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Encyclopedia > Mobile Phone
Several examples of non-flip mobile phones.
Several examples of non-flip mobile phones.
A woman using a cell phone.
A woman using a cell phone.

The mobile phone (also called a mobile, wireless, cellular phone, cell phone, or hand phone(hp))[1] is a short-range, portable electronic device used for mobile voice or data communication over a network of specialized base stations known as cell sites. The first commercial mobile phone service was launched in Japan by NTT in 1979, and by November 2007, the total number of mobile phone subscriptions in the world had reached 3.3 billion, or half of the human population (although some users have multiple subscriptions, or inactive subscriptions), which also makes the mobile phone the most widely spread technology and the most common gadget in the world.[2] In addition to the standard voice function of a telephone, current mobile phones may support many additional services, and accessories, such as SMS for text messaging, email, packet switching for access to the Internet, gaming, bluetooth, infrared, camera with video recorder and MMS for sending and receiving photos and video. Most current mobile phones connect to a cellular network of base stations (cell sites), which is in turn interconnected to the public switched telephone network (PSTN) (the exception is satellite phones). The first mobile phone to enable internet connectivity and wireless email use, was the Nokia Communicator released in 1996 and created a new category of expensive phones called smartphones. In 1999 the first mobile internet service was launched by NTT DoCoMo in Japan under the i-Mode service. By 2007 over 798 million people around the world accessed the internet or equivalent mobile internet services such as WAP and i-Mode at least occasionally using a mobile phone rather than a personal computer. Cell Phone (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is an award-winning Chinese drama film / comedy film film directed by Feng Xiaogang and starring Ge You, Zhang Guoli, Xu Fan and Fan Bingbing. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 354 pixelsFull resolution (2004 × 888 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 354 pixelsFull resolution (2004 × 888 pixel, file size: 1. ... For other uses, see Wireless (disambiguation). ... Electronics is the study and use of electrical devices that operate by controlling the flow of electrons or other electrically charged particles in devices such as thermionic valves and semiconductors. ... A cleverly mounted base station on top of an Electricity pylon. ... For other uses, see Telephone (disambiguation). ... GSM services are a standard collection of applications and features available to mobile phone subscribers all over the world. ... For other uses, see SMS (disambiguation). ... Text messaging on a mobile with keyboard Text messaging, or texting is the common term for the sending of short (160 characters or fewer, including spaces) text messages from mobile phones using the Short Message Service (SMS). ... E-mail, or email, is short for electronic mail and is a method of composing, sending, and receiving messages over electronic communication systems. ... In computer networking and telecommunications, packet switching is a communications paradigm in which packets (messages or fragments of messages) are individually routed between nodes, with no previously established communication path. ... For the Microsoft Media Server (MMS) protocol, see Microsoft Media Services. ... A photograph (often just called a photo) is an image (or a representation of that on e. ... For other uses, see Video (disambiguation). ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... The term base station can be used in the context of land surveying, wireless computer networking, and wireless communications. ... A cleverly mounted base station on top of an Electricity pylon. ... The public switched telephone network (PSTN) is the network of the worlds public circuit-switched telephone networks, in much the same way that the Internet is the network of the worlds public IP-based packet-switched networks. ... The public switched telephone network (PSTN) is the concatenation of the worlds public circuit-switched telephone networks, in much the same way that the Internet is the concatenation of the worlds public IP-based packet-switched networks. ... A satellite telephone, satellite phone, or satphone is a mobile phone that communicates directly with orbiting communications satellites. ...

Contents

Cellular systems

See also: Cellular frequencies
Mobile phone tower
Mobile phone tower

Mobile phones send and receive radio signals with any number of cell site base stations fitted with microwave antennas. These sites are usually mounted on a tower, pole or building, located throughout populated areas, then connected to a cabled communication network and switching system. The phones have a low-power transceiver that transmits voice and data to the nearest cell sites, normally not more than 8 to 13 km (approximately 5 to 8 miles) away. All cellular phone networks worldwide utilize a portion of the radio frequency spectrum designated as Ultra High Frequency, or UHF, for the transmission and reception of their signals. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1362x2048, 388 KB) Summary Photo taken (18th Feb 2006) and supplied by Nachoman-au. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1362x2048, 388 KB) Summary Photo taken (18th Feb 2006) and supplied by Nachoman-au. ... A cleverly mounted base station on top of an Electricity pylon. ... This article is about the type of Electromagnetic radiation. ... For other uses, see Radio (disambiguation). ... A transceiver is a device that has both a transmitter and a receiver which are combined in to one. ...


When the mobile phone or data device is turned on, it registers with the mobile telephone exchange, or switch, with its unique identifiers, and will then be alerted by the mobile switch when there is an incoming telephone call. The handset constantly listens for the strongest signal being received from the surrounding base stations. As the user moves around the network, the mobile device will "handoff" to various cell sites during calls, or while waiting (idle) between calls it will reselect cell sites. The GSM Core network is the heart of a GSM system, the most common mobile phone system in the world. ... In telecommunication, the term handoff refers to the process of transferring an ongoing call or data session from one channel connected to the core network to another. ... Mobility Management is one of the major functions of a GSM or a UMTS network that allows mobile phones to work. ...


Cell sites have relatively low-power (often only one or two watts) radio transmitters which broadcast their presence and relay communications between the mobile handsets and the switch. The switch in turn connects the call to another subscriber of the same wireless service provider or to the public telephone network, which includes the networks of other wireless carriers. Many of these sites are camouflaged to blend with existing environments, particularly in scenic areas. A cleverly mounted base station on top of an Electricity pylon. ... A mobile network operator, also known as wireless service provider, wireless carrier, mobile phone operator, or cellular company, is a telephone company that provides services for mobile phone subscribers. ... The public switched telephone network (PSTN) is the concatenation of the worlds public circuit-switched telephone networks, in much the same way that the Internet is the concatenation of the worlds public IP-based packet-switched networks. ...


The dialogue between the handset and the cell site is a stream of digital data that includes digitized audio (except for the first generation analog networks). The technology that achieves this depends on the system which the mobile phone operator has adopted. The technologies are grouped by generation. The first-generation systems started in 1979 with Japan, are all analog and include AMPS and NMT. Second-generation systems, started in 1991 in Finland, are all digital and include GSM, CDMA and TDMA. A mobile phone operator (also wireless carrier) is a telephone company that provides phone services for mobile phone subscribers. ...


The nature of cellular technology renders many phones vulnerable to 'cloning': anytime a cell phone moves out of coverage (for example, in a road tunnel), when the signal is re-established, the phone will send out a 're-connect' signal to the nearest cell-tower, identifying itself and signalling that it is again ready to transmit. WIth the proper equipment, it's possible to intercept the re-connect signal and encode the data it contains into a 'blank' phone -- in all respects, the 'blank' is then an exact duplicate of the real phone and any calls made on the 'clone' will be charged to the original account. It has been suggested that Rain fade be merged into this article or section. ...


Third-generation (3G) networks, which are still being deployed, began in Japan in 2001. They are all digital, and offer high-speed data access in addition to voice services and include W-CDMA (known also as UMTS), and CDMA2000 EV-DO. China will launch a third generation technology on the TD-SCDMA standard. Operators use a mix of predesignated frequency bands determined by the network requirements and local regulations. W-CDMA (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access) is a type of 3G cellular network. ... Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) is one of the third-generation (3G) cell phone technologies. ... A frequence range or frequency band is a range of wave frequencies. ...


In an effort to limit the potential harm from having a transmitter close to the user's body, the first fixed/mobile cellular phones that had a separate transmitter, vehicle-mounted antenna, and handset (known as car phones and bag phones) were limited to a maximum 3 watts Effective Radiated Power. Modern handheld cellphones which must have the transmission antenna held inches from the user's skull are limited to a maximum transmission power of 0.6 watts ERP. Regardless of the potential biological effects, the reduced transmission range of modern handheld phones limits their usefulness in rural locations as compared to car/bag phones, and handhelds require that cell towers be spaced much closer together to compensate for their lack of transmission power. In radio telecommunications, effective radiated power (ERP) is determined by subtracting system losses and adding system gains to the actual electrical power output of a transmitter. ...


Some handhelds include an optional auxiliary antenna port on the back of the phone, which allows it to be connected to a large external antenna and a 3 watt cellular booster. Alternately in fringe-reception areas, a cellular repeater may be used, which uses a long distance high-gain dish antenna or yagi antenna to communicate with a cell tower far outside of normal range, and a repeater to rebroadcast on a small short-range local antenna that allows any cellphone within a few meters to function properly. A compact Clear Voice cellular repeater including a directional antenna, an amplifier and a monopole rebroadcast antenna. ... A dish antenna is a type of antenna in which a parabolic dish focuses a signal onto an antenna, located at the parabolas focal point. ... A Yagi-Uda antenna. ...


Handsets

Nokia is currently the world's largest manufacturer of mobile phones, with a global device market share of approximately 40% in 2008. Other major mobile phone manufacturers (in order of market share) include Samsung (14%), Motorola (14%), Sony Ericsson (9%) and LG (7%).[3] These manufacturers account for over 80% of all mobile phones sold and produce phones for sale in most countries. This article is about the telecommunications corporation. ... Samsung Group is one of the largest South Korean business groupings. ... Motorola Inc. ... For an arrangement of Sony Ericsson products, see list of Sony Ericsson products Sony Ericsson is a joint venture established in 2001 by the Japanese consumer electronics company Sony Corporation and the Swedish telecommunications company Ericsson to make mobile phones. ... A leader in making and manufacturing Electronics LG redirects here. ...


