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Encyclopedia > Mod (lifestyle)
Mod music
Stylistic origins: Modern jazz, American R&B and Soul, Jamaican Ska, British beat music.
Cultural origins: Late 1950s, London & South East England
Typical instruments: Guitar - Bass - Drums - some Brass - some Electronic organ
Mainstream popularity: Mainly mid 1960s, with some continuing interest until the early 1970s; mod revival in late 1970s and early 1980s
Derivative forms: Psychedelic rock, Garage rock, Pub rock, Power pop, Mod revival, 2 Tone, Acid jazz, Britpop, Punk rock
Regional scenes
London, "Home Counties"

Mod (AKA Modernism) is a subculture that originated in London in the late 1950s, and reached its mainstream peak in the early to mid 1960s. Look up mod in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Jazz is a musical art form that originated in New Orleans, Louisiana, United States around the start of the 20th century. ... Rhythm and blues (also known as R&B or RnB) is a popular music genre combining jazz, gospel, and blues influences — first performed by African American artists. ... For other uses, see Soul music (disambiguation). ... Ska is a Jamaica-originated music genre that combines elements of Caribbean mento and calypso with American jazz and rhythm and blues. ... (world)Beat music is a music by the styles of Cha Cha Cha, Mambo, Rock en español, Tropical, Salsa, and Merengue. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... South East England is one of the nine official regions of England. ... A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified with the purpose of making music. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Martin EB18 Bass Guitar in flight case. ... For other kinds of drums, see drum (disambiguation). ... Image of a trumpet. ... The classic Hammond electronic organ, invented in the 1930s and popular for decades thereafter. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Garage rock is a raw form of rock and roll that enjoyed its original period of wide success in the United States and Canada, from 1963 to 1967. ... Pub rock was a mid- to late-1970s musical movement, largely centred around North London and South East Essex, particularly Canvey Island and Southend on Sea. ... Power pop is a long-standing musical genre that draws its inspiration from 1960s British and American pop music. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Acid jazz (sometimes groove jazz) is a musical genre that combines jazz influences with elements of soul music, funk, disco and hip hop. ... Britpop was a British alternative rock genre and movement that was at its most popular in Great Britain in the mid 1990s. ... Punk rock is an anti-establishment music movement beginning around 1976 (although precursors can be found several years earlier), exemplified and popularised by The Ramones, the Sex Pistols, The Clash and The Damned. ... The phrase Home Counties is used to designate the group of English counties which border or surround London. ... In sociology, anthropology and cultural studies, a subculture is a set of people with distinct sets of behavior and beliefs that differentiate them from a larger culture of which they are a part. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...

Contents

Origins

The mod subculture began with a few cliques of teenage boys with family connections to the garment trade in London in 1958. These early mods were generally middle class, and were obsessed with new fashions and music styles, such as slim-cut Italian suits, modern jazz and rhythm and blues. Their all-night urban social life was fueled, in part, by amphetamines. It is a popular belief that the mods and their rivals, the rockers, both branched off from the Teddy boys, a 1950s subculture in England. The Teddy boys were influenced by American rock n' roll, wore Edwardian-style clothing, and got pompadour or quiff hairstyles. In sociology, anthropology and cultural studies, a subculture is a set of people with distinct sets of behavior and beliefs that differentiate them from a larger culture of which they are a part. ... Young Men Organization Teenager and Teen also redirect here. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The middle class (or middle classes) comprises a social group once defined by exception as an intermediate social class between the nobility and the peasantry. ... Fashion illustration by George Barbier of a gown by Jeanne Paquin, 1912, from La Gazette du bon ton, the most influential fashion magazine of its era. ... Jazz is a musical art form that originated in New Orleans, Louisiana, United States around the start of the 20th century. ... Rhythm and blues (also known as R&B or RnB) is a popular music genre combining jazz, gospel, and blues influences — first performed by African American artists. ... Amphetamine or Amfetamine, also known as alpha-methyl-phenethylamine, phenyl-isopropylamine, beta-phenyl-isopropylamine, and benzedrine, is a prescription stimulant commonly used to treat Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and children. ... The definitive Wild One. ... // The Teddy boy youth culture first emerged in Britain (starting in London, and rapidly spreading across the country) during the early 1950s, and soon after became strongly associated with American rock and roll music of the period. ... Rock and roll (also spelled Rock n Roll, especially in its first decade), also called rock, is a form of popular music, usually featuring vocals (often with vocal harmony), electric guitars and a strong back beat; other instruments, such as the saxophone, are common in some styles. ... The Edwardian period or Edwardian era in the United Kingdom is the period 1901 to 1910, the reign of King Edward VII. It succeeded the Victorian period and is sometimes extended to include the period up to the sinking of the RMS Titanic in 1912, the start of World War... Pompadour is a style of haircut which takes its name from Madame de Pompadour. ... A 2000s Youth Wearing A 1950s-style Teddy Boy Quiff The Quiff is a hairstyle that combines the 50s pompadour hairstyle, the 50s flattop, and sometimes a mohawk. ... Street haircut in Harbin, China For humans, haircut, hairstyle, or hairdo normally describe cutting or styling head hair. ...

