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Encyclopedia > Model aircraft
A die cast Boeing 747-400 model.
A die cast Boeing 747-400 model.

Model aircraft are flying or non-flying models of existing or imaginary aircraft, often scaled down versions of full size planes, using materials such as balsa wood, foam and fiberglass. Many designs are possible, from simple gliders, to accurate scale models, some of which can be very large. Image File history File linksMetadata DieCastModelsWIKI1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata DieCastModelsWIKI1. ... The Boeing 747-400 is the most recent version of the Boeing 747 in service. ... Flying machine redirects here. ... For the e-mail client, see Balsa (e-mail client). ... For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Glider (disambiguation). ... A scale model of the Tower of London. ...


Models may be built either as static non-flying models, or as flying models (also known as aeromodelling). Construction techniques for the two are usually very different.

Contents

Static model aircraft

Schabak Modelle US Airways A-330
Schabak Modelle US Airways A-330

Static model aircraft (i.e those not intended to fly) are scale models are built using plastic, wood, metal or paper. Some static models are scaled for use in wind tunnels, where the data acquired is used to aid the design of full scale aircraft. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1074x642, 127 KB) Aircraft model Fokker F28, picture by User:Ellywa Dit model werd uitgereikt aan D.A. Boeltjes bij zijn 25 jarig jubileum bij Fokker, op 22 juni 1978. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1074x642, 127 KB) Aircraft model Fokker F28, picture by User:Ellywa Dit model werd uitgereikt aan D.A. Boeltjes bij zijn 25 jarig jubileum bij Fokker, op 22 juni 1978. ... The Fokker F28 Fellowship is a short range jet airliner designed and built by Dutch aircraft manufacturer, Fokker. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution‎ (819 × 546 pixels, file size: 63 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Permission (Reusing this image) See below. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution‎ (819 × 546 pixels, file size: 63 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Permission (Reusing this image) See below. ... A scale model of the Tower of London. ... NASA wind tunnel with the model of a plane A wind tunnel is a research tool developed to assist with studying the effects of air moving over or around solid objects. ...


Collectors can buy models that have already been built and painted, models that require construction, painting and gluing, or models that have been painted but need to be snapped together. Snap models require minimal construction and are becoming increasingly popular.


Promotional Use

Most of the world's airlines allow their fleet aircraft to be modeled as a form of publicity.[1] In the early days, airlines would order large models of their aircraft and supply them to travel agencies as a promotional item. These models are the most prized collectibles[citation needed].


Manufacturers

Manufacturers of static model kits include Tamiya, Revell Germany, Trumpeter (company), Schuco, Hasegawa, Czechmaster, MPM, Special Hobby, Academy, Hobbycraft, Dragon/DML, Italeri, Minicraft, Fujimi, and Testors. Other companies are Monogram, Revell USA, OzMods Australia and Airfix. Tamiya Corporation is a Japanese manufacturer of plastic model kits, radio controlled electric and nitro-powered car models, battery- and solar-powered educational models, and sailboat models. ... Trumpeter is a Chinese company that manufacturers plastic injection moulding military model kits. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Hasegawa is a company that manufactures plastic model kits of a variety of vehicles, including model aircraft, model cars, model ships, model armor and model space craft and Science Fiction kits. ... Academy Plastic Model Co. ... Hobbycraft is a large company that manufactures model aircraft kits. ... Dragon/DML is a large company that manufactures model aircraft kits. ... Italeri is an Italian large company that manufactures plastic model kits ranging from aircraft to various kinds of military vehicles. ... Fujimi (富士見市 Fujimi-shi) is a city located in Saitama, Japan. ... Testor Corporation is a manufacturer of model kits, tools, and accessories based in Rockford, Illinois. ... Airfix is a UK manufacturer of plastic scale model kits of aircraft and other subjects. ...


Scale

In static models, the most popular scale is 1:48, followed closely by 1:32. 1:144 is popular for civil airliners, and there is a growing range of military subjects. [2] More detailed models are available at 1:32 and 1:24. Some manufacturers introduced 1:50 scale and 1:30 scale. Japan offers 1:100. The French firm Heller SA is the only manufacturer to offer models in the scale of 1:125. Herpa and others produce promotional models for airlines in scales including 1:200, 1:400, 1:500, 1:600, 1:1000 and more. A few First World War aircraft were offered at 1:28 by Aurora. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,600 × 1,200 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,600 × 1,200 pixels, file size: 1. ... Tamiya Corporation is a Japanese manufacturer of plastic model kits, radio controlled electric and nitro-powered car models, battery- and solar-powered educational models, and sailboat models. ... 1:48 scale diecast models 1:48 scale is popular among modelers both as diecast models, plastic models made from kits, and construction toys. ... The Brewster F2A Buffalo was an American fighter plane which saw limited service during World War II. In 1939, the F2A became the first monoplane fighter aircraft used by the US Navy. ... Categories: Stub | Companies ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


Other less popular scales are 1:64, 1:96, and 1:128; however, old molds are often revived in these scales. Many older plastic models, such as those built by Revell do not conform to any established scale. They are sized to fit inside standard sized boxes. These kits are often called "box-scale" and are often reissued in their original, unusual scales.[3] Some helicopters used to be offered in 1:32 scale, similar to some fixed-wing aircraft models. The trend is to issue helicopters in 1:35 scale, similar to most land vehicle models. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Monogram models. ...


Media

The most common form of manufacture for kits is injection molded polystyrene plastic, using carbon steel molds. This takes place mostly in China, Taiwan, the Philippines, South Korea, and Eastern Europe. Injection molding allows a high degree of precision and automation not found in other manufacturing processes. Smaller and cheaper runs can be done with cast copper molds, and some companies do even smaller runs using cast resin molds, but the quality and precision is of a lower standard than carbon steel. Injection molding (British: moulding) is a manufacturing technique for making parts from both thermoplastic and thermosetting plastic materials in production. ... For other uses, see Polystyrene (disambiguation). ...


The next most common form of manufacture is cast resin, using silicone rubber molds placed in vacuum chambers to reduce the incidence of bubbles in the castings. This form of manufacture is labor intensive and involves a degree of waste because the resin attacks the silicone and the molds can only be used about 20-30 times before a new mold needs to be made. The flexibility of the mold does allow shapes and undercuts not possible with any other manufacturing method. This sort of manufacture is reserved for unusual or esoteric subjects in relatively small production runs, and are consequently far more expensive than injection molded plastic kits.


Vacuum-formed polystyrene kits are still being made, but a greater amount of effort is required by the consumer to produce an acceptable model compared to the aforementioned methods. There is a handful of photo etched metal kits which allow a high level of detail but can be laborious to assemble. [4] [5] Specialized kits cast in resin are available from companies such as Anigrand, Collect Aire, CMK, and Unicraft. Photolithography is a process used in semiconductor device fabrication to transfer a pattern from a photomask (also called reticle) to the surface of a substrate. ... Wind turbines A machine is any mechanical or organic device that transmits or modifies energy to perform or assist in the performance of tasks. ...


