a molecular level. ... Population genetics is the study of the distribution of and change in allele frequencies under the influence of the four evolutionary forces: natural selection, genetic drift, mutation, and migration. ... Cytology (also known as Cell biology) is the scientific study of cells. ... Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level. ... Binomial name Brachypodium distachyon (L.) P.Beauv. ... ... Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level. ... Genetics (from the Greek genno γεννώ= give birth) is the science of genes, heredity, and the variation of organisms. ... Species Between 70-150 species; see text The genus Lotus (Birds-foot Trefoil, Trefoil or Deervetch) contains approximately 150 species distributed world-wide. ... Varieties of soybean seeds, a popular legume Pea pods The term legume has two closely related meanings in botany, a situation encountered with many botanical common names of useful plants, whereby an applied name can refer to either the plant itself, or to the edible fruit (or useful part). ... Nitrogen fixation is the process by which nitrogen is taken from its relatively inert molecular form (N2) in the atmosphere and converted into nitrogen compounds useful for other chemical processes (such as, notably, ammonia, nitrate and nitrogen dioxide). ... ... Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level. ... Species Lemna gibba : Gibbous Duckweed Lemna minuta Lemna minor : Common Duckweed Lemna trisulca : Ivy Duckweed Lemna is genus of free-floating aquatic plants from the family Araceae, often referred to as the duckweeds. ... Orders Base Monocots: Acorus Alismatales Asparagales Dioscoreales Liliales Pandanales Family Petrosaviaceae Commelinids: Arecales Commelinales Poales Zingiberales Family Dasypogonaceae Monocotyledons or monocots are a group of flowering plants usually ranked as a class and once called the Monocotyledoneae. ... Ecotoxicology is a discipline of ecology, which looks at the ecological role of toxic chemicals (often pollutants, but also naturally occurring compounds). ... In biology, a pure culture is a population of identical cells originating from a single cell. ... Gene expression, also called protein expression or often simply expression is the process by which a genes DNA sequence is converted into the structures and functions of a cell. ... Biopharmaceuticals are medical drugs (see pharmacology) produced by biotechnology. ... In mathematics, a quantity that grows exponentially (or geometrically) is one that grows at a rate proportional to its size. ... Binomial name Zea mays L. Maize (Zea mays ssp. ... Transposons are sequences of DNA that can move around to different positions within the genome of a single cell, a process called transposition. ... Genetics (from the Greek genno γεννώ= give birth) is the science of genes, heredity, and the variation of organisms. ... Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level. ... ... Binomial name Medicago truncatula Gaertn. ... Binomial name Medicago sativa L. Subspecies subsp. ... ... Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level. ... This article may be too technical for most readers to understand. ... Epithelial cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) Cell culture is the term applied when cells are grown in a synthetic environment. ... Species N. glauca N. longiflora N. rustica N. sylvestris N. tabacum Ref: ITIS 30562 as of August 26, 2005 Tobacco (, L.) refers to a genus of broad-leafed plants of the nightshade family indigenous to North and South America, or to the dried and cured leaves of such plants. ... Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green). ... This Osteospermum Pink Whirls is a successful cultivar. ... In biology, a species is the basic unit of biodiversity. ... Cytology (also known as Cell biology) is the scientific study of cells. ... In botany, plant physiology is the study of the function, or physiology of plants. ... The structure of insulin Biotechnology is a technology based on biology, especially when used in agriculture, food science, and medicine. ... Species Oryza glaberrima Oryza sativa Rice refers to two species (Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima) of grass, native to tropical and subtropical southeastern Asia and to Africa, which together provide more than one fifth of the calories consumed by humans. ... This article is about grains in general. ... ... Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level. ... A model organism is a species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms. ...

Animals

Phyla Subregnum Parazoa Porifera (sponges) Subregnum Agnotozoa Placozoa (trichoplax) Orthonectida (orthonectids) Rhombozoa (dicyemids) Subregnum Eumetazoa Radiata (unranked) (radial symmetry) Ctenophora (comb jellies) Cnidaria (coral, jellyfish, anemones) Bilateria (unranked) (bilateral symmetry) Acoelomorpha (basal) Orthonectida (parasitic to flatworms, echinoderms, etc. ...