Other manufacturers include Apple Inc., Audiovox (now UTStarcom), Benefon, BenQ-Siemens, CECT, High Tech Computer Corporation (HTC), Fujitsu, Kyocera, Mitsubishi Electric, NEC, Neonode, Panasonic (Matsushita Electric), Pantech Curitel, Philips, Research In Motion, Sagem, Sanyo, Sharp, Siemens, Sierra Wireless, SK Teletech, Sonim Technologies, T&A Alcatel, Huawei, Trium and Toshiba. There are also specialist communication systems related to (but distinct from) mobile phones. Apple Inc. ... Audiovox (NASDAQ: VOXX) is an electronics company. ... UTStarcom is a Fortune 1000 company specialising in IP-based networking products. ... Benefon is a company well known from the early mobile era as a mobile telephone maker for NMT and, later, GSM standards. ... BenQ Corporation (IPA: ; Chinese: ) is a Taiwan-based company specializing in the manufacturing of computing, communications, and consumer electronics devices. ... High Tech Computer Corporation (TSEC: 2498), known by its acronym HTC, is the Taiwan-based manufacturer of Microsoft Windows CE portable devices. ... For the district in Saga, Japan, see Fujitsu, Saga. ... Kyocera Corporation ) (TYO: 6971 , NYSE: KYO) is a Japanese company based in Kyoto, Japan. ... Mitsubishi Electric Corporation ) (TYO: 6503 ) is a Japanese company based in the Tokyo Building in Tokyo, manufactures electric and architectural equipment, as well as a major worldwide producer of photovoltaic panels. ... NEC Corporation (Jp. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Panasonic (パナソニック Panasonikku) is an international brand name for Japanese electric products manufacturer Matsushita Electric Industrial Co. ... Pantech Curitel is a Korean company specializing in manufacturing mobile phone terminals. ... Philips HQ in Amsterdam Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. (Royal Philips Electronics N.V.), usually known as Philips, (Euronext: PHIA, NYSE: PHG) is one of the largest electronics companies in the world, founded and headquartered in the Netherlands. ... Research In Motion Limited (RIM) (TSX: RIM, NASDAQ: RIMM) is a Canadian wireless device company. ... French company, headquartered in Paris, involved in communication systems and consumer electronics. ... Sanyo Electric Co. ... Sharp Corporation ) (TYO: 6753 , LuxSE: SRP) is a Japanese electronics manufacturer, founded in 1912. ... Siemens redirects here. ... Sierra Wireless (NASDAQ: SWIR, TSX: SW) is a wireless communications equipment designer and manufacturer, founded in 1993 and currently headquartered in Richmond, BC, Canada. ... SK Teletech is a Korean company specialising in manufacturing mobile phone terminals. ... The TCL Corporation is a Chinese electronics manufacturer headquartered in Huizhou of Guangdong Province, southern China. ... Huawei Technologies Co. ... Toshiba Corporations headquarters (Center) in Hamamatsucho, Tokyo Toshiba Corporation sales by division for year ending March 31, 2005 Toshiba Corporation ) (TYO: 6502 ) is a Japanese multinational conglomerate manufacturing company, headquartered in Tokyo, Japan. ...


There are several categories of mobile phones, from basic phones to feature phones such as musicphones and cameraphones, to smartphones. The first smartphone was the Nokia 9000 Communicator in 1996 which incorporated PDA functionality to the basic mobile phone at the time. As miniaturization and increased processing power of microchips has enabled ever more features to be added to phones, the concept of the smartphone has evolved, and what was a high-end smartphone five years ago, is a standard phone today. Several phone series have been introduced to address a given market segment, such as the RIM Blackberry focusing on enterprise/corporate customer email needs; the SonyEricsson Walkman series of musicphones and Cybershot series of cameraphones; and the Nokia N-Series of multimedia phones. The Apple iPhone is another example of a multimedia smartphone.

Main article: Mobile phone features

Mobile phones often have features beyond sending text messages and making voice calls, including Internet browsing, music (MP3) playback, memo recording, personal organizer functions, e-mail, instant messaging, built-in cameras and camcorders, ringtones, games, radio, Push-to-Talk (PTT), infrared and Bluetooth connectivity, call registers, ability to watch streaming video or download video for later viewing, video calling and serve as a wireless modem for a PC, and soon will also serve as a console of sorts to online games and other high quality games. The total value of mobile data services exceeds the value of paid services on the Internet, and was worth 31 billion dollars in 2006 (source Informa).[citation needed] The largest categories of mobile services are music, picture downloads, videogaming, adult entertainment, gambling, video/TV. There are many mobile phone features found in todays mobile phones that offer users many more capabilities than only voice calls or text messaging. ... For other uses, see MP3 (disambiguation). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... A ring tone is the sound made by a telephone when ringing. ... “Push to Talk” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Infrared (disambiguation). ... Bluetooth logo This article is about the electronic protocol named after Harald Bluetooth Gormson. ... Connectivity is the property of a device such as a PC, peripheral, PDA, mobile phone, robot, home appliance, or car that enables it to be connected, generally to a PC or another device without the need of a PC - autonomously. ... Mobile phones can be employed as data modems to form a wireless access point connecting a personal computer to The Internet (or some proprietary network). ...


Applications

The most commonly used data application on mobile phones is SMS text messaging, with 74% of all mobile phone users as active users (over 2.4 billion out of 3.3 billion total subscribers at the end of 2007). SMS text messaging was worth over 100 billion dollars in annual revenues in 2007 and the worldwide average of messaging use is 2.6 SMS sent per day per person across the whole mobile phone subscriber base. (source Informa 2007). The first SMS text message was sent from a computer to a mobile phone in 1992 in the UK, while the first person-to-person SMS from phone to phone was sent in Finland in 1993.


The other non-SMS data services used by mobile phones were worth 31 Billion dollars in 2007, and were led by mobile music, downloadable logos and pictures, gaming, gambling, adult entertainment and advertising (source: Informa 2007). The first downloadable mobile content was sold to a mobile phone in Finland in 1998, when Radiolinja (now Elisa) introduced the downloadable ringing tone service. In 1999 Japanese mobile operator NTT DoCoMo introduced its mobile internet service, i-Mode, which today is the world's largest mobile internet service and roughly the same size as Google in annual revenues.


The first mobile news service, delivered via SMS, was launched in Finland in 2000. Mobile news services are expanding with many organizations providing "on-demand" news services by SMS. Some also provide "instant" news pushed out by SMS. Mobile telephony also facilitates activism and public journalism being explored by Reuters and Yahoo![4] and small independent news companies such as Jasmine News in Sri Lanka. Companies like Monster[5] are starting to offer mobile services such as job search and career advice. Consumer applications are on the rise and include everything from information guides on local activities and events to mobile coupons and discount offers one can use to save money on purchases. Even tools for creating websites for mobile phones are increasingly becoming available, e.g. Mobilemo. Mobile News Mobile News services are growing in popularity along with an explosion in the usage of SMS messages worldwide and a few organizations are exporing these services. ... Activism, in a general sense, can be described as intentional action or inaction to bring about social or political change. ... Reuters Group plc (LSE: RTR and NASDAQ: RTRSY); pronounced is known as a financial market data provider and a news service that provides reports from around the world to newspapers and broadcasters. ... Yahoo redirects here. ...


Mobile payments were first trialled in Finland in 1998 when two coca cola machines in Espoo were enabled to work with SMS payments. Eventually the idea spread and in 1999 the Philippines launched the first commercial mobile payments systems, on the mobile operators Globe and Smart. Today mobile payments ranging from mobile banking to mobile credit cards to mobile commerce are very widely used in Asia and Africa, and in selected European markets. For example in the Philippines it is not unusual to have your whole paycheck paid to the mobile account. In Kenya the limit of money transfers from one mobile banking account to another is one million US dollars. In India paying utility bills with mobile gains a 5% discount. In Estonia the government found criminals collecting cash parking fees, so the government declared that only mobile payments via SMS were valid for parking and today all parking fees in Estonia are handled via mobile and the crime involved in the activity has vanished.


Mobile Applications are developed using the Six M's (previously Five M's) service-development theory created by the author Tomi Ahonen with Joe Barrett of Nokia and Paul Golding of Motorola. The Six M's are Movement (location), Moment (time), Me (personalization), Multi-user (community), Money (payments) and Machines (automation). The Six M's / Five M's theory is widely referenced in the telecoms applications literature and used by most major industry players. The first book to discuss the theory was Services for UMTS by Ahonen & Barrett in 2002.


The availability of mobile phone backup applications is growing with the increasing amount of mobile phone data being stored on mobile phones today. With mobile phone manufacturers producing mobile handsets with more and more memory storage capabilities the awareness of the importance in backing up mobile phone data is increasing. Corporate mobile phone users today keep very important company information on their mobiles, information if lost then not easily replaced. Wireless backup applications like SC BackUp offer users the chance to backup mobile phone data using advanced wireless technology. Users can backup, restore or transfer mobile data anytime, anywhere all over the world, to a secured server.


Media

The mobile phone became a mass media channel in 1998 when the first ringing tones were sold to mobile phones by Radiolinja in Finland. Soon other media content appeared such as news, videogames, jokes, horoscopes, TV content and advertising. In 2006 the total value of mobile phone paid media content exceeded internet paid media content and was worth 31 Billion dollars (source Informa 2007). The value of music on phones was worth 9.3 Billion dollars in 2007 and gaming was worth over 5 billion dollars in 2007 (source Netsize Guide 2008). A ringtone or ring tone is the sound made by a telephone to indicate an incoming call. ...


The mobile phone is often called the Fourth Screen (if counting cinema, TV and PC screens as the first three) or Third Screen (counting only TV and PC screens). It is also called the Seventh of the Mass Media (with Print, Recordings, Cinema, Radio, TV and Internet the first six). Most early content for mobile tended to be copies of legacy media, such as the banner advertisement or the TV news highlight video clip. Recently unique content for mobile has been emerging, from the ringing tones and ringback tones in music to "mobisodes" the video content that has been produced exclusively for mobile phones.