The Kinks: Pete Quaife, Dave Davies, Mick Avory, and Ray Davies

Originally the term mod was used to describe fans of modern jazz music (as opposed to trad, for fans of traditional jazz). Eventually the definition of mod expanded beyond jazz to include other fashion and lifestyle elements, such as continental clothes, scooters and to a lesser degree a taste for pop art, French New Wave films and existentialist philosophy. The 1959 novel Absolute Beginners by Colin MacInnes has often been cited as an inside look at the late 1950s teenage London culture that spawned the 1960s mod scene. Image File history File linksMetadata TheKinks. ... Image File history File linksMetadata TheKinks. ... The Kinks were an English rock group formed in 1963 by lead singer-songwriter Ray Davies and his brother, lead guitarist and vocalist, Dave Davies, with bassist Pete Quaife. ... Continental Europe, also referred to as mainland Europe or simply the Continent, is the continent of Europe, explicitly excluding European islands and, at times, peninsulas. ... A scooter is a two-wheeled vehicle with a step-through frame in which the rider sits without straddling any part of the engine. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... François Truffauts New Wave film Jules et Jim The New Wave (French: la Nouvelle Vague) was a blanket term coined by critics for a group of French filmmakers of the late 1950s and 1960s, influenced (in part) by Italian Neorealism. ... Existentialism is a philosophical movement in which individual human beings are understood as having full responsibility for creating the meanings of their own lives. ... Absolute Beginners is a novel by Colin MacInnes written and set in 1958 London England. ... Colin MacInnes (1914–1976) was an English novelist. ...


Mods gathered at all-night clubs such as The Scene and The Flamingo in London, and Twisted Wheel Club in Manchester, to show off their clothes and dance moves. They typically used scooters for transportation, usually either Vespa or Lambretta. One reason for this is that public transit stopped relatively early, and scooters were cheaper than cars. After a law was passed requiring at least one mirror be attached to every motorbike, many mods added 4, 10, or even 32 mirrors to their scooters as a mockery of the new law. This can be seen in the cover for The Who's album, Quadrophenia, which depicts the main character, Jimmy, on his scooter looking into his four rear-view mirrors. The Twisted Wheel was a club in Manchester, UK which during its 1963 - 1971 two venue life, was the birthplace of what became known as Northern Soul. ... New Vespas Classic Vespas in Perth, Western Australia The Vespa is a line of motor scooters that was first manufactured in Pontedera, Italy in 1946 by Piaggio & Co, S.p. ... Innocenti Lambretta The Lambretta was a line of motor scooters manufactured in Milano (Milan), Italy by Innocenti. ... Skytrain Bangkok. ... The Who are an English rock band who first emerged in 1964. ... Quadrophenia is a double album released by The Who on October 19, 1973, one of the groups two full-scale rock operas. ...