Invertebrates

Invertebrate is a term coined by Chevalier de Lamarck to describe any animal without a backbone or vertebra, like insects, squids and worms. ... Subclasses Euechinoidea Superorder Atelostomata Order Cassiduloida Order Spatangoida (heart urchins) Superorder Diadematacea Order Diadematoida Order Echinothurioida Order Pedinoida Superorder Echinacea Order Arbacioida Order Echinoida Order Phymosomatoida Order Salenioida Order Temnopleuroida Superorder Gnathostomata Order Clypeasteroida (sand dollars) Order Holectypoida Perischoechinoidea Order Cidaroida (pencil urchins) Group of black, long-spined Caribbean sea... Binomial name Caenorhabditis elegans Maupas, 1900 Caenorhabditis elegans (pronounced see-no-rab-DYE-tis) is a free-living nematode (one of the roundworms), about 1 mm in length, which lives in a temperate soil environment. ... Classes Adenophora    Subclass Enoplia    Subclass Chromadoria Secernentea    Subclass Rhabditia    Subclass Spiruria    Subclass Diplogasteria The roundworms (Phylum Nematoda) are one of the most common phyla of animals, with over 20,000 different described species. ... Binomial name Ciona intestinalis (Linnaeus, 1767) Ciona intestinalis is a Urochordata (sea squirt) whose genome has been sequenced. ... Binomial name Drosophila melanogaster Meigen, 1830 Drosophila melanogaster Meigen , 1830 (Black-bellied Dew-lover) a dipteran (two-winged) insect, is the species of fruit fly that is commonly used in genetic experiments; it is among the most important model organisms. ... Binomial name Drosophila melanogaster Meigen, 1830 Drosophila melanogaster Meigen , 1830 (Black-bellied Dew-lover) a dipteran (two-winged) insect, is the species of fruit fly that is commonly used in genetic experiments; it is among the most important model organisms. ... [[|Diversity]] Binomial name Trinomial name Type Species [[Image: ]] Synonyms Drosophilidae compound eye Drosophilidae (Order: Diptera) is a diverse, cosmopolitan family of flies, including the genus Drosophila, which includes the species fruit fly, vinegar flies, wine flies, pomace flies, grape flies, and picked fruit-flies. ... Thomas Hunt Morgan in 1891. ... Molecular genetics is the field of biology which studies the structure and function of genes at a molecular level. ... Population genetics is the study of the distribution of and change in allele frequencies under the influence of the four evolutionary forces: natural selection, genetic drift, mutation, and migration. ... Developmental biology is the study of the process by which organisms grow and develop. ... Common Clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris) in their magnificent sea anemone (Heteractis magnifica) home. ... Bioluminescence is the production and emission of light by a living organism as the result of a chemical reaction during which chemical energy is converted to light energy. ... Vibrio is a genus of bacteria, included in the gamma subgroup of the Proteobacteria. ... HYDRA is a fictional terrorist organization in the Marvel Universe. ... Classes Anthozoa- Corals and sea anemones Cubozoa- Sea wasps or box jellyfish Hydrozoa- Hydroids, hydra-like animals Scyphozoa- Jellyfish Cnidaria (silent c - pronounced /naɪˡdeɹiÉ™/ from New Latin cnida, fr. ... Binomial name Loligo pealei Lesueur, 1821 The Longfin Inshore Squid (Loligo pealei) is a species of squid of the family Loliginidae. ... The Stomatogastric Nervous System is a commonly studied neural network composed of several ganglia in arthropods that controls the motion of the gut and foregut. ... Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - Trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - Spiders, Scorpions, etc. ... The flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) is a small species of darkling beetle, pest of cereal silos and a much-used laboratory animal, since it is easy to keep. ... Genera Many Darkling beetles are a family of beetles found worldwide. ... Behavioral ecology (US spelling) or behavioural ecology (UK spelling) is the study of the ecological and evolutionary basis for animal behavior, and the roles of behavior in enabling animals to adapt to their ecological niches. ...

