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Encyclopedia > Moche
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The Moche civilization (alternately, the Mochica culture, Early Chimu, Pre-Chimu, Proto-Chimu, etc.) flourished in northern Peru from about AD 100 to AD 800, during the Regional Development Epoch. While still the subject of some debate, many scholars contend that the Moche were not politically organized as monolithic empire or state but rather as a group of autonomous polities that shared a common elite culture as seen in the rich iconography and monumental architecture that survive today. They are particularly noted for their elaborate painted ceramics, gold work, monumental constructions (huacas) and irrigation systems. Moche history may be broadly divided into three periods – the emergence of the Moche culture in Early Moche (AD 100–300), its expansion and florescence during Middle Moche (AD 300–600), and the urban nucleation and subsequent collapse in Late Moche (AD 500–750).[1] Moche society was agriculturally based with a significant level of investment in the diversion of river water into a network of irrigation canals. Their culture was sophisticated and their artifacts document their lives with detailed scenes of hunting, fishing, fighting, sacrifice, sexual encounters and elaborate ceremonies. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... The map of the Tahuantinsuyo An Andean bronze bottle made by Chimú artisans from circa 1300 A.D. The Stele from the Chavin Culture, Ancash, Peru Moche pottery, Lambayeque, Peru (Image © PROMPERU, used with permission) The Tiahuanaco Gate of the Sun, Puno, Peru An Andean bronze bottle made by Chim... For the a general view of Inca civilisation, people and culture, see Incas. ... The Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire was a process through which a group of Spaniards led by Francisco Pizarro succeeded in toppling the Inca Empire in the early 16th-century. ... Created in 1542, the Viceroyalty of Peru (in Spanish, Virreinato del Perú) contained most of Spanish-ruled South America until the creation of the separate viceroyalties of New Granada (now Colombia, Ecuador, Panamá and Venezuela, the last-named previously in the Viceroyalty of New Spain) in 1717 and Río... Flag Location of the Peru-Bolivian Confederation Capital Tacna Political structure Confederation Supreme Protector Andrés de Santa Cruz History  - Established May 9, 1837  - Disestablished August 25, 1839 The Peru-Bolivian Confederation (or Confederacy) was a short-lived confederated state that existed in South America between the years 1836 and... For the conflict between Japan and the Allied powers in Asia and the Pacific Ocean from 1937 to 1945, which included World War II campaigns, see Pacific War. ... Combatants Republic of Peru Republic of Ecuador Commanders Gen. ... Combatants Republic of Peru Shining Path Túpac Amaru Revolutionary Movement Commanders Fernando Belaúnde Terry Alan García Alberto Fujimori Abimael Guzmán Óscar Ramírez Comrade ArtemioVíctor Polay Nestor Cerpa Cartolini It has been estimated that nearly 70,000 people died in the internal conflict in Peru... The Inca Empire was an empire centered in what is now Peru from AD 1438 to AD 1533. ... The demographic history of Peru can be reconstructed through the population censuses carried out throughout the history of Peru. ... // Inca economy was mainly agricultural, although it reached some animal husbandry and mining development. ... 3000 BC - 1800 BC: Norte Chico 900 BC - 200 BC: Chavín 300 BC - AD 1480 Moche, Chimu 300 BC - AD 800 Nazca_culture 300 - 1100 Tiwanaku 500 - 1000 Huari 1100 - 1572: Inca Empire 1532 - 1572: Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire 1542 - 1821: Viceroyalty of Peru 1836 - 1839: Peru-Bolivian... Pliny the Younger advances to consulship. ... Events December 25, Rome, coronation of Charles the Great (Charlemagne) as emperor by Pope Leo III. Celtic monks begin work on the Book of Kells on the Island of Iona. ... This is a chart of the Peruvian cultural periods used by archaeologist studying the area. ... Look up Iconography in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Monument (disambiguation). ... Ancient Egyptian ceramic art: Louvre Museum. ... In Quechua, a Native American language of South America, a huaca or waka is an object that represents something revered, typically a monument of some kind. ... Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil usually for assisting in growing crops. ...