As the lifestyle developed and was adopted by British teenagers of all economic strata, mods expanded their musical tastes beyond jazz and R&B — to also embrace soul (particularly records on the Atlantic, Stax, and Tamla Motown labels), Jamaican ska and bluebeat. They also developed a distinct brand of British beat music and R&B, exemplified by artists such as Georgie Fame, The Animals, The Small Faces, The Who, The Yardbirds, The Kinks, and The Spencer Davis Group. Lesser-known British artists associated with the 1960s mod scene include: The Action, Zoot Money and The Creation. Cathy McGowan, who hosted the television pop music show Ready Steady Go!, became known as the "Queen of the Mods" (a title sometimes also applied to singer Dusty Springfield and model Twiggy). For other uses, see Soul music (disambiguation). ... Atlantic Records (Atlantic Recording Corporation) is an American record label, and operates as a wholly owned subsidiary of Warner Music Group. ... Stax Records was a Memphis, Tennessee based record label that was located there from 1959 to 1976. ... Motown Records, also known as Tamla-Motown outside of the United States, is a record label originally based out of Detroit, Michigan (Motor City), where it achieved widespread international success. ... Ska is a Jamaica-originated music genre that combines elements of Caribbean mento and calypso with American jazz and rhythm and blues. ... Blue Beat Records was a record label that released Jamaican rhythm & blues and ska music in the United Kingdom in the early and mid 1960s. ... (world)Beat music is a music by the styles of Cha Cha Cha, Mambo, Rock en español, Tropical, Salsa, and Merengue. ... Georgie Fame is a British R&B singer whose real name is Clive Powell. ... The US edition of The Animals self-titled debut album. ... Small Faces, left to right: Ian McLagan, Steve Marriott, Kenney Jones, Ronnie Lane For the Scottish film, see Small Faces (film). ... The Who are an English rock band who first emerged in 1964. ... Not to be confused with Yard Birds. ... The Kinks were an English rock group formed in 1963 by lead singer-songwriter Ray Davies and his brother, lead guitarist and vocalist, Dave Davies, with bassist Pete Quaife. ... You Put the Hurt On Me The Spencer Davis Group was formed in Birmingham, England in the early 1960s as The Rhythm and Blues Quartet. ... The Action were an English band of the 1960s. ... Zoot Money is a pianist, organist, and actor, born George Bruno Money on 17th June 1942, who appeared (playing a promotions man) in the film Breaking Glass with Hazel OConnor. ... The Creation were an English psychedelic rock band formed in 1966 by Kenny Pickett (born Kenneth George Pickett September 3rd 1947 in Ware, Hertfordshire - died January 10th 1997) on vocals, Eddie Phillips (born Edwin Michael Phillips August 15th, 1941 in Leytonstone) on lead guitar, Mick Thompson on rhythm guitar, Jack... Cathy McGowan on Ready Steady Go! (Rediffusion TV, 1965) Cathy McGowan (born 1945) was a British broadcaster and journalist, best remembered as the presenter from 1964-6 of Rediffusion television’s groundbreaking rock music show Ready Steady Go! // Ready Steady Go! (RSG) was first broadcast in August 1963, its launch... For popular music (music produced commercially rather than art or folk music), see Popular music. ... RSG! studio floor with Manfred Mann performing. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Twiggy (born Lesley Hornby September 19, 1949) is an English supermodel, actress, and singer, now also known by her married name of Twiggy Lawson. ...


Members of the rockers subculture (associated with motorcycles and leather biker jackets) sometimes clashed with the mods, leading to battles in seaside resorts such as Brighton, Margate, and Hastings in 1964. The mods and rockers conflict led to a moral panic about modern youth in the United Kingdom. The definitive Wild One. ... Motorcyclists take a break from the road A motorcycle or motorbike is a single-track, two-wheeled motor vehicle powered by an engine. ... Modern leather-working tools Leather is a material created through the tanning of hides (skin) of animals. ... Rocker jackets. ... Brighton is located on the south coast of England, and together with its immediate neighbour Hove forms the city of Brighton and Hove. ... Margate is a town in Thanet, Kent, England (population about 60,000). ... For other uses, see Hastings (disambiguation). ... The Mods and the Rockers were two British youth movements of the early 1960s. ... A moral panic is a reaction by a group of people based on the false or exaggerated perception that some cultural behavior or group, frequently a minority group or a subculture, is dangerously deviant and poses a menace to society. ...


Decline and new beginnings

The mods were the products of a culture of constant change, and by the time Bobby Moore held the World Cup aloft in the summer of 1966, the mod scene was in sharp decline. As psychedelic rock music and the hippie culture rose, many people drifted away from the mod lifestyle. Bands such as The Who and The Faces had changed their musical styles and no longer represented themselves as mods. The Bohemian style of the hippie culture featured a passive outlook on life that differed from the frenetic energy of the mod ethos. Robert Frederick Chelsea Bobby Moore, OBE (born Barking, England, April 12, 1941 - died London, February 24, 1993) was an English footballer. ... The FIFA World Cup Trophy, which has been awarded to the world champions since 1974. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Singer at a modern Hippie movement in Russia A hippie (sometimes spelled hippy) is a member of a specific subculture (often described as a counterculture), that began in the United States in the 1960s, spread to other countries, and declined in the mid-1970s. ... Small Faces album cover The Faces were an early 1970s rock, hard rock, blues rock, band formed in 1969 from the remaining members of The Small Faces after Steve Marriott left to form Humble Pie; new members Ron Wood (guitar) and Rod Stewart (vocals) (both from The Jeff Beck Group... In modern usage, the term Bohemian (sometimes shortened to boho) is applied to people who live unconventional, usually artistic, lives. ...