The advent of media on the mobile phone has also produced the opportunity to identify and track Alpha Users or Hubs, the most influential members of any social community. AMF Ventures measured in 2007 the relative accuracy of three mass media, and found that audience measures on mobile were nine times more accurate than on the internet and 90 times more accurate than on TV.


Power supply

Mobile phones generally obtain power from batteries which can be recharged from a USB port or from mains power or a cigarette lighter socket in a car using an adapter (often called battery charger or wall wart). Formerly, the most common form of mobile phone batteries were nickel metal-hydride, as they have a low size and weight. Lithium-Ion batteries are sometimes used, as they are lighter and do not have the voltage depression that nickel metal-hydride batteries do. Many mobile phone manufacturers have now switched to using lithium-Polymer batteries as opposed to the older Lithium-Ion, the main advantages of this being even lower weight and the possibility to make the battery a shape other than strict cuboid. Mobile phone manufacturers have been experimenting with alternate power sources, including solar cells. For other uses, see Phone (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Battery. ... Note: USB may also mean upper sideband in radio. ... Type F Mains power plug & socket The term mains usually refers to the general purpose AC electrical power supply (as in Ive connected the appliance to the mains). The term is not usually used in the US and Canada. ... A metal naphtha lighter A lighter is a device used to create fire with the intent to ignite another substance such as a cigarette, smoking pipe, or charcoal in a grill. ... A socket generally designates a cavity or region used for fitting and connecting some specific device. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This mains power plug travel adaptor allows European or British plugs to be inserted into American or Australian sockets An adapter or adaptor is a device used to match the physical or electrical characteristics of two different things so that a connection may be made between them. ... This charger charges the battery until it reaches a specific voltage and then it trickle charges the battery until it is removed. ... A power supply unit (sometimes abbreviated power supply or PSU) is a device that supplies electrical power to a device or group of devices. ... Modern, high capacity NiMH rechargeable batteries A nickel metal hydride (or NiMH) battery is a type of rechargeable battery similar to a nickel-cadmium (NiCad) battery but which does not contain expensive (and environmentally risky) cadmium. ... Lithium ion batteries (sometimes abbreviated Li-Ion or Li-On) are a type of rechargeable battery commonly used in consumer electronics. ... Lithium polymer batteries (Li-Poly or LiPo) are rechargeable batteries which have technologically evolved from lithium ion batteries. ... Li-Ion Camera Battery Lithium ion batteries (or Li-ion) have become very common and dropped in price recently. ... A solar cell, made from a monocrystalline silicon wafer A solar cell or photovoltaic cell is a device that converts solar energy into electricity by the photovoltaic effect. ...


In addition to the battery, most cellphones require a small microchip, called a Subscriber Identity Module or SIM Card, to function. Approximately the size of a one-cent postage stamp, the SIM Card is installed underneath the battery in the rear of the unit, and (when properly activated) stores the phone's configuration data, and information about the phone itself, such as which calling plan the subscriber is using. When the subscriber removes the SIM Card, it can be re-inserted into another phone and used as normal. Microchip can refer to: Microchip (or simply chip) is used rather loosely in electronics. ... SIM re-directs here; for alternate uses see Sim (disambiguation) A SIM card taken from a GSM mobile phone A subscriber identity module (SIM) is a smartcard securely storing the key identifying a mobile subscriber. ... A selection of Hong Kong postage stamps A postage stamp is evidence of pre-paying a fee for postal services. ...


Each SIM Card is activated by use of a unique numerical identifier; once activated, the identifier is locked down and the card is permanently locked in to the activating network. For this reason, most retailers will refuse the return of an activated SIM Card.


Those cell phones that do not use a SIM Card have the data programmed in to their memory. This data is accessed by using a special digit sequence to access the "NAM" as in "Name" or number programming menu. From here, one can add information such as a new number for your phone, new Service Provider numbers, new emergency numbers, change their Authentication Key or A-Key code, and update their Preferred Roaming List or PRL. However, to prevent the average Joe from totally disabling their phone or removing it from the network, the Service Provider puts a lock on this data called a Master Subsidiary Lock or MSL.


The MSL also ensures that the Service Provider gets payment for the phone that was purchased or "leased". For example, the Motorola Razr V9C costs upwards of CAD $500. You can get one from Bell Mobility for approximately $200. The difference is paid by the customer in the form of a monthly bill. If, in this case, Bell Mobility did not use a MSL, then they may lose the $300–$400 difference that is paid in the monthly bill, since some customers would cancel their service and take the phone to another carrier such as Telus, or Verizon. This would eventually put the carrier or in this case, Bell Mobility out of business. Motorola Inc. ... TELUS (TSX: T, NYSE: TU) is a Canadian telecommunications firm, the countrys second-largest telecommunications carrier after Bell Canada, with C$8. ... This article or section should include material from Bell Atlantic This article or section should include material from GTE Verizon Communications (NYSE: VZ) is a local exchange telephone company formed by the merger of Bell Atlantic, a former Bell Operating Company, and GTE, which was the largest independant local exchange...


Usage

By civilians

This Railfone found on some Amtrak trains in North America uses cellular technology.
This Railfone found on some Amtrak trains in North America uses cellular technology.
See also: List of mobile network operators

An increasing number of countries, particularly in Europe, now have more mobile phones than people. According to the figures from Eurostat, the European Union's in-house statistical office, Luxembourg had the highest mobile phone penetration rate at 158 mobile subscriptions per 100 people (158%), closely followed by Lithuania and Italy.[6] In Hong Kong the penetration rate reached 139.8% of the population in July 2007.[7] Over 50 countries have mobile phone subscription penetration rates higher than that of the population and the Western European average penetration rate was 110% in 2007 (source Informa 2007). The U.S. currently has one of the lowest rates of mobile phone penetrations in the industrialized world at 85%. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Vermonter at the Brattleboro, Vermont, station, 18 March 2004. ... This is a list of mobile phone network operating companies. ... Mobile phone penetration rate is a term generally used to describe the number of active mobile phone numbers (usually as a percentage) within a specific population. ...


There are over five hundred million active mobile phone accounts in China, as of 2007, but the total penetration rate there still stands below 50%.[8] The total number of mobile phone subscribers in the world was estimated at 2.14 billion in 2005.[9] The subscriber count reached 2.7 billion by end of 2006 according to Informa[citation needed], and 3.3 billion by November, 2007[2], thus reaching an equivalent of over half the planet's population. Around 80% of the world's population has access to mobile phone coverage, as of 2006. This figure is expected to increase to 90% by the year 2010.[10]


In some developing countries with little "landline" telephone infrastructure, mobile phone use has quadrupled in the last decade.[11] The rise of mobile phone technology in developing countries is often cited as an example of the leapfrog effect. In many remote regions in the third world went literally from having no telecommunications infrastructure to having satellite based communications systems. At present, Africa has the largest growth rate of cellular subscribers in the world,[12] its markets expanding nearly twice as fast as Asian markets.[13] The availability of prepaid or 'pay-as-you-go' services, where the subscriber is not committed to a long term contract, has helped fuel this growth in Africa as well as in other continents.  Newly industrialized countries  Other emerging markets  Other developing economies  High income  Upper-middle income  Lower-middle income  Low income A developing country is that country which has a relatively low standard of living, an undeveloped industrial base, and a moderate to low Human Development Index (HDI) score and per capita... For other uses, see Leapfrogging (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Prepaid telephone calls are a popular way of making telephone calls which allow the caller to control spend and not be tied into ongoing commitments with the telephone operator. ... This is a method of billing for a mobile phone. ...


On a numerical basis, India is the largest growth market, adding about 6 million mobile phones every month.[14] With 256.55 million mobile phones, market penetration in the country is still low at 22.52%. India expects to reach 500 million subscribers by end of 2010.


There are three major technical standards for the current generation of mobile phones and networks, and two major standards for the next generation 3G phones and networks. All European, African and many Asian countries have adopted a single system, GSM, which is the only technology available on all continents and in most countries and covers over 74% of all subscribers on mobile networks. In many countries, such as the United States, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Costa Rica, India, Japan, and South Korea and Vietnam GSM co-exists with other internationally adopted standards such as CDMA and TDMA, as well as national standards such as iDEN in the USA and PDC in Japan. Over the past five years several dozen mobile operators (carriers) have abandoned networks on TDMA and CDMA technologies, switching over to GSM. The Global System for Mobile communications (GSM: originally from Groupe Spécial Mobile) is the most popular standard for mobile phones in the world. ... General Information Generically (as a multiplexing scheme), code division multiple access (CDMA) is any use of any form of spread spectrum by multiple transmitters to send to the same receiver on the same frequency channel at the same time without harmful interference. ... Iden is also a village in East Sussex, England Integrated Digital Enhanced Network (iDEN) is a mobile telecommunications technology, developed by Motorola, which provides its users the benefits of a trunked radio and a cellular telephone. ...


With third generation (3G) networks, which are also known as IMT-2000 networks, about three out of four networks are on the W-CDMA (also known as UMTS) standard, usually seen as the natural evolution path for GSM and TDMA networks. One in four 3G networks is on the CDMA2000 1x EV-DO technology. Some analysts count a previous stage in CDMA evolution, CDMA2000 1x RTT, as a 3G technology whereas most standardization experts count only CDMA2000 1x EV-DO as a true 3G technology. Because of this difference in interpreting what is 3G, there is a wide variety in subscriber counts. As of June 2007, on the narrow definition there are 200 million subscribers on 3G networks. By using the more broad definition, the total subscriber count of 3G phone users is 475 million. W-CDMA (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access) is a type of 3G cellular network. ... Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) is one of the third-generation (3G) cell phone technologies. ...


Culture and customs

Between the 1980s and the 2000s, the mobile phone has gone from being an expensive item used by the business elite to a pervasive, personal communications tool for the general population. In most countries, mobile phones outnumber land-line phones, with fixed landlines numbering 1.3 Billion but mobile subscriptions 3.3 Billion at the end of 2007.