The Moche cultural sphere is centered around several valleys on the north coast of Peru – Lambayeque, Jequetepeque, Chicama, Moche, Viru, Chao, Santa, and Nepena. The Huaca del Sol, a pyramidal adobe structure on the Rio Moche, had been the largest pre-Columbian structure in Peru; however, it was partly destroyed when Spanish Conquistadors mined its graves for gold. Fortunately the nearby Huaca de la Luna has remained largely intact – it contains many colorful murals with complex iconography and has been under excavation since the early 1990's. Other major Moche sites include Sipan, Pampa Grande, Dos Cabezas, Pacatnamu, San Jose de Moro, the El Brujo complex, Mocollope, Cerro Mayal, Galindo, Huancaco, and Panamarca. The name Lambayeque originates from Llampayec, an idol that was worshipped in northern Peru. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Río Santa is a river in the South American Andes cordillera in the Ancash Region of northwest central Peru. ... Huaca del Sol as seen from the southeast, with the Moche River delta beyond and city ruins in the foreground. ... For other meanings, see pyramid (disambiguation). ... Conquistador (Spanish: kōn-kÄ“-stŏ-dōr) (meaning Conqueror in the Spanish language) is the term used to refer to the soldiers, explorers, and adventurers who brought much of the Americas and Asia Pacific under Spanish colonial rule between the 15th and 17th centuries, starting with the 1492 settlement... A view of the Huaca de la Luna, with Cerro Blanco in the background. ... The introduction of this article does not provide enough context for readers unfamiliar with the subject. ... El Brujo Archaeological Complex includes Huaca Prieta from preceramic times, later extended by the Cupisnique culture, & nearby Salinar, Moche, Lambayeque, Chimú & colonial remains. ...

Contents

Material culture

Moche pottery is some of the most varied in the world. The use of mould technology is evident which would have enabled the mass production of certain forms. But despite this, they had a large variation in shape and theme with most important social activities documented in pottery including war, sex, metal work, and weaving. Molding is the process of manufacturing by shaping pliable raw material using a rigid frame or model called a mold. ...

A map of Moche cultural influence
A map of Moche cultural influence
Moche Portrait Ceramic. Larco Museum Collection Lima, Peru.
Moche Portrait Ceramic. Larco Museum Collection Lima, Peru.

Given the unusual emphasis on life-like depictions on the famous elite portrait vases, some have suggested that individuality was an important aspect of Moche political culture. The portrait vases also seem to show the personality of the subject: some are shown laughing, others in deep thought,some with bad acne, others angry, etc. Moche erotic pottery is fascinating, not only due to the vast number of sexual activities represented, but also because procreative coitus was only depicted in a limited number of circumstances when the male involved wore ceremonial garb, the female had two braids which ended in snake's heads, and the copulation occurred under an elaborate roof of a ceremonial building. In these scenes of procreative sex, additional figures are always depicted watching the couple in the building and holding their hands as though in supplication. The precise meaning of this has never been established. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... The Larco Museum (Spanish: ) is located in the Pueblo Libre District in Lima, Peru. ...


The coloration of Moche pottery is often simple, with yellowish cream and rich red used almost exclusively on elite pieces, with white and black used in only a few pieces. Their adobe buildings have mostly been destroyed by looters and the elements over the last 1300 years, but the huacas that remain show that the coloring of their murals was very vibrant. Unfortunately, little is known about Moche textiles as few examples have survived. Renewal of the surface coating of an adobe wall in Chamisal, New Mexico Adobe is a natural building material composed of sand, sandy clay and straw or other organic materials, which is shaped into bricks using wooden frames and dried in the sun. ... Looting (which derives via the Hindi lut from Sanskrit lung, to rob), sacking, plundering, or pillaging is the indiscriminate taking of goods by force as part of a military or political victory, or during a catastrophe or riot, such as during war,[1] natural disaster,[2] or rioting. ... In Quechua, a Native American language of South America, a huaca or waka is an object that represents something revered, typically a monument of some kind. ...