At the other end of the youth culture spectrum, both in philosophy and appearance, were the hard mods (also known as gang mods). The hard mods were rougher, had less emphasis on cutting-edge fashion trends, and got their hair cropped short. The hard mods soon transformed into the first skinheads. They retained basic elements of mod fashion – three-button suits, Fred Perry and Ben Sherman shirts, Sta-Prest trousers and Levi's jeans - but mixed them with working class-oriented accessories such as braces and Dr. Martens boots. Their style also borrowed heavily from the Jamaican rude boy look, which included cropped hair, short-hemmed trousers and Trilby hats. Their shorter hair may have come about for practical reasons; long hair can be a liability in industrial jobs and in streetfights. The 1960s skinheads also kept some of the original mod music styles alive; specifically ska, soul, rocksteady and early reggae. These first skinheads weren't associated with any political movements and mostly represented working-class pride. Look up trend, trendy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Skinheads, named after their cropped or shaven heads, are members of a working class subculture that originated in Britain in the 1960s, where they were heavily influenced by the rude boys of the West Indies and the mods of the UK. In subsequent decades, the skinhead subculture spread to other... Fred Perry hitting a backhand volley Frederick John Perry (May 18, 1909 – February 2, 1995) in Stockport, Cheshire. ... Ben Sherman is a British clothing company, producing shirts, suits, shoes and other items. ... In 1964, Levi Strauss and co. ... Levis is a brand of riveted denim jeans manufactured by Levi Strauss & Co. ... Suspenders are a clothing accessory. ... Dr. Martens is a brand of shoe, often known as Doc Martens, Docs, or DMs. They have a characteristic air-cushioned sole, dubbed Bouncing Soles, developed by Dr. Klaus Maertens (note the different spelling). ... This article is about a Jamaican subculture. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Ska is a Jamaica-originated music genre that combines elements of Caribbean mento and calypso with American jazz and rhythm and blues. ... Rocksteady is the name given to a style of music popular in Jamaica between 1966 and 1968. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


Mods have also made up a notable proportion of the northern soul scene, a subculture based on obscure 1960s and 1970s American soul records. The Verve see A Northern Soul This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Revival and later influence

The 1979 film Quadrophenia, based on the 1973 album of the same name by The Who, celebrated the mod movement and partly inspired a mod revival in the UK in the late 1970s. Many of the mod revival bands were influenced by the energy of British punk rock and New Wave music. The revival was led by The Jam (whose frontman Paul Weller is nicknamed The Modfather), and included bands such as Secret Affair, Purple Hearts and The Chords. This was followed by a mod revival in North America in the early 1980s, particularly in Southern California, led by bands such as The Untouchables. The mod scene in Los Angeles and Orange county was partly influenced by the 2 Tone ska revival scene in England, and was unique in its racial diversity. Mod revivalist scenes also developed in other areas across the United States and Canada. Quadrophenia is a 1979 British film based on the 1973 album by The Who. ... Quadrophenia is a double album released by The Who on October 19, 1973, one of the groups two full-scale rock operas. ... The Who are an English rock band who first emerged in 1964. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Punk rock is an anti-establishment music movement beginning around 1976 (although precursors can be found several years earlier), exemplified and popularised by The Ramones, the Sex Pistols, The Clash and The Damned. ... New Wave is a term that has been used to describe many developments in music, but is most commonly associated with a movement in Western popular music, in the late 1970s and early 1980s inspired by the punk rock movement. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Paul Weller (born 25 May 1958, Sheerwater, near Woking, Surrey) is an English singer-songwriter. ... Secret Affair was a Mod revival band formed in 1978 by singer Ian Page and guitarist Dave Cairns. ... Purple Hearts were a British mod revival group. ... The Chords is a named shared by two unrelated musical groups of the 20th Century. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... For the urban complex straddling the United States-Mexico border, see Bajalta California. ... The Untouchables (UTs) were a soul/mod revival band from the Silver Lake, Los Angeles, California area. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... Orange County is the name of several counties in the United States of America: Orange County, California: probably named for the city of Orange, California, which in turn may have been named after the orange groves that used to exist there. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Ska is a Jamaica-originated music genre that combines elements of Caribbean mento and calypso with American jazz and rhythm and blues. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem God Save the King (Queen) England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Queen Queen Elizabeth II  -  Prime Minister Tony Blair MP Unification  -  by Athelstan 967  Area...