Scale models can be made from paper (normal or heavy) or card stock. Commercial models are printed by publishers mainly based in Eastern Europe. [6] Card models are also distributed through the internet, and several are offered this way for free. Card model kits are not limited to just aircraft, with kits being available for all types of vehicles, buildings, computers, firearms and animals. Paper models, also called card models or papercraft, are models constructed mainly from sheets of heavy paper or card stock as a hobby. ...


Ready-made models (desk-top models) include those produced in fibreglass for travel agents and aircraft manufacturers, as well as collectors models made from die-cast metal and plastic. [7]. Snap Fit plastic plane models are manufactured by Wooster, Long Prosper, and Flight Miniatures This article is about the manufacturer of model airplanes. ... Flight Miniatures is a company dedicated to making and selling model aircraft, mostly airliners but also military. ...


Flying model aircraft

Main article: Radio-controlled aircraft

Flying models are usually what is meant by the term aeromodelling. Most flying model aircraft can be placed in one of three groups: Radio-controlled aircraft (abbreviated RC aircraft or RC plane) is a model aircraft that is controlled remotely via radio control. ... Model Airplane Picture File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Model Airplane Picture File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

  • Free flight (F/F) model aircraft fly without any attachment to the ground.
    This type of model pre-dates the efforts of the Wright Brothers [1] and other pioneers.
  • Control line (C/L) model aircraft use cables (usually two) leading from the wing to the pilot. A variation of this system is the Round-the-pole flying (RTP) model.
  • Radio-controlled aircraft have a transmitter operated by the pilot on the ground, sending signals to a receiver in the craft.

Some flying models resemble scaled down versions of piloted aircraft, while others are built with no intention of looking like piloted aircraft. There are also models of birds and flying dinosaurs. One company, Flying ThingZ of Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania, makes unusual offerings, produced from laser-cut corrugated plastic include a witch on a broomstick, a flying M1A2 Abrams tank, a flying race car and even a 2/3-scale flying lawnmower. The essence of free flight model aircraft is that their flight path is pre-programmed, and once released, they are not directly controlled by the operator. ... The Wright brothers, Orville (19 August 1871 – 30 January 1948) and Wilbur (16 April 1867 – 30 May 1912), were two Americans who are generally credited[1][2][3] with inventing and building the worlds first successful airplane and making the first controlled, powered and sustained heavier-than-air human... Control line (also called U-Control in some countries) is a simple and light way of controlling a flying model aircraft. ... Round-the-pole flying (RTP) is a form of flying model aircraft, in which the model is attached via a line from its wingtip to a central support structure. ... Radio-controlled aircraft (abbreviated RC aircraft or RC plane) is a model aircraft that is controlled remotely via radio control. ... Antenna tower of Crystal Palace transmitter, London A transmitter is an electronic device which, usually with the aid of an antenna, propagates an electromagnetic signal such as radio, television, or other telecommunications. ... In radio terminology, a receiver is an electronic circuit that receives a radio signal from an antenna and decodes the signal for use as sound, pictures, navigational-position information, etc. ... For other uses, see Aviator (disambiguation). ... Stroudsburg is a borough in Monroe County, Pennsylvania, 53 miles (85 km) southeast of Scranton It is the meeting point of the McMichaels, Pocono and Brodhead creeks, before the Brodhead empties into the Delaware River. ...


Construction

The construction of flying models is very different from most static models. Flying models borrow construction techniques from (usually vintage) full-sized aircraft (although models rarely use metal structures.) These might consist of forming the frame of the model using thin strips of light wood such as balsa, then covering it with fabric and subsequently doping the fabric to form a light and sturdy frame which is also airtight. For very light models, very thin paper can be substituted for fabric. Heat-curing plastic films ("heat shrink covering" or "solarfilm") can be ironed on — a hand-held iron causes the film to shrink and adhere to the frame. A heat gun can also be used. For the e-mail client, see Balsa (e-mail client). ... Aircraft dope is a plasticised lacquer that is applied to fabric-coated aircraft to tauten, stiffen, adhere and provide protection to the skin material. ...


Other model construction techniques consist of using formers and longerons for the fuselage, and spars and ribs for the wings and tail surfaces. More robust designs may use solid sheets of wood to form these instead, or might employ a composite wing consisting of an expanded polystyrene core laminated with a surface veneer of wood, often obechi, which protects the core and provides strength. Such designs tend to be heavier than an equivalent sized model built using the traditional method, and would be much more likely to be found in a power model than a glider. A former is a structural member of an aircraft fuselage, of which a typical fuselage has a series from the nose to the empennage, typically perpendicular to the roll axis of the aircraft. ... A Longeron is a thin strip of wood or metal, used in aircraft construction to support the skin of the fuselage or the wing. ... The fuselage can be short, and seemingly unaerodynamic, as in this Christen Eagle 2 The fuselage (from the French fuselé spindle-shaped) is an aircrafts main body section that holds crew and passengers or cargo. ... For other uses, see Spar (disambiguation). ... The human rib cage. ... Styrofoam redirects here. ... A veneer is a thin covering over something. ...


The lightest models are suitable for indoor flight, in a windless environment. Some of these are made by bringing frames of balsa wood and carbon fiber up through water to pick up thin plastic films, similar to rainbow colored oil films. The advent of "foamies," or craft injection-molded from lightweight foam and sometimes reinforced with carbon fiber, have made indoor flight more accessible to hobbyists. Many come ready-to-fly, requiring little more than attachment of the wing and landing gear. See: ParkZone Slo-V. Carbon fiber composite is a strong, light and very expensive material. ... The Slo-V is an electric-powered, radio controlled model aircraft designed and distributed by ParkZone, a division of Horizon Hobby of Champaign, Illinois. ...


Flying models can be built from scratch using published plans, or assembled from kits. Plans are intended for the more experienced modeller, since all parts must be sourced separately. The kit contains most of the raw material for an unassembled plane, a set of assembly instructions, and a few spare parts to allow for builder error. Assembling a model from plans or a kit can be very labour-intensive. In order to complete the construction of a model, the builder assembles the frame, covers it, and aligns the control surfaces.