Religion

Both iconography and the finds of human skeletons in ritual contexts seems to indicate that human sacrifice played a significant part in Moche religious practices. These rites appear to have involved the elite as key actors in a spectacle of costumed participants, monumental settings and possibly the ritual consumption of blood. While some scholars, such as Christopher Donnan and Izumi Shimada, argue that the sacrificial victims were the losers of ritual battles among local elites, others, like John Verano and Richard Sutter, suggest that the sacrificial victims were warriors captured in territorial battles between the Moche and other nearby societies. Excavations in plazas near Moche huacas have found groups of people sacrificed together and skeletons of young men deliberately excarnated, perhaps for temple displays.[2] The sacrifices may have been associated with rites of ancestral renewal and agricultural fertility. Moche iconography features a figure scholars have nicknamed the 'Decapitator', frequently depicted as a spider, but also depicted as a winged creature or a sea monster, all three features symbolizing land, water and air. When the body is included, it is usually shown with one arm holding a knife and another holding a severed head by the hair. The 'Decapitator' is thought to have figured prominently in the beliefs surrounding the practice of sacrifice. Human sacrifice is the act of killing a human being for the purposes of making an offering to a deity or other, normally supernatural, power. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Dr. Richard Sutter is bioarchaeologist known for doing extensinve studies on the Moche human sacrificial victims in South America. ... In Quechua, a Huaca is an object that represents something revered, such as an ancestor, a god or even a character trait. ... In archaeology and anthropology the term excarnation refers to the burial practice adopted by some societies of removing the flesh of the dead, leaving only the bones. ...

Moche "Decapitator" mural at Huaca de la Luna
Moche "Decapitator" mural at Huaca de la Luna

This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... A view of the Huaca de la Luna, with Cerro Blanco in the background. ...

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Resting Deer, Moche Culture, at the Larco Museum Collection
Resting Deer, Moche Culture, at the Larco Museum Collection
Condor, 300 A.D. Larco Museum Collection Lima, Peru.
Condor, 300 A.D. Larco Museum Collection Lima, Peru.

There are several theories as to what caused the demise of the Moche political structure. Some scholars have emphasised the role of environmental change. Studies of ice cores drilled from glaciers in the Andes reveal climatic events between 536 to 594 AD, possibly a super El Niño, that resulted in 30 years of intense rain and flooding followed by 30 years of drought, part of the aftermath of the climate changes of 535–536.[3] These weather events could have disrupted the Moche way of life and shattered their faith in their religion, which had promised stable weather through sacrifices. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article is about the ruminent animal. ... The Larco Museum (Spanish: ) is located in the Pueblo Libre District in Lima, Peru. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Genera Vultur Gymnogyps For other uses, see Condor (disambiguation). ... The Larco Museum (Spanish: ) is located in the Pueblo Libre District in Lima, Peru. ... This article is about the mountain system in South America. ... Chart of ocean surface temperature anomaly [°C] during the last strong El Niño in December 1997 El Niño and La Niña (also written in English as El Nino and La Nina) are major temperature fluctuations in surface waters of the tropical Eastern Pacific Ocean. ... Climate changes of 535–536 refers to several remarkable aberrations in world climate which took place In the years 535 and 536. ...


However, it is clear that these events did not cause the final Moche demise. Recently discovered evidence suggests that the Moche polities survived beyond 650 AD in the Jequetepeque Valley and the Moche Valleys. For instance, in the Jequetepeque Valley, later settlements are characterized by fortifications and defensive works. While there is no evidence of a foreign invasion, as many scholars have suggested in the past (i.e. a Huari invasion), there is some evidence of social unrest, possibly the result of climatic changes as factions fought for control over scarce resources.[4] Middle Horizon The Huari (or Wari) was a Middle Horizon civilization that flourished in the southern Andes from about 500 to 1200 AD. The capital city is located near the modern city of Ayacucho, Peru. ...


Links with other cultures

Chronologically, the Moche was an Early Intermediate Period culture that was preceded by the Chavín horizon and succeeded by the Huari and Chimú. The Moche co-existed with the Ica-Nazca culture in the south and are thought to have had some limited contact with the Ica-Nazca because they mined guano for fertilizer in Ica-Nazca territory. Moche pottery has been found near Ica, but no Ica-Nasca pottery has been found in Moche territory. This is a chart of the Peruvian cultural periods used by archaeologist studying the area. ... Chavín & Chavín influence The Chavín were an early civilization that existed in what is now the country of Peru. ... Middle Horizon The Huari (or Wari) was a Middle Horizon civilization that flourished in the southern Andes from about 500 to 1200 AD. The capital city is located near the modern city of Ayacucho, Peru. ... The Chimú were the residents of Chimor with its capital at the city of Chan Chan in the Moche valley of Peru. ... Late Intermediate Period Cultures The Nazca culture flourished in the Nazca region between 300 BCE and 800 CE. They created the famous Nazca lines and built an impressive system of underground aqueducts that still function today. ... The Chincha guano islands in Peru. ...