The 1990s Britpop genre displayed obvious mod influences, with bands such as Ride, Oasis, Blur and Ocean Colour Scene (who have collaborated with Paul Weller). The mod subculture has spread around the world, but now mainly exists as an underground culture. Britpop was a British alternative rock genre and movement that was at its most popular in Great Britain in the mid 1990s. ... Ride is a 1980s and 90s British shoegazing band. ... Oasis (not to be confused with the one in the 1980s which include the evil and nasty Mary Hopkin) is a popular English rock band, formed in Manchester in 1991. ... Blur are an English rock band formed in Colchester in 1989. ... Ocean Colour Scene (often abbreviated to OCS) are a rock band from Birmingham, England. ...


Trivia

  • The 1998 film SLC Punk! displayed the clash between the mods, rockers, new-wavers, skinheads, and various other subcultures.
  • The BBC comedy series The Mighty Boosh featured a sketch in which the two characters where afraid of approaching wolves, until it became apparent that they were 'Mod Wolves' and the character Vince Noir, played by Noel Fielding was 'King of the Mods'. After performing a Mod dance routine, the Mod Wolves gave the characters a ride home on their scooters.
  • In the 2004 Japanese movie Kagen no Tsuki ("Last Quarter," adapted from the manga by Ai Yazawa), the character Tomoki Anzai (played by actor/model Hiroki Narimiya) is depicted as living something of a mod lifestyle -- he wears mod clothing, plays in a band at a mod-themed nightclub, and drives a customized motor scooter with numerous mirrors. This is an interesting parallel to his rival in love, Adam, a half-Japanese former 1980s rock star from London.

SLC Punk! (1998) is a film directed by James Merendino; the titles SLC is an acronym for Salt Lake City. ... The definitive Wild One. ... New Wave is a term that has been used to describe many developments in music, but is most commonly associated with a movement in Western popular music, in the late 1970s and early 1980s inspired by the punk rock movement. ... Skinheads, named after their shaven heads, are members of a subculture that originated in Britain in the 1960s, where they were closely tied to the Rude boy of the West Indies and the Mods of the UK. English Skinhead on cutdown circa 1991 Categories There are a number of different... In biology, a subculture in a population of a microorganism is when one microbe colony in such a population is transferred onto blank growth medium and allowed to freely reproduce. ... The Mighty Boosh is a British cult comedy about two friends who go on surreal and magical adventures. ... Noel Fielding (born 21 May 1973 in Westminster, London, England) is an English comedian and actor, most famous for his role as Vince Noir in The Mighty Boosh. ... Kagen no Tsuki ) is a three-volume manga series by Yazawa Ai. ... Manga )   (pl. ... Ai Yazawa (矢沢あい Yazawa Ai) (born March 7, 1967) is a popular girls manga author in Japan. ... Hiroki Narimiya (成宮寛貴; born 14 September 1982, in Tokyo) is a Japanese actor. ... A typical mid 1980s twist and go scooter. ... The 1980s refers to the years of and between 1980 and 1989. ...

External links

  • Modculture Information and news about the current mod subculture
  • The Uppers Organization Information and news about the current mod subculture
  • Twisted Wheel Soul music and mod-related site
  • My mod and rocker story Personal account of the mod subculture
  • Mod Revival Information about the 1970s/1980s mod revival
Mods
1960s - Blowup - Casuals - Great Britain - Lambretta - Pete Meaden - Mods & Rockers - Pop art - Quadrophenia (film) - Roundel - Scooter - Scooterboy - Skinhead - Suedehead - Swinging London - Speed (drug) - Twisted Wheel - Union Jack - Youth culture - Vespa
Music
2 Tone - Acid Jazz - Beat music - Blue-eyed soul - Blue Beat - British Invasion - Britpop - Freakbeat - Garage rock - Jazz - Mod Revival - Modern soul - Motown - Northern Soul - Power Pop - Psychedelic rock - Reggae - R&B - Rocksteady - Soul - Ska - Stax Records - Trojan Records - White soul
Clothing
Ben Sherman - Bespoke tailoring - Brogues - Carnaby Street - Chelsea boot - Fred Perry - Harrington - Levi's - Loafers - Parka - Sta-Prest - Suit

 
 

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