ParkZone P-51D Mustang
ParkZone P-51D Mustang

To increase the hobby's accessibility to the inexperienced, vendors of model aircraft have introduced Almost Ready to Fly (ARF) designs. Compared to a traditional kit design, an ARF design reduces the amount of time, skill, and tooling required for assembly. The average ARF aircraft can be built with less than 4 hours of labor, versus 10-20+ for a traditional kit aircraft. More recently, Ready To Fly (RTF) radio control aircraft have all but eliminated assembly time (at the expense of the model's configuration options.) Among traditional hobbyist builders, RTF models are a point of controversy, as many consider model assembly as integral to the hobby. Brands associated with these types of aircraft include Great Planes, Hobbico, Carl Goldberg Products, Lanier RC, E-Flite, Hangar 9, GWS, HobbyZone and ParkZone Tower Hobbies. Image File history File links ParkZone P-51D Mustang radio controlled model aircraft owned and photographed by Lucky 6. ... Image File history File links ParkZone P-51D Mustang radio controlled model aircraft owned and photographed by Lucky 6. ... ARF is short for Almost Ready to Fly model aircraft kit that includes nearly assembled wings, fuselage and stabalizers already pre-covered in plastic film sheeting material such as Ultracote or Monokote. ... Ready To Fly (or RTF) is a term used to describe radio controlled airplanes that are supplied fully built with no assembly required. ... Great Planes Model Manufacturing of Champaign, Illinois, USA, is among the worlds largest radio-controlled model manufacturers and distributors as part of Hobbico, Incorporated. ... Carl Goldberg Products is a Georgia, USA based manufacturer of radio-controlled airplane kits and Almost Ready to Fly models. ... Lanier RC is a manufacturer of Almost Ready to Fly (ARTFs) radio controlled airplanes. ... E-Flite is a brand of electric R/C aircraft and accessories produced and distributed by Horizon Hobby of Champaign, Illinois, USA. The brands fixed-wing aircraft, which are all almost ready-to-fly, are aimed at intermediate to advanced pilots. ... Hangar 9 is a radio controlled airplane manufacturer. ... GWS may stand for: Gulf War syndrome Glashow-Weinberg-Salam theory Google Web Servers Great White Shark This page concerning a three-letter acronym or abbreviation is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... HobbyZone® is a brand of electric-powered radio controlled aircraft, car and boat models distributed by Horizon Hobby of Champaign, Illinois. ... ParkZone™ is a brand of intermediate-level, radio controlled electric model aircraft produced and distributed by American hobby manufacturer Horizon Hobby of Champaign, Illinois. ... Tower Hobbies was started in 1971 by Bruce Holecek, and is now the largest hobby mail-order company in the world. ...


Gliders

Main article: radio-controlled glider

Gliders are aircraft with no attached powerplant. Model gliders are usually hand-launched or catapult-launched (using an elastic bungee.) The newer "discus" style of wingtip handlaunching has largely supplanted the earlier "javelin" type of launch. Other launch methods include ground based power winches, hand-towing, and towing aloft using a second powered aircraft. As gliders are unpowered, flight must be sustained through exploitation of the natural wind in the environment. A hill or slope will often produce updrafts of air which will sustain the flight of a glider. This is called slope soaring, and when piloted skillfully, radio controlled gliders can remain airborne for as long as the updraft remains. Another means of attaining height in a glider is exploitation of thermals, which are bubbles or columns of warm rising air created by hot spots on the ground. As with a powered aircraft, lift is obtained by the action of the wings as the aircraft moves through the air, but in a glider, height can only be gained by flying through air that is rising faster than the aircraft is sinking relative to the airflow. A radio-controlled glider is a type of radio-controlled airplane that normally does not have any form of propulsion. ... For other uses, see Glider (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Glider (disambiguation). ... Bungee may mean: Bungee Jumping, the adventure sport Bungee, the Métis language This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... For other uses, see Wind (disambiguation). ... What is a slope flying? 1. ... Example of a thermal column between the ground and a cumulus This article is about the atmospheric phenomenon. ... The lift force, or simply lift, is a mechanical force, generated by a solid object as it moves through a fluid, directed perpendicular to the flow direction. ...


Sailplanes are flown using available thermal lift. As thermals can only be indirectly observed through the reaction of the aircraft to the invisible rising air currents, pilots find sailplane flying challenging and rewarding. Gliders are un-powered heavier-than-air aircraft. ... Example of a thermal column between the ground and a cumulus This article is about the atmospheric phenomenon. ...


Hang gliders come in two large categories: hang glider and paraglider. The default use of the term is for the stiffened-wing sort; the paraglider is fully flexible winged. Hang gliding is one of the windsports. ... Hang gliding is one of the windsports. ... Paragliding (known in some countries as parapenting) is a recreational and competitive sport that is best described as a hybrid of hang gliding and parachuting. ...


Walkalong gliders are light weight model airplanes flown in the ridge lift produced by the pilot following in close proximity. In other words, the glider is slope soaring in the updraft of the moving pilot. Person flying a Walkalong glider. ... Ridge lift (or slope lift) is created when a prevailing wind strikes a geologic obstacle that is large and steep enough to deflect the wind upward. ... What is a slope flying? 1. ...


Power sources

Powered models contain an onboard powerplant to propel the aircraft through the air. The model is usually powered by an electric motor or small piston engine, but other types of propulsion include rockets, small turbines, pulsejets, compressed gas engines and twisted rubber bands.


Old and cold

An old method of powering free flight models is Alphonse Pénaud's elastic motor, essentially a long rubber band that is wound up prior to flight. It is the most widely used powerplant for model aircraft, found on everything from children's toys to serious competition models. The elastic motor offers extreme simplicity and survivability, but suffers from limited running time, an exponential reduction of thrust over the motor's operational cycle, and it places substantial stress on the fuselage. Even so, a competitive model can achieve flights of nearly 1 hour. http://www.indoornews.com/indoorrecords/record_list.php Alphonse Pénaud (1850–1880) was a major 19th century pioneer of aviation, inventor of the rubber powered model airplane and founder of the aviation industry. ... This article is about the common household item. ... A quantity is said to be subject to exponential decay if it decreases at a rate proportional to its value. ...


Stored compressed gas (CO2), similar to filling a balloon and then releasing it, also powers simple models.


A more sophisticated use of compressed CO2 is to power a piston expansion engine, which can turn a large, high pitch prop. These engines can incorporate speed controls and multiple cylinders, and are capable of powering lightweight scale radio control aircraft. Gasparin and Modella are two recent makers of CO2 engines. CO2, like rubber, is known as "cold" power because it becomes cooler when running, rather than hotter as combustion engines and batteries do.


Steam, which is even older than rubber power, and like rubber, contributed much to aviation history, is now rarely used. In 1848, John Stringfellow flew a steam-powered model, in Chard, Somerset, England. Hiram Stevens Maxim later showed that steam can even lift a man into the air. Samuel Pierpont Langley built steam as well as internal combustion models that made long flights.) Leonardo da Vincis Ornithopter body. ... John Stringfellows flying machine in the Science Museum, London. ... Map sources for Chard at grid reference ST3208 Chard is a town in the county of Somerset, England, situated on the A30 road near the Devon border, 15 miles south west of Yeovil. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Sir Hiram Stevens Maxim, 1916 1895 . ... Samuel Pierpont Langley. ...