Vertebrates
  • Cavius porcellus, the guinea pig, used by Robert Koch and other early bacteriologists as a host for bacterial infections, hence a byword for "laboratory animal" even though rarely used today.
  • Rat (Rattus norvegicus) - particularly useful as a toxicology model; also particularly useful as a neurological model and source of primary cell cultures, owing to the larger size of organs and suborganellar structures relative to the mouse. (Molecular evolution, Genomics)
  • Sigmodon hispidus - Cotton rat formerly used in polio research
  • Mouse (Mus musculus) - the classic model vertebrate. Many inbred strains exist, as well as lines selected for particular traits, often of medical interest, e.g. body size, obesity, muscularity. (Quantitative genetics, Molecular evolution, Genomics)
  • Hamster - first used to study kala-azar (leishmaniasis)
  • Zebrafish (Brachydanio rerio), a freshwater fish, has a nearly transparent body during early development, which provides unique visual access to the animal's internal anatomy. Zebrafish are used to study development, toxicology and toxicopathology[4], specific gene function and roles of signaling pathways.
  • Xenopus laevis, the African clawed toad, also used in development because of its large cells, esp. egg cells.
  • Takifugu rubipres, a pufferfish - has a small genome with little junk DNA
  • Dog (Canis lupus familiaris) - an important respiratory and cardiovascular model
  • Oryzias latipes, Medaka (the Japanese ricefish) is an important model in developmental biology, and has the advantage of being much sturdier than the traditional Zebrafish.

Typical classes Petromyzontidae (lampreys) Placodermi - extinct Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fish) Acanthodii - extinct Actinopterygii (ray-finned fish) Actinistia (coelacanths) Dipnoi (lungfish) Amphibia (amphibians) Reptilia (reptiles) Aves (birds) Mammalia (mammals) Vertebrata is a subphylum of chordates, specifically, those with backbones or spinal columns. ... Species Cavia porcellus Cavia aperea Cavia tschudii Cavia guianae Cavia anolaimae Cavia nana Cavia fulgida Cavia magna Cavia intermedia Guinea pigs (also called cavies) are rodents belonging to the family Caviidae and the genus Cavia. ... Species Cavia porcellus Cavia aperea Cavia tschudii Cavia guianae Cavia anolaimae Cavia nana Cavia fulgida Cavia magna Cavia intermedia Guinea pigs (also called cavies) are rodents belonging to the family Caviidae and the genus Cavia. ... Robert Koch For the American lobbyist, see Bobby Koch. ... Binomial name Rattus norvegicus (Berkenhout, 1769) The Brown Rat or Norway Rat (Rattus norvegicus) is one of the most well-known and common rats, and also one of the largest. ... Molecular evolution is the process of the genetic material in populations of organisms changing over time. ... Genomics is the study of an organisms genome and the use of the genes. ... Species Hispid Cotton Rat () Yellow-nosed Cotton Rat () Tawny-Bellied Cotton Rat () A cotton rat is any member of the Sigmodon genus of rodents. ... Binomial name Mus musculus Linnaeus, 1758 Mus musculus is the common house mouse. ... Quantitative genetics is the study of continuous traits (such as height or weight) and its underlying mechanisms. ... Molecular evolution is the process of the genetic material in populations of organisms changing over time. ... Genomics is the study of an organisms genome and the use of the genes. ... Genera Mesocricetus Phodopus Cricetus Cricetulus Allocricetulus Cansumys Tscherskia A hamster is a rodent belonging to subfamily Cricetinae. ... Binomial name Danio rerio (Hamilton-Buchanan, 1822) The Zebra Danio or Zebrafish (Brachydanio rerio or Danio rerio) is a tropical fish belonging to the minnow family (Cyprinidae). ... Binomial name Xenopus laevis Daudin, 1802 The African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis, also known as platanna) is a species of South African aquatic frog of the genus Xenopus. ... The true toads are amphibians in the Bufonidae family. ... For the video-related acronym, see OVA. A human ovum An ovum (or loosely, egg or egg cell) is a female sex cell or gamete. ... Species (See list at end of article) For other uses, see Fugu (disambiguation). ... Genera Amblyrhynchotes Arothron Auriglobus Canthigaster Carinotetraodon Chelonodon Colomesus Contusus Ephippion Feroxodon Fugu Gastrophysus Javichthys Lagocephalus Liosaccus Marilyna Monotretus Omegaphora Pelagocephalus Polyspina Reicheltia Sphoeroides Takifugu Tetractenos Tetraodon Torquigener Tylerius Xenopterus For species see text The pufferfish, also called blowfish, swellfish, globefish, balloonfish are fish making up the family Tetraodontidae, within the... In molecular biology, junk DNA is a collective label for the portions of the DNA sequence of a chromosome or a genome for which no function has yet been identified. ... Trinomial name Canis lupus familiaris (Linnaeus, 1758) This article is about the domestic dog. ...