In many advanced markets from Japan and South Korea, to Scandinavia, to Israel, Singapore, Taiwan and Hong Kong, most children age 8-9 have mobile phones and the new accounts are now opened for customers aged 6 and 7. Where mostly parents tend to give hand-me-down used phones to their youngest children, in Japan already new cameraphones are on the market whose target age group is under 10 years of age, introduced by KDDI in February 2007. The USA also lags on this measure, as in the US so far, about half of all children have mobile phones.[15] In many young adults' households it has supplanted the land-line phone. Mobile phone usage is banned in some countries, such as North Korea and restricted in some other countries such as Burma.[16] The general term Young adult refers to different age groups based on context: In popular usage, young adult is a euphemism for an adolescent. ...


Given the high levels of societal mobile phone service penetration, it is a key means for people to communicate with each other. The SMS feature spawned the "texting" sub-culture amongst younger users. In December 1993, the first person-to-person SMS text message was transmitted in Finland. Currently, texting is the most widely-used data service; 1.8 billion users generated $80 billion of revenue in 2006 (source ITU). Many phones offer Instant Messenger services for simple, easy texting. Mobile phones have Internet service (e.g. NTT DoCoMo's i-mode), offering text messaging via e-mail in Japan, South Korea, China, and India. In Europe, 30–40 per cent of internet access is via mobile phone. Most mobile internet access is much different from computer access, featuring alerts, weather data, e-mail, search engines, instant messages, and game and music downloading; most mobile internet access is hurried and short. For other uses, see SMS (disambiguation). ... A received SMS being announced on a Nokia phone. ... // Instant messaging (IM) is a form of real-time communication between two or more people based on typed text. ... A building of NTT DoCoMo in Shinagawa, Tokyo. ... NTT DoCoMos i-mode is a wireless Internet service popular in Japan and is increasing in popularity in other parts of the world, such as the Israel (Cellcom being the main company to sell i-mode phones and service there). ...


The mobile phone can be a fashion totem custom-decorated to reflect the owner's personality.[17] This aspect of the mobile telephony business is, in itself, an industry, e.g. ringtone sales amounted to $3.5 billion in 2005.[18] For other uses, see Fashion (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Totem (disambiguation). ... A ringtone or ring tone is the sound made by a telephone to indicate an incoming call. ...

The use of a mobile phone is prohibited in some train company carriages
The use of a mobile phone is prohibited in some train company carriages

Mobile phone use can be an important matter of social discourtesy: phones ringing during funerals or weddings; in toilets, cinemas and theatres. Some book shops, libraries, bathrooms, cinemas, doctors' offices and places of worship prohibiting their use, so that other patrons will not be disturbed by conversations. Some facilities install signal-jamming equipment to prevent their use, although in many countries, including the US, such equipment is illegal. Some new auditoriums have installed wire mesh in the walls to make a Faraday cage, which prevents signal penetration without violating signal jamming laws. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x960, 591 KB) A headrest cover in coach A, the standard class Quiet Carriage on a First Great Western HST. Mobile phones and personal stereos are not permitted to be used by passengers travelling in this carriage. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x960, 591 KB) A headrest cover in coach A, the standard class Quiet Carriage on a First Great Western HST. Mobile phones and personal stereos are not permitted to be used by passengers travelling in this carriage. ... A bookstore. ... Alternative meanings: Library (computer science), Library (biology) Modern-style library In its traditional sense, a library is a collection of books and periodicals. ... A typical American bathroom A bathroom is a room that may have different functions depending on the cultural context it is used in. ... A typical megaplex (AMC Ontario Mills 30 in Ontario, California). ... A place of worship is a building or other locations where religious persons may worship their deity, regularly or not. ... Entrance to a Faraday room A Faraday cage or Faraday shield is an enclosure formed by conducting material, or by a mesh of such material. ...


Trains, particularly those involving long-distance services, often offer a "quiet carriage" where phone use is prohibited, much like the designated non-smoking carriage of the past. In the UK however many users tend to ignore this as it is rarely enforced, especially if the other carriages are crowded and they have no choice but to go in the "quiet carriage".[citation needed] In Japan, it is generally considered impolite to talk using a phone on any train -- texting is generally the mode of mobile communication. Mobile phone usage on local public transport is also increasingly seen as a nuisance; the city of Graz, for instance, has mandated a total ban of mobile phones on its tram and bus network in 2008 (though texting is still allowed).[19][20] The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent... Mass transit redirects here. ... The Grazer Schloßberg Clock Tower Graz [graːts] (Slovenian: Gradec IPA: /gra. ...


Mobile phone use on aircraft is also prohibited and many airlines claim in their in-plane announcements that this prohibition is due to possible interference with aircraft radio communications. Shut-off mobile phones do not interfere with aircraft avionics; the concern is partially based on the crash of Crossair Flight 498. The use of mobile telephones is generally forbidden aboard commercial aircraft during flight. ... Crossair Flight LX498 (known subsequently as Crossair Flight CRX498 by officials) was a commuter flight from Zurich, Switzerland to Dresden, Germany that crashed two minutes after takeoff in the Swiss municipality of Niederhasli on 10 January 2000. ...


By government agencies

Law enforcement

Main article: Lawful interception

Law enforcement have used mobile phone evidence in a number of different ways. In the EU the "communications of every mobile telephone user are recorded".[21] In other countries, evidence about the physical location of an individual at a given time has been introduced by triangulating the individual's cellphone between several cellphone towers. This triangulation technique can be used to show that an individual's cellphone was at a certain location at a certain time. The concerns over terrorism and terrorist use of technology prompted an inquiry by the British House of Commons Home Affairs Select Committee into the use of evidence from mobile phone devices, prompting leading mobile telephone forensic specialists to identify forensic techniques available in this area.[22] NIST have published guidelines and procedures for the preservation, acquisition, examination, analysis, and reporting of digital information present on mobile phones can be found under the NIST Publication SP800-101.[23] Lawful interception (aka wiretapping) is the interception of telecommunications by law enforcement authorities (LEAs) and intelligence services, in accordance with local law and after following due process and receiving proper authorization from competent authorities. ... Terrorist redirects here. ... Type Lower House Speaker Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Leader Harriet Harman, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader Theresa May, (Conservative) since May 5, 2005 Members 659 Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin... The Home Affairs Select Committee is a Committee of the House of Commons in the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ...


In the UK in 2000 it was claimed that recordings of mobile phone conversations made on the day of the Omagh bombing were crucial to the police investigation. In particular, calls made on two mobile phones which were tracked from south of the Irish border to Omagh and back on the day of the bombing, were considered of vital importance.[24] The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... The Omagh bombing was a paramilitary car bomb attack carried out by the Real IRA (RIRA), a splinter group of former Provisional Irish Republican Army members opposed to the Belfast Agreement, on August 15, 1998, in Omagh, County Tyrone, Northern Ireland. ...


Further example of criminal investigations using mobile phones is the initial location and ultimate identification of the terrorists of the 2004 Madrid train bombings. In the attacks, mobile phones had been used to detonate the bombs. However, one of the bombs failed to detonate, and the SIM card in the corresponding mobile phone gave the first serious lead about the terrorists to investigators. By tracking the whereabouts of the SIM card and correlating other mobile phones that had been registered in those areas, police were able to locate the terrorists.[25] Atocha Station The 2004 Madrid train bombings (also known in Spanish as 11-M) consisted of a series of coordinated bombings against the Cercanías (commuter train) system of Madrid, Spain on the morning of 11 March 2004 (three days before Spains general elections), killing 191 people and wounding... It has been suggested that Virtual sim be merged into this article or section. ...


Disaster response

The Finnish government decided in 2005 that the fastest way to warn citizens of disasters was the mobile phone network. In Japan, mobile phone companies provide immediate notification of earthquakes and other natural disasters to their customers free of charge [26]. In the event of an emergency, disaster response crews can locate trapped or injured people using the signals from their mobile phones. An interactive menu accessible through the phone's Internet browser notifies the company if the user is safe or in distress.[citation needed] In Finland rescue services suggest hikers carry mobile phones in case of emergency even when deep in the forests beyond cellular coverage, as the radio signal of a cellphone attempting to connect to a base station can be detected by overflying rescue aircraft with special detection gear. Also, users in the United States can sign up through their provider for free text messages when an AMBER Alert goes out for a missing person in their area. Global earthquake epicenters, 1963–1998. ... This article is about the natural disasters caused by natural hazards. ... The UK organisation for the provision of Disaster Response by Radio amateurs is called RAYNET. More information on RAYNET and the services it provides can be found at http://www. ... An example of a Web browser (Mozilla Firefox) A web browser is a software application that enables a user to display and interact with text, images, videos, music and other information typically located on a Web page at a website on the World Wide Web or a local area network. ... In telecommunications, the coverage is the geographic area that the station in question covers. ... Laura Bush hugs Rae Leigh Bradbury Wednesday, April 4, 2007, in Austin, after the 9-year-old introduced Mrs. ...


However, most mobile phone networks operate close to capacity during normal times and spikes in call volumes caused by widespread emergencies often overload the system just when it is needed the most. Examples reported in the media where this have occurred include the 2001 September 11 attacks, the Hawaiian earthquake, the 2003 Northeast blackouts, the 2005 London Tube bombings, Hurricane Katrina, and the 2007 Minnesota bridge collapse. Thus mobile phones are better for isolated emergencies such as vehicle accidents.


Under FCC regulations, all mobile telephones must be capable of dialing emergency services, regardless of the presence of a SIM card or the payment status of the account. Emergency services are public services that deal with emergencies and other aspects of Public Safety. ...