Baronet Sir George Cayley built, and perhaps flew, internal and external combustion gunpowder-fueled model aircraft engines in 1807, 1819 and 1850. These had no crank, working ornithopter-like flappers instead of a propeller. He speculated that the fuel might be too dangerous for manned aircraft. Sir George Cayley, 6th Baronet (December 27, 1773 – December 15, 1857) was a prolific English engineer from Brompton-by-Sawdon, near Scarborough in Yorkshire. ... A modern black powder substitute for muzzleloading rifles in FFG size Gunpowder (also called black powder) is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture of sulfur, charcoal and potassium nitrate (also known as saltpetre or saltpeter) that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot solids and gases which can be used as... An ornithopter (from Greek ornithos bird and pteron wing) is an aircraft that flies by flapping its wings. ...


Internal combustion

An internal combustion powered model aircraft.
An internal combustion powered model aircraft.

For larger and heavier models, the most popular powerplant is the glow engine, a form of internal combustion engine. Glow-engines appear similar to small gasoline motorcycle-engines, but glow-engines are considerably simpler in operation. The simplest (and cheapest) glow-engines being a two-stroke cycle engine, using a glow plug to ignite fuel, which is a mixture of slow burning methanol, nitromethane, and lubricant (castor oil or synthetic oil.) Initial ignition is from an external electric current but once reciprocating, the engine heat, pressure and catalizing action of a platinum metal coil in the glow plug are sufficient to keep igniting the fuel. The four stroke glow engines (see below) with alternate intake and exhaust cycles also rely on the same fuel and ignition system. The reciprocating action of the cylinders applies torque to a crankshaft, which is the power-output of the engine. Vendors of model engines rate size in terms of engine displacement. Common sizes range from as small as 0.01 cubic inch (in3) to over 1.0 in3 (0.16 cc–16 cc). Under ideal conditions, the smallest .01 engines can turn a 3.5" (9 cm) propeller at speeds over 30,000 rpm, while the typical larger (.40-.60 cubic inch) engine will turn at 10-14,000 rpm. Image File history File linksMetadata GASMODEL_WIKI.jpg‎ [edit] Summary A gasoline powered model propeller aircraft, owned by Ray and Robins hobby shop, at the Skystreakers field in Southern Maine, summer 2004. ... Image File history File linksMetadata GASMODEL_WIKI.jpg‎ [edit] Summary A gasoline powered model propeller aircraft, owned by Ray and Robins hobby shop, at the Skystreakers field in Southern Maine, summer 2004. ... An internal combustion engine is an engine that is powered by the expansion of hot combustion products of fuel directly acting within an engine. ... For the band (previously known as Black Eyed Sceva), see Model Engine. ... A colored automobile engine The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of fuel and an oxidizer (typically air) occurs in a confined space called a combustion chamber. ... The two-stroke cycle of an internal combustion engine differs from the more common four-stroke cycle by completing the same four processes (intake, compression, power, exhaust) in only two strokes of the piston rather than four. ... Used glow plug from an Vauxhall/Opel Astra turbo diesel engine Glow plugs are used to heat the combustion chambers of some diesel engines in cold conditions to help ignition at coldstart. ... Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, carbinol, wood alcohol, wood naphtha or wood spirits, is a chemical compound with chemical formula CH3OH (often abbreviated MeOH). ... Flash point 35 °C R/S statement R: S: RTECS number PA9800000 Related compounds Related nitro compounds nitroethane Related compounds methyl nitrite methyl nitrate Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Nitromethane is an organic... Castor oil is a vegetable oil obtained from the castor bean (technically castor seed as the castor plant, Ricinus communis, is not a member of the bean family). ... Mobil 1 synthetic motor oil Synthetic oil is oil consisting of chemical compounds which were not originally present in crude oil (petroleum) but were artificially made (synthesized) from other compounds. ... Crankshaft (red), pistons (gray) in their cylinders (blue), and flywheel (black) Continental engine marine crankshafts, 1942 Components of a typical, four stroke cycle, DOHC piston engine. ... One complete cycle of a four cylinder, four stroke engine. ...

A very large US Coastguard C-130J Hercules flying model. The wingspan is 18 feet 6 inches (5.6 m). The crew of five who fly and maintain it are in the background.
A very large US Coastguard C-130J Hercules flying model. The wingspan is 18 feet 6 inches (5.6 m). The crew of five who fly and maintain it are in the background.

Not all simple internal combustion model aircraft engines use glow plugs. There are also "diesels" that are are, strictly speaking, compression ignition engines. These also are carbureted, not fuel injected. They have an adjustable compression ratio using a threaded T screw on the cylinder head bearing onto a contra piston within the cylinder bore. They burn a more easily ignited mixture of ether and kerosene (with lubricating oil). These are preferred for endurance competition, because of the higher energy content of the fuel. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2656x1904, 1744 KB) US Coastguard C-130J Hercules model waiting to fly at Kemble Airfield, Gloucestershire, England. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2656x1904, 1744 KB) US Coastguard C-130J Hercules model waiting to fly at Kemble Airfield, Gloucestershire, England. ... This article is about the chemical compound. ... For other uses, see Kerosene (disambiguation). ...


Internal combustion (IC) engines are also made in upscale (and up-price) configurations. Variations include four-strokes, multi-cylinder engines, and even spark ignition gasoline powered units. All IC engines generate substantial noise (and engine exhaust) and require routine maintenance. In the 'scale-R/C' community, glow-engines have long been the mainstay until recently. Today Internal combustion engines in cars, trucks, motorcycles, construction machinery and many others, most commonly use a four-stroke cycle. ...


Jet and rocket

Miniature jet turbine
Miniature jet turbine

A development is the use of small jet turbine engines in hobbyist models, both surface and air. Model-scale turbines resemble simplified versions of turbojet engines found on commercial aircraft, but are in fact new designs (not based upon scaled-down commercial jet engines.) The first hobbyist-developed turbine was developed and flown in the 1980s by Gerald Jackman in England, but only recently has commercial production made turbines readily-available for purchase. Turbines require specialized design and precision-manufacturing techniques (some designs for model aircraft have been built from recycled turbocharger units from car engines), and consume a mixture of A1 jet fuel and synthetic motorcycle-engine oil. These qualities, and the turbine's high-thrust output, makes owning and operating a turbine-powered aircraft prohibitively expensive for most hobbyists. Jet-powered models attract large crowds at organized events; their authentic sound and high speed make for excellent crowd pleasers. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2116x1590, 4276 KB) Summary I took this picture at a model plane airstrip outside Bangkok. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2116x1590, 4276 KB) Summary I took this picture at a model plane airstrip outside Bangkok. ... A Pratt and Whitney turbofan engine for the F-15 Eagle is tested at Robins Air Force Base, Georgia, USA. The tunnel behind the engine muffles noise and allows exhaust to escape. ... A Pratt and Whitney turbofan engine for the F-15 Eagle is tested at Robins Air Force Base, Georgia, USA. The tunnel behind the engine muffles noise and allows exhaust to escape. ... Turbo redirects here. ... Jet fuel is a type of aviation fuel designed for use in jet-engined aircraft. ...