Note: Mochica was the Chimuan language spoken in the area when the Conquistadors arrived, but there is no indication that this was the language spoken by the Moche, so archaeologist still call them the Moche after the location of the primary archaeological site. There is some evidence they were the same people as the later culture known as Chimú. this is not right since this is old information because you need to give us somo more oportunities because i cannot imagine the way because no other attention should be paid The Mochica language was spoken along the northwest coast of Peru and in some inland villages and was first documented in 1607. ... Chimuan (also Chimúan) or Yuncan is a small extinct language family of northern Peru and Ecuador (inter-Andean valley). ... Conquistador (Spanish: kōn-kÄ“-stŏ-dōr) (meaning Conqueror in the Spanish language) is the term used to refer to the soldiers, explorers, and adventurers who brought much of the Americas and Asia Pacific under Spanish colonial rule between the 15th and 17th centuries, starting with the 1492 settlement...


Recent discoveries

In 2005, a mummified Moche woman was discovered at the Huaca Cao Viejo, part of the El Brujo archeological site on the outskirts of Trujillo, Peru. It is the best preserved Moche mummy found to date and the tomb that housed her had unprecedented elaborateness. The archaeologists on the site believe that the tomb had been undisturbed since approximately 450 AD. The tomb also contained various military and ornamental artifacts, including war clubs and spear that's what she said throwers. A garroted young girl, probably a servant, was found in the tomb with her. News of the discovery was announced by Peruvian and U.S. archaeologists in collaboration with National Geographic in May, 2006.[5] Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... El Brujo Archaeological Complex includes Huaca Prieta from preceramic times, later extended by the Cupisnique culture, & nearby Salinar, Moche, Lambayeque, Chimú & colonial remains. ... The National Geographic Society was founded in the USA on January 27, 1888, by 33 men interested in organizing a society for the increase and diffusion of geographical knowledge. ...


In 2006 perhaps the most lavish (certainly the most valuable, pound-for-pound) Moche artifact ever discovered turned up in a Londoner's office — a magnificent gold mask depicting a sea goddess with beautiful spirals radiating from her stone-inlaid face. It is thought that the artifact was looted from a nobleman's tomb in the late 1980s (La Mina); it has now been returned to Peru.[6] Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


See also

  • El Señor de Sipán (the Lord of Sipán)

El Señor de Sipán (The Lord of Sipán) is a mummy found in Sipán by Peruvian archaeologist Walter Alva in the 1990s. ...

References

  1. ^ Bawden, G. 2004. The Art of Moche Politics, in Andean Archaeology. (ed. H. Silverman). Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.
  2. ^ Grim Rites of the Moche , Archaeology magazine, Volume 55 Number 2, March/April 2002, accessed March 2, 2006
  3. ^ Keys, David, Catastrophe: A Quest for the Origins of the Modern World, Ballantine Books, New York, 1999.
  4. ^ Lost society tore itself apart, Davidson N, BBC Website, BBC Horizon, 2 March 2005, accessed 4 March 2005
  5. ^ "Mummy of Tattooed Woman Discovered in Peru Pyramid", Norris S, National Geographic News, 16 May 2006, accessed 16 May 2006
  6. ^ London: Police seize prized ancient headdress | Jerusalem Post

David Keys is archaeology correspondent for the London daily paper, The Independent, frequent television commentator on archaeological matters and author of the controversial book, Catastrophe: A Quest for the Origins of the Modern World (1999). ...