Business models

Tariff models

See also: GSM services#Voice charges

When cellular telecoms services were launched, phones and calls were very expensive and early mobile operators (carriers) decided to charge for all air time consumed by the mobile phone user. This resulted in the concept of charging callers for outbound calls and also for receiving calls. As mobile phone call charges diminished and phone adoption rates skyrocketed, more modern operators decided not to charge for incoming calls. Thus some markets have "Receiving Party Pays" models (also known as "Mobile Party Pays"), in which both outbound and received calls are charged, and other markets have "Calling Party Pays" models, by which only making calls produces costs, and receiving calls is free. An exception to this are international roaming tariffs, by which receiving calls are normally also charged.[citation needed] GSM services are a standard collection of applications and features available to mobile phone subscribers all over the world. ... Roaming is a general term in wireless telecommunications that refers to the extending of connectivity service in a location that is different from the home location where the service was registered. ...


The European market adopted a "Calling Party Pays" model throughout the GSM environment and soon various other GSM markets also started to emulate this model. As Receiving Party Pays systems have the undesired effect of phone owners keeping their phones turned off to avoid receiving unwanted calls, the total voice usage rates (and profits) in Calling Party Pays countries outperform those in Receiving Party Pays countries. Consequently, most countries previously with Receiving Party Pays models have either abandoned them or employed alternative marketing methods, such as massive voice call buckets, to avoid the problem of phone users keeping phones turned off.[citation needed]


In most countries today, the person receiving a mobile phone call pays nothing. However, in Hong Kong, Canada, and the United States, one can be charged per minute, for incoming as well as outgoing calls. In the United States and Canada, a few carriers are beginning to offer unlimited received phone calls. For the Chinese mainland, it was reported that both of its two operators will adopt the caller-pays approach as early as January 2007.[27] In this map of China, the light-coloured areas represent Mainland China, while yellow coloured area refers to Taiwan. ...


While some systems of payment are 'pay-as-you-go' where conversation time is purchased and added to a phone unit via an Internet account or in shops or ATMs, other systems are more traditional ones where bills are paid by regular intervals. Pay as you go (also known as "pre-pay") accounts were invented simultaneously in Portugal and Italy and today form more than half of all mobile phone subscriptions. USA, Canada, Costa Rica, Japan and Finland are among the rare countries left where most phones are still contract-based. This is a method of billing for a mobile phone. ...


One possible alternative is a sim-lock free mobile phone. Sim-lock free mobile phones allow portability between networks so users can use sim cards from various networks and not need to have their phone unlocked.


Impacts

Human health and behaviour

Since the introduction of mobile phones, concerns have been raised about the potential health impacts from regular use.[28] As mobile phone penetrations grew past fixed landline penetration levels in 1998 in Finland and from 1999 in Sweden, Denmark and Norway, the Scandinavian health authorities have run continuous long term studies of effects of mobile phone radiation effects to humans, and in particular children. Numerous studies have reported no significant relationship between mobile phone use and health. [[Image: ]] A Greenfield-type tower used in base stations for mobile telephony A mobile phone (Samsung) Mobile phone radiation and health concerns have been raised, especially following the enormous increase in the use of wireless mobile telephony throughout the world (as of August 2005, there were more than 2 billion...


Studies from the Institute of Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute and researchers at the Danish Institute of Cancer Epidemiology in Copenhagen for example showed no link between mobile phone use and cancer.[29] The Danish study only covered analog mobile phone usage up through 1995, and subjects who started mobile phone usage after 1995 were counted as non-users in the study.[30] The health concerns have grown as mobile phone penetration rates throughout Europe reached 80%–90% levels earlier in this decade and prolonged exposure studies have been carried out in almost all European countries again most reporting no effect, and the most alarming studies only reporting a possible effect. However, a study by the International Agency for Research on Cancer of 4,500 users found a borderline statistically significant link between tumor frequency on the same side of the head as the mobile phone was used on and mobile phone usage.[31] The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC, or CIRC in its French acronym) is an intergovernmental agency forming part of the World Health Organisation of the United Nations. ...


One study that reviewed the link between cellphones and sperm quality found that heavy mobile phone users (>4 hours per day) had significantly less viable sperm (WHO morphology score was less than half of the lower time mobile phone users).[32] A prospective study of 13 normal men found that significantly increasing their mobile phone use (>6 hours each day for 5 days) caused a marked short-term reduction of sperm quality.[33] Look up who in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Men who use mobile phones on a regular basis lose about 30 percent of their active sperm cells. Those who carry their mobile phones in pockets of their pants are putting their potency at great danger. Scientists say that even in sleep mode mobile phones are harmful.[34]


This is considered to be a thermal effect, since the testes are vulnerable to heating by RF energy because of poor circulation and heat is known to have adverse effects on male fertility.[35] Also the thermal from the mobile phone proliferates the bacteria on the key pad. By the study of some research, bacteria on the keypad is more serious and fatal to human health than bacteria in the toilet. The eyes are the other part of the body known to be poor at dissipating heat. Experiments have shown that short duration exposure to very high levels of RF radiation can cause cataracts in rabbits.[35] The non-thermal effects of RF radiation are an area of active study.


A 2007 study by Prof. Bengt Arnetz and colleagues of Wayne State University and Uppsala University, and Foundation IT’IS, USA, and Karolinska Institutet, Sweden, funded by the Mobile Manufacturers Forum and published in "Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium (PIERS) Online" reported higher incidence of headache and also disturbance of normal sleep patterns following mobile phone use.[36]


Early in 2008, Michele Froment-Vedrine the President of AFSSET (an independent but state-funded French health watchdog), advised that parents should not give small children mobile phones.[37]


Study of the University of Szeged, Hungary showed that mobile phones carried in pockets of pants and/or worn on belts could result in loss of quantity and quality of active sperm cells by men.[38]


Safety concerns

As of 2007, several airlines are experimenting with base station and antenna systems installed to the aeroplane, allowing low power, short-range connection of any phones aboard to remain connected to the aircraft's base station.[39] Thus, they would not attempt connection to the ground base stations as during take off and landing.[citation needed] Simultaneously, airlines may offer phone services to their travelling passengers either as full voice and data services, or initially only as SMS text messaging and similar services. Qantas, the Australian airline, is the first airline to run a test aeroplane in this configuration in the autumn of 2007.[citation needed] Emirates has announced plans to allow limited mobile phone usage on some flights.[citation needed] However, in the past, commercial airlines have prevented the use of cell phones and laptops, due to the fact that the frequencies emitted from these devices may disturb the radio waves contact of the airplane. Qantas Airways Limited (IPA: ) is the national airline of Australia. ... Emirates Airline (shortened form: Emirates) (Arabic: طيران الإماراتTayarān al-Imārāt) is a subsidiary of The Emirates Group. ...


On the 20 March 2008 an Emirates flight was the first time voice calls have been allowed in-flight on commercial airline flights. The breakthrough came after the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) and the United Arab Emirates-based General Civil Aviation Authority (GCAA) granted full approval for the AeroMobile system to be used on Emirates. Passengers were able to make and receive voice calls as well as use text messaging on today’s flight. The system automatically came into operation as the Airbus A340-300 reached cruise altitude. Passengers wanting to use the service received a text message welcoming them to the AeroMobile system when they first switched-on their phones. The approval by EASA has finally put to rest that GSM phones on certified aircraft types are safe. is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ...


In any case, there are inconsistencies between practices allowed by different airlines and even on the same airline in different countries. For example, Northwest Airlines may allow the use of mobile phones immediately after landing on a domestic flight within the US, whereas they may state "not until the doors are open" on an international flight arriving in the Netherlands. In April 2007 the US Federal Communications Commission officially grounded the idea of allowing passengers to use phones during a flight.[40] Northwest Airlines, Inc. ... FCC redirects here. ...


In a similar vein, signs are put up in many countries, such as Canada, the U.K. and the U.S., at petrol stations prohibiting the use of mobile phones, due to possible safety issues.[citation needed] Modern gas station A filling station, gas station or petrol station is a facility that sells fuel for road motor vehicles – usually petrol (US: gas/gasoline), diesel fuel and LPG. The term gas station is mostly particular to the United States of America and Canada, where petrol is known as...


Etiquette

Most schools in the United States have prohibited mobile phones in the classroom, due to the large number of class disruptions that result from their use, and the potential for cheating via text messaging. In the UK, possession of a mobile phone in an examination can result in immediate disqualification from that subject or from all that student's subjects.[41]


A working group made up of Finnish telephone companies, public transport operators and communications authorities has launched a campaign to remind mobile phone users of courtesy, especially when using mass transit—what to talk about on the phone, and how to. In particular, the campaign wants to impact loud mobile phone usage as well as calls regarding sensitive matters.[42]


Many US cities with subway transit systems underground are studying or have implemented mobile phone reception in their underground tunnels for their riders. Boston, Massachusetts has investigated such usage in their tunnels, although there is a question of usage etiquette and also how to fairly award contracts to carriers.[43][44]


The issue of mobile communication and etiquette has also become an issue of academic interest. The rapid adoption of the device has resulted in the intrusion of telephony into situations where this was previously not known. This has exposed the implicit rules of courtesy and opened them to reevaluation.[45]


Use by drivers

This Manhattan driver is using two phones at once
This Manhattan driver is using two phones at once

The use of mobile phones by people who are driving has become increasingly common, either as part of their job, as in the case of delivery drivers who are calling a client, or by commuters who are chatting with a friend. While many drivers have embraced the convenience of using their cellphone while driving, some jurisdictions have made the practice against the law, such as the Canadian provinces of Quebec and Newfoundland and Labrador. Officials from these jurisdictions argue that using a mobile phone while driving is an impediment to vehicle operation that can increase the risk of road traffic accidents. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1852x1616, 1112 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1852x1616, 1112 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... This Manhattan driver is juggling two phones at once It has been argued that the distraction caused by using mobile phones while driving is responsible for many road traffic accidents. ... A car accident in Yate, near Bristol, England, in July 2004. ...