Pulse jet engines, operating on the same principle as the WW II V-1 flying bomb have also been used. The extremely-noisy pulsejet offers more thrust in a smaller package than a traditional glow-engine, but is not widely used. A popular model was the "Dynajet". A pulse jet engine (or pulsejet) is a very simple form of internal combustion engine wherein the combustion occurs in pulses and the propulsive effort is a jet; a reaction to the rearward flow of hot gases. ... The V-1 (German: Vergeltungswaffe 1) was the first guided missile used in war and the forerunner of todays cruise missile. ...


Rocket engines are sometimes used to boost gliders and sailplanes, such as the 1950s model rocket motor called the Jetex engine. Solid fuel pellets were used, ignited by a wick fuse. Flyers mount readily-available model rocket engines to provide a single, short (less than 10 second) burst of power. (US?)government regulations and restrictions initially rendered rocket-propulsion unpopular, even for gliders; now, though, their use is expanding, particularly in scale model rocketry. Self-regulation of the sport and widespread availability of the 'cartridge' motors ensures a future. RS-68 being tested at NASAs Stennis Space Center, note the relatively transparent exhaust, this is due to this engines use of hydrogen fuel A rocket engine is a reaction engine that takes all its reaction mass from within tankage and forms it into a high speed jet... The Jetex engine was a type of solid-fuel rocket engine developed for use as a powerplant for model aircraft. ... A model rocket launching Model rocketry is a hobby similar to building model airplanes, where rocket-shaped models are flown vertically and recovered by a variety of means (see Recovery below). ...


Electric power

In electric-powered models, the powerplant is a battery-powered electric motor. Throttle control is achieved through an electronic speed control (ESC), which regulates the motor's output. The first electric models were equipped with DC-brushed motors and rechargeable packs of nickel cadmium (NiCad), giving modest flight times of 5-10 minutes. (A fully-fueled glow-engine system of similar weight and power would likely provide double the flight-time.) Later electric systems used more-efficient brushless DC motors and higher-capacity nickel metal hydride (NiMh) batteries, yielding considerably improved flight times. The recent development of lithium polymer batteries (LiPoly or LiPo) now permits electric flight-times to approach, and in many case surpass that of glow-engines. There is also solar powered flight, which is becoming practical for R/C hobbyists. In June 2005 a new record of 48 hours and 16 minutes was established in California for this class. For other uses, see Battery. ... For other kinds of motors, see motor. ... Direct current (DC or continuous current) is the continuous flow of electricity through a conductor such as a wire from high to low potential. ... The nickel-cadmium battery (commonly abbreviated NiCd or NiCad) is a popular type of rechargeable battery for portable electronics and toys. ... A brushless DC motor (BLDC) is an AC synchronous electric motor that from a modeling perspective looks very similar to a DC motor. ... Modern, high capacity NiMH rechargeable batteries A nickel metal hydride (or NiMH) battery is a type of rechargeable battery similar to a nickel-cadmium (NiCad) battery but which does not contain expensive (and environmentally risky) cadmium. ... Lithium polymer batteries (Li-Poly or LiPo) are rechargeable batteries which have technologically evolved from lithium ion batteries. ... Solar power describes a number of methods of harnessing energy from the light of the sun. ...


Electric-flight was tested on model aircraft in the 1970s, but its high cost prevented widespread adoption until the early 1990s, when falling costs of motors, control systems and, crucially, more practical battery technologies came on the market. Electric-power has made substantial inroads into the park-flyer and 3D-flyer markets. Both markets are characterized by small and lightweight models, where electric-power offers several key advantages over IC: greater efficiency, higher reliability, less maintenance, much less messy and quieter flight. The 3D-flyer especially benefits from the near-instantaneous response of an electric-motor. As the size of a model aircraft increases, the cost of electric-flight increases much more rapidly than traditional glow-engine flight. As of 2005, an electric-flight conversion for mid-large scale-models (above 0.60in3(10cc) glow-engine) is prohibitively expensive (greater than 400 USD.) Most such models remain powered by the venerable glow-engine, as their pilots prefer the sound and smell of a genuine 2 or 4-stroke IC-engine. 3D-flyer is a light weight aerobatic radio controlled electric model aircraft. ...


Control Line

Main article: Control line

Also referred to as U-Control in the USA, introduced by the Stanzel brothers in Texas during early 1940. It was pioneered and popularized by the late Jim Walker who often, for show, flew three models at a time. Normally the model is flown in a circle and controlled by a pilot in the center holding a handle connected to two thin steel wires. The wires connect through the inboard wing tip of the plane to a mechanism that translates the handle movement to the aircraft elevator, allowing maneuvers to be performed along the aircraft pitch axis. The pilot will turn to follow the model going round, the convention being counter-clockwise. Control line (also called U-Control in some countries) is a simple and light way of controlling a flying model aircraft. ...


Line tension is maintained by centrifugal force and by the flight characteristics of the model. The air drag of the lines tends to yaw the model toward the inside hindering line tension. To increase line tension, models may be built or adjusted in various ways. Rudder offset and thrust vectoring (tilting the engine toward the outside) yaw the model outward. Weight on the outside wing, an inside wing that is longer or has more lift than the outside wing (or even no outside wing at all) and the torque of a left rotating propeller (or flying clockwise) tend to roll the model toward the outside. Anhedral (wings sloping downward to the outside) improves resistance to cross winds, as with the Wright Flyer. Sweep forward has a similar effect. Wing tip weights, propeller torque, and thrust vectoring are more effective when the model is going slowly, while rudder offset and other aerodynamic effects have more influence on a fast moving model. For the real outward-acting force that can be found in circular motion, see Reactive centrifugal force. ... Thrust vectoring is the ability of an aircraft or other vehicle to direct the thrust from its main engine(s) in a direction other than parallel to the vehicles longitudinal axis. ... In geometry, the dihedral is the angle between two planes. ... The Wright Flyer (often retrospectively referred to as Flyer I and occasionally Kitty Hawk) was the first powered aircraft designed and built by the Wright brothers. ...


Since its introduction, control line flying has developed into a competition sport. There are four contest categories for control line models: Speed, Aerobatics, Team Racing and Combat.