Model organisms used for specific research objectives

Sexual selection and sexual conflict

  • Callusobruchus maculatus, the bruchid beetle
  • Chorthippus parallelus, the meadow grasshopper
  • Coelopidae - seaweed flies
  • Diopsidae - stalk-eyed flies
  • Drosophila spp. - fruit flies
  • Gryllus bimaculatus, the field cricket
  • Scathofaga stercoraria, the yellow dung fly

Genera Diasemopsis Diopsis Eurydiopsis Sphyracephala Teleopsis Teloglabrus Diopsids are insects of the Dipteran family Diopsidae. ... Type Species Musca funebris Fabricius, 1787 Species Many; see text. ...

Hybrid zones

  • Bombina bombina and variegata
  • Podisma spp. in the Alps

Species Bombina bombina Bombina fortinuptialis Bombina lichuanensis Bombina maxima Bombina microdeladigitora Bombina orientalis Bombina pachypus Bombina variegata The Fire-bellied Toads are a group of eight species of small toads (typically 4-7cm in length) belonging to the genus Bombina They used to be classified under the family Discoglossidae (which...

References

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ Riddle, Donald L.; Blumenthal, Thomas; Meyer, Barbara J.; and Priess, James R. (Eds.). (1997). C. ELEGANS II. Woodbury, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Press. ISBN 0-87969-532-3. Full text available on-line.
  3. ^ Manev H, Dimitrijevic N, Dzitoyeva S. (2003). "Techniques: fruit flies as models for neuropharmacological research.". Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 24 (1): 41-43.
  4. ^ Spitsbergen J.M. and Kent M.L. (2003). The state of the art of the zebrafish model for toxicology and toxicologic pathology research--advantages and current limitations. Toxicol Pathol. 31 (Supplement), 62-87. PubMed Abstract Link => PMID 12597434.

See also

Animal model refers to a non-human animal with a disease that is similar to a human condition. ... Ensembl is a bioinformatics research project aiming to develop a software system which produces and maintains automatic annotation on selected eukaryotic genomes. It is run in a collaboration between the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute and the European Bioinformatics Institute, an outstation of the European Molecular Biology Laboratory. ...

External links

  • Wellcome Trust description of model organisms
  • The Generic Model Organism Database project
Major Model Organisms in Genetic Studies
Lambda phage | E. coli | Chlamydomonas | Tetrahymena | Budding yeast | Fission yeast | Neurospora | Maize | Arabidopsis | C. elegans | Drosophila | Zebrafish | Rat | Mouse

  Results from FactBites:
 
Model organisms (1861 words)
Model organisms are less costly, fewer ethical constraints are encountered using them, and, historically, more research data have been generated in the past (e.g.
Model organisms are those that useful data sets have been already gathered to describe basic biological processes.
A model organism is one that possesses the virtues of tractability and accessibility that can be used in experimental manipulation both in school and research.
Model organism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1341 words)
A model organism is a species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms.
Lotus japonicus a model legume used to study the symbiosis responsible for nitrogen fixation.
Rice (Oryza sativa) is used as a model for cereal biology.
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