Studies have found vastly different relative risks (RR). Two separate studies using case-crossover analysis each calculated RR at 4,[46][47] while an epidemiological cohort study found RR, when adjusted for crash-risk exposure, of 1.11 for men and 1.21 for women.[48] In statistics and mathematical epidemiology, relative risk (RR) of an event associated with the exposure is a ratio of probability of outcome of interest in exposed group versus treatment group. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Cohort (statistics). ...


A simulation study from the University of Utah Professor David Strayer compared drivers with a blood alcohol content of 0.08% to those conversing on a cell phone, and after controlling for driving difficulty and time on task, the study concluded that cell phone drivers exhibited greater impairment than intoxicated drivers. [49] Meta-analysis by The Canadian Automobile Association[50] and The University of Illinois[51] found that response time while using both hands-free and hand-held phones was approximately 0.5 standard deviations higher than normal driving (i.e., an average driver, while talking on a cell phone, has response times of a driver in roughly the 40th percentile). The University of Utah (also The U or the U of U or the UU), located in Salt Lake City, is the flagship public research university in the state of Utah, and one of 10 institutions that make up the Utah System of Higher Education. ... Blood alcohol content (BAC) or blood alcohol concentration is the concentration of alcohol in blood. ... The Canadian Automobile Association (or CAA) is affiliated with the American Automobile Association. ... The University of Illinois is the set of three public universities in Illinois. ... In probability and statistics, the standard deviation is the most commonly used measure of statistical dispersion. ...


Other research has found that using a mobile phone while driving may reduce the driver's concentration and reaction time. People in or near their 20s who use a mobile phone while driving have the same reaction time as 70-year-olds. Studies have shown that talking on a phone can reduce the cognitive resources that the driver can apply to the driving task, and may thus lead to dangerous situations[citation needed].


Driving while using a hands-free device is not safer than driving while using a hand-held phone, as concluded by case-crossover studies.[46][47] epidemiological studies,[48] simulation studies,[49] and meta-analysis[50][51]. Even with this information, the State of California recently passed a cell phone law that requires drivers who are 18 years of age or older to use a hands-free device while using the phone in the car. Moreover, this law also restricts drivers under the age of 18 from using a mobile phone at all. This law goes into effect on July 1, 2008 with a $20 fine for the first offense and $50 fines for each subsequent conviction. The consistency of increased crash risk between hands-free and hand-held phone use is at odds with legislation in over 30 countries that prohibit hand-held phone use but allow hands-free. Scientific literature is mixed on the dangers of talking on a phone versus those of talking with a passenger, with the Accident Research Unit at the University of Nottingham finding that the number of utterances was usually higher for mobile calls when compared to blindfolded and non-blindfolded passengers,[52] but the University of Illinois meta-analysis concluding that passenger conversations were just as costly to driving performance as cell phone ones.[51] This article is about the U.S. state. ... The University of Nottingham is a leading research university in the city of Nottingham, in the East Midlands of England. ... The University of Illinois is the set of three public universities in Illinois. ...


Environmental impacts

Like all high structures, cellular antenna masts pose a hazard to low flying aircraft. Towers over a certain height or towers that are close to airports or heliports are normally required to have warning lights. There have been reports that warning lights on cellular masts, TV-towers and other high structures can attract and confuse birds. US authorities estimate that millions of birds are killed near communication towers in the country each year.[53] Flying machine redirects here. ... Airport - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Heliport A heliport is a small airport suitable only for use by helicopters. ... For other meanings of bird, see bird (disambiguation). ... United States may refer to: Places: United States of America SS United States, the fastest ocean liner ever built. ...


An example of the way mobile phones and mobile networks have sometimes been perceived as a threat is the widely reported and later discredited claim that mobile phone masts are associated with the Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) which has reduced bee hive numbers by up to 75% in many areas, especially near cities in the US. The Independent newspaper cited a scientific study claiming it provided evidence for the theory that mobile phone masts are a major cause in the collapse of bee populations, with controlled experiments demonstrating a rapid and catastrophic effect on individual hives near masts.[54] Mobile phones were in fact not covered in the study, and the original researchers have since emphatically disavowed any connection between their research, mobile phones, and CCD, specifically indicating that the Independent article had misinterpreted their results and created "a horror story".[55][56][57] While the initial claim of damage to bees was widely reported, the corrections to the story were almost non-existent in the media. Honey bees entering a beehive. ...

See also: Electronic waste

There are more than 500 million used mobile phones in the US sitting on shelves or in landfills[3], and it is estimated that over 125 million will be discarded this year alone.[4] The problem is growing at a rate of more than two million phones per week, putting tons of toxic waste into landfills daily. Several sites including TradeMyCell.com, ReCellular, and MyGreenElectronics offer to buy back and recycle mobile phones from users. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The international recycling symbol. ...


History

Main article: History of mobile phones

In 1908, U.S. Patent 887,357  for a wireless telephone was issued in to Nathan B. Stubblefield of Murray, Kentucky. He applied this patent to "cave radio" telephones and not directly to cellular telephony as the term is currently understood.[58] Cells for mobile phone base stations were invented in 1947 by Bell Labs engineers at AT&T and further developed by Bell Labs during the 1960s. Radiophones have a long and varied history going back to Reginald Fessenden's invention and shore-to-ship demonstration of radio telephony, through the Second World War with military use of radio telephony links and civil services in the 1950s, while hand-held cellular radio devices have been available since 1973. Due to their low establishment costs and rapid deployment, mobile phone networks have since spread rapidly throughout the world, outstripping the growth of fixed telephony.[citation needed] Top of a cellular radio tower In the beginning, two-way radios (known as mobile rigs) were used in vehicles such as taxicabs, police cruisers, ambulances, and the like, but were not mobile phones because they were not normally connected to the telephone network. ... Nathan B. Stubblefield (November 22, 1860 - March 28, 1928) was an American inventor and Kentucky melon farmer. ... Murray is a city located in Calloway County, Kentucky. ... Bell Laboratories (also known as Bell Labs and formerly known as AT&T Bell Laboratories and Bell Telephone Laboratories) was the main research and development arm of the United States Bell System. ... This article is about the current AT&T. For the 1885-2005 company, see American Telephone & Telegraph. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Two-way radio. ... Reginald Fessenden (October 6, 1866 – July 22, 1932) was a Canadian inventor, best known for his work in early radio. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... A telephone handset A touch-tone telephone dial Telephone The telephone or phone (Greek: tele = far away and phone = voice) is a telecommunications device that transmits speech by means of electric signals. ...


In 1945, the zero generation (0G) of mobile telephones was introduced. 0G mobile phones, such as Mobile Telephone Service, were not cellular, and so did not feature "handover" from one base station to the next and reuse of radio frequency channels.[citation needed] Like other technologies of the time, it involved a single, powerful base station covering a wide area, and each telephone would effectively monopolize a channel over that whole area while in use. The concepts of frequency reuse and handoff as well as a number of other concepts that formed the basis of modern cell phone technology are first described in U.S. Patent 4,152,647 , issued May 1, 1979 to Charles A. Gladden and Martin H. Parelman, both of Las Vegas, Nevada and assigned by them to the United States Government. 0G refers to pre-cellular mobile telephony technology. ... The Mobile Telephone Service (MTS) is a pre-cellular VHF radio system that links to the PSTN. MTS was the radiotelephone equivalent of land dial phone service. ... In telecommunication, the term handoff refers to the process of transferring an ongoing call or data session from one channel connected to the core network to another. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... For further information, see Las Vegas metropolitan area and Las Vegas Strip. ...


This is the first embodiment of all the concepts that formed the basis of the next major step in mobile telephony, the Analog cellular telephone. Concepts covered in this patent (cited in at least 34 other patents) also were later extended to several satellite communication systems. Later updating of the cellular system to a digital system credits this patent.


Martin Cooper, a Motorola researcher and executive is widely considered to be the inventor of the first practical mobile phone for handheld use in a non-vehicle setting. Using a modern, if somewhat heavy portable handset, Cooper made the first call on a handheld mobile phone on April 3, 1973.[59] This article is about the scientist. ... Motorola Inc. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ...


The first commercial citywide cellular network was launched in Japan by NTT in 1979. Fully automatic cellular networks were first introduced in the early to mid 1980s (the 1G generation). The Nordic Mobile Telephone (NMT) system went online in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden in 1981[citation needed]. NMT was the first mobile phone system that enabled international use of the phone, or "roaming" on other networks in other countries. This was followed by a boom in mobile phone usage, particularly in Northern Europe.[citation needed] Nippon Telegraph and Telephone (日本電信電話 Nippon Denshin Denwa) is a telephone company that dominates the telecommunication market in Japan. ... 1G (or 1-G) is short for first-generation wireless telephone technology, cellphones. ... For other meanings of the abbreviation, see: NMT. NMT (Nordisk MobilTelefoni or Nordiska MobilTelefoni-gruppen, Nordic Mobile Telephone in English) is a mobile phone system that was specified by the Nordic telecommunications administrations (PTTs) starting in 1970, and opened for service in 1981 as a response to the increasing congestion...


In 1983, Motorola DynaTAC was the first approved mobile phone by FCC in the United States. In 1984, Bell Labs developed modern commercial cellular technology (based, to a large extent, on the Gladden, Parelman Patent), which employed multiple, centrally-controlled base stations (cell sites), each providing service to a small area (a cell). The cell sites would be set up such that cells partially overlapped. In a cellular system, a signal between a base station (cell site) and a terminal (phone) only need be strong enough to reach between the two, so the same channel can be used simultaneously for separate conversations in different cells. The Motorola DynaTAC 8000X was the worlds first mobile phone to receive FCC acceptance in 1983. ... FCC redirects here. ... Bell Laboratories (also known as Bell Labs and formerly known as AT&T Bell Laboratories and Bell Telephone Laboratories) was the main research and development arm of the United States Bell System. ...