The international rules are defined by the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI). World and Continental (presently only European) Championships are held with semiannual interleaving. The World Championships were held in Sweden in July 1996. In 2004 they took place in Muncie, IN, USA, and in 2006 in Spain. In addition to the international categories there are also national variants. The international rules are available from FAI.

  • Speed
  • Aerobatics

Team Race


The international class is F2C. A pilot and a mechanic compete as a team to fly small (370 grams)(13 oz.) 65 cm (25 in.) wingspan semi-scale racing models over a tarmac or concrete surface. Lines are 15.92 meters long (52.231 ft).


Three pilots, plus mechanic teams, compete simultaneously in the same circle, and the object is to finish the determined course as fast as possible. Tank size is limited to 7 cc, thus 2-3 pitstops for refueling are needed during the race.


The mechanic stands at a pit area outside the marked flight circle. The engine will be started and the model released at the start signal. For refuelling, the pilot will operate a fuel shutoff by a quick down elevator movement after the planned number of laps so that the model can approach the mechanic at optimum speed, around 50 km/h (30 mph). The mechanic will catch the model by the wing, fill the tank from a pressurized can by a hose and finger valve, then restart the engine by hitting the carbon fiber/epoxy resin propeller with his finger. Ground time of a good pitstop is less than three seconds.


The race course is 10 km, corresponding to 100 laps. Flying speeds are around 200 km/h (125 mph), which means that the pilots have to turn one lap in 1.8 seconds. Line pull due to centrifugal force is 85 N (17 lb) (19 g:s). A faster model will overtake by the pilot steering it above the slower one while he moves his handle with lines over the opponent pilot's head.


After two rounds of elimination heats, the 6, 9 or 12 fastest teams enter two semifinal rounds, and the three fastest teams in the semifinals go to the final, which is run over the double course.


Maximum engine size is 2.5 cc (.15 cu.in.). Diesel, i.e. compression ignition engines are used. They are single cylinder two-stroke, designed for this purpose. At the world championship level it is not uncommon that the competitors design and build their own engines. Their output power is approaching .8 horsepower at 25,000 rpm.


Airscrew types

Most powered model-aircraft, including electric, internal-combustion, and rubber-band powered models, generate thrust by spinning an airscrew. The propeller is the most commonly used device. Propellers generate thrust due to the angle of attack of the blades, which forces air backwards. For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction, thus the plane moves forwards. For other uses, see Propeller (disambiguation). ...


Propellers

As in full-size planes, the propeller's dimensions and placement (along the fuselage or wings) are factored into the design. In general, a large diameter and low-pitch offers greater thrust at low airspeed, while a small diameter and higher-pitch sacrifices thrust for a higher maximum-airspeed. In model aircraft, the builder can choose from a wide selection of propellers, to tailor the model's airborne characteristics. A mismatched propeller will compromise the aircraft's airworthiness, and if too heavy, inflict undue mechanical wear on the powerplant. Model aircraft propellers are usually specified as diameter × pitch, given in inches. For example, a 5x3 propeller has a diameter of 5 inches, and a pitch of 3 inches. The pitch is the distance that the propeller would advance if turned through one revolution in a solid medium. Additional parameters are the number of blades (2 and 3 are the most common). Turning the pitch angle of wingblades on or off the wind to controll is absorption of power. ... An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ...


There are two methods to transfer rotational-energy from the powerplant to the propellor.

  • With the direct-drive method, the propeller is attached directly on the engine's spinning crankshaft (or motor-rotor.) This arrangement is optimum when the propellor and powerplant share overlapping regions of best efficiency (measured in RPM.) Direct-drive is by far the most common when using a fuel-powered engine (gas or glow). Some electric motors with high torque and (comparatively) low RPM's can utilize direct-drive as well. These motors are typically outrunners.
  • With the reduction method, the crankshaft drives a simple transmission, which is usually a simple gearbox containing a pinion and spur gear. The transmission decreases the output RPM by the gear ratio (thereby also increasing output torque by approximately the same ratio). Reduction-drive is common on larger aircraft and aircraft with disproportionately large propellers. On such powerplant arrangements, the transmission serves to match the powerplant's and propeller's optimum operating RPM. Geared propellers are rarely used on internal combustion engines, but very commonly on electric motors. This is because most inrunner electric motors spin extremely fast, but have very little torque.

For other uses, see Revolutions per minute (disambiguation). ... Gearbox redirects here. ... Illustration of a Gear train with a pinion shown. ... Gears on a piece of farm equipment, gear ratio 1:1. ... For other senses of this word, see torque (disambiguation). ...

Ducted Fans

Ducted fans are propellers encased in a cylindrical housing or duct, designed to look like and fit in the same sort of space as a model jet engine but at a much lower cost. They are available for both electric and gas engines, although they have only become widely used with the rise of effective electric power for model aircraft. It is possible to equip a model jet aircraft with two or four electric ducted fans for much less than the cost of a single jet or large gas engine, enabling accurate modeling of planes such as military bombers and civilian airliners. A duct may refer to: An atmospheric duct. ... A Pratt and Whitney turbofan engine for the F-15 Eagle is tested at Robins Air Force Base, Georgia, USA. The tunnel behind the engine muffles noise and allows exhaust to escape. ...


The fan-unit is an assembly of the spinning fan (a propellor with more blades), held inside a shaped-duct. Compared to an open-air propellor, a ducted-fan generates more thrust per crossectional-area. The shaped-duct often limits installation to recessed areas of the fuselage or wings. Ducted fans are popular with scale-models of jet-aircraft, where they mimic the appearance and feel of jet engines, as well as increasing the model's maximum airspeed. But they are also found on non-scale and sport models, and even lightweight 3D-flyers. Like propellors, fan-units are modular components, and most fan-powered aircraft can accommodate a limited selection of different fan-units.


Other

With Ornithopters the reciprocating-motion of the wing structure imitates the flapping-wings of living birds, producing both thrust and lift. An ornithopter (from Greek ornithos bird and pteron wing) is an aircraft that flies by flapping its wings. ... For other meanings of bird, see bird (disambiguation). ... Thrust is a reaction force described quantitatively by Newtons Second and Third Laws. ... The lift force, or simply lift, is a mechanical force, generated by a solid object as it moves through a fluid, directed perpendicular to the flow direction. ...


Model aerodynamics

(See also Flight dynamics). Flight dynamics is the science of air and space vehicle orientation and control in three dimensions. ...


The flight behavior of an aircraft depends on the scale to which it is built. The Reynolds number depends on scale and speed. Drag is generally greater in proportion at low Reynolds number so flying scale models usually require larger than scale propellers. In fluid mechanics, the Reynolds number may be described as the ratio of inertial forces (vsρ) to viscous forces (μ/L) and, consequently, it quantifies the relative importance of these two types of forces for given flow conditions. ... An object moving through a gas or liquid experiences a force in direction opposite to its motion. ...