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The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continents. ... Cliff Palace, Mesa Verde National Park White House Ruins, Canyon de Chelly National Monument Ancient Pueblo People or Ancestral Puebloans were a prehistoric Native American culture centered around the present-day Four Corners area of the Southwest United States, noted for their distinctive pottery and dwelling construction styles. ... --24. ... The Mississippian culture was a mound-building Native American culture that flourished in what is now the Midwestern, Eastern, and Southeastern United States from approximately 800 to 1500 A.D., varying regionally. ... It has been suggested that Huastecs be merged into this article or section. ... // Overview Izapa was a very large pre-Columbian site located in Chiapas, Mexico, often placed in the Late Formative period. ... Jade mask found in Tomb 7, Monte Alban, c. ... Monument 1, one of the four Olmec colossal heads at La Venta. ... The Pipil are an indigenous people who live in western El Salvador. ... The Tarascan state was a state in precolumbian Mesoamerica roughly covering the geographic area of the present day mexican state of Michoacan. ... Teotihuacán[1] was, at its height in the first half of the 1st millennium CE, the largest pre-Columbian city in the Americas. ... The Atlantes – columns in the form of Toltec warriors in Tula. ... The Totonac people resided in the eastern coastal and mountainous regions of Mexico at the time of the Spanish arrival in 1519. ... Extent of the Zapotec civilization The Zapotec civilization was an indigenous pre-Columbian civilization that flourished in the Valley of Oaxaca of southern Mesoamerica. ... The Norte Chico civilization (also Caral or Caral-Supe civilization) was a complex Pre-Columbian society that included as many as 30 major population centers in what is now the Norte Chico region of north-central coastal Peru. ... The Chavín were an early civilization that existed in present-day Peru. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Late Intermediate Period Cultures Chimu Piece - Imperial Epoch, 1300 A.D. to 1532 A.D.Larco Museum Collection Chimor (also Kingdom of Chimor) was the political grouping of the Chimú culture that ruled the northern coast of Peru, beginning around 850 AD and ending around 1470 AD. Chimor was the... The Chachapoyas, also called the Warriors of the Clouds, were an Andean people living in the cloud forests of the Amazonas region of present-day Peru. ... Middle Horizon The Huari (or Wari) was a Middle Horizon civilization that flourished in the Andes in the south of modern day Peru, from about 500 to 1200 A.D. The capital city of the same name is located near the modern city of Ayacucho, Peru. ... Late Intermediate Period Cultures The Nazca culture flourished in the Nazca region between 300 BC and 800 AD. They created the famous Nazca lines and built an impressive system of underground aqueducts that still function today. ... Tairona figure pendants Monument in Santa Marta depicting Taironas. ... Area of the Middle Horizon The Gate of the Sun Tiwanaku (Spanish spellings: Tiahuanaco and Tiahuanacu) is an important Pre-Columbian archaeological site in Bolivia. ... Mapuche test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator Mapuche (Mapudungun; Che, People + Mapu, of the Land) are the original Amerindian inhabitants of Central and Southern Chile and Southern Argentina. ... 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As unique and spectacular as any Greek or Roman architecture, Maya architecture spans many thousands of years. ... View of Machu Picchu Incan architecture is the most significant pre-Columbian architecture in South America. ... Major highways of the Inca Empire Among the many roads and trails constructed in pre-Columbian South America, the Inca road system (El Camino Inca) of Peru was the most extensive. ... This section needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... The Aztecs were a Pre-Columbian Mesoamerican people of central Mexico in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries. ... The Inca Empire was an empire centered in what is now Peru from AD 1438 to AD 1533. ... Moctezuma Ilhuicamina, or Moctezuma I (also known as Montezuma I) (the surname meaning solitary one who shoots an arrow into the sky) was born to Huitzilihuitl, the second Aztec Emperor. ... Moctezuma or Montezuma II, also known as Motecuhzoma Xocoyotzin (c. ... 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Francisco Pizarro Francisco Pizarro González should not be confused with another Francisco Pizarro who joined Hernán Cortés to conquer the Aztecs. ... For other uses, see Native Americans (disambiguation). ... Natives of North America. ... Pre-Columbian art is the art of Central and South America in the time prior to the arrival of European colonizers in the 16th century. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Moche - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (926 words)
Moche history is broadly categorized into five periods based on the increasing complexity of pottery decoration.
Their adobe buildings have mostly been destroyed by looters and the elements over the last 1300 years, but the two huacas that remain show that the coloring of their murals was much more varied, with every color of the rainbow represented.
The Moche was an Early Intermediate culture that co-existed with the Ica-Nazca culture.
Moche (715 words)
As the artistic style of the Moche spread and evolved throughout northern Peru, it became a predominant media of all the states, which lasted for five centuries (from 2,200 BP to 1,200 BP) and underwent five phases of development.
The decline of the Moche came abruptly with the rise of Chimu culture.
However, Moche culture remains a meaningful premeager to many of the other ceramic and artistic forms found throughout South America, and eventually led to the rise of the great Incan civilizations and their artistic endeavors.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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