Cellular systems required several leaps of technology, including handover, which allowed a conversation to continue as a mobile phone traveled from cell to cell. This system included variable transmission power in both the base stations and the telephones (controlled by the base stations), which allowed range and cell size to vary. As the system expanded and neared capacity, the ability to reduce transmission power allowed new cells to be added, resulting in more, smaller cells and thus more capacity. The evidence of this growth can still be seen in the many older, tall cell site towers with no antennae on the upper parts of their towers. These sites originally created large cells, and so had their antennae mounted atop high towers; the towers were designed so that as the system expanded—and cell sizes shrank—the antennae could be lowered on their original masts to reduce range. In telecommunication, the term handoff refers to the process of transferring an ongoing call or data session from one channel connected to the core network to another. ...


The first "modern" network technology on digital 2G (second generation) cellular technology was launched by Radiolinja (now part of Elisa Group) in 1991 in Finland on the GSM standard which also marked the introduction of competition in mobile telecoms when Radiolinja challenged incumbent Telecom Finland (now part of TeliaSonera) who ran a 1G NMT network. Radiolinja was a Finnish GSM operator founded on September 19, 1988. ... Elisa Oyj (Elisa) is a Finnish telecommunications company founded in 1882 (known until July 2000 as HPY or Helsingin puhelinyhdistys). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The first data services appeared on mobile phones starting with person-to-person SMS text messaging in Finland in 1993. First trial payments using a mobile phone to pay for a Coca Cola vending machine were set in Finland in 1998. The first commercial payments were mobile parking trialled in Sweden but first commercially launched in Norway in 1999. The first commercial payment system to mimick banks and credit cards was launched in the Philippines in 1999 simultaneously by mobile operators Globe and Smart. The first content sold to mobile phones was the ringing tone, first launched in 1998 in Finland. The first full internet service on mobile phones was i-Mode introduced by NTT DoCoMo in Japan in 1999.


In 2001 the first commercial launch of 3G (Third Generation) was again in Japan by NTT DoCoMo on the WCDMA standard.[citation needed][60] A building of NTT DoCoMo in Shinagawa, Tokyo. ... W-CDMA (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access), a wideband spread-spectrum 3G mobile telecommuncation air interface that utilizes code division multiple access (or CDMA the general multiplexing scheme, not to be confused with CDMA the standard), is a 3G mobile communications standard allied with the GSM standard. ...


Until the early 1990s, most mobile phones were too large to be carried in a jacket pocket, so they were typically installed in vehicles as car phones. With the miniaturization of digital components and the development of more sophisticated batteries, mobile phones have become smaller and lighter. ... Miniaturization is a continuing trend in technology toward ever-smaller scales for first mechanical, then optical and most recently electronic devices. ...


In the 2000s, video and TV services are driving forward third generation (3G) deployment. In the future, low cost, high speed data may drive forward the fourth generation (4G) as short-range communication emerges. Service and application ubiquity, low cost data delivery, and a high degree of personalization and synchronization between various user appliances will be drivers. At the same time, the radio access network may evolve from a centralized architecture to a distributed one.[citation needed] For other uses, see Video (disambiguation). ... See TV (disambiguation) for other uses and Television (band) for the rock band European networks National In much of Europe television broadcasting has historically been state dominated, rather than commercially organised, although commercial stations have grown in number recently. ...


Terminology

Related non-mobile-phone systems

Cordless telephone (portable phone) 
Cordless phones are standard telephones with radio handsets. Unlike mobile phones, cordless phones use private base stations that are not shared between subscribers. The base station is connected to a land-line. Increasingly, with wireless local loop technologies, namely DECT, the distinction is blurred.
Professional Mobile Radio 
Advanced professional mobile radio systems can be very similar to mobile phone systems. Notably, the IDEN standard has been used as both a private trunked radio system as well as the technology for several large public providers. Similar attempts have even been made to use TETRA, the European digital PMR standard, to implement public mobile networks.
Radio phone 
This is a term which covers radios which could connect into the telephone network. These phones may not be mobile; for example, they may require a mains power supply, they may require the assistance of a human operator to set up a PSTN phone call.
Satellite phone 
This type of phone communicates directly with an artificial satellite, which in turn relays calls to a base station or another satellite phone. A single satellite can provide coverage to a much greater area than terrestrial base stations. Since satellite phones are costly, their use is typically limited to people in remote areas where no mobile phone coverage exists, such as mountain climbers and mariners in the open sea.

A modern GE cordless telephone, model 26930 A cordless telephone or portable telephone is a telephone with a wireless handset which communicates via radio waves with a base station connected to a fixed telephone line (POTS) and can only be operated near (typically less than 100 meters) its base station... Wireless local loop (WLL), also called Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) radio in the loop (RITL) or fixed-radio access (FRA) or fixed-wireless access (FWA) or Fixed Wireless Terminal (FWT), is the use of a wireless communications link as the last mile / first mile connection for delivering plain old telephone... See http://en. ... Professional Mobile Radio (also known as Private Mobile Radio (PMR) in the UK and Land Mobile Radio (LMR) in North America) are field radio communications systems which use portable, mobile, base station, and dispatch console radios and are sometimes based on such standards as MPT-1327, TETRA and APCO 25... The title of this article is incorrect because of technical limitations. ... A trunked radio system is a radio system used to maximize available capacity in a two-way radio system, usually UHF. Groups of users are given a logical talkgroup to share for their communications, rather than a dedicated radio frequency. ... Genera More than 150[1] Look up tetra in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Type F mains power plug & socket The term mains usually refers to the general purpose alternating current (AC) electrical power supply (as in “Ive connected the appliance to the mains”). The term is not usually used in the United States and Canada. ... The public switched telephone network (PSTN) is the concatenation of the worlds public circuit-switched telephone networks, in much the same way that the Internet is the concatenation of the worlds public IP-based packet-switched networks. ... A satellite telephone, satellite phone, or satphone is a mobile phone that communicates directly with orbiting communications satellites. ... For other uses, please see Satellite (disambiguation) A satellite is an object that orbits another object (known as its primary). ...

Terms in various countries

Further information: Mobile phone terms across the world

The following is a list of Mobile phone terms across the world. ...

See also

Look up mobile phone in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Mobile phones

Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... 0G refers to pre-cellular mobile telephony technology. ... 1G (or 1-G) is short for first-generation wireless telephone technology, cellphones. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... 2. ... A 2G mobile phone is a circuit switched digital mobile phone. ... 3G is the third generation of mobile phone standards and technology, superseding 2G. It is based on the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) family of standards under the International Mobile Telecommunications programme, IMT-2000. ... The term 3. ... This article is about the mobile phone standard. ... Official 1seg logo 1seg (Katakana: ワンセグ) is a mobile terrestrial digital audio/video and data broadcasting service in Japan. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... This article is about the fruit. ... BTS (Base Transceiver Station). ... In telecommunications, the coverage is the geographic area that the station in question covers. ... A compact Clear Voice cellular repeater including a directional antenna, an amplifier and a monopole rebroadcast antenna. ... In design, clamshell is a form resembling the shell of a clam, with the ability to open up in the same way. ... GSM and IS-95 are the two most prevalent mobile communication technologies. ... A portable phone or cordless phone is a wireless telephone which is associated with a fixed telephone landline (POTS) and can only be operated close to (typically less than 100 metres of) its base station, such as in and around the house. ... Dead zones are areas where cell phones cannot transmit to a nearby cell site, base station, or repeater. ... Dropped call is the common term for a wireless mobile phone call that is terminated unexpectedly as a result of technical reasons. ... Abandoned monitor Electronic waste or e-waste is any broken or unwanted electrical or electronic appliance. ... GPS redirects here. ... Globalstar is a low Earth orbit (LEO) satellite constellation for telephone and low-speed data communications, similar to (and competing with) the Iridium satellite system. ... GSM services are a standard collection of applications and features available to mobile phone subscribers all over the world. ... Inmarsat is an international telecommunications company founded in 1979, originally as an intergovernmental organization. ... For the Internet appliance line, see Linksys iPhone. ... An Iridium phone (without the aerial) The Iridium satellite constellation is a system of 66 active communication satellites and spares around the Earth. ... This is a list of mobile phone network operating companies. ... A location-based game (or location-enabled game) is one in which the game play somehow evolves and progresses via a players location. ... Location-based services (LBS) (or LoCation Services, LCS) are services developed and distributed by wireless carriers and their partners which provide information specific to a location. ... GSM localization is the use of multilateration to determine the location of GSM mobile phones, usually with the intent to locate the user. ... The Marine Radiotelephone Service or HF ship-to-shore operates on short wave radio frequencies, using single-sideband modulation. ... A missed call is when a cell phone user calls another and cuts off deliberately before the called party has a chance to pick up the call. ... Mobile advertising is a form of advertising via mobile (wireless) phones or other mobile devices. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... This page summarizes the known relative differences between the most popular mobile platform development options for handheld devices such as a PDA or mobile phones. ... Brew refers to: Brewing, the production of beverages and fuels through fermentation Binary Runtime Environment for Wireless, a development platform for mobile phones Brew (horse), a Melbourne Cup winner in 2000 Category: ... Java Platform, Micro Edition or Java ME (formerly referred to as J2ME), is a runtime and collection of Java APIs for the development of software for resource constrained devices such as PDAs, cell phones and other consumer appliances. ... A MIDlet is a Java program for embedded devices, more specifically the J2ME virtual machine. ... Mobile gambling refers to gambling done on a remote wirelessly connected device. ... A mobile game is a commercial product that is distributed to the customer using mobile operators network. ... Pocket Internet Explorer displaying the Wikipedia main page on a PDA Opera Mini displaying the Wikipedia portal The refers to the World Wide Web as accessed from mobile devices such as cell phones, PDAs, and other pocketable gadgets connected to a public network. ... M-learning is the follow up of E-learning which for its part originates from D-learning (distance education). ... Mobile payment is processing a payment for goods or services with a mobile device such as a mobile phone, Personal Digital Assistant (PDA), or other such device. ... Mobile phone penetration rate is a term generally used to describe the number of active mobile phone numbers (usually as a percentage) within a specific population. ... The use of mobile telephones is generally forbidden aboard commercial aircraft during flight. ... Mobile publishing is the act of making something public through mobile phones. ... Mobile VoIP or Mobile Voice over Internet Protocol is the application of voice over IP technology to mobile handsets. ... The Joi Ito Moblog Moblog is a blend of the words mobile and weblog. ... See TV (disambiguation) for other uses and Television (band) for the rock band European networks National In much of Europe television broadcasting has historically been state dominated, rather than commercially organised, although commercial stations have grown in number recently. ... For terminal pagers, see more (Unix) or less (Unix). ... “Push to Talk” redirects here. ... The QR Code for Wikipedia (EN) Main Page A QR Code is a matrix code (or two-dimensional bar code) created by Japanese corporation Denso-Wave in 1994. ... [[Image: ]] A Greenfield-type tower used in base stations for mobile telephony A mobile phone (Samsung) Mobile phone radiation and health concerns have been raised, especially following the enormous increase in the use of wireless mobile telephony throughout the world (as of August 2005, there were more than 2 billion... The Regulation (EC) No 717/2007 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 June 2007 on roaming on public mobile telephone networks within the Community and amending Directive 2002/21/EC is a regulation by the European Commission, primarily backed by Viviane Reding, EU Commissioner for Information... Ringxiety (alternately also spelled rinxiety) is a familiar and unnerving sensation and the false belief that some wireless-telephone users can hear their mobile phone ringing or feel it vibrating, when in fact that telephone is not doing so. ... Roaming is a general term in wireless telecommunications that refers to the extending of connectivity service in a location that is different from the home location where the service was registered. ... Semacode of the URL for Wikipedias page on Semacode Semacode is a trade name for machine-readable two-dimensional black and white symbols that act as barcode URLs. ... In telecommunications, and particularly in radio, signal strength transmitted signal is being received, measured, or predicted, at a reference point that is a significant distance from the transmitting antenna. ... A SIM lock, not to be confused with PIN or PUK code, is a capability built-in to GSM phones by mobile phone manufacturers. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Subsidy lock (cellular). ... A Sony Ericsson Smartphone (Model P910i) with touch screen and QWERTY keyboard Look up smartphone in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... SMS gateways allow for the sending and receiving of SMS messages to or from devices and used to provide SMS network connectivity to third parties. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Spectral efficiency or spectrum efficiency refers to the amount of information that can be transmitted over a given bandwidth in a specific digital communication system. ... It has been suggested that Virtual sim be merged into this article or section. ... A Thuraya satellite phone Thuraya is a regional satellite phone provider, mainly focused on the Europe, Middle East, and Africa. ... The TuxPhone is an open-source mobile phone that is currently in the prototype stage. ... Free software, as defined by Richard Stallman and his Free Software Foundation, can be used, copied, studied, modified and redistributed. ... A voice command device is a device controlled by means of the human voice. ... Speech recognition technologies allow computers equipped with a source of sound input, such as a microphone, to interpret human speech, e. ... WAP is an open international standard for applications that use wireless communication. ... Inductive charging is a way to recharge portable electronics batteries without plugging in any cords. ... Wireless Village is a set of specifications for mobile instant messaging and presence services. ...