Mach number depends on speed. Compressibility of the air is important only at speeds close to or over the speed of sound, so the effect of the difference in Mach number between a slow piloted aircraft and a small model is negligible, but models of jets are generally not efficient flyers. In particular, swept wings and pointed noses are used at high Mach number to reduce compressibility drag and tend to increase drag at small Mach number. An F/A-18 Hornet at transonic speed and displaying the Prandtl-Glauert singularity just before reaching the speed of sound Mach number (Ma) (generally pronounced , sometimes or ) is the speed of an object moving through air, or any fluid substance, divided by the speed of sound through that substance... For other uses, see Speed of sound (disambiguation). ... The swept wing of an airliner: British Midland Airbus A320-200 A swept-wing is a wing planform used on high-speed aircraft that spend a considerable portion of their flight time in the transonic. ...


Angular momentum also depends on scale. Since torque is proportional to lever arm length while angular inertia is proportional to the square of the lever arm, the smaller the scale the more quickly an aircraft or other vehicle will turn in response to control or other forces. While it may be possible for a pilot to fly an unstable aircraft (such as a Wright Flyer), a radio control scale model of the same aircraft would only be flyable with the center of gravity moved forward, or with avionics. On the other hand, angular inertia, and therefore large scale, generally degrades stability, because it introduces a delay. Static stability, resisting sudden changes in pitch and yaw, is generally required for all models and is usually considered a requirement for piloted aircraft. Dynamic stability is required of all but tactical piloted aircraft. This box:      This gyroscope remains upright while spinning due to its angular momentum. ... For other senses of this word, see torque (disambiguation). ... The Wright Flyer (often retrospectively referred to as Flyer I and occasionally Kitty Hawk) was the first powered aircraft designed and built by the Wright brothers. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... Static margin is a concept used to characterize the static stability and controllability of aircraft and missiles. ...

A contest winning paper glider.
A contest winning paper glider.

Free flight models and flight trainers need to have both static and dynamic stability. Static stability is the resistance to sudden changes in pitch and yaw and is typically provided by the horizontal and vertical tail surfaces, respectively, and by a forward center of gravity. The three dynamic stability modes are phugoid, spiral and Dutch roll. An aircraft with too large horizontal tail on a fuselage that is too short may have a phugoid with increasing climbs and dives. With free flight models, this usually results in a stall or loop at the end of the initial climb. Insufficient dihedral and sweep back will generally lead to increasing spiral turn. Too much dihedral generally causes Dutch roll. However, these all depend on the scale, as well as details of the shape and weight distribution. For example the paper glider shown here is a contest winner when made of a small sheet of paper but will go from side to side in Dutch roll when scaled up even slightly. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... A phugoid is an aircraft motion where the vehicle pitches up and climbs, and then pitches down and descends, accompanied by speeding up and slowing down as it goes uphill and downhill. ... Dutch roll is one of an aircrafts flight dynamic modes (others include phugoid, short period, and spiral divergence). ... In geometry, the dihedral is the angle between two planes. ...


Monitoring of Model Aircraft Performance

RC Power System Monitor

The increased complexity of model aircraft power systems has created the need for tools to measure model performance, both during ground testing and in-flight. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 585 pixelsFull resolution‎ (899 × 657 pixels, file size: 206 KB, MIME type: image/gif) Source self-made Date Author Guessingbill (talk) Permission (Reusing this image) See below. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 585 pixelsFull resolution‎ (899 × 657 pixels, file size: 206 KB, MIME type: image/gif) Source self-made Date Author Guessingbill (talk) Permission (Reusing this image) See below. ...


As of 2008, the popularity of lithium polymer (LiPo) based electric power systems increased the need for this monitoring, due to the relative fragility of LiPo batteries. Several small and low cost in flight monitors and bench meters designed specifically for RC are available in 2008. One example is pictured at right.


Footnotes

  1. ^ These include Delta Air Lines, Air France, British Airways, Aerolíneas Argentinas, Avianca, Aeroméxico, Fed Ex, Polar Air Cargo, Air New Zealand, Qantas, China Airlines, Singapore Airlines, South African Airways, Finnair, American Airlines, United Airlines, Lufthansa, Japan Airlines, Royal Jordanian, Korean Airlines and Asiana Airlines.
  2. ^ 1:72 scale was first introduced in the Skybirds wood and metal model aircraft kits in 1932. According to "Fine Scale Modeler" magazine, 1:72 was also popularized by the US War Department (renamed the Department of Defense) when it requested models of single seat aircraft at that scale. The War Department also requested models of multi-engine aircraft at a scale of 1:144. The War Department was hoping to educate Americans in the proper identification of aircraft. These scales provided the best compromise between size and detail. After WWII, the toy manufactures continued to favor these scales.
  3. ^ Revell's Wright Flyer was reissued in the original and unusual scale of 1:39.
  4. ^ "Photoetching At Home" by Andy Slater, The Model Makers Resource," accessed 03/30/2007
  5. ^ Koster Aero Enterprises, Welsh Models, DynaVector, and AirModel manufacture vacuum formed models.
  6. ^ Card model kit companies, smaller even than vacuum formed manufacturers, include ModelArt, Halinski, Modelik, JSC, Williamshaven and FlyModel.
  7. ^ Die-Cast model plane manufacturers include Dyna-Flytes (recognized as the first manufacturer of that type of model), Schabak, Gemini Jets and Herpa Wings

Delta Air Lines, Inc. ... Air France (formally Société Air France) is Europes largest airline company. ... For the 1930s airline of similar name, see British Airways Ltd. ... Aerolíneas Argentinas is Argentinas largest domestic and international airline. ... Avianca S.A. (Spanish acronym: Aerovías del Continente Americano, formerly Aerovías Nacionales de Colombia) has been the national flag air carrier of Colombia since 1919, making it the second-oldest continuously running airline in the world behind Dutch based KLM. Likewise it is the largest airline in the... Aerovías de México, S.A. de C.V., operating as AeroMéxico, is an airline based in Mexico City, Mexico. ... The Federal Express was a passenger train operated on the Poughkeepsie Bridge Route. ... Polar Air Cargo is an American cargo airline based in Purchase, New York, USA. It operates scheduled all-cargo services to Asia, Europe, Australia, New Zealand and the Americas. ... Boeing 747-400 Boeing 747-400 Boeing 767-300 landing Air New Zealand Limited (ASX:, NZX: AIR, Air New Zealand) is a scheduled passenger airline based in Auckland, New Zealand, and the national flag carrier. ... Qantas Airways Limited (IPA: ) (ASX:) is the national airline of Australia. ... Not to be confused with Air China, the national airline of Peoples Republic of China. ... Singapore Airlines Limited (SIA) (Chinese: ; pinyin: , abbreviated ; Malay: ; Tamil: ) (SGX: C6L) is the national airline of Singapore. ... South African Airways (SAA) is South Africas largest domestic and international airline company, with hubs in Cape Town and Johannesburg. ... Finnair is Finlands largest airline and the flag carrier. ... American Airlines, Inc. ... United Airlines is a major airline of the United States. ... Deutsche Lufthansa AG (ISIN: DE0008232125) (pronounced ) is the largest airline in Europe in terms of overall passengers carried (second is Air France - KLM), and the flag carrier of Germany. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Royal Jordanian Airlines (Arabic: الملكية الأردنية; transliterated: al-Malakiyah al-Orduniyah) is an airline based in Amman, Jordan, operating scheduled international services over four continents. ... Korean Airlines Boeing 747 Korean Air is the largest airline based in Korea. ... // Asiana Airlines (아시아나 í•­ê³µ Asiana Hanggong KOSDAQ: 020560) (Formerly Seoul Airlines) is an airline based in Seoul, South Korea and is one of South Koreas two major airlines, along with Korean Air. ... Skybirds was the brand name of a series of 1:72 scale wood and metal aircraft model kits produced by A. J. Holladay & Co. ... Spotters at Sao Paulo/Guarulhos International Airports control tower. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Monogram models. ... The Wright Flyer (often retrospectively referred to as Flyer I and occasionally Kitty Hawk) was the first powered aircraft designed and built by the Wright brothers. ... Card models, also sometimes called paper models, are models of real-world objects made usually of heavy paper or card stock as a hobby, or sometimes as a craft for children. ... JSC may stand for: Joint Stock Company Johnson Space Center This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Dyna-Flytes was a brand of die-cast model airplanes produced in the 1980s by Dee Toys of California. ... Schabak is a die-cast toy producer from Germany. ... A Die Cast Boeing 747 static model, similar to those made by GeminiJets. ... 1:400 scale model of a Boeing 737-700 of Germania in a Siemens Electronics logojet. ...

References

  • The Great International Paper Airplane Book, by Jerry Mander, George Dippel and Howard Gossage, Simon and Schuster, New York, 1967
  • Model Aircraft Aerodynamics, by Martin Simons, Argus, Watford, Herts, England, 1978
  • How to Design and Build Flying Model Airplanes, by Keith Laumer, Harper, New York, 1960
  • The Middle Ages of the Internal-Combustion Engine, by Horst O. Hardenberg, SAE, 1999
  • Model Airplane Design and Theory of Flight, by Charles Hampson Grant, Jay Publishing Corporation, New York, 1941

See also

Leonardo da Vincis Ornithopter body. ... Cox Model Engines Cox Fokker DVII Ready To Fly Control Line Model Plane Cox model engines are used to power small model airplanes, model cars and model boats. ... International Miniature Aerobatics Club organization logo. ... The following companies manufacture, or have manufactured, model aircraft. ... Model Airplane News is a monthly magazine focusing upon the hobby of radio control airplanes. ... A new trend among airplane model collectors is to build model airports. ... 1:10 scale radio controlled car (Saab Sonett) A radio-controlled model (or RC model) is a model that is steerable with the use of radio control. ... Radio-controlled aircraft (abbreviated RC aircraft or RC plane) is a model aircraft that is controlled remotely via radio control. ... The International Plastic Modellers Society (IPMS) consist of local and national chapters of hobbyist interested in building Plastic model kits. ...

External links

Wikibooks
Wikibooks has a book on the topic of
RC Aircraft
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ... The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from , its original domain name), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors. ... A scale model of the Tower of London. ... An architectural model is a tangible representation - whether accurate or conceptual - of an architectural idea usually built to communicate design ideas to clients, owners, committees, customers, and the general public. ... HO scale brass models, unpainted and painted Brass models are scale models, typically of railroad equipment, bridges and occasionally buildings, which are made of brass or similar alloys. ... Highrise model from Vollmer Building models are scale models of structures. ... 1:64 scale toys 1:24 scale including promotional models of Dodge Intrepid and Chevy Van The term Die-cast toy here refers to any toy or collectible model produced by using the casting method. ... Metal die-cast model of a Ferrari 365 GTB/4 Highly detailed die-cast model of a Porsche Carrera GT by Minichamps A model car is a miniature representation, or scale model, of an automobile or similar powered vehicle, generally reproducing the shapes of actually-produced vehicles. ... A model commercial vehicle is a scale model that represents a commercial vehicle -- truck (lorry), bus, etc. ... 1:50 scale diecast construction vehicles A model construction vehicle (or engineering vehicle) is a scale model or Die-cast toy that represents a construction vehicle such as a excavator, crane, concrete pump, backhoe, etc. ... A model figure is a scale model that represents a person, either a generic figure of a type (such as World War II Luftwaffe pilot), a historical personage (such as King Henry VIII), or a fictional character (such as Conan). Model figures are sold both as kits for the enthusiast... A matchstick model of a steam road locomotive Matchstick models, as the name suggests are made from matches as a hobby. ... A model military vehicle is a scale replica which represents a military vehicle -- tank or other armored fighting vehicle, artillery, truck (lorry), Jeep, etc. ... Model Robots is an area of modeling with its origin in the fictional Japanese anime genre of mecha. ... HO scale model railroad. ... A model rocket launching Model rocketry is a hobby similar to building model airplanes, where rocket-shaped models are flown vertically and recovered by a variety of means (see Recovery below). ... Model of a 19th-century vessel in the Bishop Museum, Hawaii Ship models (or model ships) are scale representations of sea-going vessels. ... Gundam Models (aka gunpla) refers to plastic and non-plastic model kits depicting the mecha, vehicles and characters of the fictional Mobile Suit Gundam universe. ... Miniature wargaming is a form of wargaming designed to incorporate miniatures or figurines into play. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Model aircraft - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3874 words)
Flying models borrow construction techniques from vintage full-sized aircraft (although models rarely use metal structures.) These might consist of forming the frame of the model using thin strips of light wood such as balsa, then covering it with fabric and subsequently doping the fabric to form a light and sturdy frame which is also airtight.
Model gliders are usually hand-launched or catapult-launched (using an elastic bungee.) The newer "discus" style of wingtip handlaunching has largely supplanted the earlier "javelin" type of launch.
As with a powered aircraft, lift is obtained by the action of the wings as the aircraft moves through the air, but in a glider, height can only be gained by flying through air that is rising faster than the aircraft is sinking relative to the airflow.
Talk:Model aircraft - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1812 words)
I also moved the model aerodynamics to a separate page altogether since it is necessary for both topics and it is really a topic by itself.
I believe people looking for "model aircraft" will often have an interest in in powered and RC models, but the hobbies are quite different.
I guess the section on model aircraft power could be a separate article, but at this stage I think it's better left as part of this one.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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