References

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2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... BBC News website in June 2007. ... 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Kleine Zeitung is a catholic Austrian newspaper based in Graz, Austria. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 106th day of the year (107th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Der Standard is a liberal Austrian newspaper based in Vienna, Austria. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... MiB redirects here. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... MiB redirects here. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... -1... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... The USFWS logo The United States Fish and Wildlife Service is a unit of the United States Department of the Interior that is dedicated to managing and preserving wildlife. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see The Independent (disambiguation). ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... The International Herald Tribune is a widely read English language international newspaper. ...

Further reading

Since 2000, many books have been written on the social impact of mobile phones:

  • Agar, Jon, Constant Touch: A Global History of the Mobile Phone, 2004 ISBN 1840465417
  • Ahonen, Tomi, m-Profits: Making Money with 3G Services, 2002, ISBN 0-470-84775-1
  • Ahonen, Kasper and Melkko, 3G Marketing 2004, ISBN 0-470-85100-7
  • Glotz, Peter & Bertsch, Stefan, eds. Thumb Culture: The Meaning of Mobile Phones for Society, 2005
  • Katz, James E. & Aakhus, Mark, eds. Perpetual Contact: Mobile Communication, Private Talk, Public Performance, 2002
  • Kavoori, Anandam & Arceneaux, Noah, eds. The Cell Phone Reader: Essays in Social Transformation, 2006
  • Kopomaa, Timo. The City in Your Pocket, Gaudeamus 2000
  • Levinson, Paul, Cellphone: The Story of the World's Most Mobile Medium, and How It Has Transformed Everything!, 2004 ISBN 1-4039-6041-0
  • Ling, Rich, The Mobile Connection: the Cell Phone's Impact on Society, 2004 ISBN 1558609369
  • Ling, Rich and Pedersen, Per, eds. Mobile Communications: Re-negotiation of the Social Sphere, 2005 ISBN 1852339314
  • Home page of Rich Ling [5]
  • Nyíri, Kristóf, ed. Mobile Communication: Essays on Cognition and Community, 2003
  • Nyíri, Kristóf, ed. Mobile Learning: Essays on Philosophy, Psychology and Education, 2003
  • Nyíri, Kristóf, ed. Mobile Democracy: Essays on Society, Self and Politics, 2003
  • Nyíri, Kristóf, ed. A Sense of Place: The Global and the Local in Mobile Communication, 2005
  • Nyíri, Kristóf, ed. Mobile Understanding: The Epistemology of Ubiquitous Communication, 2006
  • Plant, Dr. Sadie, on the mobile – the effects of mobile telephones on social and individual life, 2001
  • Rheingold, Howard, Smart Mobs: The Next Social Revolution, 2002 ISBN 0738208612

Paul Levinson, 2002 Paul Levinson (b. ... Dr. Sadie Plant (b. ... Howard Rheingold at the Ars Electronica in 2004 Howard Rheingold (born July 7, 1947) is a leading thinker and writer on the cultural, social and political implications of modern communications media such as the Internet, mobile telephony and virtual communities (a term he is credited with inventing). ...

External links

  • Significant events in the history of portable phones.
  • Cell Phone, The Ring Heard Around the World A video documentary on the Mobile Phone by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation
  • U.S. and Canada Cell Phone Number Directory
Mobile phones
General: History | Development | Features | Network operators | Radiation & health | Standard comparison | Frequencies | SIM | WAP | XHTML-MP
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Top of a cellular radio tower In the beginning, two-way radios (known as mobile rigs) were used in vehicles such as taxicabs, police cruisers, ambulances, and the like, but were not mobile phones because they were not normally connected to the telephone network. ... This page summarizes the known relative differences between the most popular mobile platform development options for handheld devices such as a PDA or mobile phones. ... There are many mobile phone features found in todays mobile phones that offer users many more capabilities than only voice calls or text messaging. ... This is a list of mobile phone network operating companies. ... [[Image: ]] A Greenfield-type tower used in base stations for mobile telephony A mobile phone (Samsung) Mobile phone radiation and health concerns have been raised, especially following the enormous increase in the use of wireless mobile telephony throughout the world (as of August 2005, there were more than 2 billion... GSM and IS-95 are the two most prevalent mobile communication technologies. ... All cellular phone networks worldwide utilize a portion of the radio frequency spectrum designated as Ultra High Frequency, or UHF, for the transmission and reception of their signals. ... It has been suggested that Virtual sim be merged into this article or section. ... WAP is an open international standard for applications that use wireless communication. ... Evolution of mobile web standards XHTML Mobile Profile (XHTML MP) is a hypertextual computer language standard designed specifically for mobile phones and other resource-constrained devices. ... The Joi Ito Moblog Moblog is a blend of the words mobile and weblog. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... This Manhattan driver is juggling two phones at once It has been argued that the distraction caused by using mobile phones while driving is responsible for many road traffic accidents. ... Mobile gambling refers to gambling done on a remote wirelessly connected device. ... Screenshot from a mobile fighting game, Fightality A mobile game is a video game played on a mobile phone, smartphone, PDA, handheld computer or any type of handheld or wireless device. ... M-learning, or mobile learning, now commonly abbreviated to mLearning, has different meanings for different communities. ... Ringxiety (alternately also spelled rinxiety) is a familiar and unnerving sensation and the false belief that some wireless-telephone users can hear their mobile phone ringing or feel it vibrating, when in fact that telephone is not doing so. ... A Sony Ericsson Smartphone (Model P910i) with touch screen and QWERTY keyboard Look up smartphone in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


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Mobile phone - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3461 words)
Mobile phones are also distinct from cordless telephones, which generally operate only within a limited range of a specific base station.
Mobile phone etiquette has become an important issue with mobiles ringing at funerals, weddings, movies, and plays.
Mobile phone use on aircraft is also prohibited, because of concerns of possible interference with aircraft radio communications [3].
Mobile Phone (2814 words)
A mobile phone is a portable electronic device which behaves as a normal telephone whilst being able to move over a wide area (compare cordless phone which acts as a telephone only within a limited range).
Mobile phones allow connections to be made to the telephone network, normally by directly dialing the other party's number on an inbuilt keypad.
In many affluent countries, mobile phones now outnumber land-line telephones, with most adults and many children now owning mobile phones and is not uncommon for young adults to own simply a cell phone instead of a land-line for their residence, even in the U.S. where mobile phone use is less prevalent than other industrialized countries.
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